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1=head1 NAME
2
3perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7An exploration of some of the issues facing Perl programmers
8on EBCDIC based computers. We do not cover localization,
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9internationalization, or multi byte character set issues other
10than some discussion of UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC.
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11
12Portions that are still incomplete are marked with XXX.
13
14=head1 COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS
15
16=head2 ASCII
17
18The American Standard Code for Information Interchange is a set of
19integers running from 0 to 127 (decimal) that imply character
20interpretation by the display and other system(s) of computers.
51b5cecb 21The range 0..127 can be covered by setting the bits in a 7-bit binary
d396a558 22digit, hence the set is sometimes referred to as a "7-bit ASCII".
51b5cecb 23ASCII was described by the American National Standards Institute
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24document ANSI X3.4-1986. It was also described by ISO 646:1991
25(with localization for currency symbols). The full ASCII set is
26given in the table below as the first 128 elements. Languages that
27can be written adequately with the characters in ASCII include
28English, Hawaiian, Indonesian, Swahili and some Native American
29languages.
30
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31There are many character sets that extend the range of integers
32from 0..2**7-1 up to 2**8-1, or 8 bit bytes (octets if you prefer).
33One common one is the ISO 8859-1 character set.
34
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35=head2 ISO 8859
36
37The ISO 8859-$n are a collection of character code sets from the
38International Organization for Standardization (ISO) each of which
39adds characters to the ASCII set that are typically found in European
40languages many of which are based on the Roman, or Latin, alphabet.
41
42=head2 Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1)
43
44A particular 8-bit extension to ASCII that includes grave and acute
45accented Latin characters. Languages that can employ ISO 8859-1
46include all the languages covered by ASCII as well as Afrikaans,
47Albanian, Basque, Catalan, Danish, Faroese, Finnish, Norwegian,
3958b146 48Portuguese, Spanish, and Swedish. Dutch is covered albeit without
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49the ij ligature. French is covered too but without the oe ligature.
50German can use ISO 8859-1 but must do so without German-style
51quotation marks. This set is based on Western European extensions
52to ASCII and is commonly encountered in world wide web work.
53In IBM character code set identification terminology ISO 8859-1 is
51b5cecb 54also known as CCSID 819 (or sometimes 0819 or even 00819).
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55
56=head2 EBCDIC
57
395f5a0c 58The Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code refers to a
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59large collection of slightly different single and multi byte
60coded character sets that are different from ASCII or ISO 8859-1
61and typically run on host computers. The EBCDIC encodings derive
62from 8 bit byte extensions of Hollerith punched card encodings.
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63The layout on the cards was such that high bits were set for the
64upper and lower case alphabet characters [a-z] and [A-Z], but there
65were gaps within each latin alphabet range.
66
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67Some IBM EBCDIC character sets may be known by character code set
68identification numbers (CCSID numbers) or code page numbers. Leading
69zero digits in CCSID numbers within this document are insignificant.
70E.g. CCSID 0037 may be referred to as 37 in places.
71
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72=head2 13 variant characters
73
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74Among IBM EBCDIC character code sets there are 13 characters that
75are often mapped to different integer values. Those characters
76are known as the 13 "variant" characters and are:
d396a558 77
51b5cecb 78 \ [ ] { } ^ ~ ! # | $ @ `
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79
80=head2 0037
81
82Character code set ID 0037 is a mapping of the ASCII plus Latin-1
83characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set. 0037 is used
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84in North American English locales on the OS/400 operating system
85that runs on AS/400 computers. CCSID 37 differs from ISO 8859-1
86in 237 places, in other words they agree on only 19 code point values.
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87
88=head2 1047
89
90Character code set ID 1047 is also a mapping of the ASCII plus
91Latin-1 characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set. 1047 is
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92used under Unix System Services for OS/390 or z/OS, and OpenEdition
93for VM/ESA. CCSID 1047 differs from CCSID 0037 in eight places.
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94
95=head2 POSIX-BC
96
97The EBCDIC code page in use on Siemens' BS2000 system is distinct from
981047 and 0037. It is identified below as the POSIX-BC set.
99
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100=head2 Unicode and UTF
101
102UTF is a Unicode Transformation Format. UTF-8 is a Unicode conforming
103representation of the Unicode standard that looks very much like ASCII.
104UTF-EBCDIC is an attempt to represent Unicode characters in an EBCDIC
105transparent manner.
106
8704cfd1 107=head2 Using Encode
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108
109Starting from Perl 5.8 you can use the standard new module Encode
110to translate from EBCDIC to Latin-1 code points
111
112 use Encode 'from_to';
113
114 my %ebcdic = ( 176 => 'cp37', 95 => 'cp1047', 106 => 'posix-bc' );
115
116 # $a is in EBCDIC code points
117 from_to($a, $ebcdic{ord '^'}, 'latin1');
118 # $a is ISO 8859-1 code points
119
120and from Latin-1 code points to EBCDIC code points
121
122 use Encode 'from_to';
123
124 my %ebcdic = ( 176 => 'cp37', 95 => 'cp1047', 106 => 'posix-bc' );
125
126 # $a is ISO 8859-1 code points
127 from_to($a, 'latin1', $ebcdic{ord '^'});
128 # $a is in EBCDIC code points
129
130For doing I/O it is suggested that you use the autotranslating features
131of PerlIO, see L<perluniintro>.
132
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133=head1 SINGLE OCTET TABLES
134
135The following tables list the ASCII and Latin 1 ordered sets including
136the subsets: C0 controls (0..31), ASCII graphics (32..7e), delete (7f),
137C1 controls (80..9f), and Latin-1 (a.k.a. ISO 8859-1) (a0..ff). In the
138table non-printing control character names as well as the Latin 1
139extensions to ASCII have been labelled with character names roughly
395f5a0c 140corresponding to I<The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0> albeit with
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141substitutions such as s/LATIN// and s/VULGAR// in all cases,
142s/CAPITAL LETTER// in some cases, and s/SMALL LETTER ([A-Z])/\l$1/
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143in some other cases (the C<charnames> pragma names unfortunately do
144not list explicit names for the C0 or C1 control characters). The
145"names" of the C1 control set (128..159 in ISO 8859-1) listed here are
146somewhat arbitrary. The differences between the 0037 and 1047 sets are
147flagged with ***. The differences between the 1047 and POSIX-BC sets
148are flagged with ###. All ord() numbers listed are decimal. If you
149would rather see this table listing octal values then run the table
150(that is, the pod version of this document since this recipe may not
151work with a pod2_other_format translation) through:
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152
153=over 4
154
155=item recipe 0
156
157=back
158
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159 perl -ne 'if(/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
160 -e '{printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' perlebcdic.pod
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161
162If you want to retain the UTF-x code points then in script form you
163might want to write:
164
165=over 4
166
167=item recipe 1
168
169=back
170
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171 open(FH,"<perlebcdic.pod") or die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
172 while (<FH>) {
173 if (/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)/) {
174 if ($7 ne '' && $9 ne '') {
175 printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-3o.%-5o%-3o.%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9);
176 }
177 elsif ($7 ne '') {
178 printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-3o.%-5o%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);
179 }
180 else {
181 printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$8);
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182 }
183 }
184 }
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185
186If you would rather see this table listing hexadecimal values then
187run the table through:
188
189=over 4
190
395f5a0c 191=item recipe 2
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192
193=back
194
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195 perl -ne 'if(/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
196 -e '{printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' perlebcdic.pod
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197
198Or, in order to retain the UTF-x code points in hexadecimal:
199
200=over 4
201
202=item recipe 3
203
204=back
205
84f709e7 206 open(FH,"<perlebcdic.pod") or die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
395f5a0c 207 while (<FH>) {
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208 if (/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)/) {
209 if ($7 ne '' && $9 ne '') {
210 printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-2X.%-6X%-2X.%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9);
395f5a0c 211 }
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212 elsif ($7 ne '') {
213 printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-2X.%-6X%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);
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214 }
215 else {
84f709e7 216 printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$8);
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217 }
218 }
219 }
220
221
222 incomp- incomp-
223 8859-1 lete lete
224 chr 0819 0037 1047 POSIX-BC UTF-8 UTF-EBCDIC
225 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
226 <NULL> 0 0 0 0 0 0
227 <START OF HEADING> 1 1 1 1 1 1
228 <START OF TEXT> 2 2 2 2 2 2
229 <END OF TEXT> 3 3 3 3 3 3
230 <END OF TRANSMISSION> 4 55 55 55 4 55
231 <ENQUIRY> 5 45 45 45 5 45
232 <ACKNOWLEDGE> 6 46 46 46 6 46
233 <BELL> 7 47 47 47 7 47
234 <BACKSPACE> 8 22 22 22 8 22
235 <HORIZONTAL TABULATION> 9 5 5 5 9 5
236 <LINE FEED> 10 37 21 21 10 21 ***
237 <VERTICAL TABULATION> 11 11 11 11 11 11
238 <FORM FEED> 12 12 12 12 12 12
239 <CARRIAGE RETURN> 13 13 13 13 13 13
240 <SHIFT OUT> 14 14 14 14 14 14
241 <SHIFT IN> 15 15 15 15 15 15
242 <DATA LINK ESCAPE> 16 16 16 16 16 16
243 <DEVICE CONTROL ONE> 17 17 17 17 17 17
244 <DEVICE CONTROL TWO> 18 18 18 18 18 18
245 <DEVICE CONTROL THREE> 19 19 19 19 19 19
246 <DEVICE CONTROL FOUR> 20 60 60 60 20 60
247 <NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE> 21 61 61 61 21 61
248 <SYNCHRONOUS IDLE> 22 50 50 50 22 50
249 <END OF TRANSMISSION BLOCK> 23 38 38 38 23 38
250 <CANCEL> 24 24 24 24 24 24
251 <END OF MEDIUM> 25 25 25 25 25 25
252 <SUBSTITUTE> 26 63 63 63 26 63
253 <ESCAPE> 27 39 39 39 27 39
254 <FILE SEPARATOR> 28 28 28 28 28 28
255 <GROUP SEPARATOR> 29 29 29 29 29 29
256 <RECORD SEPARATOR> 30 30 30 30 30 30
257 <UNIT SEPARATOR> 31 31 31 31 31 31
258 <SPACE> 32 64 64 64 32 64
259 ! 33 90 90 90 33 90
260 " 34 127 127 127 34 127
261 # 35 123 123 123 35 123
262 $ 36 91 91 91 36 91
263 % 37 108 108 108 37 108
264 & 38 80 80 80 38 80
265 ' 39 125 125 125 39 125
266 ( 40 77 77 77 40 77
267 ) 41 93 93 93 41 93
268 * 42 92 92 92 42 92
269 + 43 78 78 78 43 78
270 , 44 107 107 107 44 107
271 - 45 96 96 96 45 96
272 . 46 75 75 75 46 75
273 / 47 97 97 97 47 97
274 0 48 240 240 240 48 240
275 1 49 241 241 241 49 241
276 2 50 242 242 242 50 242
277 3 51 243 243 243 51 243
278 4 52 244 244 244 52 244
279 5 53 245 245 245 53 245
280 6 54 246 246 246 54 246
281 7 55 247 247 247 55 247
282 8 56 248 248 248 56 248
283 9 57 249 249 249 57 249
284 : 58 122 122 122 58 122
285 ; 59 94 94 94 59 94
286 < 60 76 76 76 60 76
287 = 61 126 126 126 61 126
288 > 62 110 110 110 62 110
289 ? 63 111 111 111 63 111
290 @ 64 124 124 124 64 124
291 A 65 193 193 193 65 193
292 B 66 194 194 194 66 194
293 C 67 195 195 195 67 195
294 D 68 196 196 196 68 196
295 E 69 197 197 197 69 197
296 F 70 198 198 198 70 198
297 G 71 199 199 199 71 199
298 H 72 200 200 200 72 200
299 I 73 201 201 201 73 201
300 J 74 209 209 209 74 209
301 K 75 210 210 210 75 210
302 L 76 211 211 211 76 211
303 M 77 212 212 212 77 212
304 N 78 213 213 213 78 213
305 O 79 214 214 214 79 214
306 P 80 215 215 215 80 215
307 Q 81 216 216 216 81 216
308 R 82 217 217 217 82 217
309 S 83 226 226 226 83 226
310 T 84 227 227 227 84 227
311 U 85 228 228 228 85 228
312 V 86 229 229 229 86 229
313 W 87 230 230 230 87 230
314 X 88 231 231 231 88 231
315 Y 89 232 232 232 89 232
316 Z 90 233 233 233 90 233
317 [ 91 186 173 187 91 173 *** ###
318 \ 92 224 224 188 92 224 ###
319 ] 93 187 189 189 93 189 ***
320 ^ 94 176 95 106 94 95 *** ###
321 _ 95 109 109 109 95 109
322 ` 96 121 121 74 96 121 ###
323 a 97 129 129 129 97 129
324 b 98 130 130 130 98 130
325 c 99 131 131 131 99 131
326 d 100 132 132 132 100 132
327 e 101 133 133 133 101 133
328 f 102 134 134 134 102 134
329 g 103 135 135 135 103 135
330 h 104 136 136 136 104 136
331 i 105 137 137 137 105 137
332 j 106 145 145 145 106 145
333 k 107 146 146 146 107 146
334 l 108 147 147 147 108 147
335 m 109 148 148 148 109 148
336 n 110 149 149 149 110 149
337 o 111 150 150 150 111 150
338 p 112 151 151 151 112 151
339 q 113 152 152 152 113 152
340 r 114 153 153 153 114 153
341 s 115 162 162 162 115 162
342 t 116 163 163 163 116 163
343 u 117 164 164 164 117 164
344 v 118 165 165 165 118 165
345 w 119 166 166 166 119 166
346 x 120 167 167 167 120 167
347 y 121 168 168 168 121 168
348 z 122 169 169 169 122 169
349 { 123 192 192 251 123 192 ###
350 | 124 79 79 79 124 79
351 } 125 208 208 253 125 208 ###
352 ~ 126 161 161 255 126 161 ###
353 <DELETE> 127 7 7 7 127 7
354 <C1 0> 128 32 32 32 194.128 32
355 <C1 1> 129 33 33 33 194.129 33
356 <C1 2> 130 34 34 34 194.130 34
357 <C1 3> 131 35 35 35 194.131 35
358 <C1 4> 132 36 36 36 194.132 36
359 <C1 5> 133 21 37 37 194.133 37 ***
360 <C1 6> 134 6 6 6 194.134 6
361 <C1 7> 135 23 23 23 194.135 23
362 <C1 8> 136 40 40 40 194.136 40
363 <C1 9> 137 41 41 41 194.137 41
364 <C1 10> 138 42 42 42 194.138 42
365 <C1 11> 139 43 43 43 194.139 43
366 <C1 12> 140 44 44 44 194.140 44
367 <C1 13> 141 9 9 9 194.141 9
368 <C1 14> 142 10 10 10 194.142 10
369 <C1 15> 143 27 27 27 194.143 27
370 <C1 16> 144 48 48 48 194.144 48
371 <C1 17> 145 49 49 49 194.145 49
372 <C1 18> 146 26 26 26 194.146 26
373 <C1 19> 147 51 51 51 194.147 51
374 <C1 20> 148 52 52 52 194.148 52
375 <C1 21> 149 53 53 53 194.149 53
376 <C1 22> 150 54 54 54 194.150 54
377 <C1 23> 151 8 8 8 194.151 8
378 <C1 24> 152 56 56 56 194.152 56
379 <C1 25> 153 57 57 57 194.153 57
380 <C1 26> 154 58 58 58 194.154 58
381 <C1 27> 155 59 59 59 194.155 59
382 <C1 28> 156 4 4 4 194.156 4
383 <C1 29> 157 20 20 20 194.157 20
384 <C1 30> 158 62 62 62 194.158 62
385 <C1 31> 159 255 255 95 194.159 255 ###
386 <NON-BREAKING SPACE> 160 65 65 65 194.160 128.65
387 <INVERTED EXCLAMATION MARK> 161 170 170 170 194.161 128.66
388 <CENT SIGN> 162 74 74 176 194.162 128.67 ###
389 <POUND SIGN> 163 177 177 177 194.163 128.68
390 <CURRENCY SIGN> 164 159 159 159 194.164 128.69
391 <YEN SIGN> 165 178 178 178 194.165 128.70
392 <BROKEN BAR> 166 106 106 208 194.166 128.71 ###
393 <SECTION SIGN> 167 181 181 181 194.167 128.72
394 <DIAERESIS> 168 189 187 121 194.168 128.73 *** ###
395 <COPYRIGHT SIGN> 169 180 180 180 194.169 128.74
396 <FEMININE ORDINAL INDICATOR> 170 154 154 154 194.170 128.81
397 <LEFT POINTING GUILLEMET> 171 138 138 138 194.171 128.82
398 <NOT SIGN> 172 95 176 186 194.172 128.83 *** ###
399 <SOFT HYPHEN> 173 202 202 202 194.173 128.84
400 <REGISTERED TRADE MARK SIGN> 174 175 175 175 194.174 128.85
401 <MACRON> 175 188 188 161 194.175 128.86 ###
402 <DEGREE SIGN> 176 144 144 144 194.176 128.87
403 <PLUS-OR-MINUS SIGN> 177 143 143 143 194.177 128.88
404 <SUPERSCRIPT TWO> 178 234 234 234 194.178 128.89
405 <SUPERSCRIPT THREE> 179 250 250 250 194.179 128.98
406 <ACUTE ACCENT> 180 190 190 190 194.180 128.99
407 <MICRO SIGN> 181 160 160 160 194.181 128.100
408 <PARAGRAPH SIGN> 182 182 182 182 194.182 128.101
409 <MIDDLE DOT> 183 179 179 179 194.183 128.102
410 <CEDILLA> 184 157 157 157 194.184 128.103
411 <SUPERSCRIPT ONE> 185 218 218 218 194.185 128.104
412 <MASC. ORDINAL INDICATOR> 186 155 155 155 194.186 128.105
413 <RIGHT POINTING GUILLEMET> 187 139 139 139 194.187 128.106
414 <FRACTION ONE QUARTER> 188 183 183 183 194.188 128.112
415 <FRACTION ONE HALF> 189 184 184 184 194.189 128.113
416 <FRACTION THREE QUARTERS> 190 185 185 185 194.190 128.114
417 <INVERTED QUESTION MARK> 191 171 171 171 194.191 128.115
418 <A WITH GRAVE> 192 100 100 100 195.128 138.65
419 <A WITH ACUTE> 193 101 101 101 195.129 138.66
420 <A WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 194 98 98 98 195.130 138.67
421 <A WITH TILDE> 195 102 102 102 195.131 138.68
422 <A WITH DIAERESIS> 196 99 99 99 195.132 138.69
423 <A WITH RING ABOVE> 197 103 103 103 195.133 138.70
424 <CAPITAL LIGATURE AE> 198 158 158 158 195.134 138.71
425 <C WITH CEDILLA> 199 104 104 104 195.135 138.72
426 <E WITH GRAVE> 200 116 116 116 195.136 138.73
427 <E WITH ACUTE> 201 113 113 113 195.137 138.74
428 <E WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 202 114 114 114 195.138 138.81
429 <E WITH DIAERESIS> 203 115 115 115 195.139 138.82
430 <I WITH GRAVE> 204 120 120 120 195.140 138.83
431 <I WITH ACUTE> 205 117 117 117 195.141 138.84
432 <I WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 206 118 118 118 195.142 138.85
433 <I WITH DIAERESIS> 207 119 119 119 195.143 138.86
434 <CAPITAL LETTER ETH> 208 172 172 172 195.144 138.87
435 <N WITH TILDE> 209 105 105 105 195.145 138.88
436 <O WITH GRAVE> 210 237 237 237 195.146 138.89
437 <O WITH ACUTE> 211 238 238 238 195.147 138.98
438 <O WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 212 235 235 235 195.148 138.99
439 <O WITH TILDE> 213 239 239 239 195.149 138.100
440 <O WITH DIAERESIS> 214 236 236 236 195.150 138.101
441 <MULTIPLICATION SIGN> 215 191 191 191 195.151 138.102
442 <O WITH STROKE> 216 128 128 128 195.152 138.103
443 <U WITH GRAVE> 217 253 253 224 195.153 138.104 ###
444 <U WITH ACUTE> 218 254 254 254 195.154 138.105
445 <U WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 219 251 251 221 195.155 138.106 ###
446 <U WITH DIAERESIS> 220 252 252 252 195.156 138.112
447 <Y WITH ACUTE> 221 173 186 173 195.157 138.113 *** ###
448 <CAPITAL LETTER THORN> 222 174 174 174 195.158 138.114
449 <SMALL LETTER SHARP S> 223 89 89 89 195.159 138.115
450 <a WITH GRAVE> 224 68 68 68 195.160 139.65
451 <a WITH ACUTE> 225 69 69 69 195.161 139.66
452 <a WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 226 66 66 66 195.162 139.67
453 <a WITH TILDE> 227 70 70 70 195.163 139.68
454 <a WITH DIAERESIS> 228 67 67 67 195.164 139.69
455 <a WITH RING ABOVE> 229 71 71 71 195.165 139.70
456 <SMALL LIGATURE ae> 230 156 156 156 195.166 139.71
457 <c WITH CEDILLA> 231 72 72 72 195.167 139.72
458 <e WITH GRAVE> 232 84 84 84 195.168 139.73
459 <e WITH ACUTE> 233 81 81 81 195.169 139.74
460 <e WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 234 82 82 82 195.170 139.81
461 <e WITH DIAERESIS> 235 83 83 83 195.171 139.82
462 <i WITH GRAVE> 236 88 88 88 195.172 139.83
463 <i WITH ACUTE> 237 85 85 85 195.173 139.84
464 <i WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 238 86 86 86 195.174 139.85
465 <i WITH DIAERESIS> 239 87 87 87 195.175 139.86
466 <SMALL LETTER eth> 240 140 140 140 195.176 139.87
467 <n WITH TILDE> 241 73 73 73 195.177 139.88
468 <o WITH GRAVE> 242 205 205 205 195.178 139.89
469 <o WITH ACUTE> 243 206 206 206 195.179 139.98
470 <o WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 244 203 203 203 195.180 139.99
471 <o WITH TILDE> 245 207 207 207 195.181 139.100
472 <o WITH DIAERESIS> 246 204 204 204 195.182 139.101
473 <DIVISION SIGN> 247 225 225 225 195.183 139.102
474 <o WITH STROKE> 248 112 112 112 195.184 139.103
475 <u WITH GRAVE> 249 221 221 192 195.185 139.104 ###
476 <u WITH ACUTE> 250 222 222 222 195.186 139.105
477 <u WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 251 219 219 219 195.187 139.106
478 <u WITH DIAERESIS> 252 220 220 220 195.188 139.112
479 <y WITH ACUTE> 253 141 141 141 195.189 139.113
480 <SMALL LETTER thorn> 254 142 142 142 195.190 139.114
481 <y WITH DIAERESIS> 255 223 223 223 195.191 139.115
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482
483If you would rather see the above table in CCSID 0037 order rather than
484ASCII + Latin-1 order then run the table through:
485
486=over 4
487
395f5a0c 488=item recipe 4
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489
490=back
491
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492 perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
493 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
494 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
495 -e ' sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
496 -e ' map{[$_,substr($_,42,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
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497
498If you would rather see it in CCSID 1047 order then change the digit
49942 in the last line to 51, like this:
500
501=over 4
502
395f5a0c 503=item recipe 5
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504
505=back
506
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507 perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
508 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
509 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
510 -e ' sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
511 -e ' map{[$_,substr($_,51,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
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512
513If you would rather see it in POSIX-BC order then change the digit
51451 in the last line to 60, like this:
515
516=over 4
517
395f5a0c 518=item recipe 6
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519
520=back
521
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522 perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
523 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
524 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
525 -e ' sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
526 -e ' map{[$_,substr($_,60,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
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527
528
529=head1 IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS
530
531To determine the character set you are running under from perl one
532could use the return value of ord() or chr() to test one or more
533character values. For example:
534
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535 $is_ascii = "A" eq chr(65);
536 $is_ebcdic = "A" eq chr(193);
d396a558 537
51b5cecb 538Also, "\t" is a C<HORIZONTAL TABULATION> character so that:
d396a558 539
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540 $is_ascii = ord("\t") == 9;
541 $is_ebcdic = ord("\t") == 5;
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542
543To distinguish EBCDIC code pages try looking at one or more of
544the characters that differ between them. For example:
545
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546 $is_ebcdic_37 = "\n" eq chr(37);
547 $is_ebcdic_1047 = "\n" eq chr(21);
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548
549Or better still choose a character that is uniquely encoded in any
550of the code sets, e.g.:
551
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552 $is_ascii = ord('[') == 91;
553 $is_ebcdic_37 = ord('[') == 186;
554 $is_ebcdic_1047 = ord('[') == 173;
555 $is_ebcdic_POSIX_BC = ord('[') == 187;
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556
557However, it would be unwise to write tests such as:
558
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559 $is_ascii = "\r" ne chr(13); # WRONG
560 $is_ascii = "\n" ne chr(10); # ILL ADVISED
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561
562Obviously the first of these will fail to distinguish most ASCII machines
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563from either a CCSID 0037, a 1047, or a POSIX-BC EBCDIC machine since "\r" eq
564chr(13) under all of those coded character sets. But note too that
565because "\n" is chr(13) and "\r" is chr(10) on the MacIntosh (which is an
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566ASCII machine) the second C<$is_ascii> test will lead to trouble there.
567
84f709e7 568To determine whether or not perl was built under an EBCDIC
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569code page you can use the Config module like so:
570
571 use Config;
84f709e7 572 $is_ebcdic = $Config{'ebcdic'} eq 'define';
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573
574=head1 CONVERSIONS
575
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576=head2 tr///
577
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578In order to convert a string of characters from one character set to
579another a simple list of numbers, such as in the right columns in the
580above table, along with perl's tr/// operator is all that is needed.
581The data in the table are in ASCII order hence the EBCDIC columns
582provide easy to use ASCII to EBCDIC operations that are also easily
583reversed.
584
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585For example, to convert ASCII to code page 037 take the output of the second
586column from the output of recipe 0 (modified to add \\ characters) and use
d5d9880c 587it in tr/// like so:
d396a558 588
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589 $cp_037 =
590 '\000\001\002\003\234\011\206\177\227\215\216\013\014\015\016\017' .
591 '\020\021\022\023\235\205\010\207\030\031\222\217\034\035\036\037' .
592 '\200\201\202\203\204\012\027\033\210\211\212\213\214\005\006\007' .
593 '\220\221\026\223\224\225\226\004\230\231\232\233\024\025\236\032' .
594 '\040\240\342\344\340\341\343\345\347\361\242\056\074\050\053\174' .
595 '\046\351\352\353\350\355\356\357\354\337\041\044\052\051\073\254' .
596 '\055\057\302\304\300\301\303\305\307\321\246\054\045\137\076\077' .
597 '\370\311\312\313\310\315\316\317\314\140\072\043\100\047\075\042' .
598 '\330\141\142\143\144\145\146\147\150\151\253\273\360\375\376\261' .
599 '\260\152\153\154\155\156\157\160\161\162\252\272\346\270\306\244' .
600 '\265\176\163\164\165\166\167\170\171\172\241\277\320\335\336\256' .
601 '\136\243\245\267\251\247\266\274\275\276\133\135\257\250\264\327' .
602 '\173\101\102\103\104\105\106\107\110\111\255\364\366\362\363\365' .
603 '\175\112\113\114\115\116\117\120\121\122\271\373\374\371\372\377' .
604 '\134\367\123\124\125\126\127\130\131\132\262\324\326\322\323\325' .
605 '\060\061\062\063\064\065\066\067\070\071\263\333\334\331\332\237' ;
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606
607 my $ebcdic_string = $ascii_string;
1e054b24 608 eval '$ebcdic_string =~ tr/\000-\377/' . $cp_037 . '/';
d396a558 609
d5d9880c 610To convert from EBCDIC 037 to ASCII just reverse the order of the tr///
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611arguments like so:
612
613 my $ascii_string = $ebcdic_string;
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614 eval '$ascii_string = tr/' . $cp_037 . '/\000-\377/';
615
616Similarly one could take the output of the third column from recipe 0 to
617obtain a C<$cp_1047> table. The fourth column of the output from recipe
6180 could provide a C<$cp_posix_bc> table suitable for transcoding as well.
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619
620=head2 iconv
d396a558 621
d5d9880c 622XPG operability often implies the presence of an I<iconv> utility
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623available from the shell or from the C library. Consult your system's
624documentation for information on iconv.
625
3958b146 626On OS/390 or z/OS see the iconv(1) manpage. One way to invoke the iconv
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627shell utility from within perl would be to:
628
395f5a0c 629 # OS/390 or z/OS example
84f709e7 630 $ascii_data = `echo '$ebcdic_data'| iconv -f IBM-1047 -t ISO8859-1`
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631
632or the inverse map:
633
395f5a0c 634 # OS/390 or z/OS example
84f709e7 635 $ebcdic_data = `echo '$ascii_data'| iconv -f ISO8859-1 -t IBM-1047`
d396a558 636
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637For other perl based conversion options see the Convert::* modules on CPAN.
638
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639=head2 C RTL
640
395f5a0c 641The OS/390 and z/OS C run time libraries provide _atoe() and _etoa() functions.
1e054b24 642
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643=head1 OPERATOR DIFFERENCES
644
645The C<..> range operator treats certain character ranges with
646care on EBCDIC machines. For example the following array
647will have twenty six elements on either an EBCDIC machine
648or an ASCII machine:
649
84f709e7 650 @alphabet = ('A'..'Z'); # $#alphabet == 25
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651
652The bitwise operators such as & ^ | may return different results
653when operating on string or character data in a perl program running
654on an EBCDIC machine than when run on an ASCII machine. Here is
655an example adapted from the one in L<perlop>:
656
657 # EBCDIC-based examples
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658 print "j p \n" ^ " a h"; # prints "JAPH\n"
659 print "JA" | " ph\n"; # prints "japh\n"
660 print "JAPH\nJunk" & "\277\277\277\277\277"; # prints "japh\n";
661 print 'p N$' ^ " E<H\n"; # prints "Perl\n";
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662
663An interesting property of the 32 C0 control characters
664in the ASCII table is that they can "literally" be constructed
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665as control characters in perl, e.g. C<(chr(0) eq "\c@")>
666C<(chr(1) eq "\cA")>, and so on. Perl on EBCDIC machines has been
667ported to take "\c@" to chr(0) and "\cA" to chr(1) as well, but the
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668thirty three characters that result depend on which code page you are
669using. The table below uses the character names from the previous table
51b5cecb 670but with substitutions such as s/START OF/S.O./; s/END OF /E.O./;
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671s/TRANSMISSION/TRANS./; s/TABULATION/TAB./; s/VERTICAL/VERT./;
672s/HORIZONTAL/HORIZ./; s/DEVICE CONTROL/D.C./; s/SEPARATOR/SEP./;
673s/NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE/NEG. ACK./;. The POSIX-BC and 1047 sets are
674identical throughout this range and differ from the 0037 set at only
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675one spot (21 decimal). Note that the C<LINE FEED> character
676may be generated by "\cJ" on ASCII machines but by "\cU" on 1047 or POSIX-BC
677machines and cannot be generated as a C<"\c.letter."> control character on
6780037 machines. Note also that "\c\\" maps to two characters
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679not one.
680
681 chr ord 8859-1 0037 1047 && POSIX-BC
682 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
683 "\c?" 127 <DELETE> " " ***><
684 "\c@" 0 <NULL> <NULL> <NULL> ***><
685 "\cA" 1 <S.O. HEADING> <S.O. HEADING> <S.O. HEADING>
686 "\cB" 2 <S.O. TEXT> <S.O. TEXT> <S.O. TEXT>
687 "\cC" 3 <E.O. TEXT> <E.O. TEXT> <E.O. TEXT>
688 "\cD" 4 <E.O. TRANS.> <C1 28> <C1 28>
689 "\cE" 5 <ENQUIRY> <HORIZ. TAB.> <HORIZ. TAB.>
690 "\cF" 6 <ACKNOWLEDGE> <C1 6> <C1 6>
691 "\cG" 7 <BELL> <DELETE> <DELETE>
692 "\cH" 8 <BACKSPACE> <C1 23> <C1 23>
693 "\cI" 9 <HORIZ. TAB.> <C1 13> <C1 13>
694 "\cJ" 10 <LINE FEED> <C1 14> <C1 14>
695 "\cK" 11 <VERT. TAB.> <VERT. TAB.> <VERT. TAB.>
696 "\cL" 12 <FORM FEED> <FORM FEED> <FORM FEED>
697 "\cM" 13 <CARRIAGE RETURN> <CARRIAGE RETURN> <CARRIAGE RETURN>
698 "\cN" 14 <SHIFT OUT> <SHIFT OUT> <SHIFT OUT>
699 "\cO" 15 <SHIFT IN> <SHIFT IN> <SHIFT IN>
700 "\cP" 16 <DATA LINK ESCAPE> <DATA LINK ESCAPE> <DATA LINK ESCAPE>
701 "\cQ" 17 <D.C. ONE> <D.C. ONE> <D.C. ONE>
702 "\cR" 18 <D.C. TWO> <D.C. TWO> <D.C. TWO>
703 "\cS" 19 <D.C. THREE> <D.C. THREE> <D.C. THREE>
704 "\cT" 20 <D.C. FOUR> <C1 29> <C1 29>
705 "\cU" 21 <NEG. ACK.> <C1 5> <LINE FEED> ***
706 "\cV" 22 <SYNCHRONOUS IDLE> <BACKSPACE> <BACKSPACE>
707 "\cW" 23 <E.O. TRANS. BLOCK> <C1 7> <C1 7>
708 "\cX" 24 <CANCEL> <CANCEL> <CANCEL>
709 "\cY" 25 <E.O. MEDIUM> <E.O. MEDIUM> <E.O. MEDIUM>
710 "\cZ" 26 <SUBSTITUTE> <C1 18> <C1 18>
711 "\c[" 27 <ESCAPE> <C1 15> <C1 15>
712 "\c\\" 28 <FILE SEP.>\ <FILE SEP.>\ <FILE SEP.>\
713 "\c]" 29 <GROUP SEP.> <GROUP SEP.> <GROUP SEP.>
714 "\c^" 30 <RECORD SEP.> <RECORD SEP.> <RECORD SEP.> ***><
715 "\c_" 31 <UNIT SEP.> <UNIT SEP.> <UNIT SEP.> ***><
716
717
718=head1 FUNCTION DIFFERENCES
719
720=over 8
721
722=item chr()
723
724chr() must be given an EBCDIC code number argument to yield a desired
725character return value on an EBCDIC machine. For example:
726
84f709e7 727 $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = chr(193);
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728
729=item ord()
730
731ord() will return EBCDIC code number values on an EBCDIC machine.
732For example:
733
84f709e7 734 $the_number_193 = ord("A");
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735
736=item pack()
737
738The c and C templates for pack() are dependent upon character set
739encoding. Examples of usage on EBCDIC include:
740
741 $foo = pack("CCCC",193,194,195,196);
742 # $foo eq "ABCD"
84f709e7 743 $foo = pack("C4",193,194,195,196);
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744 # same thing
745
746 $foo = pack("ccxxcc",193,194,195,196);
747 # $foo eq "AB\0\0CD"
748
749=item print()
750
751One must be careful with scalars and strings that are passed to
752print that contain ASCII encodings. One common place
753for this to occur is in the output of the MIME type header for
754CGI script writing. For example, many perl programming guides
755recommend something similar to:
756
757 print "Content-type:\ttext/html\015\012\015\012";
758 # this may be wrong on EBCDIC
759
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760Under the IBM OS/390 USS Web Server or WebSphere on z/OS for example
761you should instead write that as:
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762
763 print "Content-type:\ttext/html\r\n\r\n"; # OK for DGW et alia
764
765That is because the translation from EBCDIC to ASCII is done
766by the web server in this case (such code will not be appropriate for
767the Macintosh however). Consult your web server's documentation for
768further details.
769
770=item printf()
771
772The formats that can convert characters to numbers and vice versa
773will be different from their ASCII counterparts when executed
774on an EBCDIC machine. Examples include:
775
776 printf("%c%c%c",193,194,195); # prints ABC
777
778=item sort()
779
780EBCDIC sort results may differ from ASCII sort results especially for
781mixed case strings. This is discussed in more detail below.
782
783=item sprintf()
784
785See the discussion of printf() above. An example of the use
786of sprintf would be:
787
84f709e7 788 $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = sprintf("%c",193);
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789
790=item unpack()
791
792See the discussion of pack() above.
793
794=back
795
796=head1 REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES
797
798As of perl 5.005_03 the letter range regular expression such as
799[A-Z] and [a-z] have been especially coded to not pick up gap
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800characters. For example, characters such as E<ocirc> C<o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>
801that lie between I and J would not be matched by the
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802regular expression range C</[H-K]/>.
803
804If you do want to match the alphabet gap characters in a single octet
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805regular expression try matching the hex or octal code such
806as C</\313/> on EBCDIC or C</\364/> on ASCII machines to
51b5cecb 807have your regular expression match C<o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>.
d396a558 808
51b5cecb 809Another construct to be wary of is the inappropriate use of hex or
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810octal constants in regular expressions. Consider the following
811set of subs:
812
813 sub is_c0 {
814 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
815 $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
816 }
817
818 sub is_print_ascii {
819 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
820 $char =~ /[\040-\176]/;
821 }
822
823 sub is_delete {
824 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
825 $char eq "\177";
826 }
827
828 sub is_c1 {
829 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
830 $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
831 }
832
833 sub is_latin_1 {
834 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
835 $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
836 }
837
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838The above would be adequate if the concern was only with numeric code points.
839However, the concern may be with characters rather than code points
840and on an EBCDIC machine it may be desirable for constructs such as
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841C<if (is_print_ascii("A")) {print "A is a printable character\n";}> to print
842out the expected message. One way to represent the above collection
843of character classification subs that is capable of working across the
844four coded character sets discussed in this document is as follows:
845
846 sub Is_c0 {
847 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 848 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
d396a558 849 return $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
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850 }
851 if (ord('^')==176) { # 37
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852 return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\045\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
853 }
84f709e7 854 if (ord('^')==95 || ord('^')==106) { # 1047 || posix-bc
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855 return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\025\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
856 }
857 }
858
859 sub Is_print_ascii {
860 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
861 $char =~ /[ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<=>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~]/;
862 }
863
864 sub Is_delete {
865 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 866 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
d396a558 867 return $char eq "\177";
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868 }
869 else { # ebcdic
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870 return $char eq "\007";
871 }
872 }
873
874 sub Is_c1 {
875 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 876 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
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877 return $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
878 }
84f709e7 879 if (ord('^')==176) { # 37
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880 return $char =~ /[\040-\044\025\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
881 }
84f709e7 882 if (ord('^')==95) { # 1047
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883 return $char =~ /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
884 }
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885 if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
886 return $char =~
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887 /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\137]/;
888 }
889 }
890
891 sub Is_latin_1 {
892 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 893 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
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894 return $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
895 }
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896 if (ord('^')==176) { # 37
897 return $char =~
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898 /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\275\264\232\212\137\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
899 }
84f709e7 900 if (ord('^')==95) { # 1047
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901 return $char =~
902 /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\273\264\232\212\260\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\272\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
903 }
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904 if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
905 return $char =~
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906 /[\101\252\260\261\237\262\320\265\171\264\232\212\272\312\257\241\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\340\376\335\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\300\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
907 }
908 }
909
910Note however that only the C<Is_ascii_print()> sub is really independent
911of coded character set. Another way to write C<Is_latin_1()> would be
912to use the characters in the range explicitly:
913
914 sub Is_latin_1 {
915 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
916 $char =~ /[ ¡¢£¤¥¦§¨©ª«¬­®¯°±²³´µ¶·¸¹º»¼½¾¿ÀÁÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏÐÑÒÓÔÕÖ×ØÙÚÛÜÝÞßàáâãäåæçèéêëìíîïðñòóôõö÷øùúûüýþÿ]/;
917 }
918
919Although that form may run into trouble in network transit (due to the
920presence of 8 bit characters) or on non ISO-Latin character sets.
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921
922=head1 SOCKETS
923
924Most socket programming assumes ASCII character encodings in network
925byte order. Exceptions can include CGI script writing under a
926host web server where the server may take care of translation for you.
927Most host web servers convert EBCDIC data to ISO-8859-1 or Unicode on
928output.
929
930=head1 SORTING
931
932One big difference between ASCII based character sets and EBCDIC ones
933are the relative positions of upper and lower case letters and the
934letters compared to the digits. If sorted on an ASCII based machine the
935two letter abbreviation for a physician comes before the two letter
936for drive, that is:
937
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938 @sorted = sort(qw(Dr. dr.)); # @sorted holds ('Dr.','dr.') on ASCII,
939 # but ('dr.','Dr.') on EBCDIC
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940
941The property of lower case before uppercase letters in EBCDIC is
942even carried to the Latin 1 EBCDIC pages such as 0037 and 1047.
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943An example would be that E<Euml> C<E WITH DIAERESIS> (203) comes
944before E<euml> C<e WITH DIAERESIS> (235) on an ASCII machine, but
51b5cecb 945the latter (83) comes before the former (115) on an EBCDIC machine.
b3b6085d 946(Astute readers will note that the upper case version of E<szlig>
51b5cecb 947C<SMALL LETTER SHARP S> is simply "SS" and that the upper case version of
b3b6085d 948E<yuml> C<y WITH DIAERESIS> is not in the 0..255 range but it is
51b5cecb 949at U+x0178 in Unicode, or C<"\x{178}"> in a Unicode enabled Perl).
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950
951The sort order will cause differences between results obtained on
952ASCII machines versus EBCDIC machines. What follows are some suggestions
953on how to deal with these differences.
954
51b5cecb 955=head2 Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences.
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956
957This is the least computationally expensive strategy. It may require
958some user education.
959
51b5cecb 960=head2 MONO CASE then sort data.
d396a558 961
51b5cecb 962In order to minimize the expense of mono casing mixed test try to
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963C<tr///> towards the character set case most employed within the data.
964If the data are primarily UPPERCASE non Latin 1 then apply tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/
965then sort(). If the data are primarily lowercase non Latin 1 then
966apply tr/[A-Z]/[a-z]/ before sorting. If the data are primarily UPPERCASE
51b5cecb
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967and include Latin-1 characters then apply:
968
84f709e7 969 tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/;
51b5cecb 970 tr/[àáâãäåæçèéêëìíîïðñòóôõöøùúûüýþ]/[ÀÁÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏÐÑÒÓÔÕÖØÙÚÛÜÝÞ]/;
84f709e7 971 s/ß/SS/g;
d396a558 972
51b5cecb 973then sort(). Do note however that such Latin-1 manipulation does not
b3b6085d
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974address the E<yuml> C<y WITH DIAERESIS> character that will remain at
975code point 255 on ASCII machines, but 223 on most EBCDIC machines
51b5cecb
PP
976where it will sort to a place less than the EBCDIC numerals. With a
977Unicode enabled Perl you might try:
d396a558 978
51b5cecb
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979 tr/^?/\x{178}/;
980
981The strategy of mono casing data before sorting does not preserve the case
982of the data and may not be acceptable for that reason.
983
984=head2 Convert, sort data, then re convert.
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985
986This is the most expensive proposition that does not employ a network
987connection.
988
989=head2 Perform sorting on one type of machine only.
990
991This strategy can employ a network connection. As such
992it would be computationally expensive.
993
395f5a0c 994=head1 TRANSFORMATION FORMATS
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995
996There are a variety of ways of transforming data with an intra character set
997mapping that serve a variety of purposes. Sorting was discussed in the
998previous section and a few of the other more popular mapping techniques are
999discussed next.
1000
1001=head2 URL decoding and encoding
d396a558 1002
51b5cecb 1003Note that some URLs have hexadecimal ASCII code points in them in an
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1004attempt to overcome character or protocol limitation issues. For example
1005the tilde character is not on every keyboard hence a URL of the form:
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1006
1007 http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/
1008
1009may also be expressed as either of:
1010
1011 http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/
1012
1013 http://www.pvhp.com/%7epvhp/
1014
51b5cecb 1015where 7E is the hexadecimal ASCII code point for '~'. Here is an example
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1016of decoding such a URL under CCSID 1047:
1017
84f709e7 1018 $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/';
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1019 # this array assumes code page 1047
1020 my @a2e_1047 = (
1021 0, 1, 2, 3, 55, 45, 46, 47, 22, 5, 21, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
1022 16, 17, 18, 19, 60, 61, 50, 38, 24, 25, 63, 39, 28, 29, 30, 31,
1023 64, 90,127,123, 91,108, 80,125, 77, 93, 92, 78,107, 96, 75, 97,
1024 240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,122, 94, 76,126,110,111,
1025 124,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,209,210,211,212,213,214,
1026 215,216,217,226,227,228,229,230,231,232,233,173,224,189, 95,109,
1027 121,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,145,146,147,148,149,150,
1028 151,152,153,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,192, 79,208,161, 7,
1029 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 6, 23, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 9, 10, 27,
1030 48, 49, 26, 51, 52, 53, 54, 8, 56, 57, 58, 59, 4, 20, 62,255,
1031 65,170, 74,177,159,178,106,181,187,180,154,138,176,202,175,188,
1032 144,143,234,250,190,160,182,179,157,218,155,139,183,184,185,171,
1033 100,101, 98,102, 99,103,158,104,116,113,114,115,120,117,118,119,
1034 172,105,237,238,235,239,236,191,128,253,254,251,252,186,174, 89,
1035 68, 69, 66, 70, 67, 71,156, 72, 84, 81, 82, 83, 88, 85, 86, 87,
1036 140, 73,205,206,203,207,204,225,112,221,222,219,220,141,142,223
1037 );
1038 $url =~ s/%([0-9a-fA-F]{2})/pack("c",$a2e_1047[hex($1)])/ge;
1039
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1040Conversely, here is a partial solution for the task of encoding such
1041a URL under the 1047 code page:
1042
84f709e7 1043 $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/';
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1044 # this array assumes code page 1047
1045 my @e2a_1047 = (
1046 0, 1, 2, 3,156, 9,134,127,151,141,142, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
1047 16, 17, 18, 19,157, 10, 8,135, 24, 25,146,143, 28, 29, 30, 31,
1048 128,129,130,131,132,133, 23, 27,136,137,138,139,140, 5, 6, 7,
1049 144,145, 22,147,148,149,150, 4,152,153,154,155, 20, 21,158, 26,
1050 32,160,226,228,224,225,227,229,231,241,162, 46, 60, 40, 43,124,
1051 38,233,234,235,232,237,238,239,236,223, 33, 36, 42, 41, 59, 94,
1052 45, 47,194,196,192,193,195,197,199,209,166, 44, 37, 95, 62, 63,
1053 248,201,202,203,200,205,206,207,204, 96, 58, 35, 64, 39, 61, 34,
1054 216, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,104,105,171,187,240,253,254,177,
1055 176,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,170,186,230,184,198,164,
1056 181,126,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,161,191,208, 91,222,174,
1057 172,163,165,183,169,167,182,188,189,190,221,168,175, 93,180,215,
1058 123, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73,173,244,246,242,243,245,
1059 125, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82,185,251,252,249,250,255,
1060 92,247, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90,178,212,214,210,211,213,
1061 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57,179,219,220,217,218,159
1062 );
84f709e7 1063 # The following regular expression does not address the
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PP
1064 # mappings for: ('.' => '%2E', '/' => '%2F', ':' => '%3A')
1065 $url =~ s/([\t "#%&\(\),;<=>\?\@\[\\\]^`{|}~])/sprintf("%%%02X",$e2a_1047[ord($1)])/ge;
1066
1067where a more complete solution would split the URL into components
1068and apply a full s/// substitution only to the appropriate parts.
1069
1070In the remaining examples a @e2a or @a2e array may be employed
1071but the assignment will not be shown explicitly. For code page 1047
1072you could use the @a2e_1047 or @e2a_1047 arrays just shown.
1073
1074=head2 uu encoding and decoding
1075
1076The C<u> template to pack() or unpack() will render EBCDIC data in EBCDIC
1077characters equivalent to their ASCII counterparts. For example, the
1078following will print "Yes indeed\n" on either an ASCII or EBCDIC computer:
1079
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1080 $all_byte_chrs = '';
1081 for (0..255) { $all_byte_chrs .= chr($_); }
1082 $uuencode_byte_chrs = pack('u', $all_byte_chrs);
210b36aa 1083 ($uu = <<'ENDOFHEREDOC') =~ s/^\s*//gm;
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1084 M``$"`P0%!@<("0H+#`T.#Q`1$A,4%187&!D:&QP='A\@(2(C)"4F)R@I*BLL
1085 M+2XO,#$R,S0U-C<X.3H[/#T^/T!!0D-$149'2$E*2TQ-3D]045)35%565UA9
1086 M6EM<75Y?8&%B8V1E9F=H:6IK;&UN;W!Q<G-T=79W>'EZ>WQ]?G^`@8*#A(6&
1087 MAXB)BHN,C8Z/D)&2DY25EI>8F9J;G)V>GZ"AHJ.DI::GJ*FJJZRMKJ^PL;*S
1088 MM+6VM[BYNKN\O;Z_P,'"P\3%QL?(R<K+S,W.S]#1TM/4U=;7V-G:V]S=WM_@
1089 ?X>+CY.7FY^CIZNOL[>[O\/'R\_3U]O?X^?K[_/W^_P``
1090 ENDOFHEREDOC
84f709e7 1091 if ($uuencode_byte_chrs eq $uu) {
1e054b24
PP
1092 print "Yes ";
1093 }
1094 $uudecode_byte_chrs = unpack('u', $uuencode_byte_chrs);
84f709e7 1095 if ($uudecode_byte_chrs eq $all_byte_chrs) {
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1096 print "indeed\n";
1097 }
1098
1099Here is a very spartan uudecoder that will work on EBCDIC provided
1100that the @e2a array is filled in appropriately:
1101
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1102 #!/usr/local/bin/perl
1103 @e2a = ( # this must be filled in
1104 );
1105 $_ = <> until ($mode,$file) = /^begin\s*(\d*)\s*(\S*)/;
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1106 open(OUT, "> $file") if $file ne "";
1107 while(<>) {
1108 last if /^end/;
1109 next if /[a-z]/;
1110 next unless int(((($e2a[ord()] - 32 ) & 077) + 2) / 3) ==
1111 int(length() / 4);
1112 print OUT unpack("u", $_);
1113 }
1114 close(OUT);
1115 chmod oct($mode), $file;
1116
1117
1118=head2 Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding
1119
1120On ASCII encoded machines it is possible to strip characters outside of
1121the printable set using:
1122
1123 # This QP encoder works on ASCII only
84f709e7 1124 $qp_string =~ s/([=\x00-\x1F\x80-\xFF])/sprintf("=%02X",ord($1))/ge;
1e054b24
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1125
1126Whereas a QP encoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC machines
1127would look somewhat like the following (where the EBCDIC branch @e2a
1128array is omitted for brevity):
1129
1130 if (ord('A') == 65) { # ASCII
1131 $delete = "\x7F"; # ASCII
1132 @e2a = (0 .. 255) # ASCII to ASCII identity map
84f709e7
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1133 }
1134 else { # EBCDIC
1e054b24 1135 $delete = "\x07"; # EBCDIC
84f709e7 1136 @e2a = # EBCDIC to ASCII map (as shown above)
1e054b24 1137 }
84f709e7 1138 $qp_string =~
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PP
1139 s/([^ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~$delete])/sprintf("=%02X",$e2a[ord($1)])/ge;
1140
1141(although in production code the substitutions might be done
1142in the EBCDIC branch with the @e2a array and separately in the
1143ASCII branch without the expense of the identity map).
1144
1145Such QP strings can be decoded with:
1146
1147 # This QP decoder is limited to ASCII only
1148 $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr hex $1/ge;
1149 $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;
1150
1151Whereas a QP decoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC machines
1152would look somewhat like the following (where the @a2e array is
1153omitted for brevity):
1154
1155 $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr $a2e[hex $1]/ge;
1156 $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;
1157
395f5a0c 1158=head2 Caesarian ciphers
1e054b24
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1159
1160The practice of shifting an alphabet one or more characters for encipherment
1161dates back thousands of years and was explicitly detailed by Gaius Julius
1162Caesar in his B<Gallic Wars> text. A single alphabet shift is sometimes
1163referred to as a rotation and the shift amount is given as a number $n after
1164the string 'rot' or "rot$n". Rot0 and rot26 would designate identity maps
1165on the 26 letter English version of the Latin alphabet. Rot13 has the
1166interesting property that alternate subsequent invocations are identity maps
1167(thus rot13 is its own non-trivial inverse in the group of 26 alphabet
1168rotations). Hence the following is a rot13 encoder and decoder that will
1169work on ASCII and EBCDIC machines:
1170
1171 #!/usr/local/bin/perl
1172
84f709e7 1173 while(<>){
1e054b24
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1174 tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;
1175 print;
1176 }
1177
1178In one-liner form:
1179
84f709e7 1180 perl -ne 'tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;print'
1e054b24
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1181
1182
1183=head1 Hashing order and checksums
1184
395f5a0c
PK
1185To the extent that it is possible to write code that depends on
1186hashing order there may be differences between hashes as stored
1187on an ASCII based machine and hashes stored on an EBCDIC based machine.
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1188XXX
1189
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1190=head1 I18N AND L10N
1191
1192Internationalization(I18N) and localization(L10N) are supported at least
1193in principle even on EBCDIC machines. The details are system dependent
1194and discussed under the L<perlebcdic/OS ISSUES> section below.
1195
1196=head1 MULTI OCTET CHARACTER SETS
1197
395f5a0c
PK
1198Perl may work with an internal UTF-EBCDIC encoding form for wide characters
1199on EBCDIC platforms in a manner analogous to the way that it works with
1200the UTF-8 internal encoding form on ASCII based platforms.
1201
1202Legacy multi byte EBCDIC code pages XXX.
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1203
1204=head1 OS ISSUES
1205
1206There may be a few system dependent issues
1207of concern to EBCDIC Perl programmers.
1208
1209=head2 OS/400
1210
51b5cecb
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1211The PASE environment.
1212
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1213=over 8
1214
1215=item IFS access
1216
1217XXX.
1218
1219=back
1220
395f5a0c 1221=head2 OS/390, z/OS
d396a558 1222
51b5cecb
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1223Perl runs under Unix Systems Services or USS.
1224
d396a558
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1225=over 8
1226
51b5cecb
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1227=item chcp
1228
1e054b24
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1229B<chcp> is supported as a shell utility for displaying and changing
1230one's code page. See also L<chcp>.
51b5cecb 1231
d396a558
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1232=item dataset access
1233
1234For sequential data set access try:
1235
1236 my @ds_records = `cat //DSNAME`;
1237
1238or:
1239
1240 my @ds_records = `cat //'HLQ.DSNAME'`;
1241
1242See also the OS390::Stdio module on CPAN.
1243
395f5a0c 1244=item OS/390, z/OS iconv
51b5cecb 1245
1e054b24
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1246B<iconv> is supported as both a shell utility and a C RTL routine.
1247See also the iconv(1) and iconv(3) manual pages.
51b5cecb 1248
d396a558
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1249=item locales
1250
395f5a0c
PK
1251On OS/390 or z/OS see L<locale> for information on locales. The L10N files
1252are in F</usr/nls/locale>. $Config{d_setlocale} is 'define' on OS/390
1253or z/OS.
d396a558
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1254
1255=back
1256
1257=head2 VM/ESA?
1258
1259XXX.
1260
1261=head2 POSIX-BC?
1262
1263XXX.
1264
51b5cecb
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1265=head1 BUGS
1266
1267This pod document contains literal Latin 1 characters and may encounter
b1866b2d 1268translation difficulties. In particular one popular nroff implementation
51b5cecb
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1269was known to strip accented characters to their unaccented counterparts
1270while attempting to view this document through the B<pod2man> program
1271(for example, you may see a plain C<y> rather than one with a diaeresis
3958b146 1272as in E<yuml>). Another nroff truncated the resultant manpage at
395f5a0c 1273the first occurrence of 8 bit characters.
51b5cecb
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1274
1275Not all shells will allow multiple C<-e> string arguments to perl to
395f5a0c
PK
1276be concatenated together properly as recipes 0, 2, 4, 5, and 6 might
1277seem to imply.
51b5cecb 1278
b3b6085d
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1279=head1 SEE ALSO
1280
395f5a0c 1281L<perllocale>, L<perlfunc>, L<perlunicode>, L<utf8>.
b3b6085d 1282
d396a558
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1283=head1 REFERENCES
1284
1285http://anubis.dkuug.dk/i18n/charmaps
1286
d396a558
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1287http://www.unicode.org/
1288
1289http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr16/
1290
51b5cecb
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1291http://www.wps.com/texts/codes/
1292B<ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Infiltration> Tom Jennings,
1293September 1999.
1294
395f5a0c 1295B<The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0> The Unicode Consortium, Lisa Moore ed.,
51b5cecb
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1296ISBN 0-201-61633-5, Addison Wesley Developers Press, February 2000.
1297
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1298B<CDRA: IBM - Character Data Representation Architecture -
1299Reference and Registry>, IBM SC09-2190-00, December 1996.
1300
1301"Demystifying Character Sets", Andrea Vine, Multilingual Computing
1302& Technology, B<#26 Vol. 10 Issue 4>, August/September 1999;
1303ISSN 1523-0309; Multilingual Computing Inc. Sandpoint ID, USA.
1304
1e054b24
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1305B<Codes, Ciphers, and Other Cryptic and Clandestine Communication>
1306Fred B. Wrixon, ISBN 1-57912-040-7, Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers,
13071998.
1308
395f5a0c
PK
1309http://www.bobbemer.com/P-BIT.HTM
1310B<IBM - EBCDIC and the P-bit; The biggest Computer Goof Ever> Robert Bemer.
1311
1312=head1 HISTORY
1313
131415 April 2001: added UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC to main table, pvhp.
1315
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1316=head1 AUTHOR
1317
b3b6085d 1318Peter Prymmer pvhp@best.com wrote this in 1999 and 2000
d396a558 1319with CCSID 0819 and 0037 help from Chris Leach and
b3b6085d
PP
1320AndrE<eacute> Pirard A.Pirard@ulg.ac.be as well as POSIX-BC
1321help from Thomas Dorner Thomas.Dorner@start.de.
1e054b24
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1322Thanks also to Vickie Cooper, Philip Newton, William Raffloer, and
1323Joe Smith. Trademarks, registered trademarks, service marks and
1324registered service marks used in this document are the property of
1325their respective owners.
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1326
1327