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Re: [ID 19990830.005] Assigning value of an op on an SV to said SV
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
12 (S) A severe warning (mandatory).
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
748a9306 18Optional warnings are enabled by using the B<-w> switch. Warnings may
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19be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}> to a reference to a routine that
20will be called on each warning instead of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
4438c4b7 21
748a9306 22Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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23L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
24disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
25See L<warnings>.
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26
27Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 28just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
702d120d 29The symbols C<"%(-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
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30
31=over 4
32
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33=item "my sub" not yet implemented
34
35(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try that
36yet.
37
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38=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
39
40(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
41to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
42if you want to localize a package variable.
43
9fbbe825 44=item "my" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s
2ba9eb46 45
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46(W) A lexical variable has been redeclared in the current scope or statement,
47effectively eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost
48always a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
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49until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
50destroyed.
51
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52=item "no" not allowed in expression
53
54(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
55no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
56
57=item "use" not allowed in expression
58
59(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
60no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
61
f61d411c 62=item '!' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 63
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64(F) The '!' is allowed in pack() and unpack() only after certain types.
65See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 66
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67=item # cannot take a count
68
69(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
70but you have also specified an explicit size for the string.
71See L<perlfunc/pack>.
72
73=item # must be followed by a, A or Z
74
75(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
76which must be followed by one of the letters a, A or Z
77to indicate what sort of string is to be unpacked.
78See L<perlfunc/pack>.
79
80=item # must be followed by a*, A* or Z*
81
82(F) You had an pack template indicating a counted-length string,
83Currently the only things that can have their length counted are a*, A* or Z*.
84See L<perlfunc/pack>.
85
86=item # must follow a numeric type
87
88(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '#',
89but this did not follow some numeric unpack specification.
90See L<perlfunc/pack>.
91
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92=item % may only be used in unpack
93
5f05dabc 94(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
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95checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
96way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
97
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98=item Repeat count in pack overflows
99
100(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
101your signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
102
103=item Repeat count in unpack overflows
104
105(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
106your signed integers. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
107
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108=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
109
110(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
111by Perl. This combination appears in an interpolated variable or a
112C<'>-delimited regular expression.
113
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114=item %s (...) interpreted as function
115
116(W) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 117by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 118found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
a0d0e21e 119
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120=item %s() called too early to check prototype
121
122(W) You've called a function that has a prototype before the parser saw a
123definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check that the call
124conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an early prototype
125declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the subroutine
126definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype checking. Alternatively,
127if you are certain that you're calling the function correctly, you may put
128an ampersand before the name to avoid the warning. See L<perlsub>.
129
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130=item %s argument is not a HASH element
131
5f05dabc 132(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash element, such as
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133
134 $foo{$bar}
135 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
136
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137=item %s argument is not a HASH element or slice
138
139(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash element, such as
140
141 $foo{$bar}
142 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
143
144or a hash slice, such as
145
146 @foo{$bar, $baz, $xyzzy}
147 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
148
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149=item %s did not return a true value
150
151(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
152it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
153traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
154do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
155
156=item %s found where operator expected
157
158(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
159sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
160it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
161delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
162
f86702cc 163=item %s had compilation errors
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164
165(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
166
f86702cc 167=item %s has too many errors
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168
169(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
170Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
171
172=item %s matches null string many times
173
174(W) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
175regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
176
177=item %s never introduced
178
179(S) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
180before it could possibly have been used.
181
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182=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
183
184(W) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a package-specific handler.
185That name might have a meaning to Perl itself some day, even though it
186doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a mixed-case attribute name, instead.
187See L<attributes>.
188
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189=item %s syntax OK
190
191(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
192
f86702cc 193=item %s: Command not found
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194
195(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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196of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
197Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 198
f86702cc 199=item %s: Expression syntax
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200
201(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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202of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
203Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 204
f86702cc 205=item %s: Undefined variable
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206
207(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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208of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
209Perl yourself.
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210
211=item %s: not found
212
8b1a09fc 213(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 214instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
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215into Perl yourself.
216
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217=item (in cleanup) %s
218
219(W) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
220the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by
221the system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast
222number of times, the warning is issued only once for any number
223of failures that would otherwise result in the same message being
224repeated.
225
226Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag
227could also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
228
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229=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
230
231(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
232found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
233the previous line just because you saw this message.
234
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235=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
236
237(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
238which provides a race condition that breaks security.
239
240=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
241
242(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
243know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
244
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245=item C<-p> destination: %s
246
247(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
248command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
249redirected it with select().)
250
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251=item 500 Server error
252
253See Server error.
254
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255=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
256
257(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
258if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
259
260=item @ outside of string
261
2ba9eb46 262(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
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263the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
264
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265=item <> should be quotes
266
267(F) You wrote C<require E<lt>fileE<gt>> when you should have written
268C<require 'file'>.
269
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270=item accept() on closed fd
271
272(W) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
273the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
274
275=item Allocation too large: %lx
276
54310121 277(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
55497cff 278
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279=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
280
2c268ad5 281(W) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and transliteration (tr///)
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282operators work on scalar values. If you apply one of them to an array
283or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to a scalar value -- the
284length of an array, or the population info of a hash -- and then work on
285that scalar value. This is probably not what you meant to do. See
286L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for alternatives.
287
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288=item Arg too short for msgsnd
289
290(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
291
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292=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
293
294(W)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
295you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 296a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 297
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298=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
299
300(W) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl keyword,
301and you have used the name without qualification for calling one or the
302other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the subroutine is
303not imported.
304
305To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
306before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
307Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
308imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
309
310To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
311on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or by declaring the subroutine
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312to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes">
313or L<attributes>).
5315574d 314
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315=item Args must match #! line
316
317(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
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318with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
319impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
320for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 321
f86702cc 322=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
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323
324(W) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
325expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
326will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
327
328=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
329
330(D) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
331is now heavily deprecated.
332
333=item assertion botched: %s
334
335(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
336
337=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
338
339(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
340
341=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
342
343(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
344must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
345know which context to supply to the right side.
346
347=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
348
349(P) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
350be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
351of those arenas.
352
54310121 353=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
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354
355(P) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
356optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
357indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
358that can no longer be found in the table.
359
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360=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
361
362(W) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
363routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
364the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
365routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
366it.
367
368=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
369
370(P) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
371
372=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
373
374(W) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
375would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
376and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
377could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
378SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
379when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
380
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381=item Attempt to join self
382
383(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
384impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may
385need to move the join() to some other thread.
386
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387=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
388
389(W) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
390function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
391means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
392invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
393literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
394avoid this warning.
395
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396=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
397
398(W) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 399as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
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400dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
401
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402=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
403
404(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 405shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 406S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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407S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
408
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409=item Bad filehandle: %s
410
411(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
412has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
413did it in another package.
414
415=item Bad free() ignored
416
417(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
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418malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
419setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
420
421This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
422"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
423C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
424system malloc().
a0d0e21e 425
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426=item Bad hash
427
428(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
429
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430=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
431
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432(F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a
433pseudo-hash is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
434See L<perlref>.
57079c46 435
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436=item Bad name after %s::
437
438(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
439finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
440so
441
442 $var = 'myvar';
443 $sym = mypack::$var;
444
445is not the same as
446
447 $var = 'myvar';
448 $sym = "mypack::$var";
449
450=item Bad symbol for array
451
452(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
453wasn't a symbol table entry.
454
455=item Bad symbol for filehandle
456
457(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
458wasn't a symbol table entry.
459
460=item Bad symbol for hash
461
462(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
463wasn't a symbol table entry.
464
8b1a09fc 465=item Badly placed ()'s
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466
467(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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468of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
469Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 470
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471=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
472
473(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
d98d5fff 474subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>" symbol.
54310121 475Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
3fe9a6f1 476
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477=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
478
479(W) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but
480the compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point.
481Perhaps you need to predeclare a package?
482
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483=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
484
485(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
486Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
487
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488=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
489
490(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
491implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had
492already occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}>
493could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code
494likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
495
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496=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
497
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498(W) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
499(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
500L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 501
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502=item bind() on closed fd
503
504(W) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
505the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
506
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507=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
508
509(W) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
510
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511=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
512
513(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
514
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515=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
516
517(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to iterate over
518%ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition which was too long,
519so it was truncated to the string shown.
520
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521=item Callback called exit
522
523(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via perl_call_sv()
524exited by calling exit.
525
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526=item Can't "goto" outside a block
527
528(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look
529like a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually
530occurs if you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which
531is a no-no. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
532
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533=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
534
535(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a
536foreach loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
537
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538=item Can't "last" outside a block
539
540(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
541except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
542current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
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543"loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can usually double
544the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner curlies
545will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
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546
547=item Can't "next" outside a block
548
549(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
550there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
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551count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
552usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 553curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
a0d0e21e 554
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555=item Can't read CRTL environ
556
557(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
558from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
559missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
560or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not searched.
561
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562=item Can't "redo" outside a block
563
564(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
565there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
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566count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
567usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 568curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
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569
570=item Can't bless non-reference value
571
572(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
573encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
574
575=item Can't break at that line
576
54310121 577(S) A warning intended to only be printed while running within the debugger, indicating
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578the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
579be stopped at.
580
581=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
582
583(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
584functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
585in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
586
587=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
588
54310121 589(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
a0d0e21e
LW
590ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
591you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
592an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
593
594=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
595
596(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
597object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
72b5445b
GS
598a defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
599Something like this will reproduce the error:
600
601 $BADREF = 42;
602 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
603 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
604
605=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
606
607(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
608object reference or package name contains an undefined value.
a0d0e21e
LW
609Something like this will reproduce the error:
610
611 $BADREF = undef;
612 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
613 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
614
615=item Can't chdir to %s
616
617(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
618that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
619
104d25b7
JH
620=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s"
621
622(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for nosuid.
623
a0d0e21e
LW
624=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
625
626(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 627(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
628say things like:
629
630 *foo += 1;
631
632You CAN say
633
634 $foo = *foo;
635 $foo += 1;
636
637but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
638
639=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
640
641(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 642(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
643
644=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
645
646(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 647(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 648
57079c46
GA
649=item Can't coerce array into hash
650
651(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
652information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
653only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
654
a0d0e21e
LW
655=item Can't create pipe mailbox
656
748a9306
LW
657(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
658or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e
LW
659
660=item Can't declare %s in my
661
5f05dabc 662(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as lexical variables.
a0d0e21e
LW
663They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
664
665=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
666
667(S) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
668
54310121 669=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 670
54310121 671(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try reading
3fe9a6f1 672from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say C<-i.bak>, or some
a0d0e21e
LW
673such.
674
8b1a09fc 675=item Can't do inplace edit: %s E<gt> 14 characters
a0d0e21e
LW
676
677(S) There isn't enough room in the filename to make a backup name for the file.
678
679=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
680
681(S) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
682/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
683
684=item Can't do setegid!
685
686(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
687of suidperl.
688
689=item Can't do seteuid!
690
691(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
692
693=item Can't do setuid
694
695(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
696do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
697form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
698under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
699If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
700your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
701
702=item Can't do waitpid with flags
703
704(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
705without flags is emulated.
706
8b1a09fc 707=item Can't do {n,m} with n E<gt> m
a0d0e21e
LW
708
709(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
710your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
711
712=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
713
714(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
715For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
716
717=item Can't exec "%s": %s
718
5f05dabc 719(W) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
a0d0e21e
LW
720program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
721were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
722executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
723#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
724similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
725
726=item Can't exec %s
727
728(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
729what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
730mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
731
732=item Can't execute %s
733
2a92aaa0
GS
734(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute found
735in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
736
737=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
738
739(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
740in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The script
741exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
742
743=item Can't find %s on PATH
744
a0d0e21e 745(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
2a92aaa0 746in the PATH.
a0d0e21e
LW
747
748=item Can't find label %s
749
750(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
751for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
752
753=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
754
755(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 756the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
a0d0e21e
LW
757levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
758
fb73857a
PP
759 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
760
761If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
762included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good
763programmer's editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
764
765=item Can't fork
766
767(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
768
748a9306
LW
769=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
770
771(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
772access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
773access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
774that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
775assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
776it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
777retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
778but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 779routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
748a9306
LW
780appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
781returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
782knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
783see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
784code takes stat buffers lightly.)
785
a0d0e21e
LW
786=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
787
748a9306
LW
788(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
789can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
790
791=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
792
748a9306
LW
793(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
794mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e
LW
795
796=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
797
798(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
799call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 800you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
a0d0e21e
LW
801L<perlfunc/goto>.
802
b150fb22
RH
803=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
804
805(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval "string".
806(You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you probably don't want to.)
807
706a304b 808=item Can't localize through a reference
4633a7c4 809
706a304b
SM
810(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
811handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
812pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be
813sure that $ref will still be a reference.
4633a7c4 814
748a9306
LW
815=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
816
2ba9eb46 817(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
818lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
819localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
820package name.
821
0ebe0038
SM
822=item Can't localize pseudo-hash element
823
824(F) You said something like C<local $ar-E<gt>{'key'}>, where $ar is
825a reference to a pseudo-hash. That hasn't been implemented yet, but
826you can get a similar effect by localizing the corresponding array
827element directly -- C<local $ar-E<gt>[$ar-E<gt>[0]{'key'}]>.
828
4727527e
IZ
829=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
830
831(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows autoload,
832but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes are a misprint
833in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit> the file, say, by
834doing C<make install>.
835
ec889f3a
GS
836=item Can't locate %s
837
838(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
839found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
840unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
841to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the extra
842library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or
843maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>
844and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e
LW
845
846=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
847
848(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
849functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 850method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
851
852=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
853
854(W) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
855to exist.
856
3e3baf6d
TB
857=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
858
859(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.
860
a0d0e21e
LW
861=item Can't modify %s in %s
862
863(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 864change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 865
54310121 866=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
867
868(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
869a NULL.
870
5f05dabc 871=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 872
5f05dabc 873(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
874buffer.
875
876=item Can't open %s: %s
877
08e9d68e
DD
878(S) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<E<lt>E<gt>>
879filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
880switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
881is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named
882on the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
883
884=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
885
886(W) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
887try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
7e1af8bc 888IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using "E<gt>",
a0d0e21e
LW
889and then read it in under a different file handle.
890
748a9306
LW
891=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
892
893(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
894couldn't open the file specified after '2E<gt>' or '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the
895command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
896
897=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
898
899(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 900couldn't open the file specified after 'E<lt>' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
901
902=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
903
904(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
905couldn't open the file specified after 'E<gt>' or 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command
906line for writing.
748a9306
LW
907
908=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
909
910(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
911couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
912
a0d0e21e
LW
913=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
914
915(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
916
7bac28a0
PP
917=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
918
919(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
920pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when it
921was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
922this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
923
a0d0e21e
LW
924=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
925
926(S) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason, probably because
927you don't have write permission to the directory.
928
748a9306
LW
929=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
930
931(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
932reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
933
a0d0e21e
LW
934=item Can't reswap uid and euid
935
936(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
937of suidperl.
938
939=item Can't return outside a subroutine
940
941(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
942there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
943
944=item Can't stat script "%s"
945
946(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
947it open already. Bizarre.
948
949=item Can't swap uid and euid
950
951(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
952of suidperl.
953
954=item Can't take log of %g
955
fb73857a
PP
956(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
957negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
958standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for
959the negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
960
961=item Can't take sqrt of %g
962
963(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
964negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
965with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
966
967=item Can't undef active subroutine
968
969(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
970however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
971redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
972
973=item Can't unshift
974
975(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
976as the main Perl stack.
977
978=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
979
980(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
981it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
982so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
983message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
984
985=item Can't upgrade to undef
986
987(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
988of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
989code calling sv_upgrade.
990
1d2dff63
GS
991=item Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available
992
993(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
994Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
995provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
996
c07a80fd
PP
997=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
998
999(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
8b1a09fc 1000You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the E<lt>=E<gt> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1001and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1002Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1003lexical variable.
1004
e9fa98b2
HS
1005=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
1006
1007(F) You've used the /e switch to evaluate the replacement for a
1008substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
1009most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
1010
a0d0e21e
LW
1011=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1012
1013(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
1014
1015=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1016
1017(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1018reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1019test the type of the reference, if need be.
1020
748a9306
LW
1021=item Can't use \1 to mean $1 in expression
1022
1023(W) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
1024a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 1025to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
LW
1026Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
1027out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
1028
44a8e56a
PP
1029=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while \"strict refs\" in use
1030
1031(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
1032are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
1033
748a9306 1034=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
1035
1036(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
1037are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
1038
1039=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1040
1041(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
54310121 1042be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
a0d0e21e 1043
a0d0e21e
LW
1044=item Can't use global %s in "my"
1045
1046(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 1047not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
a0d0e21e
LW
1048the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
1049variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
1050weren't.
1051
748a9306
LW
1052=item Can't use subscript on %s
1053
1054(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1055subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
1056didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
1057
810b8aa5
GS
1058=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1059
1060(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1061references can be weakened.
1062
5f05dabc 1063=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
1064
1065(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
1066an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
1067Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1068
3f4520fe 1069=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
b6c543e3
IZ
1070
1071(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but
1072there is no builtin with the name C<word>.
1073
3f4520fe 1074=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
e7ea3e70
IZ
1075
1076(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1077opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1078package. If method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
1079
b8c5462f 1080=item Character class [:%s:] unknown
4599a1de 1081
b8c5462f 1082(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown.
4599a1de 1083
b8c5462f
JH
1084=item Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes
1085
1086(W) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
644a2880
JH
1087I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct,
1088for example: /[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that the last two constructs
1089are not currently implemented, they are placeholders for future extensions.
b8c5462f 1090
644a2880 1091=item Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
4599a1de
JH
1092
1093(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
b8c5462f 1094with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
4599a1de
JH
1095If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1096expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
b8c5462f 1097backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
4599a1de
JH
1098
1099=item Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
1100
1101(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
1102beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions.
1103If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1104expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
1105backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
1106
a0d0e21e
LW
1107=item chmod: mode argument is missing initial 0
1108
1109(W) A novice will sometimes say
1110
1111 chmod 777, $filename
1112
1113not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
1114to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
1115
8b1a09fc 1116=item Close on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
1117
1118(W) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1119
7a2e2cd6
PP
1120=item Compilation failed in require
1121
1122(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
1123Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it encountered
1124were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
1125
c3464db5
DD
1126=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1127
1128(W) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex situations
1129where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited to 32766,
1130or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1131arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1132recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1133under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather
1134than in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular
1135expression so that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlbook>
1136for information on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
1137
a0d0e21e
LW
1138=item connect() on closed fd
1139
1140(W) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1141the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
1142
779c5bc9
GS
1143=item Constant is not %s reference
1144
1145(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
1146is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference. The
1147message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This usually
1148indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
1149See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1150
4cee8e80
CS
1151=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1152
1153(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
1154inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1155workarounds.
1156
9607fc9c
PP
1157=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1158
1159(S) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
1160inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1161workarounds.
1162
423cee85
JH
1163=item constant(%s): %%^H is not localized
1164
1165(F) When setting compile-time-lexicalized hash %^H one should set the
1166corresponding bit of $^H as well.
1167
1168=item constant(%s): %s
1169
1170(F) Compile-time-substitutions (such as overloaded constants and
1171character names) were not correctly set up.
1172
e7ea3e70
IZ
1173=item Copy method did not return a reference
1174
1175(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
1176
a0d0e21e
LW
1177=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1178
1179(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1180
1181=item corrupted regexp pointers
1182
1183(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1184expression compiler gave it.
1185
1186=item corrupted regexp program
1187
1188(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
1189a valid magic number.
1190
1191=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1192
1193(W) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
3e3baf6d 1194times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
a0d0e21e
LW
1195recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
1196case it indicates something else.
1197
f10b0346 1198=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302
MJD
1199
1200(D) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it checks for an
1201undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the array is empty,
1202just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
1203
f10b0346 1204=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302
MJD
1205
1206(D) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it checks for an
1207undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash is empty,
1208just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
1209
fc36a67e
PP
1210=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1211
1212(F) In a here document construct like C<E<lt>E<lt>FOO>, the label
1213C<FOO> is too long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously
1214twisted to write code that triggers this error.
1215
4633a7c4
LW
1216=item Did you mean &%s instead?
1217
1218(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
1219
748a9306 1220=item Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?
a0d0e21e 1221
748a9306
LW
1222(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
1223On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
1224
7e1af8bc 1225=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1226
1227(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1228you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1229
54310121 1230=item Do you need to predeclare %s?
748a9306
LW
1231
1232(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1233found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1234name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1235because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
1236"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
1237referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
1238to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
1239can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
1240declaration.
a0d0e21e
LW
1241
1242=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1243
1244(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1245
1246=item do_study: out of memory
1247
1248(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1249
1250=item Duplicate free() ignored
1251
1252(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
1253been freed.
1254
4633a7c4
LW
1255=item elseif should be elsif
1256
1257(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1258ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1259named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
1260unlikely to be what you want.
1261
a0d0e21e
LW
1262=item END failed--cleanup aborted
1263
1264(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing an END subroutine.
1265The interpreter is immediately exited.
1266
85ab1d1d 1267=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1268
85ab1d1d 1269(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1270effective uids or gids failed.
1271
748a9306
LW
1272=item Error converting file specification %s
1273
5f05dabc 1274(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
1275specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
1276single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
1277passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
1278case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
1279
e4d48cc9
GS
1280=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1281
1282(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular expression
1283that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which is unsafe.
1284See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
1285
1286=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1287
1288(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion,
1289but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'> pragma is
1290in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1291
1292=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1293
1294(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the C<(?{ ... })>
3c247ff3
GS
1295zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the pattern contains
1296interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it is not allowed.
e4d48cc9
GS
1297If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly building the pattern
1298from an interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval().
1299See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1300
fc36a67e
PP
1301=item Excessively long <> operator
1302
1303(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1304Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1305filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1306variable and glob that.
1307
f86702cc 1308=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1309
1310(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1311
1312=item Exiting eval via %s
1313
8b1a09fc 1314(W) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1315a goto, or a loop control statement.
1316
0a753a76
PP
1317=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1318
1319(W) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a sort block or
1320subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control
1321statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1322
a0d0e21e
LW
1323=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1324
8b1a09fc 1325(W) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1326a goto, or a loop control statement.
1327
1328=item Exiting substitution via %s
1329
8b1a09fc 1330(W) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1331a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
1332
7b8d334a
GS
1333=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1334
1335(W) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1336the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1337usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target
ae6c4aac 1338package, e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1339
748a9306 1340=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1341
748a9306
LW
1342(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
1343service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
1344filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
1345the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1346
1347=item fcntl is not implemented
1348
1349(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1350PDP-11 or something?
1351
1352=item Filehandle %s never opened
1353
1354(W) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
1355You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
1356the FileHandle package.
1357
af8c498a 1358=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e
LW
1359
1360(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1361intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1362"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1363you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1364L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1365
af8c498a 1366=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1367
af8c498a 1368(W) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing. If you
a0d0e21e 1369intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1370"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
af8c498a 1371you intended only to read from the file, use "E<lt>". See
8b1a09fc 1372L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1373
1374=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1375
1376(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
1377a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1378that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1379the name.
1380
1381=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1382
1383(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
1384a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1385that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1386the name.
1387
1388=item Format %s redefined
1389
1390(W) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
1391
1392 {
4438c4b7 1393 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
1394 eval "format NAME =...";
1395 }
1396
1397=item Format not terminated
1398
1399(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1400to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1401
1402=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1403
1404(W) You said
1405
1406 if ($foo = 123)
1407
1408when you meant
1409
1410 if ($foo == 123)
1411
1412(or something like that).
1413
1414=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1415
1416(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1417
1418=item gethostent not implemented
1419
1420(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1421because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1422on the Internet.
1423
1424=item get{sock,peer}name() on closed fd
1425
1426(W) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
1427Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1428
748a9306
LW
1429=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1430
1431(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1432C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1433
a0d0e21e
LW
1434=item Glob not terminated
1435
1436(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1437a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1438finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1439the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1440
1441=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1442
68dc0745
PP
1443(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1444must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), or explicitly qualified to
a0d0e21e
LW
1445say which package the global variable is in (using "::").
1446
1447=item goto must have label
1448
1449(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1450unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1451
1452=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1453
1454(S) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
1455existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1456an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1457
1458=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1459
1460(D) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
1461is now heavily deprecated.
1462
252aa082
JH
1463=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1464
9e24b6e2
JH
1465(W) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
1466(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1467L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1468
8903cb82
PP
1469=item Identifier too long
1470
1471(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e
PP
1472about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
1473names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future
1474versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1475
f675dbe5
CB
1476=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
1477
1478(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's internal
1479environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=> delimiter
1480used to spearate keys from values. The element is ignored.
1481
1482=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
a0d0e21e 1483
f675dbe5
CB
1484(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical name
1485or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1486didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the
1487line was ignored.
a0d0e21e 1488
4fdae800
PP
1489=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1490
1491(F) A carriage return character was found in the input. This is an
1492error, and not a warning, because carriage return characters can break
54310121
PP
1493multi-line strings, including here documents (e.g., C<print E<lt>E<lt>EOF;>).
1494
1495Under Unix, this error is usually caused by executing Perl code --
68dc0745 1496either the main program, a module, or an eval'd string -- that was
54310121 1497transferred over a network connection from a non-Unix system without
68dc0745
PP
1498properly converting the text file format.
1499
1500Under systems that use something other than '\n' to delimit lines of
1501text, this error can also be caused by reading Perl code from a file
1502handle that is in binary mode (as set by the C<binmode> operator).
1503
1504In either case, the Perl code in question will probably need to be
1505converted with something like C<s/\x0D\x0A?/\n/g> before it can be
1506executed.
4fdae800 1507
a0d0e21e
LW
1508=item Illegal division by zero
1509
1510(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1511logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1512
1513=item Illegal modulus zero
1514
1515(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1516don't take to this kindly.
1517
399388f4
GS
1518=item Illegal binary digit %s
1519
1520(F) You used a digit other than 0 and 1 in a binary number.
1521
1522=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1523
1524(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1525
399388f4
GS
1526=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
1527
1528(W) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
1529Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the offending digit.
1530
1531=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306
LW
1532
1533(W) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
1534of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1535
651978e7 1536=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
6ff81951 1537
252aa082
JH
1538(W) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or A - F, a - f
1539in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal number stopped
6ff81951
GS
1540before the illegal character.
1541
81e118e0
JH
1542=item Illegal number of bits in vec
1543
0a1cd687 1544(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
c5a0f51a 1545two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
09bef843 1546
54310121
PP
1547=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
1548
1549(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1550following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
1551
9607fc9c
PP
1552=item In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s
1553
1554(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1555array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was first
1556used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and ambiguous
1557instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by prepending a backslash to
1558indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array within the
1559program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply assume
1560that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1561
a0d0e21e
LW
1562=item Insecure dependency in %s
1563
8b1a09fc 1564(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1565The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1566or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1567labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1568who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1569used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1570for more information.
1571
1572=item Insecure directory in %s
1573
1574(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1575script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1576See L<perlsec>.
1577
62f468fc 1578=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1579
1580(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
G
1581setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1582C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1583potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1584known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1585
a7ae9550
GS
1586=item Integer overflow in %s number
1587
9e24b6e2
JH
1588(W) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified either
1589as a literal in your code or as a scalar is too big for your
1590architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number. On a
159132-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
1592representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
15930b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
1594transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
1595internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
1596operations.
bbce6d69 1597
748a9306
LW
1598=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1599
1600(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1601of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1602whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
b687b08b 1603script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count
748a9306
LW
1604has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1605this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1606and execute the specified command.
1607
a0d0e21e
LW
1608=item internal disaster in regexp
1609
1610(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1611
4eb79ab5
GS
1612=item glob failed (%s)
1613
1614(W) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for C<glob>
1615and C<E<lt>*.cE<gt>>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
1616pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a nonzero
1617status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit resulted in a
1618coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is broken. If so,
1619you should change all of the csh-related variables in config.sh: If you
1620have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it were csh (e.g.
1621C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all empty (except that
1622C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will think csh is missing.
1623In either case, after editing config.sh, run C<./Configure -S> and
1624rebuild Perl.
5cd24f17 1625
a0d0e21e
LW
1626=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1627
1628(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1629
09bef843
SB
1630=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
1631
1632The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
1633by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1634
1635=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
1636
1637The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not recognized
1638by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1639
a0d0e21e
LW
1640=item invalid [] range in regexp
1641
1642(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
93733859
JH
1643greater than the maximum character, or the range didn't start/end with
1644a literal character. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 1645
c635e13b
PP
1646=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1647
878e08df 1648(W) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.
c635e13b
PP
1649See L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
1650
09bef843
SB
1651=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
1652
1653(F) Something other than a comma or whitespace was seen between the
1654elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute
1655had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated
1656too soon. See L<attributes>.
1657
96e4d5b1
PP
1658=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1659
8903cb82 1660(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
fb73857a
PP
1661(W) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be silently
1662ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1663
1664=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1665
8903cb82 1666(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
fb73857a
PP
1667(W) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be silently
1668ignored.
96e4d5b1 1669
a0d0e21e
LW
1670=item ioctl is not implemented
1671
1672(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1673strange for a machine that supports C.
1674
1675=item junk on end of regexp
1676
1677(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1678
1679=item Label not found for "last %s"
1680
1681(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1682loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1683See L<perlfunc/last>.
1684
1685=item Label not found for "next %s"
1686
1687(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1688that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1689L<perlfunc/last>.
1690
1691=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1692
1693(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1694that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1695L<perlfunc/last>.
1696
85ab1d1d 1697=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1698
85ab1d1d 1699(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1700effective uids or gids failed.
1701
a0d0e21e
LW
1702=item listen() on closed fd
1703
1704(W) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1705the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1706
a0d0e21e
LW
1707=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1708
1709(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1710doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1711
1712=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1713
1714(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1715by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1716ended earlier on the current line.
1717
1718=item Misplaced _ in number
1719
1720(W) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
1721
1722=item Missing $ on loop variable
1723
8b1a09fc
PP
1724(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1725mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1726one line to the next.
1727
4a2d328f 1728=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 1729
4a2d328f 1730(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
1731double-quotish context.
1732
a0d0e21e
LW
1733=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1734
1735(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1736"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1737
06eaf0bc
GS
1738=item Missing command in piped open
1739
1740(W) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or C<open(FH, "command |")>
1741construction, but the command was missing or blank.
1742
748a9306
LW
1743=item Missing operator before %s?
1744
1745(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1746found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1747
d98d5fff 1748=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 1749
d98d5fff
GS
1750(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than
1751closing ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place
1752you were last editing.
a0d0e21e 1753
a0d0e21e
LW
1754=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1755
1756(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1757constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1758catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1759
1760 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1761 mod(2);
1762
1763Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1764
4fe4fdb3 1765=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, subscript %d
a0d0e21e
LW
1766
1767(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1768subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1769backwards.
1770
4fe4fdb3 1771=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
a0d0e21e 1772
19a09eb8 1773(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
a0d0e21e
LW
1774be created for some peculiar reason.
1775
1776=item Module name must be constant
1777
1778(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1779
1780=item msg%s not implemented
1781
1782(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1783
1784=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1785
8b1a09fc
PP
1786(W) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
1787like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1788
09bef843
SB
1789=item Missing name in "my sub"
1790
1791(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that they
1792have a name with which they can be found.
1793
8b1a09fc
PP
1794=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1795
68dc0745
PP
1796(W) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
1797If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention
1798it again somehow to suppress the message. The C<use vars> pragma is
1799provided for just this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1800
1801=item Negative length
1802
1803(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1804that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1805
1806=item nested *?+ in regexp
1807
5f05dabc 1808(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1809things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1810
5f05dabc 1811Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1812to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1813
1814=item No #! line
1815
1816(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1817even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1818
1819=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1820
1821(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1822script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1823another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1824See L<perlsec>.
1825
1826=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1827
1828(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1829
1830=item No comma allowed after %s
1831
1832(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1833allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1834Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1835
0a753a76
PP
1836One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
1837constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
1838importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
1839does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
1840explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
1841L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
1842would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
1843remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
1844constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
1845list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
1846this error was triggered?
1847
748a9306
LW
1848=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1849
1850(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
54310121 1851and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you
748a9306
LW
1852want to pipe the output from this command.
1853
a0d0e21e
LW
1854=item No DB::DB routine defined
1855
1856(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1857but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1858didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1859statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1860automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1861right.
1862
1863=item No dbm on this machine
1864
1865(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1866supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1867
1868=item No DBsub routine
1869
1870(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1871but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1872didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1873ordinary subroutine call.
1874
8b1a09fc 1875=item No error file after 2E<gt> or 2E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1876
1877(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1878and found a '2E<gt>' or a '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find
1879the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 1880
8b1a09fc 1881=item No input file after E<lt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1882
1883(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1884and found a 'E<lt>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
1885from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 1886
8b1a09fc 1887=item No output file after E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1888
1889(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc 1890and found a lone 'E<gt>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
54310121 1891where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 1892
8b1a09fc 1893=item No output file after E<gt> or E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1894
1895(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1896and found a 'E<gt>' or a 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find the
1897name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 1898
a0d0e21e
LW
1899=item No Perl script found in input
1900
1901(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
1902with #! and containing the word "perl".
1903
1904=item No setregid available
1905
1906(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
1907your system.
1908
1909=item No setreuid available
1910
1911(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
1912your system.
1913
1914=item No space allowed after B<-I>
1915
1916(F) The argument to B<-I> must follow the B<-I> immediately with no
1917intervening space.
1918
57079c46
GA
1919=item No such array field
1920
1921(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
1922not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
1923array indices for that to work.
1924
f1192cee
GA
1925=item No such field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
1926
1927(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type
1928does not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in
1929the %FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash
1930is usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
1931
748a9306
LW
1932=item No such pipe open
1933
1934(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
1935close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
1936an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
1937
a0d0e21e
LW
1938=item No such signal: SIG%s
1939
1940(W) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
1941Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
1942
bd3fa61c
CB
1943=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
1944
db7c17d7 1945(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
f675dbe5
CB
1946timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
1947to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL>
1948to translate to the number of seconds which need to be added to UTC to
1949get local time.
1950
a0d0e21e
LW
1951=item Not a CODE reference
1952
1953(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1954subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1955use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1956See also L<perlref>.
1957
1958=item Not a format reference
1959
1960(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
1961format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
1962
1963=item Not a GLOB reference
1964
55497cff 1965(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
1966a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
1967something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
1968what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1969
1970=item Not a HASH reference
1971
1972(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
1973found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1974function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1975
1976=item Not a perl script
1977
1978(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1979even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
1980mention perl.
1981
1982=item Not a SCALAR reference
1983
1984(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
1985found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1986function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1987
1988=item Not a subroutine reference
1989
1990(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1991subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1992use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1993See also L<perlref>.
1994
e7ea3e70 1995=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
1996
1997(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 1998doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1999
2000=item Not an ARRAY reference
2001
2002(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
2003found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2004function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2005
2006=item Not enough arguments for %s
2007
2008(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2009
2010=item Not enough format arguments
2011
2012(W) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
2013See L<perlform>.
2014
2015=item Null filename used
2016
5f05dabc 2017(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
2018that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
2019
55497cff
PP
2020=item Null picture in formline
2021
2022(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2023specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2024supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2025
a0d0e21e
LW
2026=item NULL OP IN RUN
2027
2028(P) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
2029
2030=item Null realloc
2031
2032(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2033
2034=item NULL regexp argument
2035
5f05dabc 2036(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2037
2038=item NULL regexp parameter
2039
2040(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2041
fc36a67e
PP
2042=item Number too long
2043
2044(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to about
2045about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future versions of
2046Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In the meantime,
2047try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of "1_000_000").
2048
252aa082
JH
2049=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2050
9e24b6e2
JH
2051(W) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1 (4294967295)
2052and therefore non-portable between systems. See L<perlport> for more
2053on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2054
2055See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2056
1930e939 2057=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2058
1930e939
TP
2059(S) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash, which
2060is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2061
bbce6d69
PP
2062=item Offset outside string
2063
2064(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
2065pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
2066The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
2067will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
2068
a0d0e21e
LW
2069=item oops: oopsAV
2070
2071(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
2072
2073=item oops: oopsHV
2074
2075(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
2076
56f7f34b 2077=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2078
e7ea3e70
IZ
2079(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which
2080no handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in
2081terms of other handlers, there is no default handler for any
2082operation, unless C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be
2083true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2084
748a9306
LW
2085=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2086
2087(S) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
2088expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
2089to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
2090For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
2091if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
2092
a0d0e21e
LW
2093=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2094
2095(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
2096but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
2097
1b979e0a 2098=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2099
55497cff 2100(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
54310121 2101remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2102
2103The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2104depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
2105However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
2106an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff
PP
2107error is trappable I<once>.
2108
1b979e0a 2109=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
55497cff
PP
2110
2111(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2112remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
2113the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
2114a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
2115
1b979e0a
IZ
2116=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2117
2118(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
2119is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g., C<$arr[time]>
2120instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
2121
a0d0e21e
LW
2122=item page overflow
2123
2124(W) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
2125See L<perlform>.
2126
2127=item panic: ck_grep
2128
2129(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
2130
2131=item panic: ck_split
2132
2133(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
2134
2135=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
2136
2137(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
2138are in the savestack.
2139
810b8aa5
GS
2140=item panic: del_backref
2141
2142(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
2143reference.
2144
a0d0e21e
LW
2145=item panic: die %s
2146
2147(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
2148it wasn't an eval context.
2149
2150=item panic: do_match
2151
2152(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2153
2154=item panic: do_split
2155
2156(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
2157
2158=item panic: do_subst
2159
2160(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2161
2162=item panic: do_trans
2163
2164(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2165
c635e13b
PP
2166=item panic: frexp
2167
2168(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2169
a0d0e21e
LW
2170=item panic: goto
2171
2172(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2173and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2174
2175=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2176
2177(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2178
2179=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2180
2181(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2182
e446cec8
IZ
2183=item panic: kid popen errno read
2184
2185(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2186
a0d0e21e
LW
2187=item panic: last
2188
2189(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2190it wasn't a block context.
2191
2192=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2193
5f05dabc 2194(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2195
2196=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2197
2198(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2199invalid enum on the top of it.
2200
2201=item panic: malloc
2202
2203(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2204
810b8aa5
GS
2205=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
2206
2207(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
2208references to an object.
2209
a0d0e21e
LW
2210=item panic: mapstart
2211
2212(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2213
2214=item panic: null array
2215
2216(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2217
2218=item panic: pad_alloc
2219
2220(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2221and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2222
2223=item panic: pad_free curpad
2224
2225(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2226and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2227
2228=item panic: pad_free po
2229
2230(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2231
2232=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2233
2234(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2235and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2236
2237=item panic: pad_sv po
2238
2239(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2240
2241=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2242
2243(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2244and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2245
2246=item panic: pad_swipe po
2247
2248(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2249
2250=item panic: pp_iter
2251
2252(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2253
2254=item panic: realloc
2255
2256(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2257
2258=item panic: restartop
2259
2260(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2261didn't supply the destination.
2262
2263=item panic: return
2264
2265(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2266then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2267
2268=item panic: scan_num
2269
2270(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2271
2272=item panic: sv_insert
2273
2274(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2275was string.
2276
2277=item panic: top_env
2278
6224f72b 2279(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
2280
2281=item panic: yylex
2282
2283(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
2284
7b8d334a 2285=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e
LW
2286
2287(W) You said something like
2288
2289 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2290
2291when you meant
2292
2293 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2294
2295Remember that "my" and "local" bind closer than comma.
2296
2297=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
2298
2299(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
2300than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
2301anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
2302
2303=item Permission denied
2304
2305(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2306
bd3fa61c 2307=item pid %x not a child
748a9306
LW
2308
2309(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
2310isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
2311perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
2312
a0d0e21e
LW
2313=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2314
2315(F) Your C compiler uses POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
2316the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2317
bbce6d69
PP
2318=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2319
774d564b
PP
2320(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
2321strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated
2322as literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
7b8d334a 2323parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2324
774d564b
PP
2325You probably wrote something like this:
2326
54310121 2327 @list = qw(
774d564b 2328 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2329 b # another comment
774d564b 2330 );
bbce6d69
PP
2331
2332when you should have written this:
2333
774d564b 2334 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
2335 a
2336 b
774d564b
PP
2337 );
2338
2339If you really want comments, build your list the
2340old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2341
2342 @list = (
2343 'a', # a comment
2344 'b', # another comment
2345 );
bbce6d69
PP
2346
2347=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2348
774d564b 2349(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore commas
68dc0745 2350aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used different
774d564b
PP
2351delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
2352used.)
bbce6d69 2353
54310121 2354You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2355
774d564b
PP
2356 qw! a, b, c !;
2357
2358which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2359commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2360
774d564b 2361 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2362
a0d0e21e
LW
2363=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2364
2365(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2366Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2367end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2368Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2369
2370=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2371
2372(S) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2373
a0d0e21e
LW
2374 open FOO || die;
2375
2376is now misinterpreted as
2377
2378 open(FOO || die);
2379
68dc0745
PP
2380because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary
2381and list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must
2382put parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator
2383instead of "||".
a0d0e21e
LW
2384
2385=item print on closed filehandle %s
2386
2387(W) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
2388Check your logic flow.
2389
2390=item printf on closed filehandle %s
2391
2392(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2393Check your logic flow.
2394
2395=item Probable precedence problem on %s
2396
54310121 2397(W) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a conditional,
a0d0e21e
LW
2398which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
2399last argument of the previous construct, for example:
2400
2401 open FOO || die;
2402
3fe9a6f1 2403=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2404
3fe9a6f1
PP
2405(S) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been declared
2406or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2407
89ea2908
GA
2408=item Range iterator outside integer range
2409
2410(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2411are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
2412One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string
2413increment by prepending "0" to your numbers.
2414
af8c498a 2415=item Read on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2416
2417(W) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
2418Check your logic flow.
2419
2420=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2421
54310121 2422(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e
LW
2423
2424=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2425
2426(F) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
2427desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
2428which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2429
3e0ccd42 2430=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2431
2432(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2433an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2434
3e0ccd42
JP
2435=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method '%s' in package '%s'
2436
2437(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking a
2438method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2439
1930e939
TP
2440=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2441
2442(W) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list with
2443an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This
2444usually means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant
2445to use parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2446
2447 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2448 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2449 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2450 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2451
810b8aa5
GS
2452=item Reference is already weak
2453
2454(W) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.
2455Doing so has no effect.
2456
a0d0e21e
LW
2457=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2458
2459(W) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
2460reference count of other than 1.
2461
fb73857a
PP
2462=item regexp *+ operand could be empty
2463
2464(F) The part of the regexp subject to either the * or + quantifier
2465could match an empty string.
2466
a0d0e21e
LW
2467=item regexp memory corruption
2468
2469(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2470expression compiler gave it.
2471
2472=item regexp out of space
2473
2474(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
2475
a0d0e21e
LW
2476=item Reversed %s= operator
2477
2478(W) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
2479comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
2480
2481=item Runaway format
2482
2483(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2484produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2485199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2486themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2487shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2488
2489=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2490
a6006777 2491(W) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 2492an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc
PP
2493The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2494assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 2495like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 2496subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2497
748a9306 2498On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2499element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2500Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2501L<perlref>.
2502
a6006777
PP
2503=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2504
2505(W) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
2506a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
2507The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2508assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
2509like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
2510subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
2511
2512On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
2513element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
2514Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2515L<perlref>.
2516
a0d0e21e
LW
2517=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2518
54310121
PP
2519(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2520or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2521
2522=item Search pattern not terminated
2523
2524(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2525construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2526Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2527
96e4d5b1 2528=item %sseek() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2529
96e4d5b1
PP
2530(W) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a filehandle that
2531was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2532
2533=item select not implemented
2534
2535(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2536
2537=item sem%s not implemented
2538
2539(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
2540
2541=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2542
2543(S) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
2544that had previously been marked as free.
2545
2546=item Semicolon seems to be missing
2547
2548(W) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
2549or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
2550
2551=item Send on closed socket
2552
2553(W) The filehandle you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
2554Check your logic flow.
2555
1b1626e4 2556=item Sequence (? incomplete
7b8d334a 2557
1b1626e4
G
2558(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?.
2559See L<perlre>.
2560
a0d0e21e
LW
2561=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
2562
2563(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 2564parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2565
2566=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
2567
2568(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
2569but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
2570
2571=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
2572
2573(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
2574See L<perlre>.
2575
a5f75d66
AD
2576=item Server error
2577
9607fc9c
PP
2578Also known as "500 Server error".
2579
2580B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
2581
2582You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the user
2583CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user account you
2584tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables (like PATH)
2585from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a location where the CGI
2586server can't find it, basically, more or less. Please see the following
2587for more information:
2588
be94a901
GS
2589 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/idiots-guide.html
2590 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/perl-cgi-faq.html
9607fc9c
PP
2591 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
2592 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
2593 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 2594
be94a901
GS
2595You should also look at L<perlfaq9>.
2596
a0d0e21e
LW
2597=item setegid() not implemented
2598
8b1a09fc 2599(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2600the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2601think so.
2602
2603=item seteuid() not implemented
2604
8b1a09fc 2605(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<gt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2606the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2607think so.
2608
2609=item setrgid() not implemented
2610
8b1a09fc 2611(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2612the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2613think so.
2614
2615=item setruid() not implemented
2616
1f8d2005 2617(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<lt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2618the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2619think so.
2620
2621=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
2622
2623(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
2624because the world might have written on it already.
2625
2626=item shm%s not implemented
2627
2628(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
2629
2630=item shutdown() on closed fd
2631
2632(W) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
2633
f86702cc 2634=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e
LW
2635
2636(W) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
2637put it into the wrong package?
2638
2639=item sort is now a reserved word
2640
2641(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
2642But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
2643
2644=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
2645
2646(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
4633a7c4 2647it by not using C<E<lt>=E<gt>> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
2648See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2649
2650=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
2651
2652(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
2653or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2654
2655=item Split loop
2656
2657(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
2658more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
2659See L<perlfunc/split>.
2660
8b1a09fc 2661=item Stat on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2662
2663(W) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
54310121 2664on a filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2665
2666=item Statement unlikely to be reached
2667
2668(W) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
2669This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
2670there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
2671which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
2672by itself.
2673
17feb5d5
DD
2674=item Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression
2675
2676(W) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where it
2677makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion.
2678Try putting the quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example,
2679the way to match "abc" provided that it is followed by three
2680repetitions of "xyz" is C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
2681
e7ea3e70
IZ
2682=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
2683
2684(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation stubs.
2685Stubs should never be implicitely created, but explicit calls to C<can>
2686may break this.
2687
a0d0e21e
LW
2688=item Subroutine %s redefined
2689
2690(W) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
2691
2692 {
4438c4b7 2693 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
2694 eval "sub name { ... }";
2695 }
2696
2697=item Substitution loop
2698
2699(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
2700substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
68dc0745 2701input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2702L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2703
2704=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2705
2706(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2707construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2708Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2709
2710=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2711
2712(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2713construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2714Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2715
2716=item substr outside of string
2717
3e3baf6d
TB
2718(S),(W) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a
2719string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
2720length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is
2721mandatory if substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side
2722of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 2723
f86702cc 2724=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2725
2726(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2727version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2728
85ab1d1d
JH
2729=item switching effective %s is not implemented
2730
2731(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, we cannot switch the
2732real and effective uids or gids.
2733
a0d0e21e
LW
2734=item syntax error
2735
2736(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2737
2738 A keyword is misspelled.
2739 A semicolon is missing.
2740 A comma is missing.
2741 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2742 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2743 A closing quote is missing.
2744
2745Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2746error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2747The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2748it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2749before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2750Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2751the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2752C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2753if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2754
cb1a09d0
AD
2755=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2756
8b1a09fc 2757(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 2758instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2759into Perl yourself.
2760
6087ac44 2761=item System V %s is not implemented on this machine
a0d0e21e 2762
6087ac44
JH
2763(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem",
2764"shm", or "msg" but that System V IPC is not implemented in your
2765machine. In some machines the functionality can exist but be
2766unconfigured. Consult your system support.
a0d0e21e
LW
2767
2768=item Syswrite on closed filehandle
2769
2770(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2771Check your logic flow.
2772
fc36a67e
PP
2773=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
2774
2775(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply
2776nested for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
2777
8903cb82 2778=item tell() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2779
8903cb82
PP
2780(W) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
2781never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 2782
8b1a09fc 2783=item Test on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2784
2785(W) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
2786open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2787
2788=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2789
8b1a09fc 2790(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2791a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2792
2793 $[ = 0;
2794 $[ = 1;
2795 ...
2796 local $[ = 0;
2797 local $[ = 1;
2798 ...
2799
2800This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2801out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2802
2803=item The %s function is unimplemented
2804
2805The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2806to the probings of Configure.
2807
f86702cc 2808=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
2809
2810(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2811probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 2812think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
2813will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
2814will deny it.
2815
2816=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
2817
2818(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
2819if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
2820the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
2821
f675dbe5
CB
2822=item This Perl can't reset CRTL eviron elements (%s)
2823
2824=item This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
2825
2826(W) Warnings peculiar to VMS. You tried to change or delete an element
2827of the CRTL's internal environ array, but your copy of Perl wasn't
2828built with a CRTL that contained the setenv() function. You'll need to
2829rebuild Perl with a CRTL that does, or redefine F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see
2830L<perlvms>) so that the environ array isn't the target of the change to
2831%ENV which produced the warning.
2832
a0d0e21e
LW
2833=item times not implemented
2834
2835(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
2836you're not running on Unix.
2837
2838=item Too few args to syscall
2839
2840(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
2841system call to call, silly dilly.
2842
9607fc9c
PP
2843=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
2844
2845(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb
PP
2846B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
2847This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
2848script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
2849So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 2850
9607fc9c
PP
2851If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
2852mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed
2853by editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's
2854first argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 2855
9607fc9c
PP
2856If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
2857B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 2858
8cc95fdb
PP
2859=item Too late for "-%s" option
2860
2861(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
2862B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options
2863are not intended for use inside scripts. Use the C<use> pragma instead.
2864
cb1a09d0
AD
2865=item Too many ('s
2866
2867=item Too many )'s
2868
2869(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
2870of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
2871Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 2872
a0d0e21e
LW
2873=item Too many args to syscall
2874
5f05dabc 2875(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
2876
2877=item Too many arguments for %s
2878
2879(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
2880
2881=item trailing \ in regexp
2882
2883(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
2884it. See L<perlre>.
2885
2c268ad5 2886=item Transliteration pattern not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2887
2888(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
fb73857a
PP
2889or y/// or y[][] construct. Missing the leading C<$> from variables
2890C<$tr> or C<$y> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2891
2c268ad5 2892=item Transliteration replacement not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2893
2894(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
2895construct.
2896
2897=item truncate not implemented
2898
2899(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
2900Configure knows about.
2901
2902=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
2903
2904(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
2905certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
2906%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
2907{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
2908
2909=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
2910
eec2d3df
GS
2911(W) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal
2912literals always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
2913
2914=item umask not implemented
2915
2916(F) Your machine doesn't implement the umask function and you tried
2917to use it to restrict permissions for yourself (EXPR & 0700).
a0d0e21e 2918
4633a7c4
LW
2919=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
2920
2921(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
2922
a0d0e21e
LW
2923=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
2924
2925(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
2926contexts were entered and left.
2927
2928=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
2929
2930(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
2931values were temporarily localized.
2932
2933=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
2934
2935(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
2936were entered and left.
2937
2938=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
2939
2940(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
2941scalars were allocated and freed.
2942
2943=item Undefined format "%s" called
2944
2945(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2946another package? See L<perlform>.
2947
2948=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
2949
2950(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
2951it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2952
2953=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
2954
2955(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2956has since been undefined.
2957
2958=item Undefined subroutine called
2959
2960(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
2961or if it was, it has since been undefined.
2962
2963=item Undefined subroutine in sort
2964
2965(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
2966have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2967
4633a7c4
LW
2968=item Undefined top format "%s" called
2969
2970(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2971another package? See L<perlform>.
2972
20408e3c
GS
2973=item Undefined value assigned to typeglob
2974
2975(W) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la C<*foo = undef>.
2976This does nothing. It's possible that you really mean C<undef *foo>.
2977
a0d0e21e
LW
2978=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
2979
2980(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
2981representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
2982
2983=item Unknown BYTEORDER
2984
5f05dabc 2985(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e 2986
6170680b
IZ
2987=item Unknown open() mode '%s'
2988
2989(F) The second argument of 3-arguments open is not one from the list
2990of C<L<lt>>, C<L<gt>>, C<E<gt>E<gt>>, C<+L<lt>>, C<+L<gt>>,
2991C<+E<gt>E<gt>>, C<-|>, C<|-> of possible open() modes.
2992
f675dbe5
CB
2993=item Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s
2994
2995(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl was reading values for %ENV before
2996iterating over it, and someone else stuck a message in the stream of
2997data Perl expected. Someone's very confused, or perhaps trying to
2998subvert Perl's population of %ENV for nefarious purposes.
2999
a0d0e21e
LW
3000=item unmatched () in regexp
3001
3002(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
3003expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 3004the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3005
d98d5fff 3006=item Unmatched right %s bracket
a0d0e21e 3007
d98d5fff
GS
3008(F) The lexer counted more closing curly or square brackets than
3009opening ones, so you're probably missing a matching opening bracket.
3010As a general rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the
3011place you were last editing.
a0d0e21e
LW
3012
3013=item unmatched [] in regexp
3014
3015(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
3016include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
3017See L<perlre>.
3018
3019=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
3020
54310121 3021(W) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
a0d0e21e
LW
3022It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
3023an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
3024
54310121 3025=item Unrecognized character %s
a0d0e21e 3026
54310121
PP
3027(F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character
3028in your Perl script (or eval). Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
3029script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.
a0d0e21e 3030
c9f97d15
IZ
3031=item Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
3032
3033(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
3034by Perl.
3035
a0d0e21e
LW
3036=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
3037
3038(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
3039Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
3040
90248788 3041=item Unrecognized switch: -%s (-h will show valid options)
a0d0e21e
LW
3042
3043(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
3044(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
3045supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
3046
3047=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
3048
3049(W) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
3050failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
54310121 3051because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chomp>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3052
3053=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
3054
3055(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
3056
54310121
PP
3057=item Unsupported function fork
3058
3059(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
3060
3061Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
3062Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
3063the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
3064
a0d0e21e
LW
3065=item Unsupported function %s
3066
7b8d334a 3067(F) This machine doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
a0d0e21e
LW
3068At least, Configure doesn't think so.
3069
3070=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
3071
3072(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
3073least that's what Configure thought.
3074
8b1a09fc 3075=item Unterminated E<lt>E<gt> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
3076
3077(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
3078a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
3079finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
3080the line, and you really meant a "less than".
3081
09bef843
SB
3082=item Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list
3083
3084(F) The lexer saw an opening (left) parenthesis character while parsing an
3085attribute list, but the matching closing (right) parenthesis
3086character was not found. You may need to add (or remove) a backslash
3087character to get your parentheses to balance. See L<attributes>.
3088
3089=item Unterminated attribute list
3090
3091(F) The lexer found something other than a simple identifier at the start
3092of an attribute, and it wasn't a semicolon or the start of a
3093block. Perhaps you terminated the parameter list of the previous attribute
3094too soon. See L<attributes>.
3095
a0d0e21e
LW
3096=item Use of $# is deprecated
3097
8b1a09fc 3098(D) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
3099Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
3100
3101=item Use of $* is deprecated
3102
4a6725af 3103(D) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
3104you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
3105use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
3106action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
3107
748a9306
LW
3108=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
3109
5f05dabc
PP
3110(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
3111only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 3112
8b1a09fc 3113=item Use of bare E<lt>E<lt> to mean E<lt>E<lt>"" is deprecated
4633a7c4
LW
3114
3115(D) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
3fe9a6f1 3116wish to use an empty line as the terminator of the here-document.
4633a7c4 3117
a0d0e21e
LW
3118=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
3119
3120(D) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
3121subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
3122a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
3123
dc848c6f
PP
3124=item Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
3125
5cd24f17
PP
3126(D) As an (ahem) accidental feature, C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines are looked
3127up as methods (using the C<@ISA> hierarchy) even when the subroutines to
3128be autoloaded were called as plain functions (e.g. C<Foo::bar()>), not
7b8d334a 3129as methods (e.g. C<Foo-E<gt>bar()> or C<$obj-E<gt>bar()>).
dc848c6f
PP
3130
3131This bug will be rectified in Perl 5.005, which will use method lookup
3132only for methods' C<AUTOLOAD>s. However, there is a significant base
3133of existing code that may be using the old behavior. So, as an
3134interim step, Perl 5.004 issues an optional warning when non-methods
3135use inherited C<AUTOLOAD>s.
3136
3137The simple rule is: Inheritance will not work when autoloading
3138non-methods. The simple fix for old code is: In any module that used to
3139depend on inheriting C<AUTOLOAD> for non-methods from a base class named
3140C<BaseClass>, execute C<*AUTOLOAD = \&BaseClass::AUTOLOAD> during startup.
3141
fb73857a
PP
3142In code that currently says C<use AutoLoader; @ISA = qw(AutoLoader);> you
3143should remove AutoLoader from @ISA and change C<use AutoLoader;> to
7b8d334a 3144C<use AutoLoader 'AUTOLOAD';>.
fb73857a 3145
85b81015
LW
3146=item Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated
3147
3148(D) The indicated bareword is a reserved word. Future versions of perl
3149may use it as a keyword, so you're better off either explicitly quoting
3150the word in a manner appropriate for its context of use, or using a
3151different name altogether. The warning can be suppressed for subroutine
3152names by either adding a C<&> prefix, or using a package qualifier,
3153e.g. C<&our()>, or C<Foo::our()>.
3154
dc848c6f
PP
3155=item Use of %s is deprecated
3156
3157(D) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
3158because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
3159bad side effects.
3160
a0d0e21e
LW
3161=item Use of uninitialized value
3162
3163(W) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
3164interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
5311ebfa 3165warning assign a defined value to your variables.
a0d0e21e 3166
8202fd39
G
3167=item Useless use of "re" pragma
3168
3169(W) You did C<use re;> without any arguments. That isn't very useful.
3170
a0d0e21e
LW
3171=item Useless use of %s in void context
3172
3173(W) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
3174with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
3175from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
3176this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
3177your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
3178if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
3179
3180 $one, $two = 1, 2;
3181
3182when you meant to say
3183
3184 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
3185
748a9306
LW
3186Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
3187reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
3188example, if you say
3189
3190 $array = (1,2);
3191
3192when you should have said
3193
3194 $array = [1,2];
3195
3196The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
3197while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
3198a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
3199throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
3200L<perlref> for more on this.
3201
55497cff
PP
3202=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
3203
3204(W) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
3205valid when C<untie> was called.
3206
68dc0745 3207=item Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777 3208
68dc0745
PP
3209(W) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), C<each()>,
3210or C<readdir()> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
3211value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which is
3212probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in conditional
3213expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
a6006777 3214
f675dbe5
CB
3215=item Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long
3216
3217(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the value of an %ENV
3218element from a CLI symbol table, and found a resultant string longer
3219than 1024 characters. The return value has been truncated to 1024
3220characters.
3221
9607fc9c 3222=item Variable "%s" is not imported%s
4633a7c4
LW
3223
3224(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
3225that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
3226something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
3227by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
3228on the front of your variable.
3229
44a8e56a
PP
3230=item Variable "%s" may be unavailable
3231
3232(W) An inner (nested) I<anonymous> subroutine is inside a I<named>
3233subroutine, and outside that is another subroutine; and the anonymous
3234(innermost) subroutine is referencing a lexical variable defined in
3235the outermost subroutine. For example:
3236
3237 sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }
3238
3239If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or
3240indirectly) from the outermost subroutine, it will share the variable
3241as you would expect. But if the anonymous subroutine is called or
3242referenced when the outermost subroutine is not active, it will see
3243the value of the shared variable as it was before and during the
3244*first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is probably not what
3245you want.
3246
3247In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle
3248subroutine anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. Perl has specific
3249support for shared variables in nested anonymous subroutines; a named
3250subroutine in between interferes with this feature.
3251
3252=item Variable "%s" will not stay shared
3253
3254(W) An inner (nested) I<named> subroutine is referencing a lexical
3255variable defined in an outer subroutine.
3256
3257When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value of
3258the outer subroutine's variable as it was before and during the
3259*first* call to the outer subroutine; in this case, after the first
3260call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer
3261subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable. In
3262other words, the variable will no longer be shared.
3263
3264Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a
3265lexical variable outside itself, then the outer and inner subroutines
3266will I<never> share the given variable.
3267
3268This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine
3269anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. When inner anonymous subs that
3270reference variables in outer subroutines are called or referenced,
54310121 3271they are automatically rebound to the current values of such
44a8e56a
PP
3272variables.
3273
f86702cc 3274=item Variable syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
3275
3276(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
3277of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
3278Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 3279
3e6e419a
JH
3280=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3281
3282(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
3283
3284 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3285 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
3286 LC_ALL = "En_US",
3287 LANG = (unset)
3288 are supported and installed on your system.
3289 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
3290
3291Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
3292settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
3293This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your system
3294administrator have set up the so-called variable system but Perl could
3295not use those settings. This was not dead serious, fortunately: there
3296is a "default locale" called "C" that Perl can and will use, the
3297script will be run. Before you really fix the problem, however, you
3298will get the same error message each time you run Perl. How to really
3299fix the problem can be found in L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
3300
7e1af8bc 3301=item Warning: something's wrong
5f05dabc
PP
3302
3303(W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of C<warn "">) or
3304you called it with no args and C<$_> was empty.
3305
f86702cc 3306=item Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly
a0d0e21e 3307
8b1a09fc 3308(S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the
5f05dabc 3309close(). This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.
a0d0e21e 3310
5f05dabc 3311=item Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
a0d0e21e
LW
3312
3313(S) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
3314binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or
3315unary operator. For instance, if you know that the rand function
3316has a default argument of 1.0, and you write
3317
3318 rand + 5;
3319
3320you may THINK you wrote the same thing as
3321
3322 rand() + 5;
3323
3324but in actual fact, you got
3325
3326 rand(+5);
3327
5f05dabc 3328So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.
a0d0e21e 3329
af8c498a 3330=item Write on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
3331
3332(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
3333Check your logic flow.
3334
3335=item X outside of string
3336
3337(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position before
3338the beginning of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3339
3340=item x outside of string
3341
3342(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after
3343the end of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3344
3345=item Xsub "%s" called in sort
3346
3347(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3348
3349=item Xsub called in sort
3350
3351(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3352
3353=item You can't use C<-l> on a filehandle
3354
3355(F) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it
3356already went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.
3357Use a filename instead.
3358
3359=item YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
3360
5f05dabc 3361(F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the
a0d0e21e
LW
3362sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip
3363about what you want. Your best bet is to use the wrapsuid script in
3364the eg directory to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.
3365
3366=item You need to quote "%s"
3367
3368(W) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name. Unfortunately, you
3369already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5
3370will try to call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is
3371probably not what you want. (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)
3372
3373=item [gs]etsockopt() on closed fd
3374
3375(W) You tried to get or set a socket option on a closed socket.
3376Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
3377See L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
3378
3379=item \1 better written as $1
3380
3381(W) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables. The use
5f05dabc 3382of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
a0d0e21e
LW
3383substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
3384because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better
3385if there are more than 9 backreferences.
3386
8b1a09fc 3387=item '|' and 'E<lt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3388
3389(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3390found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using
8b1a09fc 3391'E<lt>'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
748a9306 3392
8b1a09fc 3393=item '|' and 'E<gt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3394
3395(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3396thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another
3397command. You need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you
3398from piping into a program or Perl script which 'splits' output into two
3399streams, such as
3400
3401 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
3402 while (<STDIN>) {
3403 print;
3404 print OUT;
3405 }
3406 close OUT;
3407
774d564b 3408=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
33c8a3fe 3409
774d564b
PP
3410(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
3411version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3412
3413=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
3414
dc848c6f 3415(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
33c8a3fe
IZ
3416
3417 prefix1;prefix2
3418
3419or
3420
3421 prefix1 prefix2
3422
dc848c6f
PP
3423with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix
3424of a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error
3425may appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
3426"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3427
3428=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
3429
54310121 3430(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
dc848c6f 3431C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3432
3433=item Process terminated by SIG%s
3434
3435(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
dc848c6f
PP
3436applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
3437port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
3438L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
3439in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe 3440
a0d0e21e
LW
3441=back
3442