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1=for maintainers
2Generated by perlmodlib.PL -- DO NOT EDIT!
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4=head1 NAME
5
6perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones
7
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8=head1 THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY
9
7ef5744c 10Many modules are included in the Perl distribution. These are described
19799a22 11below, and all end in F<.pm>. You may discover compiled library
7ef5744c 12files (usually ending in F<.so>) or small pieces of modules to be
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13autoloaded (ending in F<.al>); these were automatically generated
14by the installation process. You may also discover files in the
15library directory that end in either F<.pl> or F<.ph>. These are
16old libraries supplied so that old programs that use them still
17run. The F<.pl> files will all eventually be converted into standard
18modules, and the F<.ph> files made by B<h2ph> will probably end up
19as extension modules made by B<h2xs>. (Some F<.ph> values may
20already be available through the POSIX, Errno, or Fcntl modules.)
21The B<pl2pm> file in the distribution may help in your conversion,
22but it's just a mechanical process and therefore far from bulletproof.
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23
24=head2 Pragmatic Modules
25
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26They work somewhat like compiler directives (pragmata) in that they
27tend to affect the compilation of your program, and thus will usually
28work well only when used within a C<use>, or C<no>. Most of these
29are lexically scoped, so an inner BLOCK may countermand them
30by saying:
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31
32 no integer;
33 no strict 'refs';
4438c4b7 34 no warnings;
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35
36which lasts until the end of that BLOCK.
37
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38Some pragmas are lexically scoped--typically those that affect the
39C<$^H> hints variable. Others affect the current package instead,
77ca0c92 40like C<use vars> and C<use subs>, which allow you to predeclare a
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41variables or subroutines within a particular I<file> rather than
42just a block. Such declarations are effective for the entire file
43for which they were declared. You cannot rescind them with C<no
44vars> or C<no subs>.
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45
46The following pragmas are defined (and have their own documentation).
47
48=over 12
49
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50=item assertions
51
5c5c2539 52Select assertions in blocks of code
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53
54=item assertions::activate
55
5c5c2539 56Activate assertions
a4373870 57
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58=item attributes
59
9e107c59 60Get/set subroutine or variable attributes
09bef843 61
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62=item attrs
63
64Set/get attributes of a subroutine (deprecated)
65
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66=item autouse
67
9e107c59 68Postpone load of modules until a function is used
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69
70=item base
71
f99d9048 72Establish IS-A relationship with base classes at compile time
f102b883 73
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74=item bigint
75
7ef5744c 76Transparent BigInteger support for Perl
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77
78=item bignum
79
80Transparent BigNumber support for Perl
81
82=item bigrat
83
82eec310 84Transparent BigNumber/BigRational support for Perl
fa1c7b03 85
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86=item blib
87
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88Use MakeMaker's uninstalled version of a package
89
2e1d04bc 90=item bytes
9e107c59 91
2e1d04bc 92Force byte semantics rather than character semantics
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93
94=item charnames
95
ec90690f 96Define character names for C<\N{named}> string literal escapes
9e107c59 97
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98=item constant
99
9e107c59 100Declare constants
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101
102=item diagnostics
103
f262848d 104Produce verbose warning diagnostics
19799a22 105
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106=item encoding
107
ec90690f 108Allows you to write your script in non-ascii or non-utf8
1bb908c3 109
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110=item fields
111
2e1d04bc 112Compile-time class fields
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113
114=item filetest
115
2e1d04bc 116Control the filetest permission operators
f102b883 117
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118=item if
119
120C<use> a Perl module if a condition holds
121
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122=item integer
123
4e860d0a 124Use integer arithmetic instead of floating point
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125
126=item less
127
2e1d04bc 128Request less of something from the compiler
f102b883 129
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130=item lib
131
132Manipulate @INC at compile time
133
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134=item locale
135
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136Use and avoid POSIX locales for built-in operations
137
138=item open
139
cb9c8b59 140Set default PerlIO layers for input and output
f102b883 141
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142=item ops
143
144Restrict unsafe operations when compiling
145
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146=item overload
147
2e1d04bc 148Package for overloading perl operations
f102b883 149
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150=item re
151
152Alter regular expression behaviour
153
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154=item sigtrap
155
9e107c59 156Enable simple signal handling
f102b883 157
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158=item sort
159
160Control sort() behaviour
161
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162=item strict
163
9e107c59 164Restrict unsafe constructs
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165
166=item subs
167
2e1d04bc 168Predeclare sub names
f102b883 169
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170=item threads
171
172Perl extension allowing use of interpreter based threads from perl
173
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174=item threads::shared
175
176Perl extension for sharing data structures between threads
177
19799a22 178=item utf8
f102b883 179
1fa7ca25 180Enable/disable UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) in source code
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181
182=item vars
183
2e1d04bc 184Predeclare global variable names (obsolete)
f102b883 185
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186=item version
187
188Perl extension for Version Objects
189
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190=item vmsish
191
192Control VMS-specific language features
193
4438c4b7 194=item warnings
0453d815 195
9e107c59 196Control optional warnings
19799a22 197
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198=item warnings::register
199
200Warnings import function
201
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202=back
203
204=head2 Standard Modules
205
206Standard, bundled modules are all expected to behave in a well-defined
207manner with respect to namespace pollution because they use the
208Exporter module. See their own documentation for details.
209
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210It's possible that not all modules listed below are installed on your
211system. For example, the GDBM_File module will not be installed if you
212don't have the gdbm library.
213
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214=over 12
215
216=item AnyDBM_File
217
2e1d04bc 218Provide framework for multiple DBMs
f102b883 219
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220=item Attribute::Handlers
221
222Simpler definition of attribute handlers
223
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224=item AutoLoader
225
9e107c59 226Load subroutines only on demand
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227
228=item AutoSplit
229
9e107c59 230Split a package for autoloading
f102b883 231
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232=item B
233
234The Perl Compiler
235
236=item B::Asmdata
237
238Autogenerated data about Perl ops, used to generate bytecode
239
240=item B::Assembler
241
242Assemble Perl bytecode
243
244=item B::Bblock
245
246Walk basic blocks
247
248=item B::Bytecode
249
250Perl compiler's bytecode backend
251
252=item B::C
253
254Perl compiler's C backend
255
256=item B::CC
257
258Perl compiler's optimized C translation backend
259
260=item B::Concise
261
262Walk Perl syntax tree, printing concise info about ops
263
264=item B::Debug
265
266Walk Perl syntax tree, printing debug info about ops
267
268=item B::Deparse
269
270Perl compiler backend to produce perl code
271
272=item B::Disassembler
273
274Disassemble Perl bytecode
275
276=item B::Lint
277
278Perl lint
279
280=item B::Showlex
281
282Show lexical variables used in functions or files
283
284=item B::Stackobj
285
286Helper module for CC backend
287
288=item B::Stash
289
290Show what stashes are loaded
291
292=item B::Terse
293
294Walk Perl syntax tree, printing terse info about ops
295
296=item B::Xref
297
298Generates cross reference reports for Perl programs
299
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300=item Benchmark
301
2e1d04bc 302Benchmark running times of Perl code
9e107c59 303
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304=item ByteLoader
305
306Load byte compiled perl code
307
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308=item CGI
309
2e1d04bc 310Simple Common Gateway Interface Class
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311
312=item CGI::Apache
313
2e1d04bc 314Backward compatibility module for CGI.pm
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315
316=item CGI::Carp
317
318CGI routines for writing to the HTTPD (or other) error log
319
320=item CGI::Cookie
321
322Interface to Netscape Cookies
323
324=item CGI::Fast
325
326CGI Interface for Fast CGI
327
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328=item CGI::Pretty
329
330Module to produce nicely formatted HTML code
331
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332=item CGI::Push
333
334Simple Interface to Server Push
335
336=item CGI::Switch
337
2e1d04bc 338Backward compatibility module for defunct CGI::Switch
19799a22 339
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340=item CGI::Util
341
342Internal utilities used by CGI module
343
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344=item CPAN
345
2e1d04bc 346Query, download and build perl modules from CPAN sites
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347
348=item CPAN::FirstTime
349
2e1d04bc 350Utility for CPAN::Config file Initialization
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351
352=item CPAN::Nox
353
19799a22 354Wrapper around CPAN.pm without using any XS module
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355
356=item Carp
357
2e1d04bc 358Warn of errors (from perspective of caller)
9e107c59 359
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360=item Carp::Heavy
361
f99d9048 362Heavy machinery, no user serviceable parts inside
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363
364=item Class::ISA
365
366Report the search path for a class's ISA tree
367
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368=item Class::Struct
369
9e107c59 370Declare struct-like datatypes as Perl classes
f102b883 371
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372=item Config
373
374Access Perl configuration information
375
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376=item Cwd
377
9e107c59 378Get pathname of current working directory
f102b883 379
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380=item DB
381
2e1d04bc 382Programmatic interface to the Perl debugging API (draft, subject to
19799a22 383
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384=item DBM_Filter
385
386Filter DBM keys/values
387
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388=item DB_File
389
390Perl5 access to Berkeley DB version 1.x
391
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392=item Data::Dumper
393
394Stringified perl data structures, suitable for both printing and C<eval>
395
396=item Devel::DProf
397
398A Perl code profiler
399
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400=item Devel::PPPort
401
402Perl/Pollution/Portability
403
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404=item Devel::Peek
405
406A data debugging tool for the XS programmer
407
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408=item Devel::SelfStubber
409
9e107c59 410Generate stubs for a SelfLoading module
f102b883 411
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412=item Digest
413
414Modules that calculate message digests
415
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416=item Digest::MD5
417
418Perl interface to the MD5 Algorithm
419
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420=item Digest::base
421
422Digest base class
423
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424=item DirHandle
425
9e107c59 426Supply object methods for directory handles
f102b883 427
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428=item Dumpvalue
429
2e1d04bc 430Provides screen dump of Perl data.
f102b883 431
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432=item DynaLoader
433
434Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code
435
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436=item Encode
437
438Character encodings
439
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440=item Encode::Alias
441
442Alias definitions to encodings
443
444=item Encode::Byte
445
446Single Byte Encodings
447
448=item Encode::CJKConstants
449
450Internally used by Encode::??::ISO_2022_*
451
452=item Encode::CN
453
454China-based Chinese Encodings
455
456=item Encode::CN::HZ
457
458Internally used by Encode::CN
459
460=item Encode::Config
461
462Internally used by Encode
463
464=item Encode::EBCDIC
465
466EBCDIC Encodings
467
468=item Encode::Encoder
469
470Object Oriented Encoder
471
472=item Encode::Encoding
473
474Encode Implementation Base Class
475
476=item Encode::Guess
477
478Guesses encoding from data
479
480=item Encode::JP
481
482Japanese Encodings
483
484=item Encode::JP::H2Z
485
486Internally used by Encode::JP::2022_JP*
487
488=item Encode::JP::JIS7
489
490Internally used by Encode::JP
491
492=item Encode::KR
493
494Korean Encodings
495
496=item Encode::KR::2022_KR
497
498Internally used by Encode::KR
499
500=item Encode::MIME::Header
501
502MIME 'B' and 'Q' header encoding
503
504=item Encode::PerlIO
505
506A detailed document on Encode and PerlIO
507
508=item Encode::Supported
509
510Encodings supported by Encode
511
512=item Encode::Symbol
513
514Symbol Encodings
515
516=item Encode::TW
517
518Taiwan-based Chinese Encodings
519
520=item Encode::Unicode
521
522Various Unicode Transformation Formats
523
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524=item Encode::Unicode::UTF7
525
526UTF-7 encoding
527
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528=item English
529
2e1d04bc 530Use nice English (or awk) names for ugly punctuation variables
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531
532=item Env
533
2e1d04bc 534Perl module that imports environment variables as scalars or arrays
f102b883 535
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536=item Errno
537
538System errno constants
539
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540=item Exporter
541
2e1d04bc 542Implements default import method for modules
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543
544=item Exporter::Heavy
545
546Exporter guts
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547
548=item ExtUtils::Command
549
2e1d04bc 550Utilities to replace common UNIX commands in Makefiles etc.
f102b883 551
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552=item ExtUtils::Command::MM
553
554Commands for the MM's to use in Makefiles
555
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556=item ExtUtils::Constant
557
558Generate XS code to import C header constants
559
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560=item ExtUtils::Embed
561
2e1d04bc 562Utilities for embedding Perl in C/C++ applications
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563
564=item ExtUtils::Install
565
9e107c59 566Install files from here to there
f102b883 567
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568=item ExtUtils::Installed
569
570Inventory management of installed modules
571
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572=item ExtUtils::Liblist
573
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574Determine libraries to use and how to use them
575
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576=item ExtUtils::MM
577
578OS adjusted ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass
579
580=item ExtUtils::MM_Any
581
639f8edf 582Platform-agnostic MM methods
ec90690f 583
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584=item ExtUtils::MM_BeOS
585
586Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
587
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588=item ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin
589
2e1d04bc 590Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
f102b883 591
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592=item ExtUtils::MM_DOS
593
594DOS specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix
595
596=item ExtUtils::MM_MacOS
597
598Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
599
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600=item ExtUtils::MM_NW5
601
602Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
603
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604=item ExtUtils::MM_OS2
605
2e1d04bc 606Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
f102b883 607
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608=item ExtUtils::MM_UWIN
609
610U/WIN specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix
611
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612=item ExtUtils::MM_Unix
613
9e107c59 614Methods used by ExtUtils::MakeMaker
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615
616=item ExtUtils::MM_VMS
617
2e1d04bc 618Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
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619
620=item ExtUtils::MM_Win32
621
2e1d04bc 622Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
f102b883 623
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624=item ExtUtils::MM_Win95
625
626Method to customize MakeMaker for Win9X
627
628=item ExtUtils::MY
629
630ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass for customization
631
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632=item ExtUtils::MakeMaker
633
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634Create a module Makefile
635
636=item ExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ
637
638Frequently Asked Questions About MakeMaker
639
640=item ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Tutorial
641
642Writing a module with MakeMaker
643
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644=item ExtUtils::MakeMaker::bytes
645
f262848d 646Version-agnostic bytes.pm
8b9c797b 647
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648=item ExtUtils::MakeMaker::vmsish
649
f262848d 650Platform-agnostic vmsish.pm
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651
652=item ExtUtils::Manifest
653
9e107c59 654Utilities to write and check a MANIFEST file
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655
656=item ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap
657
9e107c59 658Make a bootstrap file for use by DynaLoader
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659
660=item ExtUtils::Mksymlists
661
9e107c59 662Write linker options files for dynamic extension
f102b883 663
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664=item ExtUtils::Packlist
665
9e107c59 666Manage .packlist files
19799a22 667
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668=item ExtUtils::testlib
669
9e107c59 670Add blib/* directories to @INC
f102b883 671
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672=item Fatal
673
9e107c59 674Replace functions with equivalents which succeed or die
b6c543e3 675
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676=item Fcntl
677
678Load the C Fcntl.h defines
679
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680=item File::Basename
681
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682Split a pathname into pieces
683
684=item File::CheckTree
685
686Run many filetest checks on a tree
f102b883 687
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688=item File::Compare
689
19799a22 690Compare files or filehandles
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691
692=item File::Copy
693
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694Copy files or filehandles
695
696=item File::DosGlob
697
2e1d04bc 698DOS like globbing and then some
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699
700=item File::Find
701
d63e6bb6 702Traverse a directory tree.
f102b883 703
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704=item File::Glob
705
706Perl extension for BSD glob routine
707
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708=item File::Path
709
2e1d04bc 710Create or remove directory trees
f102b883 711
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712=item File::Spec
713
9e107c59 714Portably perform operations on file names
f505c983 715
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716=item File::Spec::Cygwin
717
718Methods for Cygwin file specs
719
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720=item File::Spec::Epoc
721
722Methods for Epoc file specs
723
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724=item File::Spec::Functions
725
9e107c59 726Portably perform operations on file names
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727
728=item File::Spec::Mac
729
1bb908c3 730File::Spec for Mac OS (Classic)
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731
732=item File::Spec::OS2
733
9e107c59 734Methods for OS/2 file specs
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735
736=item File::Spec::Unix
737
e61ecf27 738File::Spec for Unix, base for other File::Spec modules
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739
740=item File::Spec::VMS
741
9e107c59 742Methods for VMS file specs
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743
744=item File::Spec::Win32
745
9e107c59 746Methods for Win32 file specs
f505c983 747
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748=item File::Temp
749
750Return name and handle of a temporary file safely
751
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752=item File::stat
753
9e107c59 754By-name interface to Perl's built-in stat() functions
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755
756=item FileCache
757
9e107c59 758Keep more files open than the system permits
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759
760=item FileHandle
761
9e107c59 762Supply object methods for filehandles
f102b883 763
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764=item Filter::Simple
765
766Simplified source filtering
767
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768=item Filter::Util::Call
769
770Perl Source Filter Utility Module
771
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772=item FindBin
773
2e1d04bc 774Locate directory of original perl script
f102b883 775
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776=item GDBM_File
777
778Perl5 access to the gdbm library.
779
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780=item Getopt::Long
781
9e107c59 782Extended processing of command line options
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783
784=item Getopt::Std
785
19799a22 786Process single-character switches with switch clustering
f102b883 787
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788=item Hash::Util
789
790A selection of general-utility hash subroutines
791
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792=item I18N::Collate
793
2e1d04bc 794Compare 8-bit scalar data according to the current locale
f102b883 795
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796=item I18N::LangTags
797
798Functions for dealing with RFC3066-style language tags
799
800=item I18N::LangTags::List
801
4f233aa4 802Tags and names for human languages
422a9aca 803
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804=item I18N::Langinfo
805
806Query locale information
807
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808=item IO
809
810Load various IO modules
811
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812=item IO::Dir
813
814Supply object methods for directory handles
815
816=item IO::File
817
818Supply object methods for filehandles
819
820=item IO::Handle
821
822Supply object methods for I/O handles
823
824=item IO::Pipe
825
826Supply object methods for pipes
827
828=item IO::Poll
829
830Object interface to system poll call
831
832=item IO::Seekable
833
834Supply seek based methods for I/O objects
835
836=item IO::Select
837
838OO interface to the select system call
839
840=item IO::Socket
841
842Object interface to socket communications
843
844=item IO::Socket::INET
845
846Object interface for AF_INET domain sockets
847
848=item IO::Socket::UNIX
849
850Object interface for AF_UNIX domain sockets
851
f102b883
TC
852=item IPC::Open2
853
9e107c59 854Open a process for both reading and writing
f102b883
TC
855
856=item IPC::Open3
857
9e107c59 858Open a process for reading, writing, and error handling
f102b883 859
7ef5744c
RGS
860=item IPC::SysV
861
862SysV IPC constants
863
864=item IPC::SysV::Msg
865
866SysV Msg IPC object class
867
868=item IPC::SysV::Semaphore
869
870SysV Semaphore IPC object class
871
872=item List::Util
873
874A selection of general-utility list subroutines
875
4e860d0a
JH
876=item Locale::Constants
877
878Constants for Locale codes
879
880=item Locale::Country
881
882ISO codes for country identification (ISO 3166)
883
884=item Locale::Currency
885
886ISO three letter codes for currency identification (ISO 4217)
887
888=item Locale::Language
889
890ISO two letter codes for language identification (ISO 639)
891
422a9aca
JH
892=item Locale::Maketext
893
894Framework for localization
895
896=item Locale::Maketext::TPJ13
897
898Article about software localization
899
d63e6bb6
JH
900=item Locale::Script
901
902ISO codes for script identification (ISO 15924)
903
7ef5744c
RGS
904=item MIME::Base64
905
906Encoding and decoding of base64 strings
907
908=item MIME::Base64::QuotedPrint
909
910Encoding and decoding of quoted-printable strings
911
f102b883
TC
912=item Math::BigFloat
913
5d80033a 914Arbitrary size floating point math package
f102b883
TC
915
916=item Math::BigInt
917
19799a22 918Arbitrary size integer math package
f102b883 919
d0363f02
JH
920=item Math::BigInt::Calc
921
922Pure Perl module to support Math::BigInt
923
f99d9048
RGS
924=item Math::BigInt::CalcEmu
925
926Emulate low-level math with BigInt code
927
fa1c7b03
JH
928=item Math::BigRat
929
f99d9048 930Arbitrarily big rational numbers
fa1c7b03 931
f102b883
TC
932=item Math::Complex
933
9e107c59 934Complex numbers and associated mathematical functions
f102b883 935
404b15a1
CS
936=item Math::Trig
937
9e107c59 938Trigonometric functions
f102b883 939
5d80033a
JH
940=item Memoize
941
ec90690f 942Make functions faster by trading space for time
5d80033a
JH
943
944=item Memoize::AnyDBM_File
945
946Glue to provide EXISTS for AnyDBM_File for Storable use
947
948=item Memoize::Expire
949
950Plug-in module for automatic expiration of memoized values
951
952=item Memoize::ExpireFile
953
954Test for Memoize expiration semantics
955
956=item Memoize::ExpireTest
957
958Test for Memoize expiration semantics
959
960=item Memoize::NDBM_File
961
962Glue to provide EXISTS for NDBM_File for Storable use
963
964=item Memoize::SDBM_File
965
966Glue to provide EXISTS for SDBM_File for Storable use
967
5d80033a
JH
968=item Memoize::Storable
969
970Store Memoized data in Storable database
971
ec90690f
ST
972=item NDBM_File
973
974Tied access to ndbm files
975
1fa7ca25
JH
976=item NEXT
977
7a142657 978Provide a pseudo-class NEXT (et al) that allows method redispatch
1fa7ca25 979
5d80033a
JH
980=item Net::Cmd
981
982Network Command class (as used by FTP, SMTP etc)
983
984=item Net::Config
985
986Local configuration data for libnet
987
988=item Net::Domain
989
990Attempt to evaluate the current host's internet name and domain
991
5d80033a
JH
992=item Net::FTP
993
994FTP Client class
995
996=item Net::NNTP
997
998NNTP Client class
999
1000=item Net::Netrc
1001
1002OO interface to users netrc file
1003
5d80033a
JH
1004=item Net::POP3
1005
d63e6bb6 1006Post Office Protocol 3 Client class (RFC1939)
5d80033a 1007
f102b883
TC
1008=item Net::Ping
1009
9e107c59 1010Check a remote host for reachability
f102b883 1011
5d80033a
JH
1012=item Net::SMTP
1013
1014Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Client
1015
5d80033a
JH
1016=item Net::Time
1017
1018Time and daytime network client interface
1019
f102b883
TC
1020=item Net::hostent
1021
9e107c59 1022By-name interface to Perl's built-in gethost*() functions
f102b883 1023
5d80033a
JH
1024=item Net::libnetFAQ
1025
1026Libnet Frequently Asked Questions
1027
f102b883
TC
1028=item Net::netent
1029
9e107c59 1030By-name interface to Perl's built-in getnet*() functions
f102b883
TC
1031
1032=item Net::protoent
1033
9e107c59 1034By-name interface to Perl's built-in getproto*() functions
f102b883
TC
1035
1036=item Net::servent
1037
9e107c59 1038By-name interface to Perl's built-in getserv*() functions
f102b883 1039
ec90690f
ST
1040=item O
1041
1042Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends
1043
1044=item ODBM_File
1045
1046Tied access to odbm files
1047
1048=item Opcode
1049
1050Disable named opcodes when compiling perl code
1051
1052=item POSIX
1053
1054Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1
1055
4e860d0a
JH
1056=item PerlIO
1057
1058On demand loader for PerlIO layers and root of PerlIO::* name space
1059
7ef5744c
RGS
1060=item PerlIO::encoding
1061
1062Encoding layer
1063
1064=item PerlIO::scalar
1065
639f8edf 1066In-memory IO, scalar IO
7ef5744c
RGS
1067
1068=item PerlIO::via
1069
1070Helper class for PerlIO layers implemented in perl
1071
c40f6c4a
JH
1072=item PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint
1073
1074PerlIO layer for quoted-printable strings
1075
9e107c59
GS
1076=item Pod::Checker
1077
1078Check pod documents for syntax errors
1079
2e1d04bc
JH
1080=item Pod::Find
1081
1082Find POD documents in directory trees
1083
06a5f41f
JH
1084=item Pod::Functions
1085
1086Group Perl's functions a la perlfunc.pod
1087
19799a22
GS
1088=item Pod::Html
1089
9e107c59
GS
1090Module to convert pod files to HTML
1091
1092=item Pod::InputObjects
1093
2e1d04bc 1094Objects representing POD input paragraphs, commands, etc.
9e107c59 1095
13a2d996
SP
1096=item Pod::LaTeX
1097
1098Convert Pod data to formatted Latex
1099
9e107c59
GS
1100=item Pod::Man
1101
1102Convert POD data to formatted *roff input
1103
1bb908c3
JH
1104=item Pod::ParseLink
1105
248e172a 1106Parse an LE<lt>E<gt> formatting code in POD text
1bb908c3 1107
2e1d04bc
JH
1108=item Pod::ParseUtils
1109
1110Helpers for POD parsing and conversion
1111
9e107c59
GS
1112=item Pod::Parser
1113
1114Base class for creating POD filters and translators
1115
a4373870
CW
1116=item Pod::Perldoc::ToChecker
1117
1118Let Perldoc check Pod for errors
1119
1120=item Pod::Perldoc::ToMan
1121
1122Let Perldoc render Pod as man pages
1123
1124=item Pod::Perldoc::ToNroff
1125
1126Let Perldoc convert Pod to nroff
1127
1128=item Pod::Perldoc::ToPod
1129
1130Let Perldoc render Pod as ... Pod!
1131
1132=item Pod::Perldoc::ToRtf
1133
1134Let Perldoc render Pod as RTF
1135
1136=item Pod::Perldoc::ToText
1137
1138Let Perldoc render Pod as plaintext
1139
1140=item Pod::Perldoc::ToTk
1141
1142Let Perldoc use Tk::Pod to render Pod
1143
1144=item Pod::Perldoc::ToXml
1145
1146Let Perldoc render Pod as XML
1147
1148=item Pod::PlainText
1149
1150Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text
1151
2e1d04bc
JH
1152=item Pod::Plainer
1153
1154Perl extension for converting Pod to old style Pod.
1155
9e107c59
GS
1156=item Pod::Select
1157
1158Extract selected sections of POD from input
19799a22
GS
1159
1160=item Pod::Text
1161
9e107c59
GS
1162Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text
1163
1164=item Pod::Text::Color
1165
1166Convert POD data to formatted color ASCII text
1167
4e860d0a
JH
1168=item Pod::Text::Overstrike
1169
1170Convert POD data to formatted overstrike text
1171
2e1d04bc
JH
1172=item Pod::Text::Termcap
1173
1174Convert POD data to ASCII text with format escapes
1175
9e107c59
GS
1176=item Pod::Usage
1177
1178Print a usage message from embedded pod documentation
f102b883 1179
ec90690f
ST
1180=item SDBM_File
1181
1182Tied access to sdbm files
1183
1184=item Safe
1185
1186Compile and execute code in restricted compartments
1187
7ef5744c
RGS
1188=item Scalar::Util
1189
1190A selection of general-utility scalar subroutines
1191
f102b883
TC
1192=item Search::Dict
1193
9e107c59 1194Search for key in dictionary file
f102b883
TC
1195
1196=item SelectSaver
1197
9e107c59 1198Save and restore selected file handle
f102b883
TC
1199
1200=item SelfLoader
1201
9e107c59 1202Load functions only on demand
f102b883
TC
1203
1204=item Shell
1205
2e1d04bc 1206Run shell commands transparently within perl
f102b883 1207
ec90690f
ST
1208=item Socket
1209
1210Load the C socket.h defines and structure manipulators
1211
1212=item Storable
1213
1214Persistence for Perl data structures
1215
4e860d0a
JH
1216=item Switch
1217
1218A switch statement for Perl
1219
f102b883
TC
1220=item Symbol
1221
9e107c59 1222Manipulate Perl symbols and their names
f102b883 1223
7ef5744c
RGS
1224=item Sys::Hostname
1225
1226Try every conceivable way to get hostname
1227
1228=item Sys::Syslog
1229
1230Perl interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls
1231
2e1d04bc 1232=item Term::ANSIColor
f102b883 1233
2e1d04bc 1234Color screen output using ANSI escape sequences
f102b883
TC
1235
1236=item Term::Cap
1237
2e1d04bc 1238Perl termcap interface
f102b883
TC
1239
1240=item Term::Complete
1241
2e1d04bc 1242Perl word completion module
f102b883
TC
1243
1244=item Term::ReadLine
1245
7ef5744c 1246Perl interface to various C<readline> packages.
19799a22
GS
1247
1248=item Test
1249
9e107c59 1250Provides a simple framework for writing test scripts
f102b883 1251
1bb908c3
JH
1252=item Test::Builder
1253
1254Backend for building test libraries
1255
f102b883
TC
1256=item Test::Harness
1257
f262848d 1258Run Perl standard test scripts with statistics
f102b883 1259
d63e6bb6
JH
1260=item Test::Harness::Assert
1261
1262Simple assert
1263
1264=item Test::Harness::Iterator
1265
1266Internal Test::Harness Iterator
1267
1268=item Test::Harness::Straps
1269
1270Detailed analysis of test results
1271
7a49b635
JH
1272=item Test::More
1273
1274Yet another framework for writing test scripts
1275
1276=item Test::Simple
1277
1278Basic utilities for writing tests.
1279
e61ecf27
JH
1280=item Test::Tutorial
1281
1282A tutorial about writing really basic tests
1283
f102b883
TC
1284=item Text::Abbrev
1285
9e107c59 1286Create an abbreviation table from a list
f102b883 1287
4e860d0a
JH
1288=item Text::Balanced
1289
1290Extract delimited text sequences from strings.
1291
f102b883
TC
1292=item Text::ParseWords
1293
2e1d04bc 1294Parse text into an array of tokens or array of arrays
f102b883
TC
1295
1296=item Text::Soundex
1297
2e1d04bc 1298Implementation of the Soundex Algorithm as Described by Knuth
f102b883 1299
4e860d0a
JH
1300=item Text::Tabs
1301
1302Expand and unexpand tabs per the unix expand(1) and unexpand(1)
1303
f102b883
TC
1304=item Text::Wrap
1305
9e107c59 1306Line wrapping to form simple paragraphs
19799a22 1307
1bb908c3
JH
1308=item Thread
1309
416e7255 1310Manipulate threads in Perl (for old code only)
1bb908c3 1311
ec90690f
ST
1312=item Thread::Queue
1313
83272a45 1314Thread-safe queues
ec90690f
ST
1315
1316=item Thread::Semaphore
1317
83272a45 1318Thread-safe semaphores
ec90690f 1319
7ef5744c
RGS
1320=item Thread::Signal
1321
1322Start a thread which runs signal handlers reliably (for old code)
1323
1324=item Thread::Specific
1325
1326Thread-specific keys
1327
19799a22
GS
1328=item Tie::Array
1329
9e107c59 1330Base class for tied arrays
19799a22 1331
d63e6bb6
JH
1332=item Tie::File
1333
1334Access the lines of a disk file via a Perl array
1335
19799a22
GS
1336=item Tie::Handle
1337
9e107c59 1338Base class definitions for tied handles
19799a22 1339
9e107c59 1340=item Tie::Hash
f102b883 1341
9e107c59 1342Base class definitions for tied hashes
f102b883 1343
d63e6bb6
JH
1344=item Tie::Memoize
1345
1346Add data to hash when needed
1347
f102b883
TC
1348=item Tie::RefHash
1349
9e107c59 1350Use references as hash keys
f102b883 1351
9e107c59 1352=item Tie::Scalar
f102b883 1353
9e107c59 1354Base class definitions for tied scalars
f102b883
TC
1355
1356=item Tie::SubstrHash
1357
19799a22 1358Fixed-table-size, fixed-key-length hashing
f102b883 1359
7ef5744c
RGS
1360=item Time::HiRes
1361
1362High resolution alarm, sleep, gettimeofday, interval timers
1363
f102b883
TC
1364=item Time::Local
1365
9e107c59 1366Efficiently compute time from local and GMT time
f102b883
TC
1367
1368=item Time::gmtime
1369
9e107c59 1370By-name interface to Perl's built-in gmtime() function
f102b883
TC
1371
1372=item Time::localtime
1373
9e107c59 1374By-name interface to Perl's built-in localtime() function
f102b883
TC
1375
1376=item Time::tm
1377
9e107c59 1378Internal object used by Time::gmtime and Time::localtime
f102b883
TC
1379
1380=item UNIVERSAL
1381
9e107c59 1382Base class for ALL classes (blessed references)
f102b883 1383
e61ecf27
JH
1384=item Unicode::Collate
1385
ec90690f 1386Unicode Collation Algorithm
e61ecf27 1387
7ef5744c
RGS
1388=item Unicode::Normalize
1389
1390Unicode Normalization Forms
1391
e61ecf27 1392=item Unicode::UCD
fbe3d936
JH
1393
1394Unicode character database
1395
f102b883
TC
1396=item User::grent
1397
9e107c59 1398By-name interface to Perl's built-in getgr*() functions
f102b883
TC
1399
1400=item User::pwent
1401
9e107c59 1402By-name interface to Perl's built-in getpw*() functions
f102b883 1403
4e860d0a
JH
1404=item Win32
1405
1406Interfaces to some Win32 API Functions
1407
7ef5744c
RGS
1408=item XS::APItest
1409
1410Test the perl C API
1411
1412=item XS::Typemap
1413
1414Module to test the XS typemaps distributed with perl
1415
1416=item XSLoader
1417
1418Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code
1419
f102b883
TC
1420=back
1421
19799a22 1422To find out I<all> modules installed on your system, including
2e1d04bc 1423those without documentation or outside the standard release,
a4373870
CW
1424just use the following command (under the default win32 shell,
1425double quotes should be used instead of single quotes).
f102b883 1426
a4373870
CW
1427 % perl -MFile::Find=find -MFile::Spec::Functions -Tlwe \
1428 'find { wanted => sub { print canonpath $_ if /\.pm\z/ },
1429 no_chdir => 1 }, @INC'
f102b883 1430
8518420c 1431(The -T is here to prevent '.' from being listed in @INC.)
2e1d04bc
JH
1432They should all have their own documentation installed and accessible
1433via your system man(1) command. If you do not have a B<find>
19799a22
GS
1434program, you can use the Perl B<find2perl> program instead, which
1435generates Perl code as output you can run through perl. If you
1436have a B<man> program but it doesn't find your modules, you'll have
2e1d04bc
JH
1437to fix your manpath. See L<perl> for details. If you have no
1438system B<man> command, you might try the B<perldoc> program.
f102b883 1439
8518420c
RGS
1440Note also that the command C<perldoc perllocal> gives you a (possibly
1441incomplete) list of the modules that have been further installed on
1442your system. (The perllocal.pod file is updated by the standard MakeMaker
1443install process.)
1444
f102b883
TC
1445=head2 Extension Modules
1446
19799a22
GS
1447Extension modules are written in C (or a mix of Perl and C). They
1448are usually dynamically loaded into Perl if and when you need them,
d1be9408 1449but may also be linked in statically. Supported extension modules
19799a22 1450include Socket, Fcntl, and POSIX.
f102b883
TC
1451
1452Many popular C extension modules do not come bundled (at least, not
19799a22
GS
1453completely) due to their sizes, volatility, or simply lack of time
1454for adequate testing and configuration across the multitude of
1455platforms on which Perl was beta-tested. You are encouraged to
1456look for them on CPAN (described below), or using web search engines
7ef5744c 1457like Alta Vista or Google.
f102b883
TC
1458
1459=head1 CPAN
1460
19799a22
GS
1461CPAN stands for Comprehensive Perl Archive Network; it's a globally
1462replicated trove of Perl materials, including documentation, style
2e1d04bc 1463guides, tricks and traps, alternate ports to non-Unix systems and
19799a22 1464occasional binary distributions for these. Search engines for
1577cd80 1465CPAN can be found at http://www.cpan.org/
19799a22
GS
1466
1467Most importantly, CPAN includes around a thousand unbundled modules,
1468some of which require a C compiler to build. Major categories of
1469modules are:
f102b883 1470
4e860d0a 1471=over
f102b883
TC
1472
1473=item *
551e1d92 1474
f102b883
TC
1475Language Extensions and Documentation Tools
1476
1477=item *
551e1d92 1478
f102b883
TC
1479Development Support
1480
1481=item *
551e1d92 1482
f102b883
TC
1483Operating System Interfaces
1484
1485=item *
551e1d92 1486
f102b883
TC
1487Networking, Device Control (modems) and InterProcess Communication
1488
1489=item *
551e1d92 1490
f102b883
TC
1491Data Types and Data Type Utilities
1492
1493=item *
551e1d92 1494
f102b883
TC
1495Database Interfaces
1496
1497=item *
551e1d92 1498
f102b883
TC
1499User Interfaces
1500
1501=item *
551e1d92 1502
f102b883
TC
1503Interfaces to / Emulations of Other Programming Languages
1504
1505=item *
551e1d92 1506
f102b883
TC
1507File Names, File Systems and File Locking (see also File Handles)
1508
1509=item *
551e1d92 1510
f102b883
TC
1511String Processing, Language Text Processing, Parsing, and Searching
1512
1513=item *
551e1d92 1514
f102b883
TC
1515Option, Argument, Parameter, and Configuration File Processing
1516
1517=item *
551e1d92 1518
f102b883
TC
1519Internationalization and Locale
1520
1521=item *
551e1d92 1522
f102b883
TC
1523Authentication, Security, and Encryption
1524
1525=item *
551e1d92 1526
f102b883
TC
1527World Wide Web, HTML, HTTP, CGI, MIME
1528
1529=item *
551e1d92 1530
f102b883
TC
1531Server and Daemon Utilities
1532
1533=item *
551e1d92 1534
f102b883
TC
1535Archiving and Compression
1536
1537=item *
551e1d92 1538
f102b883
TC
1539Images, Pixmap and Bitmap Manipulation, Drawing, and Graphing
1540
1541=item *
551e1d92 1542
f102b883
TC
1543Mail and Usenet News
1544
1545=item *
551e1d92 1546
f102b883
TC
1547Control Flow Utilities (callbacks and exceptions etc)
1548
1549=item *
551e1d92 1550
f102b883
TC
1551File Handle and Input/Output Stream Utilities
1552
1553=item *
551e1d92 1554
f102b883
TC
1555Miscellaneous Modules
1556
1557=back
1558
5df44211
JH
1559The list of the registered CPAN sites as of this writing follows.
1560Please note that the sorting order is alphabetical on fields:
1561
1562Continent
1563 |
1564 |-->Country
1565 |
1566 |-->[state/province]
1567 |
1568 |-->ftp
1569 |
1570 |-->[http]
1571
1572and thus the North American servers happen to be listed between the
1573European and the South American sites.
1574
1575You should try to choose one close to you.
f102b883 1576
4e860d0a
JH
1577=head2 Africa
1578
cea6626f 1579=over 4
f102b883 1580
5df44211 1581=item South Africa
4e860d0a 1582
5c5c2539
JH
1583 http://ftp.rucus.ru.ac.za/pub/perl/CPAN/
1584 ftp://ftp.rucus.ru.ac.za/pub/perl/CPAN/
5df44211 1585 ftp://ftp.is.co.za/programming/perl/CPAN/
5df44211
JH
1586 ftp://ftp.saix.net/pub/CPAN/
1587 ftp://ftp.sun.ac.za/CPAN/CPAN/
4e860d0a
JH
1588
1589=back
1590
1591=head2 Asia
1592
1593=over 4
1594
5df44211 1595=item China
4e860d0a 1596
5c5c2539 1597 http://cpan.linuxforum.net/
5df44211
JH
1598 http://cpan.shellhung.org/
1599 ftp://ftp.shellhung.org/pub/CPAN
5c5c2539 1600 ftp://mirrors.hknet.com/CPAN
37a78d01 1601
5df44211 1602=item Indonesia
37a78d01 1603
5c5c2539 1604 http://mirrors.tf.itb.ac.id/cpan/
5df44211
JH
1605 http://cpan.cbn.net.id/
1606 ftp://ftp.cbn.net.id/mirror/CPAN
37a78d01 1607
5df44211 1608=item Israel
37a78d01 1609
5df44211
JH
1610 ftp://ftp.iglu.org.il/pub/CPAN/
1611 http://cpan.lerner.co.il/
1612 http://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/pub/software/perl/CPAN/
1613 ftp://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/pub/software/perl/CPAN/
37a78d01 1614
5df44211 1615=item Japan
37a78d01 1616
5df44211
JH
1617 ftp://ftp.u-aizu.ac.jp/pub/CPAN
1618 ftp://ftp.kddlabs.co.jp/CPAN/
5df44211
JH
1619 ftp://ftp.ayamura.org/pub/CPAN/
1620 ftp://ftp.jaist.ac.jp/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
7a142657
JH
1621 http://ftp.cpan.jp/
1622 ftp://ftp.cpan.jp/CPAN/
5df44211
JH
1623 ftp://ftp.dti.ad.jp/pub/lang/CPAN/
1624 ftp://ftp.ring.gr.jp/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
37a78d01 1625
5c5c2539 1626=item Malaysia
37a78d01 1627
5c5c2539
JH
1628 http://cpan.MyBSD.org.my
1629 http://mirror.leafbug.org/pub/CPAN
1630 http://ossig.mncc.com.my/mirror/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 1631
5df44211 1632=item Russian Federation
4e860d0a 1633
5df44211 1634 http://cpan.tomsk.ru
7a142657 1635 ftp://cpan.tomsk.ru/
4e860d0a 1636
5df44211 1637=item Saudi Arabia
4e860d0a 1638
5df44211 1639 ftp://ftp.isu.net.sa/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1640
5df44211 1641=item Singapore
4e860d0a 1642
5c5c2539
JH
1643 http://CPAN.en.com.sg/
1644 ftp://cpan.en.com.sg/
5df44211
JH
1645 http://mirror.averse.net/pub/CPAN
1646 ftp://mirror.averse.net/pub/CPAN
5c5c2539
JH
1647 http://cpan.oss.eznetsols.org
1648 ftp://ftp.oss.eznetsols.org/cpan
4e860d0a 1649
5df44211 1650=item South Korea
4e860d0a 1651
5df44211
JH
1652 http://CPAN.bora.net/
1653 ftp://ftp.bora.net/pub/CPAN/
5c5c2539
JH
1654 http://mirror.kr.FreeBSD.org/CPAN
1655 ftp://ftp.kr.FreeBSD.org/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 1656
5df44211 1657=item Taiwan
4e860d0a 1658
5df44211 1659 ftp://ftp.nctu.edu.tw/UNIX/perl/CPAN
5c5c2539
JH
1660 http://cpan.cdpa.nsysu.edu.tw/
1661 ftp://cpan.cdpa.nsysu.edu.tw/pub/CPAN
1662 http://ftp.isu.edu.tw/pub/CPAN
1663 ftp://ftp.isu.edu.tw/pub/CPAN
5df44211
JH
1664 ftp://ftp1.sinica.edu.tw/pub1/perl/CPAN/
1665 http://ftp.tku.edu.tw/pub/CPAN/
1666 ftp://ftp.tku.edu.tw/pub/CPAN/
7a142657 1667
5df44211 1668=item Thailand
4e860d0a 1669
5df44211
JH
1670 ftp://ftp.loxinfo.co.th/pub/cpan/
1671 ftp://ftp.cs.riubon.ac.th/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
4e860d0a
JH
1672
1673=back
1674
1675=head2 Central America
1676
1677=over 4
1678
5df44211 1679=item Costa Rica
4e860d0a 1680
5df44211
JH
1681 http://ftp.ucr.ac.cr/Unix/CPAN/
1682 ftp://ftp.ucr.ac.cr/pub/Unix/CPAN/
4e860d0a
JH
1683
1684=back
1685
1686=head2 Europe
1687
1688=over 4
1689
5df44211 1690=item Austria
4e860d0a 1691
639f8edf
HS
1692 http://cpan.inode.at/
1693 ftp://cpan.inode.at
5df44211 1694 ftp://ftp.tuwien.ac.at/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1695
5df44211 1696=item Belgium
4e860d0a 1697
5df44211
JH
1698 http://ftp.easynet.be/pub/CPAN/
1699 ftp://ftp.easynet.be/pub/CPAN/
1700 http://cpan.skynet.be
5c5c2539 1701 ftp://ftp.cpan.skynet.be/pub/CPAN
5df44211 1702 ftp://ftp.kulnet.kuleuven.ac.be/pub/mirror/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1703
7a142657
JH
1704=item Bosnia and Herzegovina
1705
1706 http://cpan.blic.net/
1707
5df44211 1708=item Bulgaria
4e860d0a 1709
5c5c2539
JH
1710 http://cpan.online.bg
1711 ftp://cpan.online.bg/cpan
1712 http://cpan.zadnik.org
1713 ftp://ftp.zadnik.org/mirrors/CPAN/
5df44211
JH
1714 http://cpan.lirex.net/
1715 ftp://ftp.lirex.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN
4e860d0a 1716
5df44211 1717=item Croatia
4e860d0a 1718
5df44211
JH
1719 http://ftp.linux.hr/pub/CPAN/
1720 ftp://ftp.linux.hr/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1721
5df44211 1722=item Czech Republic
4e860d0a 1723
5df44211
JH
1724 ftp://ftp.fi.muni.cz/pub/CPAN/
1725 ftp://sunsite.mff.cuni.cz/MIRRORS/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1726
5df44211 1727=item Denmark
4e860d0a 1728
5df44211
JH
1729 http://mirrors.sunsite.dk/cpan/
1730 ftp://sunsite.dk/mirrors/cpan/
1731 http://cpan.cybercity.dk
1732 http://www.cpan.dk/CPAN/
1733 ftp://www.cpan.dk/ftp.cpan.org/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1734
5df44211 1735=item Estonia
4e860d0a 1736
5df44211 1737 ftp://ftp.ut.ee/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1738
5df44211 1739=item Finland
4e860d0a 1740
5df44211 1741 ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
5c5c2539 1742 http://mirror.eunet.fi/CPAN
4e860d0a 1743
5df44211 1744=item France
37a78d01 1745
5c5c2539 1746 http://www.enstimac.fr/Perl/CPAN
5df44211
JH
1747 http://ftp.u-paris10.fr/perl/CPAN
1748 ftp://ftp.u-paris10.fr/perl/CPAN
1749 http://cpan.mirrors.easynet.fr/
1750 ftp://cpan.mirrors.easynet.fr/pub/ftp.cpan.org/
1751 ftp://ftp.club-internet.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/
1752 http://fr.cpan.org/
1753 ftp://ftp.lip6.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/
1754 ftp://ftp.oleane.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
1755 ftp://ftp.pasteur.fr/pub/computing/CPAN/
1756 http://mir2.ovh.net/ftp.cpan.org
1757 ftp://mir1.ovh.net/ftp.cpan.org
5c5c2539
JH
1758 http://ftp.crihan.fr/mirrors/ftp.cpan.org/
1759 ftp://ftp.crihan.fr/mirrors/ftp.cpan.org/
5df44211
JH
1760 http://ftp.u-strasbg.fr/CPAN
1761 ftp://ftp.u-strasbg.fr/CPAN
5df44211
JH
1762 ftp://cpan.cict.fr/pub/CPAN/
1763 ftp://ftp.uvsq.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/
37a78d01 1764
5df44211 1765=item Germany
37a78d01 1766
5c5c2539 1767 ftp://ftp.rub.de/pub/CPAN/
5df44211
JH
1768 ftp://ftp.freenet.de/pub/ftp.cpan.org/pub/CPAN/
1769 ftp://ftp.uni-erlangen.de/pub/source/CPAN/
1770 ftp://ftp-stud.fht-esslingen.de/pub/Mirrors/CPAN
1771 http://pandemonium.tiscali.de/pub/CPAN/
1772 ftp://pandemonium.tiscali.de/pub/CPAN/
1773 http://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
1774 ftp://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
1775 ftp://ftp.uni-hamburg.de/pub/soft/lang/perl/CPAN/
1776 ftp://ftp.leo.org/pub/CPAN/
1777 http://cpan.noris.de/
1778 ftp://cpan.noris.de/pub/CPAN/
1779 ftp://ftp.mpi-sb.mpg.de/pub/perl/CPAN/
1780 ftp://ftp.gmd.de/mirrors/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1781
5df44211 1782=item Greece
4e860d0a 1783
5c5c2539 1784 ftp://ftp.acn.gr/pub/lang/perl
5df44211
JH
1785 ftp://ftp.forthnet.gr/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
1786 ftp://ftp.ntua.gr/pub/lang/perl/
4e860d0a 1787
5df44211 1788=item Hungary
4e860d0a 1789
5df44211
JH
1790 http://ftp.kfki.hu/packages/perl/CPAN/
1791 ftp://ftp.kfki.hu/pub/packages/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1792
5df44211 1793=item Iceland
4e860d0a 1794
5df44211
JH
1795 http://ftp.rhnet.is/pub/CPAN/
1796 ftp://ftp.rhnet.is/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1797
5df44211 1798=item Ireland
4e860d0a 1799
5df44211
JH
1800 http://cpan.indigo.ie/
1801 ftp://cpan.indigo.ie/pub/CPAN/
5c5c2539
JH
1802 http://ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN
1803 ftp://ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN
5df44211
JH
1804 http://sunsite.compapp.dcu.ie/pub/perl/
1805 ftp://sunsite.compapp.dcu.ie/pub/perl/
4e860d0a 1806
5df44211 1807=item Italy
4e860d0a 1808
5df44211
JH
1809 http://cpan.nettuno.it/
1810 http://gusp.dyndns.org/CPAN/
1811 ftp://gusp.dyndns.org/pub/CPAN
1812 http://softcity.iol.it/cpan
1813 ftp://softcity.iol.it/pub/cpan
1814 ftp://ftp.unina.it/pub/Other/CPAN/CPAN/
1815 ftp://ftp.unipi.it/pub/mirror/perl/CPAN/
1816 ftp://cis.uniRoma2.it/CPAN/
1817 ftp://ftp.edisontel.it/pub/CPAN_Mirror/
5c5c2539 1818 http://cpan.flashnet.it/
5df44211 1819 ftp://ftp.flashnet.it/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1820
5df44211 1821=item Latvia
4e860d0a 1822
5df44211 1823 http://kvin.lv/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1824
5df44211 1825=item Lithuania
4e860d0a 1826
5df44211 1827 ftp://ftp.unix.lt/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1828
5df44211 1829=item Netherlands
4e860d0a 1830
5df44211
JH
1831 ftp://download.xs4all.nl/pub/mirror/CPAN/
1832 ftp://ftp.nl.uu.net/pub/CPAN/
1833 ftp://ftp.nluug.nl/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
1834 http://cpan.cybercomm.nl/
1835 ftp://mirror.cybercomm.nl/pub/CPAN
5c5c2539 1836 ftp://mirror.vuurwerk.nl/pub/CPAN/
5df44211
JH
1837 ftp://ftp.cpan.nl/pub/CPAN/
1838 http://ftp.easynet.nl/mirror/CPAN
1839 ftp://ftp.easynet.nl/mirror/CPAN
1840 http://archive.cs.uu.nl/mirror/CPAN/
1841 ftp://ftp.cs.uu.nl/mirror/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1842
5df44211
JH
1843=item Norway
1844
1845 ftp://ftp.uninett.no/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
1846 ftp://ftp.uit.no/pub/languages/perl/cpan/
1847
1848=item Poland
1849
639f8edf 1850 ftp://ftp.mega.net.pl/CPAN
5df44211
JH
1851 ftp://ftp.man.torun.pl/pub/doc/CPAN/
1852 ftp://sunsite.icm.edu.pl/pub/CPAN/
1853
1854=item Portugal
1855
1856 ftp://ftp.ua.pt/pub/CPAN/
1857 ftp://perl.di.uminho.pt/pub/CPAN/
1858 http://cpan.dei.uc.pt/
1859 ftp://ftp.dei.uc.pt/pub/CPAN
5c5c2539
JH
1860 ftp://ftp.nfsi.pt/pub/CPAN
1861 http://ftp.linux.pt/pub/mirrors/CPAN
1862 ftp://ftp.linux.pt/pub/mirrors/CPAN
5df44211
JH
1863 http://cpan.ip.pt/
1864 ftp://cpan.ip.pt/pub/cpan/
5c5c2539
JH
1865 http://cpan.telepac.pt/
1866 ftp://ftp.telepac.pt/pub/cpan/
4e860d0a 1867
5df44211 1868=item Romania
4e860d0a 1869
5c5c2539 1870 ftp://ftp.bio-net.ro/pub/CPAN
5df44211 1871 ftp://ftp.kappa.ro/pub/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN/
7a142657 1872 ftp://ftp.lug.ro/CPAN
5c5c2539 1873 ftp://ftp.roedu.net/pub/CPAN/
5df44211 1874 ftp://ftp.dntis.ro/pub/cpan/
5c5c2539
JH
1875 ftp://ftp.iasi.roedu.net/pub/mirrors/ftp.cpan.org/
1876 http://cpan.ambra.ro/
1877 ftp://ftp.ambra.ro/pub/CPAN
5df44211
JH
1878 ftp://ftp.dnttm.ro/pub/CPAN/
1879 ftp://ftp.lasting.ro/pub/CPAN
1880 ftp://ftp.timisoara.roedu.net/mirrors/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1881
5df44211 1882=item Russia
4e860d0a 1883
5df44211
JH
1884 ftp://ftp.chg.ru/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
1885 http://cpan.rinet.ru/
1886 ftp://cpan.rinet.ru/pub/mirror/CPAN/
1887 ftp://ftp.aha.ru/pub/CPAN/
7a142657 1888 ftp://ftp.corbina.ru/pub/CPAN/
5df44211
JH
1889 http://cpan.sai.msu.ru/
1890 ftp://ftp.sai.msu.su/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1891
5df44211 1892=item Slovakia
4e860d0a 1893
5df44211 1894 ftp://ftp.cvt.stuba.sk/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1895
5df44211 1896=item Slovenia
4e860d0a 1897
5df44211 1898 ftp://ftp.arnes.si/software/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1899
5df44211 1900=item Spain
4e860d0a 1901
5df44211
JH
1902 http://cpan.imasd.elmundo.es/
1903 ftp://ftp.rediris.es/mirror/CPAN/
639f8edf 1904 ftp://ftp.ri.telefonica-data.net/CPAN
5df44211 1905 ftp://ftp.etse.urv.es/pub/perl/
4e860d0a 1906
5df44211 1907=item Sweden
4e860d0a 1908
5df44211
JH
1909 http://ftp.du.se/CPAN/
1910 ftp://ftp.du.se/pub/CPAN/
5c5c2539 1911 http://mirror.dataphone.se/CPAN
5df44211
JH
1912 ftp://mirror.dataphone.se/pub/CPAN
1913 ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1914
5df44211 1915=item Switzerland
4e860d0a 1916
7a142657
JH
1917 http://cpan.mirror.solnet.ch/
1918 ftp://ftp.solnet.ch/mirror/CPAN/
5df44211
JH
1919 ftp://ftp.danyk.ch/CPAN/
1920 ftp://sunsite.cnlab-switch.ch/mirror/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1921
5df44211 1922=item Turkey
4e860d0a 1923
5df44211
JH
1924 http://ftp.ulak.net.tr/perl/CPAN/
1925 ftp://ftp.ulak.net.tr/perl/CPAN
1926 ftp://sunsite.bilkent.edu.tr/pub/languages/CPAN/
37a78d01 1927
5df44211 1928=item Ukraine
37a78d01 1929
5df44211
JH
1930 http://cpan.org.ua/
1931 ftp://cpan.org.ua/
1932 ftp://ftp.perl.org.ua/pub/CPAN/
5c5c2539
JH
1933 http://no-more.kiev.ua/CPAN/
1934 ftp://no-more.kiev.ua/pub/CPAN/
37a78d01 1935
5df44211 1936=item United Kingdom
556e28cf 1937
5df44211
JH
1938 http://www.mirror.ac.uk/sites/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
1939 ftp://ftp.mirror.ac.uk/sites/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
1940 http://cpan.teleglobe.net/
1941 ftp://cpan.teleglobe.net/pub/CPAN
5c5c2539
JH
1942 http://cpan.mirror.anlx.net/
1943 ftp://ftp.mirror.anlx.net/CPAN/
7a142657
JH
1944 http://cpan.etla.org/
1945 ftp://cpan.etla.org/pub/CPAN
5df44211
JH
1946 ftp://ftp.demon.co.uk/pub/CPAN/
1947 http://cpan.m.flirble.org/
1948 ftp://ftp.flirble.org/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
1949 ftp://ftp.plig.org/pub/CPAN/
5c5c2539 1950 http://cpan.hambule.co.uk/
5df44211
JH
1951 http://cpan.mirrors.clockerz.net/
1952 ftp://ftp.clockerz.net/pub/CPAN/
1953 ftp://usit.shef.ac.uk/pub/packages/CPAN/
556e28cf 1954
4e860d0a
JH
1955=back
1956
1957=head2 North America
1958
1959=over 4
1960
5c5c2539
JH
1961=item Canada
1962
7a142657 1963=over 8
5c5c2539 1964
5df44211 1965=item Alberta
4e860d0a 1966
5c5c2539
JH
1967 http://cpan.sunsite.ualberta.ca/
1968 ftp://cpan.sunsite.ualberta.ca/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1969
5df44211 1970=item Manitoba
4e860d0a 1971
5df44211
JH
1972 http://theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca/pub/CPAN/
1973 ftp://theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1974
5df44211 1975=item Nova Scotia
4e860d0a 1976
5df44211 1977 ftp://cpan.chebucto.ns.ca/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1978
5df44211 1979=item Ontario
4e860d0a 1980
5c5c2539 1981 ftp://ftp.nrc.ca/pub/CPAN/
37a78d01 1982
7a142657
JH
1983=back
1984
5df44211 1985=item Mexico
37a78d01 1986
5df44211
JH
1987 http://cpan.azc.uam.mx
1988 ftp://cpan.azc.uam.mx/mirrors/CPAN
7a142657
JH
1989 http://www.cpan.unam.mx/
1990 ftp://ftp.unam.mx/pub/CPAN
5df44211
JH
1991 http://www.msg.com.mx/CPAN/
1992 ftp://ftp.msg.com.mx/pub/CPAN/
37a78d01 1993
5c5c2539 1994=item United States
556e28cf 1995
7a142657 1996=over 8
4e860d0a 1997
5df44211 1998=item Alabama
4e860d0a 1999
5df44211
JH
2000 http://mirror.hiwaay.net/CPAN/
2001 ftp://mirror.hiwaay.net/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2002
5df44211 2003=item California
4e860d0a 2004
5df44211
JH
2005 http://cpan.develooper.com/
2006 http://www.cpan.org/
2007 ftp://cpan.valueclick.com/pub/CPAN/
7a142657
JH
2008 http://www.mednor.net/ftp/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
2009 ftp://ftp.mednor.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
5df44211
JH
2010 http://mirrors.gossamer-threads.com/CPAN
2011 ftp://cpan.nas.nasa.gov/pub/perl/CPAN/
2012 http://mirrors.kernel.org/cpan/
2013 ftp://mirrors.kernel.org/pub/CPAN
7a142657
JH
2014 http://cpan-sj.viaverio.com/
2015 ftp://cpan-sj.viaverio.com/pub/CPAN/
5df44211
JH
2016 http://cpan.digisle.net/
2017 ftp://cpan.digisle.net/pub/CPAN
2018 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/
7a142657 2019 http://www.uberlan.net/CPAN
4e860d0a 2020
5df44211 2021=item Colorado
4e860d0a 2022
5df44211 2023 ftp://ftp.cs.colorado.edu/pub/perl/CPAN/
7a142657 2024 http://cpan.four10.com
4e860d0a 2025
5df44211 2026=item Delaware
4e860d0a 2027
5df44211
JH
2028 http://ftp.lug.udel.edu/pub/CPAN
2029 ftp://ftp.lug.udel.edu/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 2030
5df44211 2031=item District of Columbia
4e860d0a 2032
5df44211 2033 ftp://ftp.dc.aleron.net/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2034
5df44211 2035=item Florida
37a78d01 2036
5df44211
JH
2037 ftp://ftp.cise.ufl.edu/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
2038 http://mirror.csit.fsu.edu/pub/CPAN/
2039 ftp://mirror.csit.fsu.edu/pub/CPAN/
2040 http://cpan.mirrors.nks.net/
37a78d01 2041
5df44211 2042=item Indiana
4e860d0a 2043
5df44211
JH
2044 ftp://ftp.uwsg.iu.edu/pub/perl/CPAN/
2045 http://cpan.netnitco.net/
2046 ftp://cpan.netnitco.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
2047 http://archive.progeny.com/CPAN/
2048 ftp://archive.progeny.com/CPAN/
5c5c2539
JH
2049 http://fx.saintjoe.edu/pub/CPAN
2050 ftp://ftp.saintjoe.edu/pub/CPAN
5df44211
JH
2051 http://csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu/pub/CPAN
2052 ftp://csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 2053
5df44211 2054=item Kentucky
4e860d0a 2055
5df44211
JH
2056 http://cpan.uky.edu/
2057 ftp://cpan.uky.edu/pub/CPAN/
5c5c2539
JH
2058 http://slugsite.louisville.edu/cpan
2059 ftp://slugsite.louisville.edu/CPAN
4e860d0a 2060
5df44211 2061=item Massachusetts
4e860d0a 2062
5c5c2539
JH
2063 http://mirrors.towardex.com/CPAN
2064 ftp://mirrors.towardex.com/pub/CPAN
5df44211 2065 ftp://ftp.ccs.neu.edu/net/mirrors/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2066
5df44211 2067=item Michigan
4e860d0a 2068
5df44211 2069 ftp://cpan.cse.msu.edu/
639f8edf
HS
2070 http://cpan.calvin.edu/pub/CPAN
2071 ftp://cpan.calvin.edu/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 2072
5c5c2539
JH
2073=item Nevada
2074
2075 http://www.oss.redundant.com/pub/CPAN
2076 ftp://www.oss.redundant.com/pub/CPAN
2077
5df44211 2078=item New Jersey
4e860d0a 2079
5c5c2539 2080 http://ftp.cpanel.net/pub/CPAN/
5df44211
JH
2081 ftp://ftp.cpanel.net/pub/CPAN/
2082 http://cpan.teleglobe.net/
2083 ftp://cpan.teleglobe.net/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 2084
5df44211 2085=item New York
4e860d0a 2086
5df44211 2087 http://cpan.belfry.net/
5c5c2539
JH
2088 http://cpan.erlbaum.net/
2089 ftp://cpan.erlbaum.net/
5df44211
JH
2090 http://cpan.thepirtgroup.com/
2091 ftp://cpan.thepirtgroup.com/
2092 ftp://ftp.stealth.net/pub/CPAN/
2093 http://www.rge.com/pub/languages/perl/
2094 ftp://ftp.rge.com/pub/languages/perl/
4e860d0a 2095
5df44211 2096=item North Carolina
4e860d0a 2097
7a142657
JH
2098 http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
2099 ftp://ftp.ibiblio.org/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
5df44211 2100 ftp://ftp.duke.edu/pub/perl/
5c5c2539 2101 ftp://ftp.ncsu.edu/pub/mirror/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2102
5df44211 2103=item Oklahoma
4e860d0a 2104
5df44211 2105 ftp://ftp.ou.edu/mirrors/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2106
5df44211 2107=item Oregon
4e860d0a 2108
5df44211 2109 ftp://ftp.orst.edu/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 2110
5df44211 2111=item Pennsylvania
4e860d0a 2112
5df44211
JH
2113 http://ftp.epix.net/CPAN/
2114 ftp://ftp.epix.net/pub/languages/perl/
2115 http://mirrors.phenominet.com/pub/CPAN/
2116 ftp://mirrors.phenominet.com/pub/CPAN/
2117 http://cpan.pair.com/
2118 ftp://cpan.pair.com/pub/CPAN/
2119 ftp://carroll.cac.psu.edu/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2120
5df44211 2121=item Tennessee
4e860d0a 2122
5df44211 2123 ftp://ftp.sunsite.utk.edu/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2124
5df44211 2125=item Texas
4e860d0a 2126
5df44211 2127 http://ftp.sedl.org/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
5c5c2539 2128 http://www.binarycode.org/cpan
5df44211 2129 ftp://mirror.telentente.com/pub/CPAN
5c5c2539 2130 http://mirrors.theonlinerecordstore.com/CPAN
4e860d0a 2131
5df44211 2132=item Utah
4e860d0a 2133
5df44211 2134 ftp://mirror.xmission.com/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2135
5df44211 2136=item Virginia
4e860d0a 2137
7a142657
JH
2138 http://cpan-du.viaverio.com/
2139 ftp://cpan-du.viaverio.com/pub/CPAN/
5df44211
JH
2140 http://mirrors.rcn.net/pub/lang/CPAN/
2141 ftp://mirrors.rcn.net/pub/lang/CPAN/
2142 http://perl.secsup.org/
2143 ftp://perl.secsup.org/pub/perl/
5c5c2539 2144 http://noc.cvaix.com/mirrors/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2145
5c5c2539 2146=item Washington
4e860d0a 2147
5df44211
JH
2148 http://cpan.llarian.net/
2149 ftp://cpan.llarian.net/pub/CPAN/
2150 http://cpan.mirrorcentral.com/
2151 ftp://ftp.mirrorcentral.com/pub/CPAN/
2152 ftp://ftp-mirror.internap.com/pub/CPAN/
556e28cf 2153
5df44211 2154=item Wisconsin
556e28cf 2155
5df44211
JH
2156 http://mirror.sit.wisc.edu/pub/CPAN/
2157 ftp://mirror.sit.wisc.edu/pub/CPAN/
7a142657
JH
2158 http://mirror.aphix.com/CPAN
2159 ftp://mirror.aphix.com/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a
JH
2160
2161=back
2162
5c5c2539
JH
2163=back
2164
4e860d0a
JH
2165=head2 Oceania
2166
2167=over 4
2168
5df44211 2169=item Australia
4e860d0a 2170
5df44211
JH
2171 http://ftp.planetmirror.com/pub/CPAN/
2172 ftp://ftp.planetmirror.com/pub/CPAN/
2173 ftp://mirror.aarnet.edu.au/pub/perl/CPAN/
2174 ftp://cpan.topend.com.au/pub/CPAN/
7a142657 2175 http://cpan.mirrors.ilisys.com.au
4e860d0a 2176
5df44211 2177=item New Zealand
556e28cf 2178
5df44211 2179 ftp://ftp.auckland.ac.nz/pub/perl/CPAN/
5c5c2539
JH
2180
2181=item United States
2182
2183 http://aniani.ifa.hawaii.edu/CPAN/
2184 ftp://aniani.ifa.hawaii.edu/CPAN/
4e860d0a
JH
2185
2186=back
2187
2188=head2 South America
2189
2190=over 4
2191
5df44211 2192=item Argentina
4e860d0a 2193
5df44211 2194 ftp://mirrors.bannerlandia.com.ar/mirrors/CPAN/
5c5c2539
JH
2195 http://www.linux.org.ar/mirrors/cpan
2196 ftp://ftp.linux.org.ar/mirrors/cpan
4e860d0a 2197
5df44211 2198=item Brazil
4e860d0a 2199
5df44211
JH
2200 ftp://cpan.pop-mg.com.br/pub/CPAN/
2201 ftp://ftp.matrix.com.br/pub/perl/CPAN/
5c5c2539
JH
2202 http://cpan.hostsul.com.br/
2203 ftp://cpan.hostsul.com.br/
4e860d0a 2204
5df44211 2205=item Chile
4e860d0a 2206
5df44211
JH
2207 http://cpan.netglobalis.net/
2208 ftp://cpan.netglobalis.net/pub/CPAN/
f102b883
TC
2209
2210=back
2211
5df44211
JH
2212=head2 RSYNC Mirrors
2213
7a142657
JH
2214 www.linux.org.ar::cpan
2215 theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca::CPAN
2216 ftp.shellhung.org::CPAN
2217 rsync.nic.funet.fi::CPAN
2218 ftp.u-paris10.fr::CPAN
2219 mir1.ovh.net::CPAN
2220 rsync://ftp.crihan.fr::CPAN
2221 ftp.gwdg.de::FTP/languages/perl/CPAN/
2222 ftp.leo.org::CPAN
2223 ftp.cbn.net.id::CPAN
2224 rsync://ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN
2225 ftp.iglu.org.il::CPAN
2226 gusp.dyndns.org::cpan
2227 ftp.kddlabs.co.jp::cpan
2228 ftp.ayamura.org::pub/CPAN/
2229 mirror.leafbug.org::CPAN
2230 rsync.en.com.sg::CPAN
2231 mirror.averse.net::cpan
2232 rsync.oss.eznetsols.org
2233 ftp.kr.FreeBSD.org::CPAN
2234 ftp.solnet.ch::CPAN
2235 cpan.cdpa.nsysu.edu.tw::CPAN
2236 cpan.teleglobe.net::CPAN
2237 rsync://rsync.mirror.anlx.net::CPAN
2238 ftp.sedl.org::cpan
2239 ibiblio.org::CPAN
2240 cpan-du.viaverio.com::CPAN
2241 aniani.ifa.hawaii.edu::CPAN
2242 archive.progeny.com::CPAN
2243 rsync://slugsite.louisville.edu::CPAN
2244 mirror.aphix.com::CPAN
2245 cpan.teleglobe.net::CPAN
2246 ftp.lug.udel.edu::cpan
2247 mirrors.kernel.org::mirrors/CPAN
2248 mirrors.phenominet.com::CPAN
2249 cpan.pair.com::CPAN
2250 cpan-sj.viaverio.com::CPAN
2251 mirror.csit.fsu.edu::CPAN
2252 csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu::CPAN
5df44211 2253
f102b883 2254For an up-to-date listing of CPAN sites,
4e860d0a 2255see http://www.cpan.org/SITES or ftp://www.cpan.org/SITES .
f102b883
TC
2256
2257=head1 Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse
2258
2259(The following section is borrowed directly from Tim Bunce's modules
2260file, available at your nearest CPAN site.)
2261
2262Perl implements a class using a package, but the presence of a
2263package doesn't imply the presence of a class. A package is just a
2264namespace. A class is a package that provides subroutines that can be
2265used as methods. A method is just a subroutine that expects, as its
2266first argument, either the name of a package (for "static" methods),
2267or a reference to something (for "virtual" methods).
2268
2269A module is a file that (by convention) provides a class of the same
2270name (sans the .pm), plus an import method in that class that can be
2271called to fetch exported symbols. This module may implement some of
2272its methods by loading dynamic C or C++ objects, but that should be
2273totally transparent to the user of the module. Likewise, the module
2274might set up an AUTOLOAD function to slurp in subroutine definitions on
2275demand, but this is also transparent. Only the F<.pm> file is required to
2e1d04bc 2276exist. See L<perlsub>, L<perltoot>, and L<AutoLoader> for details about
f102b883
TC
2277the AUTOLOAD mechanism.
2278
2279=head2 Guidelines for Module Creation
2280
2281=over 4
2282
4e860d0a
JH
2283=item *
2284
2285Do similar modules already exist in some form?
f102b883
TC
2286
2287If so, please try to reuse the existing modules either in whole or
2288by inheriting useful features into a new class. If this is not
2289practical try to get together with the module authors to work on
2290extending or enhancing the functionality of the existing modules.
2291A perfect example is the plethora of packages in perl4 for dealing
2292with command line options.
2293
2294If you are writing a module to expand an already existing set of
2295modules, please coordinate with the author of the package. It
2296helps if you follow the same naming scheme and module interaction
2297scheme as the original author.
2298
4e860d0a
JH
2299=item *
2300
2301Try to design the new module to be easy to extend and reuse.
f102b883 2302
9f1b1f2d
GS
2303Try to C<use warnings;> (or C<use warnings qw(...);>).
2304Remember that you can add C<no warnings qw(...);> to individual blocks
2e1d04bc 2305of code that need less warnings.
19799a22 2306
f102b883
TC
2307Use blessed references. Use the two argument form of bless to bless
2308into the class name given as the first parameter of the constructor,
2309e.g.,:
2310
2311 sub new {
2e1d04bc
JH
2312 my $class = shift;
2313 return bless {}, $class;
f102b883
TC
2314 }
2315
2316or even this if you'd like it to be used as either a static
2317or a virtual method.
2318
2319 sub new {
2e1d04bc
JH
2320 my $self = shift;
2321 my $class = ref($self) || $self;
2322 return bless {}, $class;
f102b883
TC
2323 }
2324
2325Pass arrays as references so more parameters can be added later
2326(it's also faster). Convert functions into methods where
2327appropriate. Split large methods into smaller more flexible ones.
2328Inherit methods from other modules if appropriate.
2329
2330Avoid class name tests like: C<die "Invalid" unless ref $ref eq 'FOO'>.
19799a22 2331Generally you can delete the C<eq 'FOO'> part with no harm at all.
f102b883
TC
2332Let the objects look after themselves! Generally, avoid hard-wired
2333class names as far as possible.
2334
c47ff5f1
GS
2335Avoid C<< $r->Class::func() >> where using C<@ISA=qw(... Class ...)> and
2336C<< $r->func() >> would work (see L<perlbot> for more details).
f102b883
TC
2337
2338Use autosplit so little used or newly added functions won't be a
5a964f20 2339burden to programs that don't use them. Add test functions to
f102b883
TC
2340the module after __END__ either using AutoSplit or by saying:
2341
2342 eval join('',<main::DATA>) || die $@ unless caller();
2343
2344Does your module pass the 'empty subclass' test? If you say
19799a22 2345C<@SUBCLASS::ISA = qw(YOURCLASS);> your applications should be able
f102b883
TC
2346to use SUBCLASS in exactly the same way as YOURCLASS. For example,
2347does your application still work if you change: C<$obj = new YOURCLASS;>
2348into: C<$obj = new SUBCLASS;> ?
2349
2350Avoid keeping any state information in your packages. It makes it
2351difficult for multiple other packages to use yours. Keep state
2352information in objects.
2353
2e1d04bc 2354Always use B<-w>.
19799a22
GS
2355
2356Try to C<use strict;> (or C<use strict qw(...);>).
f102b883 2357Remember that you can add C<no strict qw(...);> to individual blocks
2e1d04bc 2358of code that need less strictness.
19799a22 2359
2e1d04bc 2360Always use B<-w>.
19799a22 2361
f102b883
TC
2362Follow the guidelines in the perlstyle(1) manual.
2363
19799a22
GS
2364Always use B<-w>.
2365
4e860d0a
JH
2366=item *
2367
2368Some simple style guidelines
f102b883 2369
5a964f20 2370The perlstyle manual supplied with Perl has many helpful points.
f102b883
TC
2371
2372Coding style is a matter of personal taste. Many people evolve their
2373style over several years as they learn what helps them write and
2374maintain good code. Here's one set of assorted suggestions that
2375seem to be widely used by experienced developers:
2376
2377Use underscores to separate words. It is generally easier to read
2378$var_names_like_this than $VarNamesLikeThis, especially for
2379non-native speakers of English. It's also a simple rule that works
2380consistently with VAR_NAMES_LIKE_THIS.
2381
2382Package/Module names are an exception to this rule. Perl informally
2383reserves lowercase module names for 'pragma' modules like integer
2384and strict. Other modules normally begin with a capital letter and
2385use mixed case with no underscores (need to be short and portable).
2386
2387You may find it helpful to use letter case to indicate the scope
2388or nature of a variable. For example:
2389
5a964f20 2390 $ALL_CAPS_HERE constants only (beware clashes with Perl vars)
f102b883
TC
2391 $Some_Caps_Here package-wide global/static
2392 $no_caps_here function scope my() or local() variables
2393
2394Function and method names seem to work best as all lowercase.
c47ff5f1 2395e.g., C<< $obj->as_string() >>.
f102b883
TC
2396
2397You can use a leading underscore to indicate that a variable or
2398function should not be used outside the package that defined it.
2399
4e860d0a
JH
2400=item *
2401
2402Select what to export.
f102b883
TC
2403
2404Do NOT export method names!
2405
2406Do NOT export anything else by default without a good reason!
2407
2408Exports pollute the namespace of the module user. If you must
2409export try to use @EXPORT_OK in preference to @EXPORT and avoid
2410short or common names to reduce the risk of name clashes.
2411
2412Generally anything not exported is still accessible from outside the
c47ff5f1 2413module using the ModuleName::item_name (or C<< $blessed_ref->method >>)
f102b883
TC
2414syntax. By convention you can use a leading underscore on names to
2415indicate informally that they are 'internal' and not for public use.
2416
2417(It is actually possible to get private functions by saying:
2418C<my $subref = sub { ... }; &$subref;>. But there's no way to call that
2419directly as a method, because a method must have a name in the symbol
2420table.)
2421
2422As a general rule, if the module is trying to be object oriented
2423then export nothing. If it's just a collection of functions then
2424@EXPORT_OK anything but use @EXPORT with caution.
2425
4e860d0a
JH
2426=item *
2427
2428Select a name for the module.
f102b883
TC
2429
2430This name should be as descriptive, accurate, and complete as
2431possible. Avoid any risk of ambiguity. Always try to use two or
2432more whole words. Generally the name should reflect what is special
2433about what the module does rather than how it does it. Please use
2434nested module names to group informally or categorize a module.
2435There should be a very good reason for a module not to have a nested name.
2436Module names should begin with a capital letter.
2437
2438Having 57 modules all called Sort will not make life easy for anyone
2439(though having 23 called Sort::Quick is only marginally better :-).
2440Imagine someone trying to install your module alongside many others.
2441If in any doubt ask for suggestions in comp.lang.perl.misc.
2442
2443If you are developing a suite of related modules/classes it's good
2444practice to use nested classes with a common prefix as this will
2445avoid namespace clashes. For example: Xyz::Control, Xyz::View,
2446Xyz::Model etc. Use the modules in this list as a naming guide.
2447
2448If adding a new module to a set, follow the original author's
2449standards for naming modules and the interface to methods in
2450those modules.
2451
165c0277
JH
2452If developing modules for private internal or project specific use,
2453that will never be released to the public, then you should ensure
2454that their names will not clash with any future public module. You
2455can do this either by using the reserved Local::* category or by
2456using a category name that includes an underscore like Foo_Corp::*.
2457
f102b883
TC
2458To be portable each component of a module name should be limited to
245911 characters. If it might be used on MS-DOS then try to ensure each is
2460unique in the first 8 characters. Nested modules make this easier.
2461
4e860d0a
JH
2462=item *
2463
2464Have you got it right?
f102b883
TC
2465
2466How do you know that you've made the right decisions? Have you
2467picked an interface design that will cause problems later? Have
2468you picked the most appropriate name? Do you have any questions?
2469
2470The best way to know for sure, and pick up many helpful suggestions,
2471is to ask someone who knows. Comp.lang.perl.misc is read by just about
2472all the people who develop modules and it's the best place to ask.
2473
2474All you need to do is post a short summary of the module, its
2475purpose and interfaces. A few lines on each of the main methods is
2476probably enough. (If you post the whole module it might be ignored
2477by busy people - generally the very people you want to read it!)
2478
2479Don't worry about posting if you can't say when the module will be
2480ready - just say so in the message. It might be worth inviting
2481others to help you, they may be able to complete it for you!
2482
4e860d0a
JH
2483=item *
2484
2485README and other Additional Files.
f102b883
TC
2486
2487It's well known that software developers usually fully document the
2488software they write. If, however, the world is in urgent need of
2489your software and there is not enough time to write the full
2490documentation please at least provide a README file containing:
2491
2492=over 10
2493
2494=item *
4e860d0a 2495
f102b883
TC
2496A description of the module/package/extension etc.
2497
2498=item *
4e860d0a 2499
f102b883
TC
2500A copyright notice - see below.
2501
2502=item *
4e860d0a 2503
f102b883
TC
2504Prerequisites - what else you may need to have.
2505
2506=item *
4e860d0a 2507
f102b883
TC
2508How to build it - possible changes to Makefile.PL etc.
2509
2510=item *
4e860d0a 2511
f102b883
TC
2512How to install it.
2513
2514=item *
4e860d0a 2515
f102b883
TC
2516Recent changes in this release, especially incompatibilities
2517
2518=item *
4e860d0a 2519
f102b883
TC
2520Changes / enhancements you plan to make in the future.
2521
2522=back
2523
2524If the README file seems to be getting too large you may wish to
2525split out some of the sections into separate files: INSTALL,
2526Copying, ToDo etc.
2527
2528=over 4
2529
37a78d01 2530=item *
f102b883 2531
37a78d01 2532Adding a Copyright Notice.
4e860d0a 2533
f102b883
TC
2534How you choose to license your work is a personal decision.
2535The general mechanism is to assert your Copyright and then make
2536a declaration of how others may copy/use/modify your work.
2537
2a551100
JH
2538Perl, for example, is supplied with two types of licence: The GNU GPL
2539and The Artistic Licence (see the files README, Copying, and Artistic,
2540or L<perlgpl> and L<perlartistic>). Larry has good reasons for NOT
2541just using the GNU GPL.
f102b883
TC
2542
2543My personal recommendation, out of respect for Larry, Perl, and the
5a964f20 2544Perl community at large is to state something simply like:
f102b883
TC
2545
2546 Copyright (c) 1995 Your Name. All rights reserved.
2547 This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
2548 modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
2549
2550This statement should at least appear in the README file. You may
2551also wish to include it in a Copying file and your source files.
2552Remember to include the other words in addition to the Copyright.
2553
4e860d0a
JH
2554=item *
2555
2556Give the module a version/issue/release number.
f102b883
TC
2557
2558To be fully compatible with the Exporter and MakeMaker modules you
2559should store your module's version number in a non-my package
2560variable called $VERSION. This should be a floating point
2561number with at least two digits after the decimal (i.e., hundredths,
2562e.g, C<$VERSION = "0.01">). Don't use a "1.3.2" style version.
19799a22 2563See L<Exporter> for details.
f102b883
TC
2564
2565It may be handy to add a function or method to retrieve the number.
2566Use the number in announcements and archive file names when
2567releasing the module (ModuleName-1.02.tar.Z).
2568See perldoc ExtUtils::MakeMaker.pm for details.
2569
4e860d0a
JH
2570=item *
2571
2572How to release and distribute a module.
f102b883
TC
2573
2574It's good idea to post an announcement of the availability of your
2575module (or the module itself if small) to the comp.lang.perl.announce
2576Usenet newsgroup. This will at least ensure very wide once-off
2577distribution.
2578
2e1d04bc 2579If possible, register the module with CPAN. You should
f102b883
TC
2580include details of its location in your announcement.
2581
2582Some notes about ftp archives: Please use a long descriptive file
5a964f20 2583name that includes the version number. Most incoming directories
f102b883
TC
2584will not be readable/listable, i.e., you won't be able to see your
2585file after uploading it. Remember to send your email notification
2586message as soon as possible after uploading else your file may get
2587deleted automatically. Allow time for the file to be processed
2588and/or check the file has been processed before announcing its
2589location.
2590
2591FTP Archives for Perl Modules:
2592
6cecdcac 2593Follow the instructions and links on:
f102b883 2594
4e860d0a
JH
2595 http://www.cpan.org/modules/00modlist.long.html
2596 http://www.cpan.org/modules/04pause.html
f102b883
TC
2597
2598or upload to one of these sites:
2599
6cecdcac
GS
2600 https://pause.kbx.de/pause/
2601 http://pause.perl.org/pause/
f102b883 2602
6cecdcac 2603and notify <modules@perl.org>.
f102b883
TC
2604
2605By using the WWW interface you can ask the Upload Server to mirror
2606your modules from your ftp or WWW site into your own directory on
2607CPAN!
2608
2609Please remember to send me an updated entry for the Module list!
2610
4e860d0a
JH
2611=item *
2612
2613Take care when changing a released module.
f102b883 2614
7b8d334a
GS
2615Always strive to remain compatible with previous released versions.
2616Otherwise try to add a mechanism to revert to the
19799a22 2617old behavior if people rely on it. Document incompatible changes.
f102b883
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2618
2619=back
2620
2621=back
2622
2623=head2 Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules
2624
2625=over 4
2626
4e860d0a
JH
2627=item *
2628
2629There is no requirement to convert anything.
f102b883
TC
2630
2631If it ain't broke, don't fix it! Perl 4 library scripts should
2632continue to work with no problems. You may need to make some minor
2633changes (like escaping non-array @'s in double quoted strings) but
2634there is no need to convert a .pl file into a Module for just that.
2635
4e860d0a
JH
2636=item *
2637
2638Consider the implications.
f102b883 2639
5a964f20 2640All Perl applications that make use of the script will need to
f102b883
TC
2641be changed (slightly) if the script is converted into a module. Is
2642it worth it unless you plan to make other changes at the same time?
2643
4e860d0a
JH
2644=item *
2645
2646Make the most of the opportunity.
f102b883
TC
2647
2648If you are going to convert the script to a module you can use the
19799a22
GS
2649opportunity to redesign the interface. The guidelines for module
2650creation above include many of the issues you should consider.
f102b883 2651
4e860d0a
JH
2652=item *
2653
2654The pl2pm utility will get you started.
f102b883
TC
2655
2656This utility will read *.pl files (given as parameters) and write
2657corresponding *.pm files. The pl2pm utilities does the following:
2658
2659=over 10
2660
2661=item *
4e860d0a 2662
f102b883
TC
2663Adds the standard Module prologue lines
2664
2665=item *
4e860d0a 2666
f102b883
TC
2667Converts package specifiers from ' to ::
2668
2669=item *
4e860d0a 2670
f102b883
TC
2671Converts die(...) to croak(...)
2672
2673=item *
4e860d0a 2674
f102b883
TC
2675Several other minor changes
2676
2677=back
2678
2679Being a mechanical process pl2pm is not bullet proof. The converted
2680code will need careful checking, especially any package statements.
2681Don't delete the original .pl file till the new .pm one works!
2682
2683=back
2684
2685=head2 Guidelines for Reusing Application Code
2686
2687=over 4
2688
4e860d0a 2689=item *
551e1d92
RB
2690
2691Complete applications rarely belong in the Perl Module Library.
f102b883 2692
4e860d0a 2693=item *
551e1d92
RB
2694
2695Many applications contain some Perl code that could be reused.
f102b883
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2696
2697Help save the world! Share your code in a form that makes it easy
2698to reuse.
2699
4e860d0a 2700=item *
551e1d92
RB
2701
2702Break-out the reusable code into one or more separate module files.
f102b883 2703
4e860d0a 2704=item *
551e1d92
RB
2705
2706Take the opportunity to reconsider and redesign the interfaces.
2707
4e860d0a 2708=item *
f102b883 2709
551e1d92 2710In some cases the 'application' can then be reduced to a small
f102b883
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2711
2712fragment of code built on top of the reusable modules. In these cases
2713the application could invoked as:
2714
5a964f20 2715 % perl -e 'use Module::Name; method(@ARGV)' ...
f102b883 2716or
5a964f20 2717 % perl -mModule::Name ... (in perl5.002 or higher)
f102b883
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2718
2719=back
2720
2721=head1 NOTE
2722
2723Perl does not enforce private and public parts of its modules as you may
2724have been used to in other languages like C++, Ada, or Modula-17. Perl
2725doesn't have an infatuation with enforced privacy. It would prefer
2726that you stayed out of its living room because you weren't invited, not
2727because it has a shotgun.
2728
2729The module and its user have a contract, part of which is common law,
2730and part of which is "written". Part of the common law contract is
2731that a module doesn't pollute any namespace it wasn't asked to. The
2732written contract for the module (A.K.A. documentation) may make other
2733provisions. But then you know when you C<use RedefineTheWorld> that
2734you're redefining the world and willing to take the consequences.