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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
e476b1b5 12 (S) A severe warning (default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
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18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
30Default warnings are always enabled unless they are explicitly disabled
31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
6df41af2 53=item Allocation too large: %lx
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
f61d411c 57=item '!' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The '!' is allowed in pack() and unpack() only after certain types.
60See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
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74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or by declaring the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
6df41af2 92=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 93
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94(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
95redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
96redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 97
6df41af2 98=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 99
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100(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
101redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
102into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
103though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
104which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 105
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106 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
107 while (<STDIN>) {
108 print;
109 print OUT;
110 }
111 close OUT;
c9f97d15 112
6df41af2 113=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 114
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115(W misc) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and
116transliteration (tr///) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
117one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
118a scalar value -- the length of an array, or the population info of a
119hash -- and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
120you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
121alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 122
6df41af2 123=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 124
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125(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
126with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
127impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
128for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 129
6df41af2 130=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 131
6df41af2 132(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 133
8ea97a1e 134=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element
a0d0e21e 135
8ea97a1e 136(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element, such as:
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137
138 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 139 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
a0d0e21e 140
8ea97a1e 141=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 142
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143(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
144such as:
5f05dabc 145
146 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 147 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 148
8ea97a1e 149or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 150
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151 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
152 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 153
6df41af2 154=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 155
6df41af2 156(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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157name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
158error.
a0d0e21e 159
f86702cc 160=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 161
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162(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
163that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
164will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
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165
166=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
167
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168(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
169spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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170
171=item assertion botched: %s
172
173(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
174
175=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
176
177(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
178
179=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
180
181(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
182must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
183know which context to supply to the right side.
184
185=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
186
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187(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
188that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
189outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 190
54310121 191=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 192
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193(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
194strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
195strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
196of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 197
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198=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
199
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200(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
201free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
202SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
203free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
204try to free it.
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205
206=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
207
e476b1b5 208(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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209
210=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
211
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212(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
213see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
214earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
215This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
216that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
217mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
218corrupted.
a0d0e21e 219
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220=item Attempt to join self
221
222(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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223impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
224to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 225
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226=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
227
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228(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
229function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
230means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
231invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
232literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
233avoid this warning.
84902520 234
b7a902f4 235=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
236
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237(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
238used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
239dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 240
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241=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
242
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243(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
244or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 245S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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246S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
247
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248=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
249
250(F) You've used the /e switch to evaluate the replacement for a
251substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
252most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
253
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254=item Bad filehandle: %s
255
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256(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
257symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
258open(), or did it in another package.
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259
260=item Bad free() ignored
261
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262(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
263been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 264setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 265
9ea8bc6d 266This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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267dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
268which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 269
aa689395 270=item Bad hash
271
272(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
273
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274=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
275
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276(F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a
277pseudo-hash is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
278See L<perlref>.
57079c46 279
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280=item Badly placed ()'s
281
282(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
283of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
284Perl yourself.
285
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286=item Bad name after %s::
287
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288(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
289didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
290of quotes, so
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291
292 $var = 'myvar';
293 $sym = mypack::$var;
294
295is not the same as
296
297 $var = 'myvar';
298 $sym = "mypack::$var";
299
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300=item Bad realloc() ignored
301
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302(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
303never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
304by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 305
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306=item Bad symbol for array
307
308(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
309wasn't a symbol table entry.
310
311=item Bad symbol for filehandle
312
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313(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
314that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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315
316=item Bad symbol for hash
317
318(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
319wasn't a symbol table entry.
320
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321=item Bareword found in conditional
322
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323(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
324conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
325of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
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326
327 open FOO || die;
328
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329It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
330a bareword:
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331
332 use constant TYPO => 1;
333 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
334
335The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
336
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337=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
338
339(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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340subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
341symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
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342
343=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
344
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345(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
346compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
347you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 348
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349=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
350
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351(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
352subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
353exited.
a0d0e21e 354
68dc0745 355=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
356
357(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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358implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
359occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
360be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
361depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 362
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363=item \1 better written as $1
364
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365(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
366The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
367substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
368because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
369there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 370
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371=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
372
e476b1b5 373(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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374(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
375L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 376
69282e91 377=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 378
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379(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
380check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 381
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382=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
383
e476b1b5 384(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 385
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386=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
387
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388(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
389copiable.
4633a7c4 390
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391=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
392
393(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
394which provides a race condition that breaks security.
395
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396=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
397
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398(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
399iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
400which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 401
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402=item Callback called exit
403
4929bf7b 404(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
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405exited by calling exit.
406
6df41af2 407=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 408
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409(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
410parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
411that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
412early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
413subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
414checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
415function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
416the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 417
6df41af2 418=item / cannot take a count
a0d0e21e 419
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420(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
421you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
422L<perlfunc/pack>.
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423
424=item Can't bless non-reference value
425
426(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
427encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
428
429=item Can't break at that line
430
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431(S internal) A warning intended to only be printed while running within
432the debugger, indicating the line number specified wasn't the location
433of a statement that could be stopped at.
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434
435=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
436
437(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
438functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
439in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
440
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441=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
442
443(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
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444object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
445like this will reproduce the error:
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446
447 $BADREF = undef;
448 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
449 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
450
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451=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
452
54310121 453(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
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454ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
455didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
456object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
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457
458=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
459
460(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
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461object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
462defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
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463Something like this will reproduce the error:
464
465 $BADREF = 42;
466 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
467 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
468
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469=item Can't chdir to %s
470
471(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
472that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
473
0545a864 474=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 475
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476(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
477nosuid.
104d25b7 478
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479=item Can't coerce array into hash
480
481(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
482information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
483only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
484
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485=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
486
487(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 488(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
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489say things like:
490
491 *foo += 1;
492
493You CAN say
494
495 $foo = *foo;
496 $foo += 1;
497
498but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
499
500=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
501
502(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 503(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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504
505=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
506
507(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 508(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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509
510=item Can't create pipe mailbox
511
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512(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
513quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 514
eb64745e 515=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 516
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517(S) Currently, only scalar variables can declared with a specific class
518qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration. The semantics may be extended
519for other types of variables in future.
520
521=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
522
523(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my" or
524"our" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 525
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526=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
527
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528(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
529a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 530
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531=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
532
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533(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
534reason.
a0d0e21e 535
54310121 536=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 537
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538(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
539reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
540C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 541
10f9c03d 542=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 543
e476b1b5 544(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
545characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
546inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 547
6df41af2 548=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m
a0d0e21e 549
6df41af2
GS
550(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
551your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
552
553=item Can't do setegid!
554
be771a83
GS
555(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
556suidperl.
a0d0e21e
LW
557
558=item Can't do seteuid!
559
560(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
561
562=item Can't do setuid
563
be771a83
GS
564(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to do
565setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the form
566sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides under
567the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines. If the
568file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask your
569sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
a0d0e21e
LW
570
571=item Can't do waitpid with flags
572
be771a83
GS
573(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
574waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 575
a0d0e21e
LW
576=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
577
be771a83
GS
578(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
579point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
580line.
a0d0e21e
LW
581
582=item Can't exec "%s": %s
583
be771a83
GS
584(W exec) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
585named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
586permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
587C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
588architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
589can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
590#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
591
592=item Can't exec %s
593
be771a83
GS
594(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
595that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
596need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
597
598=item Can't execute %s
599
be771a83
GS
600(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
601found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 602
6df41af2 603=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 604
be771a83
GS
605(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
606is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2
GS
607
608=item Can't find label %s
609
be771a83
GS
610(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
611possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
612
613=item Can't find %s on PATH
614
be771a83
GS
615(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
616found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 617
6df41af2 618=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 619
be771a83
GS
620(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
621found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
622script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
623
624=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
625
be771a83
GS
626(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
627that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
628nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 629
fb73857a 630 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
631
be771a83
GS
632If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
633unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
634editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
635
636=item Can't fork
637
be771a83
GS
638(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
639pipeline.
a0d0e21e 640
748a9306
LW
641=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
642
be771a83
GS
643(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
644between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
645Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
646the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
647account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
648the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
649the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
650the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
651if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
652because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
653appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
654and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
655routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
656shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
657only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 658
a0d0e21e
LW
659=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
660
be771a83
GS
661(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
662pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
663
664=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
665
748a9306
LW
666(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
667mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 668
6df41af2 669=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 670
be771a83
GS
671(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
672loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
673
674=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
675
be771a83
GS
676(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
677a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
678you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
679See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 680
b150fb22
RH
681=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
682
be771a83
GS
683(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
684"string". (You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you
685probably don't want to.)
b150fb22 686
6df41af2
GS
687=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
688
be771a83
GS
689(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
690subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
691cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
692routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 693
0b5b802d
GS
694=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
695
be771a83
GS
696(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
697signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
698signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
699processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
700situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
701may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 702
6df41af2 703=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 704
6df41af2 705(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
706except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
707block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
708block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
709usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
710inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
711L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 712
748a9306
LW
713=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
714
2ba9eb46 715(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
716lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
717localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
718package name.
719
0ebe0038
SM
720=item Can't localize pseudo-hash element
721
be771a83
GS
722(F) You said something like C<< local $ar->{'key'} >>, where $ar is a
723reference to a pseudo-hash. That hasn't been implemented yet, but you
724can get a similar effect by localizing the corresponding array element
725directly -- C<< local $ar->[$ar->[0]{'key'}] >>.
0ebe0038 726
6df41af2 727=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 728
6df41af2
GS
729(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
730handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83
GS
731pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
732that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 733
ec889f3a
GS
734=item Can't locate %s
735
736(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
737found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
738unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
739need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
740the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
741to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
742L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 743
6df41af2
GS
744=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
745
be771a83
GS
746(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
747autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
748are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
749the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 750
a0d0e21e
LW
751=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
752
753(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
754functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 755method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e 756
c1899e02
GS
757=item (perhaps you forgot to load "%s"?)
758
759(F) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
760"Can't locate object method \"%s\" via package \"%s\"". It often means
761that a method requires a package that has not been loaded.
762
a0d0e21e
LW
763=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
764
be771a83
GS
765(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
766doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 767
3e3baf6d
TB
768=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
769
be771a83
GS
770(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
771VMS.
3e3baf6d 772
a0d0e21e
LW
773=item Can't modify %s in %s
774
be771a83
GS
775(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
776to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 777
54310121 778=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
779
780(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
781a NULL.
782
6df41af2
GS
783=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
784
785(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
786such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
787
5f05dabc 788=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 789
5f05dabc 790(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
791buffer.
792
6df41af2
GS
793=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
794
795(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
796there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
797count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
798grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
799though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
800once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 801
a0d0e21e
LW
802=item Can't open %s: %s
803
c47ff5f1 804(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
805filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
806switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
807is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
808the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
809
810=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
811
be771a83
GS
812(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
813You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
814as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
815">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 816
748a9306
LW
817=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
818
be771a83
GS
819(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
820redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
821the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
822
823=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
824
be771a83
GS
825(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
826redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
827command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
828
829=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
830
be771a83
GS
831(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
832redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
833the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
834
835=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
836
be771a83
GS
837(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
838redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
839for stdout.
748a9306 840
a0d0e21e
LW
841=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
842
843(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
844
6df41af2
GS
845=item Can't read CRTL environ
846
847(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
848from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
849missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
850or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
851searched.
6df41af2 852
7bac28a0 853=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
854
855(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
be771a83
GS
856pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when
857it was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
7bac28a0 858this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
859
6df41af2
GS
860=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
861
862(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
863there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
864count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
865or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
866though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
867loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
868
10f9c03d
CK
869=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
870
be771a83
GS
871(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
872file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
873the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 874
a0d0e21e
LW
875=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
876
e476b1b5 877(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 878probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 879
748a9306
LW
880=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
881
be771a83
GS
882(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
883to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 884
6df41af2
GS
885=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
886
be771a83
GS
887(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
888to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
889method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 890
a0d0e21e
LW
891=item Can't reswap uid and euid
892
be771a83
GS
893(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
894suidperl.
a0d0e21e 895
cd06dffe
GS
896=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
897
be771a83
GS
898(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
899temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
900is not allowed.
cd06dffe 901
6df41af2
GS
902=item Can't return outside a subroutine
903
904(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
905there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
906
a0d0e21e
LW
907=item Can't stat script "%s"
908
be771a83
GS
909(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
910open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e
LW
911
912=item Can't swap uid and euid
913
be771a83
GS
914(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
915suidperl.
a0d0e21e
LW
916
917=item Can't take log of %g
918
fb73857a 919(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
920negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
921standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
922negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
923
924=item Can't take sqrt of %g
925
926(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a 927negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
928with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
929
930=item Can't undef active subroutine
931
932(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
933however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
934redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
935
936=item Can't unshift
937
938(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
939as the main Perl stack.
940
941=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
942
be771a83
GS
943(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
944into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
945specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
946indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e
LW
947
948=item Can't upgrade to undef
949
be771a83
GS
950(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme of
951upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the code
952calling sv_upgrade.
a0d0e21e 953
6df41af2
GS
954=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
955
956(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
957be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
958
959=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
960
be771a83
GS
961(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
962references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 963
1d2dff63
GS
964=item Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available
965
966(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
967Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
968provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
969
6df41af2
GS
970=item Can't use %s for loop variable
971
be771a83
GS
972(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
973foreach.
6df41af2
GS
974
975=item Can't use global %s in "my"
976
be771a83
GS
977(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
978is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
979(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
980have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
981weren't.
982
c07a80fd 983=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
984
985(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 986You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd 987and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
988Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
989lexical variable.
990
a0d0e21e
LW
991=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
992
993(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
994reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
995test the type of the reference, if need be.
996
748a9306 997=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 998
be771a83
GS
999(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1000references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1001
748a9306
LW
1002=item Can't use subscript on %s
1003
1004(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1005subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
1006didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
1007
6df41af2
GS
1008=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1009
75b44862
GS
1010(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1011creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1012backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1013expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1014value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1015instead.
6df41af2 1016
810b8aa5
GS
1017=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1018
1019(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1020references can be weakened.
1021
5f05dabc 1022=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1023
be771a83
GS
1024(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1025with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1026Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1027
b8c5462f
JH
1028=item Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes
1029
e476b1b5 1030(W unsafe) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
be771a83
GS
1031I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct, for
1032example: /[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that [= =] and [. .] are not
1033currently implemented; they are simply placeholders for future
3802429d 1034extensions and will cause fatal errors.
b8c5462f 1035
644a2880 1036=item Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
4599a1de 1037
3802429d 1038(F regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
be771a83 1039beginning with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future
3802429d
JF
1040extensions. If you need to represent those character sequences inside
1041a regular expression character class, just quote the square brackets
1042with the backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
4599a1de
JH
1043
1044=item Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
1045
3802429d 1046(F) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
be771a83 1047beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future
3802429d
JF
1048extensions. If you need to represent those character sequences inside
1049a regular expression character class, just quote the square brackets
1050with the backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
4599a1de 1051
6df41af2
GS
1052=item Character class [:%s:] unknown
1053
be771a83
GS
1054(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown. See
1055L<perlre>.
6df41af2 1056
5a211162 1057=item chmod() mode argument is missing initial 0
a0d0e21e 1058
e476b1b5 1059(W chmod) A novice will sometimes say
a0d0e21e
LW
1060
1061 chmod 777, $filename
1062
be771a83
GS
1063not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number,
1064equivalent to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in
1065Perl, as in C.
a0d0e21e 1066
9ddeeac9 1067=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 1068
e476b1b5 1069(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
a0d0e21e 1070
6df41af2
GS
1071=item %s: Command not found
1072
be771a83
GS
1073(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1074Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1075
7a2e2cd6 1076=item Compilation failed in require
1077
1078(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1079Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1080encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1081
c3464db5
DD
1082=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1083
be771a83
GS
1084(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1085situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1086to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1087arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1088recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1089under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1090in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1091that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1092on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1093
69282e91 1094=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1095
be771a83
GS
1096(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1097to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1098L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1099
6df41af2
GS
1100=item constant(%s): %s
1101
be771a83
GS
1102(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1103an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1104specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1105corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1106L<overload>.
6df41af2 1107
779c5bc9
GS
1108=item Constant is not %s reference
1109
1110(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1111is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1112The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1113usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1114See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1115
4cee8e80
CS
1116=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1117
be771a83
GS
1118(S|W redefine) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
1119eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1120commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1121
9607fc9c 1122=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1123
be771a83
GS
1124(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1125for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1126workarounds.
9607fc9c 1127
e7ea3e70
IZ
1128=item Copy method did not return a reference
1129
be771a83
GS
1130(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See L<overload/Copy
1131Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1132
6798c92b
GS
1133=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1134
1135(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1136
a0d0e21e
LW
1137=item corrupted regexp pointers
1138
1139(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1140expression compiler gave it.
1141
1142=item corrupted regexp program
1143
be771a83
GS
1144(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1145valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1146
6df41af2
GS
1147=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1148
1149(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1150
1151=item C<-p> destination: %s
1152
1153(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
1154command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
1155redirected it with select().)
1156
1157=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
1158
1159(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
1160know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
1161
a0d0e21e
LW
1162=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1163
be771a83
GS
1164(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1165100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1166infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1167which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1168
f10b0346 1169=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1170
be771a83
GS
1171(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1172checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
1173array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1174
f10b0346 1175=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1176
be771a83
GS
1177(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1178checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
1179is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1180
fc36a67e 1181=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1182
be771a83
GS
1183(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1184long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1185that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1186
3cdd684c
TP
1187=item Did not produce a valid header
1188
1189See Server error.
1190
6df41af2
GS
1191=item %s did not return a true value
1192
1193(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1194it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1195traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1196do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1197
cc507455 1198=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1199
be771a83
GS
1200(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some
1201such.
4633a7c4 1202
cc507455 1203=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1204
be771a83
GS
1205(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1206variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1207seems superfluous.
33633739 1208
cc507455 1209=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1210
be771a83
GS
1211(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1212@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1213carried away.
748a9306 1214
7e1af8bc 1215=item Died
5f05dabc 1216
1217(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1218you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1219
3cdd684c
TP
1220=item Document contains no data
1221
1222See Server error.
1223
a0d0e21e
LW
1224=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1225
1226(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1227
1228=item do_study: out of memory
1229
1230(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1231
6df41af2
GS
1232=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1233
1234(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1235found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1236name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1237because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1238"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1239something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1240subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1241"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1242
a0d0e21e
LW
1243=item Duplicate free() ignored
1244
be771a83
GS
1245(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1246already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1247
4633a7c4
LW
1248=item elseif should be elsif
1249
be771a83
GS
1250(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's ugly.
1251Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
1252"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1253unlikely to be what you want.
1254
85ab1d1d 1255=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1256
85ab1d1d 1257(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1258effective uids or gids failed.
1259
748a9306
LW
1260=item Error converting file specification %s
1261
5f05dabc 1262(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1263specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1264single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1265an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1266conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1267
e4d48cc9
GS
1268=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1269
be771a83
GS
1270(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1271expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1272is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1273
e4d48cc9
GS
1274=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1275
be771a83
GS
1276(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1277C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1278pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1279is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1280building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1281that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1282
6df41af2
GS
1283=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1284
be771a83
GS
1285(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1286assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1287pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1288
fc36a67e 1289=item Excessively long <> operator
1290
1291(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1292Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1293filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1294variable and glob that.
1295
f86702cc 1296=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1297
1298(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1299
1300=item Exiting eval via %s
1301
be771a83
GS
1302(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1303goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1304
1305=item Exiting format via %s
1306
be771a83
GS
1307(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1308goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1309
0a753a76 1310=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1311
be771a83
GS
1312(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1313sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1314loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1315
a0d0e21e
LW
1316=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1317
be771a83
GS
1318(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1319as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1320
1321=item Exiting substitution via %s
1322
be771a83
GS
1323(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1324as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1325
7b8d334a
GS
1326=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1327
be771a83
GS
1328(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1329the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1330usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1331e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1332
6df41af2
GS
1333=item %s: Expression syntax
1334
be771a83
GS
1335(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1336Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1337
1338=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1339
1340(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a CHECK, INIT, or
1341END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the queue of such
1342routines has been prematurely ended.
1343
73b437c8
JH
1344=item false [] range "%s" in regexp
1345
be771a83
GS
1346(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
1347character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The
1348"-" in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider
1349quoting the "-", "\-". See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1350
748a9306 1351=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1352
be771a83
GS
1353(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1354system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1355details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1356you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1357
1358=item fcntl is not implemented
1359
1360(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1361PDP-11 or something?
1362
1363=item Filehandle %s never opened
1364
be771a83
GS
1365(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
1366never initialized. You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call
1367a constructor from the FileHandle package.
a0d0e21e 1368
af8c498a 1369=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1370
be771a83
GS
1371(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended it
1372to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or "+>"
1373or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to write
1374the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1375
af8c498a 1376=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1377
be771a83
GS
1378(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing. If
1379you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
1380with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1381intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1382
1383=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1384
1385(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1386a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1387happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1388name.
a0d0e21e
LW
1389
1390=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1391
1392(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1393a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1394happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1395name.
a0d0e21e 1396
56e90b21
GS
1397=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1398
be771a83
GS
1399(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
1400some time before now. Check your logic flow. flock() operates on
1401filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1402same name?
56e90b21 1403
6df41af2
GS
1404=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
1405
be771a83
GS
1406(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it if
1407you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2
GS
1408
1409=item Format not terminated
1410
1411(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1412to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1413
a0d0e21e
LW
1414=item Format %s redefined
1415
e476b1b5 1416(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1417
1418 {
4438c4b7 1419 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
1420 eval "format NAME =...";
1421 }
1422
a0d0e21e
LW
1423=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1424
e476b1b5 1425(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1426
1427 if ($foo = 123)
1428
1429when you meant
1430
1431 if ($foo == 123)
1432
1433(or something like that).
1434
6df41af2
GS
1435=item %s found where operator expected
1436
1437(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
be771a83
GS
1438sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
1439operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1440operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1441
a0d0e21e
LW
1442=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1443
1444(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1445
1446=item gethostent not implemented
1447
1448(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1449because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1450on the Internet.
1451
69282e91 1452=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1453
be771a83
GS
1454(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1455socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1456
748a9306
LW
1457=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1458
1459(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1460C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1461
6df41af2
GS
1462=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1463
be771a83
GS
1464(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1465forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1466L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1467
1468=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1469
1470(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1471must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), declared beforehand using
1472"our", or explicitly qualified to say which package the global variable
1473is in (using "::").
1474
e476b1b5
GS
1475=item glob failed (%s)
1476
be771a83
GS
1477(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1478C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1479C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1480nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1481resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1482broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1483config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1484were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1485empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1486think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1487C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1488
a0d0e21e
LW
1489=item Glob not terminated
1490
1491(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1492a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1493not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1494earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1495
6df41af2 1496=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1497
6df41af2
GS
1498(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1499version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1500
1501=item goto must have label
1502
1503(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1504unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1505
6df41af2
GS
1506=item %s had compilation errors
1507
1508(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1509
a0d0e21e
LW
1510=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1511
be771a83
GS
1512(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1513to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1514created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1515
1516=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1517
be771a83
GS
1518(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1519spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1520
6df41af2
GS
1521=item %s has too many errors
1522
1523(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1524Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1525
252aa082
JH
1526=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1527
e476b1b5 1528(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1529(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1530L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1531
8903cb82 1532=item Identifier too long
1533
1534(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 1535about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
1536names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
1537of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1538
6df41af2 1539=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 1540
6df41af2 1541(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 1542
6df41af2 1543=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 1544
be771a83
GS
1545(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
1546binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
1547offending digit.
a0d0e21e 1548
4fdae800 1549=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1550
d5898338 1551(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
1552would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
1553when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
1554version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
1555to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 1556
a0d0e21e
LW
1557=item Illegal division by zero
1558
be771a83
GS
1559(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
1560your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
1561meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 1562
6df41af2
GS
1563=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
1564
be771a83
GS
1565(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
1566A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
1567number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 1568
a0d0e21e
LW
1569=item Illegal modulus zero
1570
be771a83
GS
1571(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
1572numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 1573
6df41af2 1574=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 1575
6df41af2
GS
1576(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
1577two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
1578
1579=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1580
1581(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1582
399388f4 1583=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 1584
75b44862
GS
1585(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1586Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 1587
6df41af2 1588=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
6ff81951 1589
6df41af2
GS
1590(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1591following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
6ff81951 1592
6df41af2 1593=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 1594
75b44862 1595(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
1596internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
1597delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 1598
6df41af2 1599=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 1600
be771a83
GS
1601(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
1602name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1603didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
1604ignored.
54310121 1605
6df41af2 1606=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 1607
be771a83
GS
1608(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
1609the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
1610system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
1611times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
1612would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 1613
be771a83
GS
1614Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
1615also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 1616
a0d0e21e
LW
1617=item Insecure dependency in %s
1618
8b1a09fc 1619(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
1620The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
1621setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
1622tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
1623from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
1624such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
1625L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
1626
1627=item Insecure directory in %s
1628
be771a83
GS
1629(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
1630setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
1631the world. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 1632
62f468fc 1633=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1634
1635(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
MG
1636setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1637C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1638potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1639known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1640
6df41af2
GS
1641=item In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s
1642
1643(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
be771a83
GS
1644array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was
1645first used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and
1646ambiguous instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by prepending a
1647backslash to indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array
1648within the program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will
1649simply assume that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
6df41af2 1650
a7ae9550
GS
1651=item Integer overflow in %s number
1652
75b44862 1653(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
1654either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
1655your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
1656On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
1657representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
16580b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
1659transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
1660internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
1661operations.
bbce6d69 1662
6df41af2
GS
1663=item internal disaster in regexp
1664
1665(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1666
748a9306
LW
1667=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1668
be771a83
GS
1669(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
1670you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
1671to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
1672L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
1673Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
1674terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 1675
a0d0e21e
LW
1676=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1677
1678(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1679
6df41af2
GS
1680=item %s (...) interpreted as function
1681
75b44862 1682(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83
GS
1683followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
1684operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms
1685and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 1686
09bef843
SB
1687=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
1688
1689The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
1690by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1691
1692=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
1693
be771a83
GS
1694The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
1695recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 1696
c635e13b 1697=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1698
be771a83
GS
1699(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
1700L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 1701
6df41af2
GS
1702=item invalid [] range "%s" in regexp
1703
1704(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
1705greater than the maximum character. See L<perlre>.
1706
c2e66d9e
GS
1707=item invalid [] range "%s" in transliteration operator
1708
1709(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
1710character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
1711
09bef843
SB
1712=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
1713
0120eecf 1714(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
1715elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
1716parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
1717See L<attributes>.
09bef843 1718
96e4d5b1 1719=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1720
8903cb82 1721(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
be771a83
GS
1722(W pack) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be
1723silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 1724
1725=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1726
be771a83
GS
1727(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See
1728L<perlfunc/unpack>.
75b44862
GS
1729(W unpack) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be
1730silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 1731
a0d0e21e
LW
1732=item ioctl is not implemented
1733
1734(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1735strange for a machine that supports C.
1736
1737=item junk on end of regexp
1738
1739(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1740
1741=item Label not found for "last %s"
1742
be771a83
GS
1743(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
1744of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1745L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1746
1747=item Label not found for "next %s"
1748
1749(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1750that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1751L<perlfunc/last>.
1752
1753=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1754
1755(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1756that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1757L<perlfunc/last>.
1758
85ab1d1d 1759=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1760
85ab1d1d 1761(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1762effective uids or gids failed.
1763
69282e91 1764=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1765
be771a83
GS
1766(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
1767to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1768L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 1769
9d837945
TM
1770=item lstat() on filehandle %s
1771
1772(W io) You tried to do a lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
1773by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
1774instead on the filehandle.)
1775
cd06dffe
GS
1776=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
1777
1778(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
be771a83
GS
1779values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
1780L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
cd06dffe 1781
6df41af2
GS
1782=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
1783
1784(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
1785
1786 prefix1;prefix2
1787
1788or
1789
1790 prefix1 prefix2
1791
be771a83
GS
1792with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
1793a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
1794appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 1795"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 1796
dea0fc0b
JH
1797=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
1798
1799Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
1800doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
1801
6df41af2
GS
1802=item %s matches null string many times
1803
1804(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
be771a83
GS
1805regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See
1806L<perlre>.
6df41af2
GS
1807
1808=item % may only be used in unpack
1809
1810(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
1811checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
1812See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 1813
a0d0e21e
LW
1814=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1815
1816(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1817doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 1818
3cdd684c
TP
1819=item Method %s not permitted
1820
1821See Server error.
1822
a0d0e21e
LW
1823=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1824
1825(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1826by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1827ended earlier on the current line.
1828
1829=item Misplaced _ in number
1830
e476b1b5 1831(W syntax) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
a0d0e21e 1832
4a2d328f 1833=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 1834
4a2d328f 1835(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
1836double-quotish context.
1837
a0d0e21e
LW
1838=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1839
1840(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1841"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1842
06eaf0bc
GS
1843=item Missing command in piped open
1844
be771a83
GS
1845(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
1846C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
1847blank.
06eaf0bc 1848
6df41af2
GS
1849=item Missing name in "my sub"
1850
be771a83
GS
1851(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
1852they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
1853
1854=item Missing $ on loop variable
1855
be771a83
GS
1856(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
1857are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
1858can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 1859
cc507455 1860=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306
LW
1861
1862(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1863found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1864
d98d5fff 1865=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 1866
be771a83
GS
1867(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
1868ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
1869were last editing.
a0d0e21e 1870
6df41af2
GS
1871=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
1872
1873(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1874found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
1875the previous line just because you saw this message.
1876
a0d0e21e
LW
1877=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1878
1879(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1880constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1881catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1882
1883 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1884 mod(2);
1885
1886Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1887
7a4340ed 1888=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1889
1890(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1891subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1892backwards.
1893
7a4340ed 1894=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 1895
be771a83
GS
1896(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
1897couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
1898
1899=item Module name must be constant
1900
1901(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1902
be98fb35 1903=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 1904
be98fb35
GS
1905(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
1906you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
1907about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 1908
a0d0e21e
LW
1909=item msg%s not implemented
1910
1911(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1912
1913=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1914
75b44862
GS
1915(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
1916They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 1917
6df41af2 1918=item / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*
09bef843 1919
6df41af2 1920(F) You had a pack template indicating a counted-length string,
be771a83
GS
1921Currently the only things that can have their length counted are a*, A*
1922or Z*. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
1923
1924=item / must be followed by a, A or Z
1925
be771a83
GS
1926(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, which
1927must be followed by one of the letters a, A or Z to indicate what sort
1928of string is to be unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
1929
1930=item / must follow a numeric type
1931
be771a83
GS
1932(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '#', but this did not
1933follow some numeric unpack specification. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
1934
1935=item "my sub" not yet implemented
1936
be771a83
GS
1937(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
1938that yet.
6df41af2
GS
1939
1940=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
1941
be771a83
GS
1942(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
1943sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
1944local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 1945
8b1a09fc 1946=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1947
e476b1b5 1948(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
1949If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
1950again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 1951provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1952
1953=item Negative length
1954
be771a83
GS
1955(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
1956length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e
LW
1957
1958=item nested *?+ in regexp
1959
5f05dabc 1960(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1961things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1962
be771a83
GS
1963Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
1964C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 1965
6df41af2 1966=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 1967
be771a83
GS
1968(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
1969scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e
LW
1970
1971=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1972
be771a83
GS
1973(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
1974setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
1975will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
1976securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1977
1978=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1979
1980(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1981
1982=item No comma allowed after %s
1983
1984(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1985allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1986Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1987
0a753a76 1988One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
1989constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
1990importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
1991does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
1992explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
1993L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
1994would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
1995remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
1996constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
1997list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
1998this error was triggered?
1999
748a9306
LW
2000=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2001
be771a83
GS
2002(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2003redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2004doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2005
a0d0e21e
LW
2006=item No DB::DB routine defined
2007
be771a83
GS
2008(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2009for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof) didn't
2010define a routine to be called at the beginning of each statement. Which
2011is odd, because the file should have been required automatically, and
2012should have blown up the require if it didn't parse right.
a0d0e21e
LW
2013
2014=item No dbm on this machine
2015
2016(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2017supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2018
2019=item No DBsub routine
2020
2021(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
2022but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
2023didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
2024ordinary subroutine call.
2025
c47ff5f1 2026=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2027
be771a83
GS
2028(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2029redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2030find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2031
c47ff5f1 2032=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2033
be771a83
GS
2034(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2035redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2036name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2037
6df41af2
GS
2038=item No #! line
2039
2040(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2041even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2042
2043=item "no" not allowed in expression
2044
be771a83
GS
2045(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2046returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2047
c47ff5f1 2048=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2049
be771a83
GS
2050(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2051redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2052doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2053
c47ff5f1 2054=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2055
be771a83
GS
2056(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2057redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2058find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2059
1ec3e8de
GS
2060=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2061
be771a83
GS
2062(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2063declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2064semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2065
a0d0e21e
LW
2066=item No Perl script found in input
2067
2068(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2069with #! and containing the word "perl".
2070
2071=item No setregid available
2072
2073(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2074your system.
2075
2076=item No setreuid available
2077
2078(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2079your system.
2080
a67e862a 2081=item No space allowed after -%c
a0d0e21e 2082
be771a83
GS
2083(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2084immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
a0d0e21e 2085
6df41af2
GS
2086=item No %s specified for -%c
2087
2088(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2089you haven't specified one.
2090
2091=item No such pipe open
2092
2093(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2094close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2095earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2096
88e9b055 2097=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s"
57079c46 2098
88e9b055 2099(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
57079c46
GA
2100not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
2101array indices for that to work.
2102
88e9b055 2103=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
f1192cee 2104
be771a83
GS
2105(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type does
2106not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in the
2107%FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash is
2108%usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
f1192cee 2109
a0d0e21e
LW
2110=item No such signal: SIG%s
2111
be771a83
GS
2112(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2113not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2114names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2115
2116=item Not a CODE reference
2117
2118(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2119subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2120use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2121also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2122
2123=item Not a format reference
2124
2125(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2126format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2127
2128=item Not a GLOB reference
2129
be771a83
GS
2130(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
2131symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2132something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
2133kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2134
2135=item Not a HASH reference
2136
be771a83
GS
2137(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
2138reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
2139find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2140
6df41af2
GS
2141=item Not an ARRAY reference
2142
be771a83
GS
2143(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
2144a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2145to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 2146
a0d0e21e
LW
2147=item Not a perl script
2148
2149(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2150even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2151mention perl.
2152
2153=item Not a SCALAR reference
2154
be771a83
GS
2155(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
2156a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2157to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2158
2159=item Not a subroutine reference
2160
2161(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2162subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2163use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2164also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2165
e7ea3e70 2166=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2167
2168(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2169doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2170
a0d0e21e
LW
2171=item Not enough arguments for %s
2172
2173(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2174
6df41af2
GS
2175=item Not enough format arguments
2176
be771a83
GS
2177(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
2178supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
2179
2180=item %s: not found
2181
be771a83
GS
2182(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
2183of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
2184yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2185
2186=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 2187
6df41af2
GS
2188(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
2189timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
2190to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
2191F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
2192need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2193
2194=item Null filename used
2195
be771a83
GS
2196(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
2197machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2198
6df41af2
GS
2199=item NULL OP IN RUN
2200
be771a83
GS
2201(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
2202pointer.
6df41af2 2203
55497cff 2204=item Null picture in formline
2205
2206(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2207specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2208supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2209
a0d0e21e
LW
2210=item Null realloc
2211
2212(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2213
2214=item NULL regexp argument
2215
5f05dabc 2216(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2217
2218=item NULL regexp parameter
2219
2220(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2221
fc36a67e 2222=item Number too long
2223
be771a83
GS
2224(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
2225about about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
2226versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
2227the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
2228"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 2229
6df41af2
GS
2230=item Octal number in vector unsupported
2231
be771a83
GS
2232(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
2233The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
2234future version.
6df41af2 2235
252aa082
JH
2236=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2237
75b44862 2238(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
2239(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2240L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2241
2242See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2243
1930e939 2244=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2245
be771a83
GS
2246(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2247which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2248
bbce6d69 2249=item Offset outside string
2250
2251(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
be771a83
GS
2252pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine. The sole
2253exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer will extend
2254the buffer and zero pad the new area.
bbce6d69 2255
9ddeeac9
JH
2256=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
2257
2258(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
2259that isn't open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2260
a0d0e21e
LW
2261=item oops: oopsAV
2262
e476b1b5 2263(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
2264
2265=item oops: oopsHV
2266
e476b1b5 2267(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 2268
56f7f34b 2269=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2270
be771a83
GS
2271(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
2272handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
2273of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
2274C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2275
748a9306
LW
2276=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2277
be771a83
GS
2278(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
2279was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
2280use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
2281example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
2282"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 2283
6df41af2
GS
2284=item "our" variable %s redeclared
2285
be771a83
GS
2286(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
2287in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 2288
a80b8354
GS
2289=item Out of memory!
2290
2291(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
2292remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
2293no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 2294
6df41af2 2295=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 2296
6df41af2
GS
2297(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2298remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
2299the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
2300possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 2301
1b979e0a 2302=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2303
be771a83
GS
2304(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
2305insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
2306request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2307
2308The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2309depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
2310However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
2311emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
2312is trappable I<once>.
55497cff 2313
1b979e0a
IZ
2314=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2315
2316(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
2317is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
2318C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 2319
6df41af2
GS
2320=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2321
be771a83
GS
2322(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
2323parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
2324otherwise.
6df41af2
GS
2325
2326=item @ outside of string
2327
2328(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
2329the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2330
2331=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
2332
be771a83
GS
2333(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
2334package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
2335some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
2336mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 2337
a0d0e21e
LW
2338=item page overflow
2339
be771a83
GS
2340(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
2341page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 2342
6df41af2
GS
2343=item panic: %s
2344
2345(P) An internal error.
2346
a0d0e21e
LW
2347=item panic: ck_grep
2348
2349(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
2350
2351=item panic: ck_split
2352
2353(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
2354
2355=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
2356
be771a83
GS
2357(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
2358there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 2359
810b8aa5
GS
2360=item panic: del_backref
2361
2362(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
2363reference.
2364
a0d0e21e
LW
2365=item panic: die %s
2366
2367(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
2368it wasn't an eval context.
2369
2370=item panic: do_match
2371
be771a83
GS
2372(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational
2373data.
a0d0e21e
LW
2374
2375=item panic: do_split
2376
2377(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
2378
2379=item panic: do_subst
2380
be771a83
GS
2381(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational
2382data.
a0d0e21e
LW
2383
2384=item panic: do_trans
2385
be771a83
GS
2386(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational
2387data.
a0d0e21e 2388
c635e13b 2389=item panic: frexp
2390
2391(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2392
a0d0e21e
LW
2393=item panic: goto
2394
2395(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2396and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2397
2398=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2399
2400(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2401
2402=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2403
2404(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2405
e446cec8
IZ
2406=item panic: kid popen errno read
2407
2408(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2409
a0d0e21e
LW
2410=item panic: last
2411
2412(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2413it wasn't a block context.
2414
2415=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2416
be771a83
GS
2417(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the
2418scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2419
2420=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2421
2422(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2423invalid enum on the top of it.
2424
810b8aa5
GS
2425=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
2426
2427(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
2428references to an object.
2429
6df41af2
GS
2430=item panic: malloc
2431
2432(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2433
a0d0e21e
LW
2434=item panic: mapstart
2435
2436(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2437
2438=item panic: null array
2439
2440(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2441
2442=item panic: pad_alloc
2443
2444(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2445and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2446
2447=item panic: pad_free curpad
2448
2449(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2450and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2451
2452=item panic: pad_free po
2453
2454(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2455
2456=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2457
2458(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2459and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2460
2461=item panic: pad_sv po
2462
2463(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2464
2465=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2466
2467(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2468and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2469
2470=item panic: pad_swipe po
2471
2472(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2473
2474=item panic: pp_iter
2475
2476(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2477
2478=item panic: realloc
2479
2480(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2481
2482=item panic: restartop
2483
2484(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2485didn't supply the destination.
2486
2487=item panic: return
2488
2489(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2490then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2491
2492=item panic: scan_num
2493
2494(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2495
2496=item panic: sv_insert
2497
2498(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2499was string.
2500
2501=item panic: top_env
2502
6224f72b 2503(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
2504
2505=item panic: yylex
2506
2507(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
2508
dea0fc0b
JH
2509=item panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen
2510
2511(P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8 with an odd (as opposed
2512to even) byte length.
2513
7b8d334a 2514=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e 2515
e476b1b5 2516(W parenthesis) You said something like
a0d0e21e
LW
2517
2518 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2519
2520when you meant
2521
2522 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2523
54884818 2524Remember that "my", "our", and "local" bind tighter than comma.
a0d0e21e 2525
75b44862 2526=item Perl %s required--this is only version %s, stopped
a0d0e21e 2527
be771a83
GS
2528(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more
2529recent than the currently running version. How long has it been since
2530you upgraded, anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2531
6df41af2
GS
2532=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
2533
2534(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
fecfaeb8 2535C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2
GS
2536
2537=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2538
2539(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
2540
2541 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2542 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
2543 LC_ALL = "En_US",
2544 LANG = (unset)
2545 are supported and installed on your system.
2546 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
2547
2548Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
2549settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
2550This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your system
2551administrator have set up the so-called variable system but Perl could
2552not use those settings. This was not dead serious, fortunately: there
be771a83
GS
2553is a "default locale" called "C" that Perl can and will use, the script
2554will be run. Before you really fix the problem, however, you will get
2555the same error message each time you run Perl. How to really fix the
2556problem can be found in L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
6df41af2 2557
a0d0e21e
LW
2558=item Permission denied
2559
2560(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2561
bd3fa61c 2562=item pid %x not a child
748a9306 2563
be771a83
GS
2564(W exec) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a
2565process which isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is
2566fine from VMS' perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
748a9306 2567
a0d0e21e
LW
2568=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2569
81777298 2570(F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
a0d0e21e
LW
2571the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2572
bbce6d69 2573=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2574
e476b1b5 2575(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
75b44862 2576strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated as
be771a83
GS
2577literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
2578parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2579
774d564b 2580You probably wrote something like this:
2581
54310121 2582 @list = qw(
774d564b 2583 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2584 b # another comment
774d564b 2585 );
bbce6d69 2586
2587when you should have written this:
2588
774d564b 2589 @list = qw(
54310121 2590 a
2591 b
774d564b 2592 );
2593
2594If you really want comments, build your list the
2595old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2596
2597 @list = (
2598 'a', # a comment
2599 'b', # another comment
2600 );
bbce6d69 2601
2602=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2603
be771a83
GS
2604(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore
2605commas aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used
2606different delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also
2607frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2608
54310121 2609You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2610
774d564b 2611 qw! a, b, c !;
2612
2613which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2614commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2615
774d564b 2616 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2617
a0d0e21e
LW
2618=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2619
2620(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2621Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2622end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2623Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2624
6df41af2
GS
2625=item Possible Y2K bug: %s
2626
2627(W y2k) You are concatenating the number 19 with another number, which
2628could be a potential Year 2000 problem.
2629
8cd79558
GS
2630=item pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME : ATTRS" instead
2631
4375e838 2632(W deprecated) You have written something like this:
8cd79558
GS
2633
2634 sub doit
2635 {
2636 use attrs qw(locked);
2637 }
2638
2639You should use the new declaration syntax instead.
2640
2641 sub doit : locked
2642 {
2643 ...
2644
2645The C<use attrs> pragma is now obsolete, and is only provided for
2646backward-compatibility. See L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes">.
2647
a0d0e21e
LW
2648=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2649
e476b1b5 2650(S precedence) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2651
a0d0e21e
LW
2652 open FOO || die;
2653
2654is now misinterpreted as
2655
2656 open(FOO || die);
2657
be771a83
GS
2658because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary and
2659list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must put
2660parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator instead
2661of "||".
a0d0e21e 2662
3cdd684c
TP
2663=item Premature end of script headers
2664
2665See Server error.
2666
6df41af2
GS
2667=item printf() on closed filehandle %s
2668
be771a83
GS
2669(W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime
2670before now. Check your logic flow.
6df41af2 2671
9a7dcd9c 2672=item print() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2673
be771a83
GS
2674(W closed) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime
2675before now. Check your logic flow.
a0d0e21e 2676
6df41af2 2677=item Process terminated by SIG%s
a0d0e21e 2678
6df41af2
GS
2679(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
2680applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
2681port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
2682L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
fecfaeb8 2683in L<perlos2>.
a0d0e21e 2684
3fe9a6f1 2685=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2686
be771a83
GS
2687(S unsafe) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been
2688declared or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2689
89ea2908
GA
2690=item Range iterator outside integer range
2691
2692(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2693are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
be771a83
GS
2694One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string increment
2695by prepending "0" to your numbers.
89ea2908 2696
9a7dcd9c 2697=item readline() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2698
75b44862
GS
2699(W closed) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime
2700before now. Check your logic flow.
a0d0e21e 2701
6df41af2
GS
2702=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2703
2704(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
2705
4ad56ec9
IZ
2706=item realloc() of freed memory ignored
2707
be771a83
GS
2708(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
2709already been freed.
4ad56ec9 2710
a0d0e21e
LW
2711=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2712
be771a83
GS
2713(F debugging) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce
2714the desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
a0d0e21e
LW
2715which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2716
3e0ccd42 2717=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2718
2719(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2720an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2721
7a4340ed 2722=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method %s
3e0ccd42 2723
be771a83
GS
2724(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking
2725a method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance
2726hierarchy.
3e0ccd42 2727
1930e939
TP
2728=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2729
be771a83
GS
2730(W misc) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list
2731with an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This usually
2732means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant to use
2733parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2734
2735 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2736 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2737 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2738 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2739
810b8aa5
GS
2740=item Reference is already weak
2741
e476b1b5 2742(W misc) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.
810b8aa5
GS
2743Doing so has no effect.
2744
a0d0e21e
LW
2745=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2746
be771a83
GS
2747(W internal) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with
2748a reference count of other than 1.
a0d0e21e
LW
2749
2750=item regexp memory corruption
2751
2752(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2753expression compiler gave it.
2754
6df41af2
GS
2755=item regexp *+ operand could be empty
2756
be771a83
GS
2757(F) The part of the regexp subject to either the * or + quantifier could
2758match an empty string.
6df41af2 2759
a0d0e21e
LW
2760=item regexp out of space
2761
be771a83
GS
2762(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it
2763earlier.
a0d0e21e 2764
7a95317d
GS
2765=item Repeat count in pack overflows
2766
be771a83
GS
2767(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
2768signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
7a95317d
GS
2769
2770=item Repeat count in unpack overflows
2771
be771a83
GS
2772(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
2773signed integers. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
7a95317d 2774
a0d0e21e
LW
2775=item Reversed %s= operator
2776
be771a83
GS
2777(W syntax) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must
2778always comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
a0d0e21e
LW
2779
2780=item Runaway format
2781
2782(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2783produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2784199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2785themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2786shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2787
2788=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2789
be771a83
GS
2790(W syntax) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a
2791single element of an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar
2792value (indicated by $). The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always
2793behaves like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when evaluating its
2794argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves like a list when you assign to it,
2795and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2796if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2797
748a9306 2798On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2799element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2800Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2801L<perlref>.
2802
a6006777 2803=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2804
75b44862 2805(W syntax) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single
be771a83
GS
2806element of a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value
2807(indicated by $). The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves
2808like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when evaluating its
2809argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves like a list when you assign to it,
2810and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2811if you're expecting only one subscript.
2812
2813On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash element
2814as a list, you need to look into how references work, because Perl will
2815not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
a6006777 2816L<perlref>.
2817
a0d0e21e
LW
2818=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2819
54310121 2820(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2821or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2822
2823=item Search pattern not terminated
2824
2825(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2826construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2827Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2828
9ddeeac9 2829=item %sseek() on unopened filehandle
a0d0e21e 2830
be771a83
GS
2831(W unopened) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a
2832filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2833
2834=item select not implemented
2835
2836(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2837
6df41af2 2838=item Semicolon seems to be missing
a0d0e21e 2839
75b44862
GS
2840(W semicolon) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing
2841semicolon, or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
a0d0e21e
LW
2842
2843=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2844
be771a83
GS
2845(S internal) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a
2846scalar that had previously been marked as free.
a0d0e21e 2847
6df41af2 2848=item sem%s not implemented
a0d0e21e 2849
6df41af2 2850(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
a0d0e21e 2851
69282e91 2852=item send() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2853
be771a83
GS
2854(W closed) The socket you're sending to got itself closed sometime
2855before now. Check your logic flow.
a0d0e21e 2856
1b1626e4 2857=item Sequence (? incomplete
7b8d334a 2858
be771a83
GS
2859(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?. See
2860L<perlre>.
1b1626e4 2861
a0d0e21e
LW
2862=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
2863
2864(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
2865but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
2866
2867=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
2868
2869(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
2870See L<perlre>.
2871
6df41af2
GS
2872=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
2873
2874(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
2875parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
2876
2877=item 500 Server error
2878
2879See Server error.
2880
a5f75d66
AD
2881=item Server error
2882
3cdd684c 2883This is the error message generally seen in a browser window when trying
be771a83
GS
2884to run a CGI program (including SSI) over the web. The actual error text
2885varies widely from server to server. The most frequently-seen variants
2886are "500 Server error", "Method (something) not permitted", "Document
2887contains no data", "Premature end of script headers", and "Did not
2888produce a valid header".
9607fc9c 2889
2890B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
2891
be771a83
GS
2892You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the
2893user CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user
2894account you tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables
2895(like PATH) from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a
2896location where the CGI server can't find it, basically, more or less.
2897Please see the following for more information:
9607fc9c 2898
be94a901
GS
2899 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/idiots-guide.html
2900 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/perl-cgi-faq.html
9607fc9c 2901 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
2902 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
2903 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 2904
be94a901
GS
2905You should also look at L<perlfaq9>.
2906
a0d0e21e
LW
2907=item setegid() not implemented
2908
be771a83
GS
2909(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't
2910support the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
2911didn't think so.
a0d0e21e
LW
2912
2913=item seteuid() not implemented
2914
be771a83
GS
2915(F) You tried to assign to C<< $> >>, and your operating system doesn't
2916support the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
2917didn't think so.
a0d0e21e 2918
81777298
GS
2919=item setpgrp can't take arguments
2920
be771a83
GS
2921(F) Your system has the setpgrp() from BSD 4.2, which takes no
2922arguments, unlike POSIX setpgid(), which takes a process ID and process
2923group ID.
81777298 2924
a0d0e21e
LW
2925=item setrgid() not implemented
2926
be771a83
GS
2927(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't
2928support the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
2929didn't think so.
a0d0e21e
LW
2930
2931=item setruid() not implemented
2932
be771a83
GS
2933(F) You tried to assign to C<$<>, and your operating system doesn't
2934support the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
2935didn't think so.
a0d0e21e 2936
6df41af2
GS
2937=item setsockopt() on closed socket %s
2938
be771a83
GS
2939(W closed) You tried to set a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2940forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2941L<perlfunc/setsockopt>.
2942
a0d0e21e
LW
2943=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
2944
be771a83
GS
2945(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the
2946world, because the world might have written on it already.
a0d0e21e
LW
2947
2948=item shm%s not implemented
2949
2950(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
2951
6df41af2
GS
2952=item <> should be quotes
2953
2954(F) You wrote C<< require <file> >> when you should have written
2955C<require 'file'>.
2956
2957=item /%s/ should probably be written as "%s"
2958
2959(W syntax) You have used a pattern where Perl expected to find a string,
be771a83
GS
2960as in the first argument to C<join>. Perl will treat the true or false
2961result of matching the pattern against $_ as the string, which is
2962probably not what you had in mind.
6df41af2 2963
69282e91 2964=item shutdown() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2965
75b44862
GS
2966(W closed) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit
2967superfluous.
a0d0e21e 2968
f86702cc 2969=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e 2970
be771a83
GS
2971(W signal) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist.
2972Perhaps you put it into the wrong package?
a0d0e21e
LW
2973
2974=item sort is now a reserved word
2975
2976(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
2977But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
2978
2979=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
2980
2981(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
c47ff5f1 2982it by not using C<< <=> >> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
2983See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2984
2985=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
2986
2987(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
2988or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2989
2990=item Split loop
2991
be771a83
GS
2992(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't
2993iterate more times than there are characters of input, which is what
2994happened.) See L<perlfunc/split>.
a0d0e21e 2995
a0d0e21e
LW
2996=item Statement unlikely to be reached
2997
be771a83
GS
2998(W exec) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a
2999die(). This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns
3000unless there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system()
3001instead, which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in
3002a block by itself.
a0d0e21e 3003
9ddeeac9 3004=item stat() on unopened filehandle %s
6df41af2 3005
355b1299
JH
3006(W unopened) You tried to use the stat() function on a filehandle that
3007was either never opened or has since been closed.
6df41af2 3008
17feb5d5
DD
3009=item Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression
3010
be771a83
GS
3011(W regexp) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where
3012it makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion. Try putting the
3013quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example, the way to match
3014"abc" provided that it is followed by three repetitions of "xyz" is
3015C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
17feb5d5 3016
7a4340ed 3017=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading %s
e7ea3e70 3018
be771a83
GS
3019(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation
3020stubs. Stubs should never be implicitly created, but explicit calls to
3021C<can> may break this.
e7ea3e70 3022
a0d0e21e
LW
3023=item Subroutine %s redefined
3024
e476b1b5 3025(W redefine) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
3026
3027 {
4438c4b7 3028 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
3029 eval "sub name { ... }";
3030 }
3031
3032=item Substitution loop
3033
be771a83
GS
3034(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a substitution
3035shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of input, which
3036is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 3037L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
3038
3039=item Substitution pattern not terminated
3040
3041(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
3042construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 3043Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
3044
3045=item Substitution replacement not terminated
3046
3047(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
3048construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 3049Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
3050
3051=item substr outside of string
3052
be771a83
GS
3053(W substr),(F) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of
3054a string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
3055length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is fatal if
3056substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side of an
3057assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 3058
f86702cc 3059=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e 3060
be771a83
GS
3061(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but
3062a version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
a0d0e21e 3063
85ab1d1d
JH
3064=item switching effective %s is not implemented
3065
be771a83
GS
3066(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, we cannot switch the real
3067and effective uids or gids.
85ab1d1d 3068
a0d0e21e
LW
3069=item syntax error
3070
3071(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
3072
3073 A keyword is misspelled.
3074 A semicolon is missing.
3075 A comma is missing.
3076 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
3077 An opening or closing brace is missing.
3078 A closing quote is missing.
3079
3080Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
3081error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
3082The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
3083it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 3084before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
3085Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
3086the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
3087C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
be771a83
GS
3088if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20
3089questions>.
a0d0e21e 3090
cb1a09d0
AD
3091=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
3092
be771a83
GS
3093(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3094of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3095yourself.
cb1a09d0 3096
6df41af2
GS
3097=item %s syntax OK
3098
3099(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
3100
6087ac44 3101=item System V %s is not implemented on this machine
a0d0e21e 3102
6087ac44
JH
3103(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem",
3104"shm", or "msg" but that System V IPC is not implemented in your
3105machine. In some machines the functionality can exist but be
3106unconfigured. Consult your system support.
a0d0e21e 3107
69282e91 3108=item syswrite() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 3109
be771a83
GS
3110(W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime
3111before now. Check your logic flow.
a0d0e21e 3112
fc36a67e 3113=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
3114
be771a83
GS
3115(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply nested
3116for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
fc36a67e 3117
9ddeeac9 3118=item tell() on unopened filehandle
a0d0e21e 3119
be771a83
GS
3120(W unopened) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that
3121was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 3122
a0d0e21e
LW
3123=item That use of $[ is unsupported
3124
be771a83
GS
3125(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted
3126as a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
3127
3128 $[ = 0;
3129 $[ = 1;
3130 ...
3131 local $[ = 0;
3132 local $[ = 1;
3133 ...
3134
be771a83
GS
3135This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base out
3136from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
a0d0e21e 3137
f86702cc 3138=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
3139
3140(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
3141probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 3142think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
3143will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
3144will deny it.
3145
6df41af2
GS
3146=item The %s function is unimplemented
3147
3148The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
3149to the probings of Configure.
3150
a0d0e21e
LW
3151=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
3152
be771a83
GS
3153(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic
3154linkhood if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went
3155past the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename
3156instead.
a0d0e21e 3157
437784d6 3158=item This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s)
f675dbe5
CB
3159
3160=item This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
3161
75b44862 3162(W internal) Warnings peculiar to VMS. You tried to change or delete an
be771a83
GS
3163element of the CRTL's internal environ array, but your copy of Perl
3164wasn't built with a CRTL that contained the setenv() function. You'll
3165need to rebuild Perl with a CRTL that does, or redefine
3166F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that the environ array isn't the
3167target of the change to
f675dbe5
CB
3168%ENV which produced the warning.
3169
a0d0e21e
LW
3170=item times not implemented
3171
be771a83
GS
3172(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I
3173suspect you're not running on Unix.
a0d0e21e
LW
3174
3175=item Too few args to syscall
3176
3177(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
3178system call to call, silly dilly.
3179
9607fc9c 3180=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
3181
3182(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb 3183B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
3184This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
3185script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
3186So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 3187
9607fc9c 3188If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
be771a83
GS
3189mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed by
3190editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's first
3191argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 3192
9607fc9c 3193If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
3194B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 3195
8cc95fdb 3196=item Too late for "-%s" option
3197
3198(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
3199B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options
3200are not intended for use inside scripts. Use the C<use> pragma instead.
3201
ddda08b7
GS
3202=item Too late to run %s block
3203
3204(W void) A CHECK or INIT block is being defined during run time proper,
3205when the opportunity to run them has already passed. Perhaps you are
be771a83
GS
3206loading a file with C<require> or C<do> when you should be using C<use>
3207instead. Or perhaps you should put the C<require> or C<do> inside a
3208BEGIN block.
ddda08b7 3209
a0d0e21e
LW
3210=item Too many args to syscall
3211
5f05dabc 3212(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
3213
3214=item Too many arguments for %s
3215
3216(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
3217
6df41af2
GS
3218=item Too many )'s
3219
be771a83
GS
3220(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
3221Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3222
3223=item Too many ('s
3224
a0d0e21e
LW
3225=item trailing \ in regexp
3226
be771a83
GS
3227(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash.
3228Backslash it. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3229
2c268ad5 3230=item Transliteration pattern not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
3231
3232(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
fb73857a 3233or y/// or y[][] construct. Missing the leading C<$> from variables
3234C<$tr> or C<$y> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 3235
2c268ad5 3236=item Transliteration replacement not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
3237
3238(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
3239construct.
3240
3241=item truncate not implemented
3242
3243(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
3244Configure knows about.
3245
3246=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
3247
3248(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc 3249certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
3250%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
3251{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
3252
3253=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
3254
e476b1b5 3255(W umask) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal
eec2d3df
GS
3256literals always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
3257
3258=item umask not implemented
3259
be771a83
GS
3260(F) Your machine doesn't implement the umask function and you tried to
3261use it to restrict permissions for yourself (EXPR & 0700).
a0d0e21e 3262
4633a7c4
LW
3263=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
3264
3265(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
3266
a0d0e21e
LW
3267=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
3268
be771a83
GS
3269(W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how
3270many execution contexts were entered and left.
a0d0e21e
LW
3271
3272=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
3273
be771a83
GS
3274(W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how
3275many values were temporarily localized.
a0d0e21e
LW
3276
3277=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
3278
be771a83
GS
3279(W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how
3280many blocks were entered and left.
a0d0e21e
LW
3281
3282=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
3283
be771a83
GS
3284(W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how
3285many mortal scalars were allocated and freed.
a0d0e21e
LW
3286
3287=item Undefined format "%s" called
3288
3289(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
3290another package? See L<perlform>.
3291
3292=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
3293
be771a83
GS
3294(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist.
3295Perhaps it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3296
3297=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
3298
be771a83
GS
3299(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it has
3300since been undefined.
a0d0e21e
LW
3301
3302=item Undefined subroutine called
3303
3304(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
3305or if it was, it has since been undefined.
3306
3307=item Undefined subroutine in sort
3308
be771a83
GS
3309(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem
3310to have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
a0d0e21e 3311
4633a7c4
LW
3312=item Undefined top format "%s" called
3313
3314(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
3315another package? See L<perlform>.
3316
20408e3c
GS
3317=item Undefined value assigned to typeglob
3318
be771a83
GS
3319(W misc) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la
3320C<*foo = undef>. This does nothing. It's possible that you really mean
3321C<undef *foo>.
20408e3c 3322
6df41af2
GS
3323=item %s: Undefined variable
3324
be771a83
GS
3325(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
3326Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 3327
a0d0e21e
LW
3328=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
3329
3330(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
3331representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
3332
3333=item Unknown BYTEORDER
3334
be771a83
GS
3335(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte
3336order.
a0d0e21e 3337
6170680b
IZ
3338=item Unknown open() mode '%s'
3339
437784d6 3340(F) The second argument of 3-argument open() is not among the list
c47ff5f1
GS
3341of valid modes: C<< < >>, C<< > >>, C<<< >> >>>, C<< +< >>,
3342C<< +> >>, C<<< +>> >>>, C<-|>, C<|->.
6170680b 3343
f675dbe5
CB
3344=item Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s
3345
3346(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl was reading values for %ENV before
3347iterating over it, and someone else stuck a message in the stream of
3348data Perl expected. Someone's very confused, or perhaps trying to
3349subvert Perl's population of %ENV for nefarious purposes.
3350
6df41af2
GS
3351=item unmatched [] in regexp
3352
3353(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
be771a83
GS
3354include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it
3355first. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 3356
a0d0e21e
LW
3357=item unmatched () in regexp
3358
3359(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
be771a83
GS
3360expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding the
3361matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3362
d98d5fff 3363=item Unmatched right %s bracket
a0d0e21e 3364
be771a83
GS
3365(F) The lexer counted more closing curly or square brackets than opening
3366ones, so you're probably missing a matching opening bracket. As a
3367general rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the place
3368you were last editing.
a0d0e21e 3369
a0d0e21e
LW
3370=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
3371
be771a83
GS
3372(W reserved) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a
3373reserved word. It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it
3374somehow, or insert an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a
3375subroutine.
a0d0e21e 3376
54310121 3377=item Unrecognized character %s
a0d0e21e 3378
54310121 3379(F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character
3380in your Perl script (or eval). Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
3381script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.
a0d0e21e 3382
6df41af2
GS
3383=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed through
3384
be771a83
GS
3385(W regexp) You used a backslash-character combination which is not
3386recognized by Perl ins