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a0d0e21e 1/* sv.c
79072805 2 *
4bb101f2 3 * Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999,
7272f7c1 4 * 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, by Larry Wall and others
79072805
LW
5 *
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8 *
a0d0e21e 9 * "I wonder what the Entish is for 'yes' and 'no'," he thought.
645c22ef
DM
10 *
11 *
5e045b90
AMS
12 * This file contains the code that creates, manipulates and destroys
13 * scalar values (SVs). The other types (AV, HV, GV, etc.) reuse the
14 * structure of an SV, so their creation and destruction is handled
15 * here; higher-level functions are in av.c, hv.c, and so on. Opcode
16 * level functions (eg. substr, split, join) for each of the types are
17 * in the pp*.c files.
79072805
LW
18 */
19
20#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 21#define PERL_IN_SV_C
79072805 22#include "perl.h"
d2f185dc 23#include "regcomp.h"
79072805 24
51371543 25#define FCALL *f
2c5424a7 26
2f8ed50e
OS
27#ifdef __Lynx__
28/* Missing proto on LynxOS */
29 char *gconvert(double, int, int, char *);
30#endif
31
e23c8137 32#ifdef PERL_UTF8_CACHE_ASSERT
ab455f60 33/* if adding more checks watch out for the following tests:
e23c8137
JH
34 * t/op/index.t t/op/length.t t/op/pat.t t/op/substr.t
35 * lib/utf8.t lib/Unicode/Collate/t/index.t
36 * --jhi
37 */
6f207bd3 38# define ASSERT_UTF8_CACHE(cache) \
ab455f60
NC
39 STMT_START { if (cache) { assert((cache)[0] <= (cache)[1]); \
40 assert((cache)[2] <= (cache)[3]); \
41 assert((cache)[3] <= (cache)[1]);} \
42 } STMT_END
e23c8137 43#else
6f207bd3 44# define ASSERT_UTF8_CACHE(cache) NOOP
e23c8137
JH
45#endif
46
f8c7b90f 47#ifdef PERL_OLD_COPY_ON_WRITE
765f542d 48#define SV_COW_NEXT_SV(sv) INT2PTR(SV *,SvUVX(sv))
607fa7f2 49#define SV_COW_NEXT_SV_SET(current,next) SvUV_set(current, PTR2UV(next))
b5ccf5f2 50/* This is a pessimistic view. Scalar must be purely a read-write PV to copy-
765f542d 51 on-write. */
765f542d 52#endif
645c22ef
DM
53
54/* ============================================================================
55
56=head1 Allocation and deallocation of SVs.
57
d2a0f284
JC
58An SV (or AV, HV, etc.) is allocated in two parts: the head (struct
59sv, av, hv...) contains type and reference count information, and for
60many types, a pointer to the body (struct xrv, xpv, xpviv...), which
61contains fields specific to each type. Some types store all they need
62in the head, so don't have a body.
63
64In all but the most memory-paranoid configuations (ex: PURIFY), heads
65and bodies are allocated out of arenas, which by default are
66approximately 4K chunks of memory parcelled up into N heads or bodies.
93e68bfb
JC
67Sv-bodies are allocated by their sv-type, guaranteeing size
68consistency needed to allocate safely from arrays.
69
d2a0f284
JC
70For SV-heads, the first slot in each arena is reserved, and holds a
71link to the next arena, some flags, and a note of the number of slots.
72Snaked through each arena chain is a linked list of free items; when
73this becomes empty, an extra arena is allocated and divided up into N
74items which are threaded into the free list.
75
76SV-bodies are similar, but they use arena-sets by default, which
77separate the link and info from the arena itself, and reclaim the 1st
78slot in the arena. SV-bodies are further described later.
645c22ef
DM
79
80The following global variables are associated with arenas:
81
82 PL_sv_arenaroot pointer to list of SV arenas
83 PL_sv_root pointer to list of free SV structures
84
d2a0f284
JC
85 PL_body_arenas head of linked-list of body arenas
86 PL_body_roots[] array of pointers to list of free bodies of svtype
87 arrays are indexed by the svtype needed
93e68bfb 88
d2a0f284
JC
89A few special SV heads are not allocated from an arena, but are
90instead directly created in the interpreter structure, eg PL_sv_undef.
93e68bfb
JC
91The size of arenas can be changed from the default by setting
92PERL_ARENA_SIZE appropriately at compile time.
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93
94The SV arena serves the secondary purpose of allowing still-live SVs
95to be located and destroyed during final cleanup.
96
97At the lowest level, the macros new_SV() and del_SV() grab and free
98an SV head. (If debugging with -DD, del_SV() calls the function S_del_sv()
99to return the SV to the free list with error checking.) new_SV() calls
100more_sv() / sv_add_arena() to add an extra arena if the free list is empty.
101SVs in the free list have their SvTYPE field set to all ones.
102
ff276b08 103At the time of very final cleanup, sv_free_arenas() is called from
645c22ef 104perl_destruct() to physically free all the arenas allocated since the
6a93a7e5 105start of the interpreter.
645c22ef 106
645c22ef
DM
107The function visit() scans the SV arenas list, and calls a specified
108function for each SV it finds which is still live - ie which has an SvTYPE
109other than all 1's, and a non-zero SvREFCNT. visit() is used by the
110following functions (specified as [function that calls visit()] / [function
111called by visit() for each SV]):
112
113 sv_report_used() / do_report_used()
f2524eef 114 dump all remaining SVs (debugging aid)
645c22ef
DM
115
116 sv_clean_objs() / do_clean_objs(),do_clean_named_objs()
117 Attempt to free all objects pointed to by RVs,
118 and, unless DISABLE_DESTRUCTOR_KLUDGE is defined,
119 try to do the same for all objects indirectly
120 referenced by typeglobs too. Called once from
121 perl_destruct(), prior to calling sv_clean_all()
122 below.
123
124 sv_clean_all() / do_clean_all()
125 SvREFCNT_dec(sv) each remaining SV, possibly
126 triggering an sv_free(). It also sets the
127 SVf_BREAK flag on the SV to indicate that the
128 refcnt has been artificially lowered, and thus
129 stopping sv_free() from giving spurious warnings
130 about SVs which unexpectedly have a refcnt
131 of zero. called repeatedly from perl_destruct()
132 until there are no SVs left.
133
93e68bfb 134=head2 Arena allocator API Summary
645c22ef
DM
135
136Private API to rest of sv.c
137
138 new_SV(), del_SV(),
139
140 new_XIV(), del_XIV(),
141 new_XNV(), del_XNV(),
142 etc
143
144Public API:
145
8cf8f3d1 146 sv_report_used(), sv_clean_objs(), sv_clean_all(), sv_free_arenas()
645c22ef 147
645c22ef
DM
148=cut
149
150============================================================================ */
151
4561caa4
CS
152/*
153 * "A time to plant, and a time to uproot what was planted..."
154 */
155
77354fb4
NC
156void
157Perl_offer_nice_chunk(pTHX_ void *chunk, U32 chunk_size)
158{
97aff369 159 dVAR;
77354fb4
NC
160 void *new_chunk;
161 U32 new_chunk_size;
77354fb4
NC
162 new_chunk = (void *)(chunk);
163 new_chunk_size = (chunk_size);
164 if (new_chunk_size > PL_nice_chunk_size) {
165 Safefree(PL_nice_chunk);
166 PL_nice_chunk = (char *) new_chunk;
167 PL_nice_chunk_size = new_chunk_size;
168 } else {
169 Safefree(chunk);
170 }
77354fb4 171}
cac9b346 172
fd0854ff 173#ifdef DEBUG_LEAKING_SCALARS
22162ca8 174# define FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(sv) Safefree((sv)->sv_debug_file)
fd0854ff
DM
175#else
176# define FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(sv)
177#endif
178
48614a46
NC
179#ifdef PERL_POISON
180# define SvARENA_CHAIN(sv) ((sv)->sv_u.svu_rv)
181/* Whilst I'd love to do this, it seems that things like to check on
182 unreferenced scalars
7e337ee0 183# define POSION_SV_HEAD(sv) PoisonNew(sv, 1, struct STRUCT_SV)
48614a46 184*/
7e337ee0
JH
185# define POSION_SV_HEAD(sv) PoisonNew(&SvANY(sv), 1, void *), \
186 PoisonNew(&SvREFCNT(sv), 1, U32)
48614a46
NC
187#else
188# define SvARENA_CHAIN(sv) SvANY(sv)
189# define POSION_SV_HEAD(sv)
190#endif
191
053fc874
GS
192#define plant_SV(p) \
193 STMT_START { \
fd0854ff 194 FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(p); \
48614a46
NC
195 POSION_SV_HEAD(p); \
196 SvARENA_CHAIN(p) = (void *)PL_sv_root; \
053fc874
GS
197 SvFLAGS(p) = SVTYPEMASK; \
198 PL_sv_root = (p); \
199 --PL_sv_count; \
200 } STMT_END
a0d0e21e 201
053fc874
GS
202#define uproot_SV(p) \
203 STMT_START { \
204 (p) = PL_sv_root; \
bb7bbd9c 205 PL_sv_root = (SV*)SvARENA_CHAIN(p); \
053fc874
GS
206 ++PL_sv_count; \
207 } STMT_END
208
645c22ef 209
cac9b346
NC
210/* make some more SVs by adding another arena */
211
cac9b346
NC
212STATIC SV*
213S_more_sv(pTHX)
214{
97aff369 215 dVAR;
cac9b346
NC
216 SV* sv;
217
218 if (PL_nice_chunk) {
219 sv_add_arena(PL_nice_chunk, PL_nice_chunk_size, 0);
bd61b366 220 PL_nice_chunk = NULL;
cac9b346
NC
221 PL_nice_chunk_size = 0;
222 }
223 else {
224 char *chunk; /* must use New here to match call to */
d2a0f284 225 Newx(chunk,PERL_ARENA_SIZE,char); /* Safefree() in sv_free_arenas() */
2e7ed132 226 sv_add_arena(chunk, PERL_ARENA_SIZE, 0);
cac9b346
NC
227 }
228 uproot_SV(sv);
229 return sv;
230}
231
645c22ef
DM
232/* new_SV(): return a new, empty SV head */
233
eba0f806
DM
234#ifdef DEBUG_LEAKING_SCALARS
235/* provide a real function for a debugger to play with */
236STATIC SV*
237S_new_SV(pTHX)
238{
239 SV* sv;
240
eba0f806
DM
241 if (PL_sv_root)
242 uproot_SV(sv);
243 else
cac9b346 244 sv = S_more_sv(aTHX);
eba0f806
DM
245 SvANY(sv) = 0;
246 SvREFCNT(sv) = 1;
247 SvFLAGS(sv) = 0;
fd0854ff 248 sv->sv_debug_optype = PL_op ? PL_op->op_type : 0;
f24aceb1
DM
249 sv->sv_debug_line = (U16) (PL_parser
250 ? PL_parser->copline == NOLINE
251 ? PL_curcop
252 ? CopLINE(PL_curcop)
253 : 0
254 : PL_parser->copline
255 : 0);
fd0854ff
DM
256 sv->sv_debug_inpad = 0;
257 sv->sv_debug_cloned = 0;
fd0854ff 258 sv->sv_debug_file = PL_curcop ? savepv(CopFILE(PL_curcop)): NULL;
fd0854ff 259
eba0f806
DM
260 return sv;
261}
262# define new_SV(p) (p)=S_new_SV(aTHX)
263
264#else
265# define new_SV(p) \
053fc874 266 STMT_START { \
053fc874
GS
267 if (PL_sv_root) \
268 uproot_SV(p); \
269 else \
cac9b346 270 (p) = S_more_sv(aTHX); \
053fc874
GS
271 SvANY(p) = 0; \
272 SvREFCNT(p) = 1; \
273 SvFLAGS(p) = 0; \
274 } STMT_END
eba0f806 275#endif
463ee0b2 276
645c22ef
DM
277
278/* del_SV(): return an empty SV head to the free list */
279
a0d0e21e 280#ifdef DEBUGGING
4561caa4 281
053fc874
GS
282#define del_SV(p) \
283 STMT_START { \
aea4f609 284 if (DEBUG_D_TEST) \
053fc874
GS
285 del_sv(p); \
286 else \
287 plant_SV(p); \
053fc874 288 } STMT_END
a0d0e21e 289
76e3520e 290STATIC void
cea2e8a9 291S_del_sv(pTHX_ SV *p)
463ee0b2 292{
97aff369 293 dVAR;
aea4f609 294 if (DEBUG_D_TEST) {
4633a7c4 295 SV* sva;
a3b680e6 296 bool ok = 0;
3280af22 297 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = (SV *) SvANY(sva)) {
53c1dcc0
AL
298 const SV * const sv = sva + 1;
299 const SV * const svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva)];
c0ff570e 300 if (p >= sv && p < svend) {
a0d0e21e 301 ok = 1;
c0ff570e
NC
302 break;
303 }
a0d0e21e
LW
304 }
305 if (!ok) {
0453d815 306 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_INTERNAL))
9014280d 307 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_INTERNAL),
472d47bc
SB
308 "Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%"UVxf
309 pTHX__FORMAT, PTR2UV(p) pTHX__VALUE);
a0d0e21e
LW
310 return;
311 }
312 }
4561caa4 313 plant_SV(p);
463ee0b2 314}
a0d0e21e 315
4561caa4
CS
316#else /* ! DEBUGGING */
317
318#define del_SV(p) plant_SV(p)
319
320#endif /* DEBUGGING */
463ee0b2 321
645c22ef
DM
322
323/*
ccfc67b7
JH
324=head1 SV Manipulation Functions
325
645c22ef
DM
326=for apidoc sv_add_arena
327
328Given a chunk of memory, link it to the head of the list of arenas,
329and split it into a list of free SVs.
330
331=cut
332*/
333
4633a7c4 334void
864dbfa3 335Perl_sv_add_arena(pTHX_ char *ptr, U32 size, U32 flags)
463ee0b2 336{
97aff369 337 dVAR;
0bd48802 338 SV* const sva = (SV*)ptr;
463ee0b2
LW
339 register SV* sv;
340 register SV* svend;
4633a7c4
LW
341
342 /* The first SV in an arena isn't an SV. */
3280af22 343 SvANY(sva) = (void *) PL_sv_arenaroot; /* ptr to next arena */
4633a7c4
LW
344 SvREFCNT(sva) = size / sizeof(SV); /* number of SV slots */
345 SvFLAGS(sva) = flags; /* FAKE if not to be freed */
346
3280af22
NIS
347 PL_sv_arenaroot = sva;
348 PL_sv_root = sva + 1;
4633a7c4
LW
349
350 svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva) - 1];
351 sv = sva + 1;
463ee0b2 352 while (sv < svend) {
48614a46 353 SvARENA_CHAIN(sv) = (void *)(SV*)(sv + 1);
03e36789 354#ifdef DEBUGGING
978b032e 355 SvREFCNT(sv) = 0;
03e36789 356#endif
4b69cbe3 357 /* Must always set typemask because it's always checked in on cleanup
03e36789 358 when the arenas are walked looking for objects. */
8990e307 359 SvFLAGS(sv) = SVTYPEMASK;
463ee0b2
LW
360 sv++;
361 }
48614a46 362 SvARENA_CHAIN(sv) = 0;
03e36789
NC
363#ifdef DEBUGGING
364 SvREFCNT(sv) = 0;
365#endif
4633a7c4
LW
366 SvFLAGS(sv) = SVTYPEMASK;
367}
368
055972dc
DM
369/* visit(): call the named function for each non-free SV in the arenas
370 * whose flags field matches the flags/mask args. */
645c22ef 371
5226ed68 372STATIC I32
055972dc 373S_visit(pTHX_ SVFUNC_t f, U32 flags, U32 mask)
8990e307 374{
97aff369 375 dVAR;
4633a7c4 376 SV* sva;
5226ed68 377 I32 visited = 0;
8990e307 378
3280af22 379 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = (SV*)SvANY(sva)) {
53c1dcc0 380 register const SV * const svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva)];
a3b680e6 381 register SV* sv;
4561caa4 382 for (sv = sva + 1; sv < svend; ++sv) {
055972dc
DM
383 if (SvTYPE(sv) != SVTYPEMASK
384 && (sv->sv_flags & mask) == flags
385 && SvREFCNT(sv))
386 {
acfe0abc 387 (FCALL)(aTHX_ sv);
5226ed68
JH
388 ++visited;
389 }
8990e307
LW
390 }
391 }
5226ed68 392 return visited;
8990e307
LW
393}
394
758a08c3
JH
395#ifdef DEBUGGING
396
645c22ef
DM
397/* called by sv_report_used() for each live SV */
398
399static void
acfe0abc 400do_report_used(pTHX_ SV *sv)
645c22ef
DM
401{
402 if (SvTYPE(sv) != SVTYPEMASK) {
403 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "****\n");
404 sv_dump(sv);
405 }
406}
758a08c3 407#endif
645c22ef
DM
408
409/*
410=for apidoc sv_report_used
411
412Dump the contents of all SVs not yet freed. (Debugging aid).
413
414=cut
415*/
416
8990e307 417void
864dbfa3 418Perl_sv_report_used(pTHX)
4561caa4 419{
ff270d3a 420#ifdef DEBUGGING
055972dc 421 visit(do_report_used, 0, 0);
96a5add6
AL
422#else
423 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
ff270d3a 424#endif
4561caa4
CS
425}
426
645c22ef
DM
427/* called by sv_clean_objs() for each live SV */
428
429static void
e15faf7d 430do_clean_objs(pTHX_ SV *ref)
645c22ef 431{
97aff369 432 dVAR;
ea724faa
NC
433 assert (SvROK(ref));
434 {
823a54a3
AL
435 SV * const target = SvRV(ref);
436 if (SvOBJECT(target)) {
437 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Cleaning object ref:\n "), sv_dump(ref)));
438 if (SvWEAKREF(ref)) {
439 sv_del_backref(target, ref);
440 SvWEAKREF_off(ref);
441 SvRV_set(ref, NULL);
442 } else {
443 SvROK_off(ref);
444 SvRV_set(ref, NULL);
445 SvREFCNT_dec(target);
446 }
645c22ef
DM
447 }
448 }
449
450 /* XXX Might want to check arrays, etc. */
451}
452
453/* called by sv_clean_objs() for each live SV */
454
455#ifndef DISABLE_DESTRUCTOR_KLUDGE
456static void
acfe0abc 457do_clean_named_objs(pTHX_ SV *sv)
645c22ef 458{
97aff369 459 dVAR;
ea724faa 460 assert(SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV);
d011219a
NC
461 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
462 if (GvGP(sv)) {
c69033f2
NC
463 if ((
464#ifdef PERL_DONT_CREATE_GVSV
465 GvSV(sv) &&
466#endif
467 SvOBJECT(GvSV(sv))) ||
645c22ef
DM
468 (GvAV(sv) && SvOBJECT(GvAV(sv))) ||
469 (GvHV(sv) && SvOBJECT(GvHV(sv))) ||
9c12f1e5
RGS
470 /* In certain rare cases GvIOp(sv) can be NULL, which would make SvOBJECT(GvIO(sv)) dereference NULL. */
471 (GvIO(sv) ? (SvFLAGS(GvIOp(sv)) & SVs_OBJECT) : 0) ||
645c22ef
DM
472 (GvCV(sv) && SvOBJECT(GvCV(sv))) )
473 {
474 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Cleaning named glob object:\n "), sv_dump(sv)));
ec5f3c78 475 SvFLAGS(sv) |= SVf_BREAK;
645c22ef
DM
476 SvREFCNT_dec(sv);
477 }
478 }
479}
480#endif
481
482/*
483=for apidoc sv_clean_objs
484
485Attempt to destroy all objects not yet freed
486
487=cut
488*/
489
4561caa4 490void
864dbfa3 491Perl_sv_clean_objs(pTHX)
4561caa4 492{
97aff369 493 dVAR;
3280af22 494 PL_in_clean_objs = TRUE;
055972dc 495 visit(do_clean_objs, SVf_ROK, SVf_ROK);
4561caa4 496#ifndef DISABLE_DESTRUCTOR_KLUDGE
2d0f3c12 497 /* some barnacles may yet remain, clinging to typeglobs */
d011219a 498 visit(do_clean_named_objs, SVt_PVGV|SVpgv_GP, SVTYPEMASK|SVp_POK|SVpgv_GP);
4561caa4 499#endif
3280af22 500 PL_in_clean_objs = FALSE;
4561caa4
CS
501}
502
645c22ef
DM
503/* called by sv_clean_all() for each live SV */
504
505static void
acfe0abc 506do_clean_all(pTHX_ SV *sv)
645c22ef 507{
97aff369 508 dVAR;
645c22ef
DM
509 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Cleaning loops: SV at 0x%"UVxf"\n", PTR2UV(sv)) ));
510 SvFLAGS(sv) |= SVf_BREAK;
511 SvREFCNT_dec(sv);
512}
513
514/*
515=for apidoc sv_clean_all
516
517Decrement the refcnt of each remaining SV, possibly triggering a
518cleanup. This function may have to be called multiple times to free
ff276b08 519SVs which are in complex self-referential hierarchies.
645c22ef
DM
520
521=cut
522*/
523
5226ed68 524I32
864dbfa3 525Perl_sv_clean_all(pTHX)
8990e307 526{
97aff369 527 dVAR;
5226ed68 528 I32 cleaned;
3280af22 529 PL_in_clean_all = TRUE;
055972dc 530 cleaned = visit(do_clean_all, 0,0);
3280af22 531 PL_in_clean_all = FALSE;
5226ed68 532 return cleaned;
8990e307 533}
463ee0b2 534
5e258f8c
JC
535/*
536 ARENASETS: a meta-arena implementation which separates arena-info
537 into struct arena_set, which contains an array of struct
538 arena_descs, each holding info for a single arena. By separating
539 the meta-info from the arena, we recover the 1st slot, formerly
540 borrowed for list management. The arena_set is about the size of an
39244528 541 arena, avoiding the needless malloc overhead of a naive linked-list.
5e258f8c
JC
542
543 The cost is 1 arena-set malloc per ~320 arena-mallocs, + the unused
544 memory in the last arena-set (1/2 on average). In trade, we get
545 back the 1st slot in each arena (ie 1.7% of a CV-arena, less for
d2a0f284 546 smaller types). The recovery of the wasted space allows use of
e15dad31
JC
547 small arenas for large, rare body types, by changing array* fields
548 in body_details_by_type[] below.
5e258f8c 549*/
5e258f8c 550struct arena_desc {
398c677b
NC
551 char *arena; /* the raw storage, allocated aligned */
552 size_t size; /* its size ~4k typ */
0a848332 553 U32 misc; /* type, and in future other things. */
5e258f8c
JC
554};
555
e6148039
NC
556struct arena_set;
557
558/* Get the maximum number of elements in set[] such that struct arena_set
e15dad31 559 will fit within PERL_ARENA_SIZE, which is probably just under 4K, and
e6148039
NC
560 therefore likely to be 1 aligned memory page. */
561
562#define ARENAS_PER_SET ((PERL_ARENA_SIZE - sizeof(struct arena_set*) \
563 - 2 * sizeof(int)) / sizeof (struct arena_desc))
5e258f8c
JC
564
565struct arena_set {
566 struct arena_set* next;
0a848332
NC
567 unsigned int set_size; /* ie ARENAS_PER_SET */
568 unsigned int curr; /* index of next available arena-desc */
5e258f8c
JC
569 struct arena_desc set[ARENAS_PER_SET];
570};
571
645c22ef
DM
572/*
573=for apidoc sv_free_arenas
574
575Deallocate the memory used by all arenas. Note that all the individual SV
576heads and bodies within the arenas must already have been freed.
577
578=cut
579*/
4633a7c4 580void
864dbfa3 581Perl_sv_free_arenas(pTHX)
4633a7c4 582{
97aff369 583 dVAR;
4633a7c4
LW
584 SV* sva;
585 SV* svanext;
0a848332 586 unsigned int i;
4633a7c4
LW
587
588 /* Free arenas here, but be careful about fake ones. (We assume
589 contiguity of the fake ones with the corresponding real ones.) */
590
3280af22 591 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = svanext) {
4633a7c4
LW
592 svanext = (SV*) SvANY(sva);
593 while (svanext && SvFAKE(svanext))
594 svanext = (SV*) SvANY(svanext);
595
596 if (!SvFAKE(sva))
1df70142 597 Safefree(sva);
4633a7c4 598 }
93e68bfb 599
5e258f8c 600 {
0a848332
NC
601 struct arena_set *aroot = (struct arena_set*) PL_body_arenas;
602
603 while (aroot) {
604 struct arena_set *current = aroot;
605 i = aroot->curr;
606 while (i--) {
5e258f8c
JC
607 assert(aroot->set[i].arena);
608 Safefree(aroot->set[i].arena);
609 }
0a848332
NC
610 aroot = aroot->next;
611 Safefree(current);
5e258f8c
JC
612 }
613 }
dc8220bf 614 PL_body_arenas = 0;
fdda85ca 615
0a848332
NC
616 i = PERL_ARENA_ROOTS_SIZE;
617 while (i--)
93e68bfb 618 PL_body_roots[i] = 0;
93e68bfb 619
43c5f42d 620 Safefree(PL_nice_chunk);
bd61b366 621 PL_nice_chunk = NULL;
3280af22
NIS
622 PL_nice_chunk_size = 0;
623 PL_sv_arenaroot = 0;
624 PL_sv_root = 0;
4633a7c4
LW
625}
626
bd81e77b
NC
627/*
628 Here are mid-level routines that manage the allocation of bodies out
629 of the various arenas. There are 5 kinds of arenas:
29489e7c 630
bd81e77b
NC
631 1. SV-head arenas, which are discussed and handled above
632 2. regular body arenas
633 3. arenas for reduced-size bodies
634 4. Hash-Entry arenas
635 5. pte arenas (thread related)
29489e7c 636
bd81e77b
NC
637 Arena types 2 & 3 are chained by body-type off an array of
638 arena-root pointers, which is indexed by svtype. Some of the
639 larger/less used body types are malloced singly, since a large
640 unused block of them is wasteful. Also, several svtypes dont have
641 bodies; the data fits into the sv-head itself. The arena-root
642 pointer thus has a few unused root-pointers (which may be hijacked
643 later for arena types 4,5)
29489e7c 644
bd81e77b
NC
645 3 differs from 2 as an optimization; some body types have several
646 unused fields in the front of the structure (which are kept in-place
647 for consistency). These bodies can be allocated in smaller chunks,
648 because the leading fields arent accessed. Pointers to such bodies
649 are decremented to point at the unused 'ghost' memory, knowing that
650 the pointers are used with offsets to the real memory.
29489e7c 651
bd81e77b
NC
652 HE, HEK arenas are managed separately, with separate code, but may
653 be merge-able later..
654
655 PTE arenas are not sv-bodies, but they share these mid-level
656 mechanics, so are considered here. The new mid-level mechanics rely
657 on the sv_type of the body being allocated, so we just reserve one
658 of the unused body-slots for PTEs, then use it in those (2) PTE
659 contexts below (line ~10k)
660*/
661
bd26d9a3 662/* get_arena(size): this creates custom-sized arenas
5e258f8c
JC
663 TBD: export properly for hv.c: S_more_he().
664*/
665void*
0a848332 666Perl_get_arena(pTHX_ size_t arena_size, U32 misc)
5e258f8c 667{
7a89be66 668 dVAR;
5e258f8c 669 struct arena_desc* adesc;
39244528 670 struct arena_set *aroot = (struct arena_set*) PL_body_arenas;
0a848332 671 unsigned int curr;
5e258f8c 672
476a1e16
JC
673 /* shouldnt need this
674 if (!arena_size) arena_size = PERL_ARENA_SIZE;
675 */
5e258f8c
JC
676
677 /* may need new arena-set to hold new arena */
39244528
NC
678 if (!aroot || aroot->curr >= aroot->set_size) {
679 struct arena_set *newroot;
5e258f8c
JC
680 Newxz(newroot, 1, struct arena_set);
681 newroot->set_size = ARENAS_PER_SET;
39244528
NC
682 newroot->next = aroot;
683 aroot = newroot;
684 PL_body_arenas = (void *) newroot;
52944de8 685 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "new arenaset %p\n", (void*)aroot));
5e258f8c
JC
686 }
687
688 /* ok, now have arena-set with at least 1 empty/available arena-desc */
39244528
NC
689 curr = aroot->curr++;
690 adesc = &(aroot->set[curr]);
5e258f8c
JC
691 assert(!adesc->arena);
692
89086707 693 Newx(adesc->arena, arena_size, char);
5e258f8c 694 adesc->size = arena_size;
0a848332 695 adesc->misc = misc;
d67b3c53
JH
696 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "arena %d added: %p size %"UVuf"\n",
697 curr, (void*)adesc->arena, (UV)arena_size));
5e258f8c
JC
698
699 return adesc->arena;
5e258f8c
JC
700}
701
53c1dcc0 702
bd81e77b 703/* return a thing to the free list */
29489e7c 704
bd81e77b
NC
705#define del_body(thing, root) \
706 STMT_START { \
00b6aa41 707 void ** const thing_copy = (void **)thing;\
bd81e77b
NC
708 *thing_copy = *root; \
709 *root = (void*)thing_copy; \
bd81e77b 710 } STMT_END
29489e7c 711
bd81e77b 712/*
d2a0f284
JC
713
714=head1 SV-Body Allocation
715
716Allocation of SV-bodies is similar to SV-heads, differing as follows;
717the allocation mechanism is used for many body types, so is somewhat
718more complicated, it uses arena-sets, and has no need for still-live
719SV detection.
720
721At the outermost level, (new|del)_X*V macros return bodies of the
722appropriate type. These macros call either (new|del)_body_type or
723(new|del)_body_allocated macro pairs, depending on specifics of the
724type. Most body types use the former pair, the latter pair is used to
725allocate body types with "ghost fields".
726
727"ghost fields" are fields that are unused in certain types, and
728consequently dont need to actually exist. They are declared because
729they're part of a "base type", which allows use of functions as
730methods. The simplest examples are AVs and HVs, 2 aggregate types
731which don't use the fields which support SCALAR semantics.
732
733For these types, the arenas are carved up into *_allocated size
734chunks, we thus avoid wasted memory for those unaccessed members.
735When bodies are allocated, we adjust the pointer back in memory by the
736size of the bit not allocated, so it's as if we allocated the full
737structure. (But things will all go boom if you write to the part that
738is "not there", because you'll be overwriting the last members of the
739preceding structure in memory.)
740
741We calculate the correction using the STRUCT_OFFSET macro. For
742example, if xpv_allocated is the same structure as XPV then the two
743OFFSETs sum to zero, and the pointer is unchanged. If the allocated
744structure is smaller (no initial NV actually allocated) then the net
745effect is to subtract the size of the NV from the pointer, to return a
746new pointer as if an initial NV were actually allocated.
747
748This is the same trick as was used for NV and IV bodies. Ironically it
749doesn't need to be used for NV bodies any more, because NV is now at
750the start of the structure. IV bodies don't need it either, because
751they are no longer allocated.
752
753In turn, the new_body_* allocators call S_new_body(), which invokes
754new_body_inline macro, which takes a lock, and takes a body off the
755linked list at PL_body_roots[sv_type], calling S_more_bodies() if
756necessary to refresh an empty list. Then the lock is released, and
757the body is returned.
758
759S_more_bodies calls get_arena(), and carves it up into an array of N
760bodies, which it strings into a linked list. It looks up arena-size
761and body-size from the body_details table described below, thus
762supporting the multiple body-types.
763
764If PURIFY is defined, or PERL_ARENA_SIZE=0, arenas are not used, and
765the (new|del)_X*V macros are mapped directly to malloc/free.
766
767*/
768
769/*
770
771For each sv-type, struct body_details bodies_by_type[] carries
772parameters which control these aspects of SV handling:
773
774Arena_size determines whether arenas are used for this body type, and if
775so, how big they are. PURIFY or PERL_ARENA_SIZE=0 set this field to
776zero, forcing individual mallocs and frees.
777
778Body_size determines how big a body is, and therefore how many fit into
779each arena. Offset carries the body-pointer adjustment needed for
780*_allocated body types, and is used in *_allocated macros.
781
782But its main purpose is to parameterize info needed in
783Perl_sv_upgrade(). The info here dramatically simplifies the function
784vs the implementation in 5.8.7, making it table-driven. All fields
785are used for this, except for arena_size.
786
787For the sv-types that have no bodies, arenas are not used, so those
788PL_body_roots[sv_type] are unused, and can be overloaded. In
789something of a special case, SVt_NULL is borrowed for HE arenas;
c6f8b1d0 790PL_body_roots[HE_SVSLOT=SVt_NULL] is filled by S_more_he, but the
d2a0f284 791bodies_by_type[SVt_NULL] slot is not used, as the table is not
c6f8b1d0 792available in hv.c.
d2a0f284 793
c6f8b1d0
JC
794PTEs also use arenas, but are never seen in Perl_sv_upgrade. Nonetheless,
795they get their own slot in bodies_by_type[PTE_SVSLOT =SVt_IV], so they can
796just use the same allocation semantics. At first, PTEs were also
797overloaded to a non-body sv-type, but this yielded hard-to-find malloc
798bugs, so was simplified by claiming a new slot. This choice has no
799consequence at this time.
d2a0f284 800
29489e7c
DM
801*/
802
bd81e77b 803struct body_details {
0fb58b32 804 U8 body_size; /* Size to allocate */
10666ae3 805 U8 copy; /* Size of structure to copy (may be shorter) */
0fb58b32 806 U8 offset;
10666ae3
NC
807 unsigned int type : 4; /* We have space for a sanity check. */
808 unsigned int cant_upgrade : 1; /* Cannot upgrade this type */
809 unsigned int zero_nv : 1; /* zero the NV when upgrading from this */
810 unsigned int arena : 1; /* Allocated from an arena */
811 size_t arena_size; /* Size of arena to allocate */
bd81e77b 812};
29489e7c 813
bd81e77b
NC
814#define HADNV FALSE
815#define NONV TRUE
29489e7c 816
d2a0f284 817
bd81e77b
NC
818#ifdef PURIFY
819/* With -DPURFIY we allocate everything directly, and don't use arenas.
820 This seems a rather elegant way to simplify some of the code below. */
821#define HASARENA FALSE
822#else
823#define HASARENA TRUE
824#endif
825#define NOARENA FALSE
29489e7c 826
d2a0f284
JC
827/* Size the arenas to exactly fit a given number of bodies. A count
828 of 0 fits the max number bodies into a PERL_ARENA_SIZE.block,
829 simplifying the default. If count > 0, the arena is sized to fit
830 only that many bodies, allowing arenas to be used for large, rare
831 bodies (XPVFM, XPVIO) without undue waste. The arena size is
832 limited by PERL_ARENA_SIZE, so we can safely oversize the
833 declarations.
834 */
95db5f15
MB
835#define FIT_ARENA0(body_size) \
836 ((size_t)(PERL_ARENA_SIZE / body_size) * body_size)
837#define FIT_ARENAn(count,body_size) \
838 ( count * body_size <= PERL_ARENA_SIZE) \
839 ? count * body_size \
840 : FIT_ARENA0 (body_size)
841#define FIT_ARENA(count,body_size) \
842 count \
843 ? FIT_ARENAn (count, body_size) \
844 : FIT_ARENA0 (body_size)
d2a0f284 845
bd81e77b 846/* A macro to work out the offset needed to subtract from a pointer to (say)
29489e7c 847
bd81e77b
NC
848typedef struct {
849 STRLEN xpv_cur;
850 STRLEN xpv_len;
851} xpv_allocated;
29489e7c 852
bd81e77b 853to make its members accessible via a pointer to (say)
29489e7c 854
bd81e77b
NC
855struct xpv {
856 NV xnv_nv;
857 STRLEN xpv_cur;
858 STRLEN xpv_len;
859};
29489e7c 860
bd81e77b 861*/
29489e7c 862
bd81e77b
NC
863#define relative_STRUCT_OFFSET(longer, shorter, member) \
864 (STRUCT_OFFSET(shorter, member) - STRUCT_OFFSET(longer, member))
29489e7c 865
bd81e77b
NC
866/* Calculate the length to copy. Specifically work out the length less any
867 final padding the compiler needed to add. See the comment in sv_upgrade
868 for why copying the padding proved to be a bug. */
29489e7c 869
bd81e77b
NC
870#define copy_length(type, last_member) \
871 STRUCT_OFFSET(type, last_member) \
872 + sizeof (((type*)SvANY((SV*)0))->last_member)
29489e7c 873
bd81e77b 874static const struct body_details bodies_by_type[] = {
10666ae3
NC
875 { sizeof(HE), 0, 0, SVt_NULL,
876 FALSE, NONV, NOARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(HE)) },
d2a0f284 877
1cb9cd50 878 /* The bind placeholder pretends to be an RV for now.
c6f8b1d0 879 Also it's marked as "can't upgrade" to stop anyone using it before it's
1cb9cd50
NC
880 implemented. */
881 { 0, 0, 0, SVt_BIND, TRUE, NONV, NOARENA, 0 },
882
d2a0f284
JC
883 /* IVs are in the head, so the allocation size is 0.
884 However, the slot is overloaded for PTEs. */
885 { sizeof(struct ptr_tbl_ent), /* This is used for PTEs. */
886 sizeof(IV), /* This is used to copy out the IV body. */
10666ae3 887 STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVIV, xiv_iv), SVt_IV, FALSE, NONV,
d2a0f284
JC
888 NOARENA /* IVS don't need an arena */,
889 /* But PTEs need to know the size of their arena */
890 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(struct ptr_tbl_ent))
891 },
892
bd81e77b 893 /* 8 bytes on most ILP32 with IEEE doubles */
10666ae3 894 { sizeof(NV), sizeof(NV), 0, SVt_NV, FALSE, HADNV, HASARENA,
d2a0f284
JC
895 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(NV)) },
896
bd81e77b 897 /* 8 bytes on most ILP32 with IEEE doubles */
d2a0f284
JC
898 { sizeof(xpv_allocated),
899 copy_length(XPV, xpv_len)
900 - relative_STRUCT_OFFSET(xpv_allocated, XPV, xpv_cur),
901 + relative_STRUCT_OFFSET(xpv_allocated, XPV, xpv_cur),
10666ae3 902 SVt_PV, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(xpv_allocated)) },
d2a0f284 903
bd81e77b 904 /* 12 */
d2a0f284
JC
905 { sizeof(xpviv_allocated),
906 copy_length(XPVIV, xiv_u)
907 - relative_STRUCT_OFFSET(xpviv_allocated, XPVIV, xpv_cur),
908 + relative_STRUCT_OFFSET(xpviv_allocated, XPVIV, xpv_cur),
10666ae3 909 SVt_PVIV, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(xpviv_allocated)) },
d2a0f284 910
bd81e77b 911 /* 20 */
10666ae3 912 { sizeof(XPVNV), copy_length(XPVNV, xiv_u), 0, SVt_PVNV, FALSE, HADNV,
d2a0f284
JC
913 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVNV)) },
914
bd81e77b 915 /* 28 */
10666ae3 916 { sizeof(XPVMG), copy_length(XPVMG, xmg_stash), 0, SVt_PVMG, FALSE, HADNV,
d2a0f284 917 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVMG)) },
4df7f6af 918
288b8c02 919 /* something big */
08e44740
NC
920 { sizeof(struct regexp_allocated), sizeof(struct regexp_allocated),
921 + relative_STRUCT_OFFSET(struct regexp_allocated, regexp, xpv_cur),
922 SVt_REGEXP, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA,
923 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(struct regexp_allocated))
5c35adbb 924 },
4df7f6af 925
bd81e77b 926 /* 48 */
10666ae3 927 { sizeof(XPVGV), sizeof(XPVGV), 0, SVt_PVGV, TRUE, HADNV,
d2a0f284
JC
928 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVGV)) },
929
bd81e77b 930 /* 64 */
10666ae3 931 { sizeof(XPVLV), sizeof(XPVLV), 0, SVt_PVLV, TRUE, HADNV,
d2a0f284
JC
932 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVLV)) },
933
934 { sizeof(xpvav_allocated),
935 copy_length(XPVAV, xmg_stash)
936 - relative_STRUCT_OFFSET(xpvav_allocated, XPVAV, xav_fill),
937 + relative_STRUCT_OFFSET(xpvav_allocated, XPVAV, xav_fill),
9c59bb28 938 SVt_PVAV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(xpvav_allocated)) },
d2a0f284
JC
939
940 { sizeof(xpvhv_allocated),
941 copy_length(XPVHV, xmg_stash)
942 - relative_STRUCT_OFFSET(xpvhv_allocated, XPVHV, xhv_fill),
943 + relative_STRUCT_OFFSET(xpvhv_allocated, XPVHV, xhv_fill),
9c59bb28 944 SVt_PVHV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(xpvhv_allocated)) },
d2a0f284 945
c84c4652 946 /* 56 */
4115f141 947 { sizeof(xpvcv_allocated), sizeof(xpvcv_allocated),
c84c4652 948 + relative_STRUCT_OFFSET(xpvcv_allocated, XPVCV, xpv_cur),
10666ae3 949 SVt_PVCV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(xpvcv_allocated)) },
d2a0f284 950
4115f141 951 { sizeof(xpvfm_allocated), sizeof(xpvfm_allocated),
3038937b 952 + relative_STRUCT_OFFSET(xpvfm_allocated, XPVFM, xpv_cur),
10666ae3 953 SVt_PVFM, TRUE, NONV, NOARENA, FIT_ARENA(20, sizeof(xpvfm_allocated)) },
d2a0f284
JC
954
955 /* XPVIO is 84 bytes, fits 48x */
10666ae3 956 { sizeof(XPVIO), sizeof(XPVIO), 0, SVt_PVIO, TRUE, HADNV,
d2a0f284 957 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(24, sizeof(XPVIO)) },
bd81e77b 958};
29489e7c 959
d2a0f284
JC
960#define new_body_type(sv_type) \
961 (void *)((char *)S_new_body(aTHX_ sv_type))
29489e7c 962
bd81e77b
NC
963#define del_body_type(p, sv_type) \
964 del_body(p, &PL_body_roots[sv_type])
29489e7c 965
29489e7c 966
bd81e77b 967#define new_body_allocated(sv_type) \
d2a0f284 968 (void *)((char *)S_new_body(aTHX_ sv_type) \
bd81e77b 969 - bodies_by_type[sv_type].offset)
29489e7c 970
bd81e77b
NC
971#define del_body_allocated(p, sv_type) \
972 del_body(p + bodies_by_type[sv_type].offset, &PL_body_roots[sv_type])
29489e7c 973
29489e7c 974
bd81e77b
NC
975#define my_safemalloc(s) (void*)safemalloc(s)
976#define my_safecalloc(s) (void*)safecalloc(s, 1)
977#define my_safefree(p) safefree((char*)p)
29489e7c 978
bd81e77b 979#ifdef PURIFY
29489e7c 980
bd81e77b
NC
981#define new_XNV() my_safemalloc(sizeof(XPVNV))
982#define del_XNV(p) my_safefree(p)
29489e7c 983
bd81e77b
NC
984#define new_XPVNV() my_safemalloc(sizeof(XPVNV))
985#define del_XPVNV(p) my_safefree(p)
29489e7c 986
bd81e77b
NC
987#define new_XPVAV() my_safemalloc(sizeof(XPVAV))
988#define del_XPVAV(p) my_safefree(p)
29489e7c 989
bd81e77b
NC
990#define new_XPVHV() my_safemalloc(sizeof(XPVHV))
991#define del_XPVHV(p) my_safefree(p)
29489e7c 992
bd81e77b
NC
993#define new_XPVMG() my_safemalloc(sizeof(XPVMG))
994#define del_XPVMG(p) my_safefree(p)
29489e7c 995
bd81e77b
NC
996#define new_XPVGV() my_safemalloc(sizeof(XPVGV))
997#define del_XPVGV(p) my_safefree(p)
29489e7c 998
bd81e77b 999#else /* !PURIFY */
29489e7c 1000
bd81e77b
NC
1001#define new_XNV() new_body_type(SVt_NV)
1002#define del_XNV(p) del_body_type(p, SVt_NV)
29489e7c 1003
bd81e77b
NC
1004#define new_XPVNV() new_body_type(SVt_PVNV)
1005#define del_XPVNV(p) del_body_type(p, SVt_PVNV)
29489e7c 1006
bd81e77b
NC
1007#define new_XPVAV() new_body_allocated(SVt_PVAV)
1008#define del_XPVAV(p) del_body_allocated(p, SVt_PVAV)
645c22ef 1009
bd81e77b
NC
1010#define new_XPVHV() new_body_allocated(SVt_PVHV)
1011#define del_XPVHV(p) del_body_allocated(p, SVt_PVHV)
645c22ef 1012
bd81e77b
NC
1013#define new_XPVMG() new_body_type(SVt_PVMG)
1014#define del_XPVMG(p) del_body_type(p, SVt_PVMG)
645c22ef 1015
bd81e77b
NC
1016#define new_XPVGV() new_body_type(SVt_PVGV)
1017#define del_XPVGV(p) del_body_type(p, SVt_PVGV)
1d7c1841 1018
bd81e77b 1019#endif /* PURIFY */
93e68bfb 1020
bd81e77b 1021/* no arena for you! */
93e68bfb 1022
bd81e77b 1023#define new_NOARENA(details) \
d2a0f284 1024 my_safemalloc((details)->body_size + (details)->offset)
bd81e77b 1025#define new_NOARENAZ(details) \
d2a0f284
JC
1026 my_safecalloc((details)->body_size + (details)->offset)
1027
1028STATIC void *
1029S_more_bodies (pTHX_ svtype sv_type)
1030{
1031 dVAR;
1032 void ** const root = &PL_body_roots[sv_type];
96a5add6 1033 const struct body_details * const bdp = &bodies_by_type[sv_type];
d2a0f284
JC
1034 const size_t body_size = bdp->body_size;
1035 char *start;
1036 const char *end;
0b2d3faa 1037#if defined(DEBUGGING) && !defined(PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT_PRIVATE)
23e9d66c
NC
1038 static bool done_sanity_check;
1039
0b2d3faa
JH
1040 /* PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT_PRIVATE cannot coexist with global
1041 * variables like done_sanity_check. */
10666ae3 1042 if (!done_sanity_check) {
ea471437 1043 unsigned int i = SVt_LAST;
10666ae3
NC
1044
1045 done_sanity_check = TRUE;
1046
1047 while (i--)
1048 assert (bodies_by_type[i].type == i);
1049 }
1050#endif
1051
23e9d66c
NC
1052 assert(bdp->arena_size);
1053
0a848332 1054 start = (char*) Perl_get_arena(aTHX_ bdp->arena_size, sv_type);
d2a0f284
JC
1055
1056 end = start + bdp->arena_size - body_size;
1057
d2a0f284
JC
1058 /* computed count doesnt reflect the 1st slot reservation */
1059 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1060 "arena %p end %p arena-size %d type %d size %d ct %d\n",
6c9570dc 1061 (void*)start, (void*)end,
0e84aef4
JH
1062 (int)bdp->arena_size, sv_type, (int)body_size,
1063 (int)bdp->arena_size / (int)body_size));
d2a0f284
JC
1064
1065 *root = (void *)start;
1066
1067 while (start < end) {
1068 char * const next = start + body_size;
1069 *(void**) start = (void *)next;
1070 start = next;
1071 }
1072 *(void **)start = 0;
1073
1074 return *root;
1075}
1076
1077/* grab a new thing from the free list, allocating more if necessary.
1078 The inline version is used for speed in hot routines, and the
1079 function using it serves the rest (unless PURIFY).
1080*/
1081#define new_body_inline(xpv, sv_type) \
1082 STMT_START { \
1083 void ** const r3wt = &PL_body_roots[sv_type]; \
11b79775
DD
1084 xpv = (PTR_TBL_ENT_t*) (*((void **)(r3wt)) \
1085 ? *((void **)(r3wt)) : more_bodies(sv_type)); \
d2a0f284 1086 *(r3wt) = *(void**)(xpv); \
d2a0f284
JC
1087 } STMT_END
1088
1089#ifndef PURIFY
1090
1091STATIC void *
1092S_new_body(pTHX_ svtype sv_type)
1093{
1094 dVAR;
1095 void *xpv;
1096 new_body_inline(xpv, sv_type);
1097 return xpv;
1098}
1099
1100#endif
93e68bfb 1101
238b27b3
NC
1102static const struct body_details fake_rv =
1103 { 0, 0, 0, SVt_IV, FALSE, NONV, NOARENA, 0 };
1104
bd81e77b
NC
1105/*
1106=for apidoc sv_upgrade
93e68bfb 1107
bd81e77b
NC
1108Upgrade an SV to a more complex form. Generally adds a new body type to the
1109SV, then copies across as much information as possible from the old body.
1110You generally want to use the C<SvUPGRADE> macro wrapper. See also C<svtype>.
93e68bfb 1111
bd81e77b 1112=cut
93e68bfb 1113*/
93e68bfb 1114
bd81e77b 1115void
42d0e0b7 1116Perl_sv_upgrade(pTHX_ register SV *sv, svtype new_type)
cac9b346 1117{
97aff369 1118 dVAR;
bd81e77b
NC
1119 void* old_body;
1120 void* new_body;
42d0e0b7 1121 const svtype old_type = SvTYPE(sv);
d2a0f284 1122 const struct body_details *new_type_details;
238b27b3 1123 const struct body_details *old_type_details
bd81e77b 1124 = bodies_by_type + old_type;
4df7f6af 1125 SV *referant = NULL;
cac9b346 1126
bd81e77b
NC
1127 if (new_type != SVt_PV && SvIsCOW(sv)) {
1128 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
1129 }
cac9b346 1130
bd81e77b
NC
1131 if (old_type == new_type)
1132 return;
cac9b346 1133
bd81e77b 1134 old_body = SvANY(sv);
de042e1d 1135
bd81e77b
NC
1136 /* Copying structures onto other structures that have been neatly zeroed
1137 has a subtle gotcha. Consider XPVMG
cac9b346 1138
bd81e77b
NC
1139 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+
1140 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH |
1141 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+
1142 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28
645c22ef 1143
bd81e77b
NC
1144 where NVs are aligned to 8 bytes, so that sizeof that structure is
1145 actually 32 bytes long, with 4 bytes of padding at the end:
08742458 1146
bd81e77b
NC
1147 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+
1148 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH | ??? |
1149 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+
1150 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32
08742458 1151
bd81e77b 1152 so what happens if you allocate memory for this structure:
30f9da9e 1153
bd81e77b
NC
1154 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+------+...
1155 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH | GP | NAME |
1156 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+------+...
1157 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36
bfc44f79 1158
bd81e77b
NC
1159 zero it, then copy sizeof(XPVMG) bytes on top of it? Not quite what you
1160 expect, because you copy the area marked ??? onto GP. Now, ??? may have
1161 started out as zero once, but it's quite possible that it isn't. So now,
1162 rather than a nicely zeroed GP, you have it pointing somewhere random.
1163 Bugs ensue.
bfc44f79 1164
bd81e77b
NC
1165 (In fact, GP ends up pointing at a previous GP structure, because the
1166 principle cause of the padding in XPVMG getting garbage is a copy of
6c9e42f7
NC
1167 sizeof(XPVMG) bytes from a XPVGV structure in sv_unglob. Right now
1168 this happens to be moot because XPVGV has been re-ordered, with GP
1169 no longer after STASH)
30f9da9e 1170
bd81e77b
NC
1171 So we are careful and work out the size of used parts of all the
1172 structures. */
bfc44f79 1173
bd81e77b
NC
1174 switch (old_type) {
1175 case SVt_NULL:
1176 break;
1177 case SVt_IV:
4df7f6af
NC
1178 if (SvROK(sv)) {
1179 referant = SvRV(sv);
238b27b3
NC
1180 old_type_details = &fake_rv;
1181 if (new_type == SVt_NV)
1182 new_type = SVt_PVNV;
4df7f6af
NC
1183 } else {
1184 if (new_type < SVt_PVIV) {
1185 new_type = (new_type == SVt_NV)
1186 ? SVt_PVNV : SVt_PVIV;
1187 }
bd81e77b
NC
1188 }
1189 break;
1190 case SVt_NV:
1191 if (new_type < SVt_PVNV) {
1192 new_type = SVt_PVNV;
bd81e77b
NC
1193 }
1194 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1195 case SVt_PV:
1196 assert(new_type > SVt_PV);
1197 assert(SVt_IV < SVt_PV);
1198 assert(SVt_NV < SVt_PV);
1199 break;
1200 case SVt_PVIV:
1201 break;
1202 case SVt_PVNV:
1203 break;
1204 case SVt_PVMG:
1205 /* Because the XPVMG of PL_mess_sv isn't allocated from the arena,
1206 there's no way that it can be safely upgraded, because perl.c
1207 expects to Safefree(SvANY(PL_mess_sv)) */
1208 assert(sv != PL_mess_sv);
1209 /* This flag bit is used to mean other things in other scalar types.
1210 Given that it only has meaning inside the pad, it shouldn't be set
1211 on anything that can get upgraded. */
00b1698f 1212 assert(!SvPAD_TYPED(sv));
bd81e77b
NC
1213 break;
1214 default:
1215 if (old_type_details->cant_upgrade)
c81225bc
NC
1216 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't upgrade %s (%" UVuf ") to %" UVuf,
1217 sv_reftype(sv, 0), (UV) old_type, (UV) new_type);
bd81e77b 1218 }
3376de98
NC
1219
1220 if (old_type > new_type)
1221 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "sv_upgrade from type %d down to type %d",
1222 (int)old_type, (int)new_type);
1223
2fa1109b 1224 new_type_details = bodies_by_type + new_type;
645c22ef 1225
bd81e77b
NC
1226 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~SVTYPEMASK;
1227 SvFLAGS(sv) |= new_type;
932e9ff9 1228
ab4416c0
NC
1229 /* This can't happen, as SVt_NULL is <= all values of new_type, so one of
1230 the return statements above will have triggered. */
1231 assert (new_type != SVt_NULL);
bd81e77b 1232 switch (new_type) {
bd81e77b
NC
1233 case SVt_IV:
1234 assert(old_type == SVt_NULL);
1235 SvANY(sv) = (XPVIV*)((char*)&(sv->sv_u.svu_iv) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVIV, xiv_iv));
1236 SvIV_set(sv, 0);
1237 return;
1238 case SVt_NV:
1239 assert(old_type == SVt_NULL);
1240 SvANY(sv) = new_XNV();
1241 SvNV_set(sv, 0);
1242 return;
bd81e77b 1243 case SVt_PVHV:
bd81e77b 1244 case SVt_PVAV:
d2a0f284 1245 assert(new_type_details->body_size);
c1ae03ae
NC
1246
1247#ifndef PURIFY
1248 assert(new_type_details->arena);
d2a0f284 1249 assert(new_type_details->arena_size);
c1ae03ae 1250 /* This points to the start of the allocated area. */
d2a0f284
JC
1251 new_body_inline(new_body, new_type);
1252 Zero(new_body, new_type_details->body_size, char);
c1ae03ae
NC
1253 new_body = ((char *)new_body) - new_type_details->offset;
1254#else
1255 /* We always allocated the full length item with PURIFY. To do this
1256 we fake things so that arena is false for all 16 types.. */
1257 new_body = new_NOARENAZ(new_type_details);
1258#endif
1259 SvANY(sv) = new_body;
1260 if (new_type == SVt_PVAV) {
1261 AvMAX(sv) = -1;
1262 AvFILLp(sv) = -1;
1263 AvREAL_only(sv);
64484faa 1264 if (old_type_details->body_size) {
ac572bf4
NC
1265 AvALLOC(sv) = 0;
1266 } else {
1267 /* It will have been zeroed when the new body was allocated.
1268 Lets not write to it, in case it confuses a write-back
1269 cache. */
1270 }
78ac7dd9
NC
1271 } else {
1272 assert(!SvOK(sv));
1273 SvOK_off(sv);
1274#ifndef NODEFAULT_SHAREKEYS
1275 HvSHAREKEYS_on(sv); /* key-sharing on by default */
1276#endif
1277 HvMAX(sv) = 7; /* (start with 8 buckets) */
64484faa 1278 if (old_type_details->body_size) {
78ac7dd9
NC
1279 HvFILL(sv) = 0;
1280 } else {
1281 /* It will have been zeroed when the new body was allocated.
1282 Lets not write to it, in case it confuses a write-back
1283 cache. */
1284 }
c1ae03ae 1285 }
aeb18a1e 1286
bd81e77b
NC
1287 /* SVt_NULL isn't the only thing upgraded to AV or HV.
1288 The target created by newSVrv also is, and it can have magic.
1289 However, it never has SvPVX set.
1290 */
4df7f6af
NC
1291 if (old_type == SVt_IV) {
1292 assert(!SvROK(sv));
1293 } else if (old_type >= SVt_PV) {
bd81e77b
NC
1294 assert(SvPVX_const(sv) == 0);
1295 }
aeb18a1e 1296
bd81e77b 1297 if (old_type >= SVt_PVMG) {
e736a858 1298 SvMAGIC_set(sv, ((XPVMG*)old_body)->xmg_u.xmg_magic);
bd81e77b 1299 SvSTASH_set(sv, ((XPVMG*)old_body)->xmg_stash);
797c7171
NC
1300 } else {
1301 sv->sv_u.svu_array = NULL; /* or svu_hash */
bd81e77b
NC
1302 }
1303 break;
93e68bfb 1304
93e68bfb 1305
bd81e77b
NC
1306 case SVt_PVIV:
1307 /* XXX Is this still needed? Was it ever needed? Surely as there is
1308 no route from NV to PVIV, NOK can never be true */
1309 assert(!SvNOKp(sv));
1310 assert(!SvNOK(sv));
1311 case SVt_PVIO:
1312 case SVt_PVFM:
bd81e77b
NC
1313 case SVt_PVGV:
1314 case SVt_PVCV:
1315 case SVt_PVLV:
5c35adbb 1316 case SVt_REGEXP:
bd81e77b
NC
1317 case SVt_PVMG:
1318 case SVt_PVNV:
1319 case SVt_PV:
93e68bfb 1320
d2a0f284 1321 assert(new_type_details->body_size);
bd81e77b
NC
1322 /* We always allocated the full length item with PURIFY. To do this
1323 we fake things so that arena is false for all 16 types.. */
1324 if(new_type_details->arena) {
1325 /* This points to the start of the allocated area. */
d2a0f284
JC
1326 new_body_inline(new_body, new_type);
1327 Zero(new_body, new_type_details->body_size, char);
bd81e77b
NC
1328 new_body = ((char *)new_body) - new_type_details->offset;
1329 } else {
1330 new_body = new_NOARENAZ(new_type_details);
1331 }
1332 SvANY(sv) = new_body;
5e2fc214 1333
bd81e77b 1334 if (old_type_details->copy) {
f9ba3d20
NC
1335 /* There is now the potential for an upgrade from something without
1336 an offset (PVNV or PVMG) to something with one (PVCV, PVFM) */
1337 int offset = old_type_details->offset;
1338 int length = old_type_details->copy;
1339
1340 if (new_type_details->offset > old_type_details->offset) {
d4c19fe8 1341 const int difference
f9ba3d20
NC
1342 = new_type_details->offset - old_type_details->offset;
1343 offset += difference;
1344 length -= difference;
1345 }
1346 assert (length >= 0);
1347
1348 Copy((char *)old_body + offset, (char *)new_body + offset, length,
1349 char);
bd81e77b
NC
1350 }
1351
1352#ifndef NV_ZERO_IS_ALLBITS_ZERO
f2524eef 1353 /* If NV 0.0 is stores as all bits 0 then Zero() already creates a
e5ce394c
NC
1354 * correct 0.0 for us. Otherwise, if the old body didn't have an
1355 * NV slot, but the new one does, then we need to initialise the
1356 * freshly created NV slot with whatever the correct bit pattern is
1357 * for 0.0 */
e22a937e
NC
1358 if (old_type_details->zero_nv && !new_type_details->zero_nv
1359 && !isGV_with_GP(sv))
bd81e77b 1360 SvNV_set(sv, 0);
82048762 1361#endif
5e2fc214 1362
bd81e77b 1363 if (new_type == SVt_PVIO)
f2524eef 1364 IoPAGE_LEN(sv) = 60;
4df7f6af
NC
1365 if (old_type < SVt_PV) {
1366 /* referant will be NULL unless the old type was SVt_IV emulating
1367 SVt_RV */
1368 sv->sv_u.svu_rv = referant;
1369 }
bd81e77b
NC
1370 break;
1371 default:
afd78fd5
JH
1372 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: sv_upgrade to unknown type %lu",
1373 (unsigned long)new_type);
bd81e77b 1374 }
73171d91 1375
d2a0f284
JC
1376 if (old_type_details->arena) {
1377 /* If there was an old body, then we need to free it.
1378 Note that there is an assumption that all bodies of types that
1379 can be upgraded came from arenas. Only the more complex non-
1380 upgradable types are allowed to be directly malloc()ed. */
bd81e77b
NC
1381#ifdef PURIFY
1382 my_safefree(old_body);
1383#else
1384 del_body((void*)((char*)old_body + old_type_details->offset),
1385 &PL_body_roots[old_type]);
1386#endif
1387 }
1388}
73171d91 1389
bd81e77b
NC
1390/*
1391=for apidoc sv_backoff
73171d91 1392
bd81e77b
NC
1393Remove any string offset. You should normally use the C<SvOOK_off> macro
1394wrapper instead.
73171d91 1395
bd81e77b 1396=cut
73171d91
NC
1397*/
1398
bd81e77b
NC
1399int
1400Perl_sv_backoff(pTHX_ register SV *sv)
1401{
69240efd 1402 STRLEN delta;
7a4bba22 1403 const char * const s = SvPVX_const(sv);
96a5add6 1404 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
bd81e77b
NC
1405 assert(SvOOK(sv));
1406 assert(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV);
1407 assert(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV);
7a4bba22 1408
69240efd
NC
1409 SvOOK_offset(sv, delta);
1410
7a4bba22
NC
1411 SvLEN_set(sv, SvLEN(sv) + delta);
1412 SvPV_set(sv, SvPVX(sv) - delta);
1413 Move(s, SvPVX(sv), SvCUR(sv)+1, char);
bd81e77b
NC
1414 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~SVf_OOK;
1415 return 0;
1416}
73171d91 1417
bd81e77b
NC
1418/*
1419=for apidoc sv_grow
73171d91 1420
bd81e77b
NC
1421Expands the character buffer in the SV. If necessary, uses C<sv_unref> and
1422upgrades the SV to C<SVt_PV>. Returns a pointer to the character buffer.
1423Use the C<SvGROW> wrapper instead.
93e68bfb 1424
bd81e77b
NC
1425=cut
1426*/
93e68bfb 1427
bd81e77b
NC
1428char *
1429Perl_sv_grow(pTHX_ register SV *sv, register STRLEN newlen)
1430{
1431 register char *s;
93e68bfb 1432
5db06880
NC
1433 if (PL_madskills && newlen >= 0x100000) {
1434 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1435 "Allocation too large: %"UVxf"\n", (UV)newlen);
1436 }
bd81e77b
NC
1437#ifdef HAS_64K_LIMIT
1438 if (newlen >= 0x10000) {
1439 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1440 "Allocation too large: %"UVxf"\n", (UV)newlen);
1441 my_exit(1);
1442 }
1443#endif /* HAS_64K_LIMIT */
1444 if (SvROK(sv))
1445 sv_unref(sv);
1446 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PV) {
1447 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PV);
1448 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
1449 }
1450 else if (SvOOK(sv)) { /* pv is offset? */
1451 sv_backoff(sv);
1452 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
1453 if (newlen > SvLEN(sv))
1454 newlen += 10 * (newlen - SvCUR(sv)); /* avoid copy each time */
1455#ifdef HAS_64K_LIMIT
1456 if (newlen >= 0x10000)
1457 newlen = 0xFFFF;
1458#endif
1459 }
1460 else
1461 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
aeb18a1e 1462
bd81e77b
NC
1463 if (newlen > SvLEN(sv)) { /* need more room? */
1464 newlen = PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(newlen);
1465 if (SvLEN(sv) && s) {
1466#ifdef MYMALLOC
1467 const STRLEN l = malloced_size((void*)SvPVX_const(sv));
1468 if (newlen <= l) {
1469 SvLEN_set(sv, l);
1470 return s;
1471 } else
1472#endif
10edeb5d 1473 s = (char*)saferealloc(s, newlen);
bd81e77b
NC
1474 }
1475 else {
10edeb5d 1476 s = (char*)safemalloc(newlen);
bd81e77b
NC
1477 if (SvPVX_const(sv) && SvCUR(sv)) {
1478 Move(SvPVX_const(sv), s, (newlen < SvCUR(sv)) ? newlen : SvCUR(sv), char);
1479 }
1480 }
1481 SvPV_set(sv, s);
1482 SvLEN_set(sv, newlen);
1483 }
1484 return s;
1485}
aeb18a1e 1486
bd81e77b
NC
1487/*
1488=for apidoc sv_setiv
932e9ff9 1489
bd81e77b
NC
1490Copies an integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
1491Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<sv_setiv_mg>.
463ee0b2 1492
bd81e77b
NC
1493=cut
1494*/
463ee0b2 1495
bd81e77b
NC
1496void
1497Perl_sv_setiv(pTHX_ register SV *sv, IV i)
1498{
97aff369 1499 dVAR;
bd81e77b
NC
1500 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(sv);
1501 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
1502 case SVt_NULL:
bd81e77b 1503 case SVt_NV:
3376de98 1504 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_IV);
bd81e77b 1505 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1506 case SVt_PV:
1507 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
1508 break;
463ee0b2 1509
bd81e77b
NC
1510 case SVt_PVGV:
1511 case SVt_PVAV:
1512 case SVt_PVHV:
1513 case SVt_PVCV:
1514 case SVt_PVFM:
1515 case SVt_PVIO:
1516 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't coerce %s to integer in %s", sv_reftype(sv,0),
1517 OP_DESC(PL_op));
42d0e0b7 1518 default: NOOP;
bd81e77b
NC
1519 }
1520 (void)SvIOK_only(sv); /* validate number */
1521 SvIV_set(sv, i);
1522 SvTAINT(sv);
1523}
932e9ff9 1524
bd81e77b
NC
1525/*
1526=for apidoc sv_setiv_mg
d33b2eba 1527
bd81e77b 1528Like C<sv_setiv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1c846c1f 1529
bd81e77b
NC
1530=cut
1531*/
d33b2eba 1532
bd81e77b
NC
1533void
1534Perl_sv_setiv_mg(pTHX_ register SV *sv, IV i)
1535{
1536 sv_setiv(sv,i);
1537 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
1538}
727879eb 1539
bd81e77b
NC
1540/*
1541=for apidoc sv_setuv
d33b2eba 1542
bd81e77b
NC
1543Copies an unsigned integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
1544Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<sv_setuv_mg>.
9b94d1dd 1545
bd81e77b
NC
1546=cut
1547*/
d33b2eba 1548
bd81e77b
NC
1549void
1550Perl_sv_setuv(pTHX_ register SV *sv, UV u)
1551{
1552 /* With these two if statements:
1553 u=1.49 s=0.52 cu=72.49 cs=10.64 scripts=270 tests=20865
d33b2eba 1554
bd81e77b
NC
1555 without
1556 u=1.35 s=0.47 cu=73.45 cs=11.43 scripts=270 tests=20865
1c846c1f 1557
bd81e77b
NC
1558 If you wish to remove them, please benchmark to see what the effect is
1559 */
1560 if (u <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
1561 sv_setiv(sv, (IV)u);
1562 return;
1563 }
1564 sv_setiv(sv, 0);
1565 SvIsUV_on(sv);
1566 SvUV_set(sv, u);
1567}
d33b2eba 1568
bd81e77b
NC
1569/*
1570=for apidoc sv_setuv_mg
727879eb 1571
bd81e77b 1572Like C<sv_setuv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
9b94d1dd 1573
bd81e77b
NC
1574=cut
1575*/
5e2fc214 1576
bd81e77b
NC
1577void
1578Perl_sv_setuv_mg(pTHX_ register SV *sv, UV u)
1579{
bd81e77b
NC
1580 sv_setuv(sv,u);
1581 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
1582}
5e2fc214 1583
954c1994 1584/*
bd81e77b 1585=for apidoc sv_setnv
954c1994 1586
bd81e77b
NC
1587Copies a double into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
1588Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<sv_setnv_mg>.
954c1994
GS
1589
1590=cut
1591*/
1592
63f97190 1593void
bd81e77b 1594Perl_sv_setnv(pTHX_ register SV *sv, NV num)
79072805 1595{
97aff369 1596 dVAR;
bd81e77b
NC
1597 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(sv);
1598 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
79072805 1599 case SVt_NULL:
79072805 1600 case SVt_IV:
bd81e77b 1601 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_NV);
79072805
LW
1602 break;
1603 case SVt_PV:
79072805 1604 case SVt_PVIV:
bd81e77b 1605 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
79072805 1606 break;
bd4b1eb5 1607
bd4b1eb5 1608 case SVt_PVGV:
bd81e77b
NC
1609 case SVt_PVAV:
1610 case SVt_PVHV:
79072805 1611 case SVt_PVCV:
bd81e77b
NC
1612 case SVt_PVFM:
1613 case SVt_PVIO:
1614 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't coerce %s to number in %s", sv_reftype(sv,0),
1615 OP_NAME(PL_op));
42d0e0b7 1616 default: NOOP;
2068cd4d 1617 }
bd81e77b
NC
1618 SvNV_set(sv, num);
1619 (void)SvNOK_only(sv); /* validate number */
1620 SvTAINT(sv);
79072805
LW
1621}
1622
645c22ef 1623/*
bd81e77b 1624=for apidoc sv_setnv_mg
645c22ef 1625
bd81e77b 1626Like C<sv_setnv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
645c22ef
DM
1627
1628=cut
1629*/
1630
bd81e77b
NC
1631void
1632Perl_sv_setnv_mg(pTHX_ register SV *sv, NV num)
79072805 1633{
bd81e77b
NC
1634 sv_setnv(sv,num);
1635 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
79072805
LW
1636}
1637
bd81e77b
NC
1638/* Print an "isn't numeric" warning, using a cleaned-up,
1639 * printable version of the offending string
1640 */
954c1994 1641
bd81e77b
NC
1642STATIC void
1643S_not_a_number(pTHX_ SV *sv)
79072805 1644{
97aff369 1645 dVAR;
bd81e77b
NC
1646 SV *dsv;
1647 char tmpbuf[64];
1648 const char *pv;
94463019
JH
1649
1650 if (DO_UTF8(sv)) {
84bafc02 1651 dsv = newSVpvs_flags("", SVs_TEMP);
94463019
JH
1652 pv = sv_uni_display(dsv, sv, 10, 0);
1653 } else {
1654 char *d = tmpbuf;
551405c4 1655 const char * const limit = tmpbuf + sizeof(tmpbuf) - 8;
94463019
JH
1656 /* each *s can expand to 4 chars + "...\0",
1657 i.e. need room for 8 chars */
ecdeb87c 1658
00b6aa41
AL
1659 const char *s = SvPVX_const(sv);
1660 const char * const end = s + SvCUR(sv);
1661 for ( ; s < end && d < limit; s++ ) {
94463019
JH
1662 int ch = *s & 0xFF;
1663 if (ch & 128 && !isPRINT_LC(ch)) {
1664 *d++ = 'M';
1665 *d++ = '-';
1666 ch &= 127;
1667 }
1668 if (ch == '\n') {
1669 *d++ = '\\';
1670 *d++ = 'n';
1671 }
1672 else if (ch == '\r') {
1673 *d++ = '\\';
1674 *d++ = 'r';
1675 }
1676 else if (ch == '\f') {
1677 *d++ = '\\';
1678 *d++ = 'f';
1679 }
1680 else if (ch == '\\') {
1681 *d++ = '\\';
1682 *d++ = '\\';
1683 }
1684 else if (ch == '\0') {
1685 *d++ = '\\';
1686 *d++ = '0';
1687 }
1688 else if (isPRINT_LC(ch))
1689 *d++ = ch;
1690 else {
1691 *d++ = '^';
1692 *d++ = toCTRL(ch);
1693 }
1694 }
1695 if (s < end) {
1696 *d++ = '.';
1697 *d++ = '.';
1698 *d++ = '.';
1699 }
1700 *d = '\0';
1701 pv = tmpbuf;
a0d0e21e 1702 }
a0d0e21e 1703
533c011a 1704 if (PL_op)
9014280d 1705 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NUMERIC),
94463019
JH
1706 "Argument \"%s\" isn't numeric in %s", pv,
1707 OP_DESC(PL_op));
a0d0e21e 1708 else
9014280d 1709 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NUMERIC),
94463019 1710 "Argument \"%s\" isn't numeric", pv);
a0d0e21e
LW
1711}
1712
c2988b20
NC
1713/*
1714=for apidoc looks_like_number
1715
645c22ef
DM
1716Test if the content of an SV looks like a number (or is a number).
1717C<Inf> and C<Infinity> are treated as numbers (so will not issue a
1718non-numeric warning), even if your atof() doesn't grok them.
c2988b20
NC
1719
1720=cut
1721*/
1722
1723I32
1724Perl_looks_like_number(pTHX_ SV *sv)
1725{
a3b680e6 1726 register const char *sbegin;
c2988b20
NC
1727 STRLEN len;
1728
1729 if (SvPOK(sv)) {
3f7c398e 1730 sbegin = SvPVX_const(sv);
c2988b20
NC
1731 len = SvCUR(sv);
1732 }
1733 else if (SvPOKp(sv))
83003860 1734 sbegin = SvPV_const(sv, len);
c2988b20 1735 else
e0ab1c0e 1736 return SvFLAGS(sv) & (SVf_NOK|SVp_NOK|SVf_IOK|SVp_IOK);
c2988b20
NC
1737 return grok_number(sbegin, len, NULL);
1738}
25da4f38 1739
19f6321d
NC
1740STATIC bool
1741S_glob_2number(pTHX_ GV * const gv)
180488f8
NC
1742{
1743 const U32 wasfake = SvFLAGS(gv) & SVf_FAKE;
1744 SV *const buffer = sv_newmortal();
1745
1746 /* FAKE globs can get coerced, so need to turn this off temporarily if it
1747 is on. */
1748 SvFAKE_off(gv);
1749 gv_efullname3(buffer, gv, "*");
1750 SvFLAGS(gv) |= wasfake;
1751
675c862f
AL
1752 /* We know that all GVs stringify to something that is not-a-number,
1753 so no need to test that. */
1754 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
1755 not_a_number(buffer);
1756 /* We just want something true to return, so that S_sv_2iuv_common
1757 can tail call us and return true. */
19f6321d 1758 return TRUE;
675c862f
AL
1759}
1760
1761STATIC char *
19f6321d 1762S_glob_2pv(pTHX_ GV * const gv, STRLEN * const len)
675c862f
AL
1763{
1764 const U32 wasfake = SvFLAGS(gv) & SVf_FAKE;
1765 SV *const buffer = sv_newmortal();
1766
1767 /* FAKE globs can get coerced, so need to turn this off temporarily if it
1768 is on. */
1769 SvFAKE_off(gv);
1770 gv_efullname3(buffer, gv, "*");
1771 SvFLAGS(gv) |= wasfake;
1772
1773 assert(SvPOK(buffer));
a6d61a6c
NC
1774 if (len) {
1775 *len = SvCUR(buffer);
1776 }
675c862f 1777 return SvPVX(buffer);
180488f8
NC
1778}
1779
25da4f38
IZ
1780/* Actually, ISO C leaves conversion of UV to IV undefined, but
1781 until proven guilty, assume that things are not that bad... */
1782
645c22ef
DM
1783/*
1784 NV_PRESERVES_UV:
1785
1786 As 64 bit platforms often have an NV that doesn't preserve all bits of
28e5dec8
JH
1787 an IV (an assumption perl has been based on to date) it becomes necessary
1788 to remove the assumption that the NV always carries enough precision to
1789 recreate the IV whenever needed, and that the NV is the canonical form.
1790 Instead, IV/UV and NV need to be given equal rights. So as to not lose
645c22ef 1791 precision as a side effect of conversion (which would lead to insanity
28e5dec8
JH
1792 and the dragon(s) in t/op/numconvert.t getting very angry) the intent is
1793 1) to distinguish between IV/UV/NV slots that have cached a valid
1794 conversion where precision was lost and IV/UV/NV slots that have a
1795 valid conversion which has lost no precision
645c22ef 1796 2) to ensure that if a numeric conversion to one form is requested that
28e5dec8
JH
1797 would lose precision, the precise conversion (or differently
1798 imprecise conversion) is also performed and cached, to prevent
1799 requests for different numeric formats on the same SV causing
1800 lossy conversion chains. (lossless conversion chains are perfectly
1801 acceptable (still))
1802
1803
1804 flags are used:
1805 SvIOKp is true if the IV slot contains a valid value
1806 SvIOK is true only if the IV value is accurate (UV if SvIOK_UV true)
1807 SvNOKp is true if the NV slot contains a valid value
1808 SvNOK is true only if the NV value is accurate
1809
1810 so
645c22ef 1811 while converting from PV to NV, check to see if converting that NV to an
28e5dec8
JH
1812 IV(or UV) would lose accuracy over a direct conversion from PV to
1813 IV(or UV). If it would, cache both conversions, return NV, but mark
1814 SV as IOK NOKp (ie not NOK).
1815
645c22ef 1816 While converting from PV to IV, check to see if converting that IV to an
28e5dec8
JH
1817 NV would lose accuracy over a direct conversion from PV to NV. If it
1818 would, cache both conversions, flag similarly.
1819
1820 Before, the SV value "3.2" could become NV=3.2 IV=3 NOK, IOK quite
1821 correctly because if IV & NV were set NV *always* overruled.
645c22ef
DM
1822 Now, "3.2" will become NV=3.2 IV=3 NOK, IOKp, because the flag's meaning
1823 changes - now IV and NV together means that the two are interchangeable:
28e5dec8 1824 SvIVX == (IV) SvNVX && SvNVX == (NV) SvIVX;
d460ef45 1825
645c22ef
DM
1826 The benefit of this is that operations such as pp_add know that if
1827 SvIOK is true for both left and right operands, then integer addition
1828 can be used instead of floating point (for cases where the result won't
1829 overflow). Before, floating point was always used, which could lead to
28e5dec8
JH
1830 loss of precision compared with integer addition.
1831
1832 * making IV and NV equal status should make maths accurate on 64 bit
1833 platforms
1834 * may speed up maths somewhat if pp_add and friends start to use
645c22ef 1835 integers when possible instead of fp. (Hopefully the overhead in
28e5dec8
JH
1836 looking for SvIOK and checking for overflow will not outweigh the
1837 fp to integer speedup)
1838 * will slow down integer operations (callers of SvIV) on "inaccurate"
1839 values, as the change from SvIOK to SvIOKp will cause a call into
1840 sv_2iv each time rather than a macro access direct to the IV slot
1841 * should speed up number->string conversion on integers as IV is
645c22ef 1842 favoured when IV and NV are equally accurate
28e5dec8
JH
1843
1844 ####################################################################
645c22ef
DM
1845 You had better be using SvIOK_notUV if you want an IV for arithmetic:
1846 SvIOK is true if (IV or UV), so you might be getting (IV)SvUV.
1847 On the other hand, SvUOK is true iff UV.
28e5dec8
JH
1848 ####################################################################
1849
645c22ef 1850 Your mileage will vary depending your CPU's relative fp to integer
28e5dec8
JH
1851 performance ratio.
1852*/
1853
1854#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
645c22ef
DM
1855# define IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_IV 1
1856# define IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_UV 2
1857# define IS_NUMBER_IV_AND_UV 2
1858# define IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_IV 4
1859# define IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV 5
1860
1861/* sv_2iuv_non_preserve(): private routine for use by sv_2iv() and sv_2uv() */
28e5dec8
JH
1862
1863/* For sv_2nv these three cases are "SvNOK and don't bother casting" */
1864STATIC int
645c22ef 1865S_sv_2iuv_non_preserve(pTHX_ register SV *sv, I32 numtype)
28e5dec8 1866{
97aff369 1867 dVAR;
b57a0404 1868 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(numtype); /* Used only under DEBUGGING? */
3f7c398e 1869 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,"sv_2iuv_non '%s', IV=0x%"UVxf" NV=%"NVgf" inttype=%"UVXf"\n", SvPVX_const(sv), SvIVX(sv), SvNVX(sv), (UV)numtype));
28e5dec8
JH
1870 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MIN) {
1871 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
1872 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
45977657 1873 SvIV_set(sv, IV_MIN);
28e5dec8
JH
1874 return IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_IV;
1875 }
1876 if (SvNVX(sv) > (NV)UV_MAX) {
1877 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
1878 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
1879 SvIsUV_on(sv);
607fa7f2 1880 SvUV_set(sv, UV_MAX);
28e5dec8
JH
1881 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV;
1882 }
c2988b20
NC
1883 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
1884 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
1885 /* Can't use strtol etc to convert this string. (See truth table in
1886 sv_2iv */
1887 if (SvNVX(sv) <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 1888 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
c2988b20
NC
1889 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
1890 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Integer is precise. NOK, IOK */
1891 } else {
1892 /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
1893 }
1894 return SvNVX(sv) < 0 ? IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_UV : IS_NUMBER_IV_AND_UV;
1895 }
1896 SvIsUV_on(sv);
607fa7f2 1897 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
c2988b20
NC
1898 if ((NV)(SvUVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
1899 if (SvUVX(sv) == UV_MAX) {
1900 /* As we know that NVs don't preserve UVs, UV_MAX cannot
1901 possibly be preserved by NV. Hence, it must be overflow.
1902 NOK, IOKp */
1903 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV;
1904 }
1905 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Integer is precise. NOK, UOK */
1906 } else {
1907 /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
28e5dec8 1908 }
c2988b20 1909 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_IV;
28e5dec8 1910}
645c22ef
DM
1911#endif /* !NV_PRESERVES_UV*/
1912
af359546
NC
1913STATIC bool
1914S_sv_2iuv_common(pTHX_ SV *sv) {
97aff369 1915 dVAR;
af359546 1916 if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
28e5dec8
JH
1917 /* erm. not sure. *should* never get NOKp (without NOK) from sv_2nv
1918 * without also getting a cached IV/UV from it at the same time
1919 * (ie PV->NV conversion should detect loss of accuracy and cache
af359546
NC
1920 * IV or UV at same time to avoid this. */
1921 /* IV-over-UV optimisation - choose to cache IV if possible */
25da4f38
IZ
1922
1923 if (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_NV)
1924 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
1925
28e5dec8
JH
1926 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv); /* Must do this first, to clear any SvOOK */
1927 /* < not <= as for NV doesn't preserve UV, ((NV)IV_MAX+1) will almost
1928 certainly cast into the IV range at IV_MAX, whereas the correct
1929 answer is the UV IV_MAX +1. Hence < ensures that dodgy boundary
1930 cases go to UV */
cab190d4
JD
1931#if defined(NAN_COMPARE_BROKEN) && defined(Perl_isnan)
1932 if (Perl_isnan(SvNVX(sv))) {
1933 SvUV_set(sv, 0);
1934 SvIsUV_on(sv);
fdbe6d7c 1935 return FALSE;
cab190d4 1936 }
cab190d4 1937#endif
28e5dec8 1938 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
45977657 1939 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
1940 if (SvNVX(sv) == (NV) SvIVX(sv)
1941#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
1942 && (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
1943 (UV)(SvIVX(sv) > 0 ? SvIVX(sv) : -SvIVX(sv)))
1944 /* Don't flag it as "accurately an integer" if the number
1945 came from a (by definition imprecise) NV operation, and
1946 we're outside the range of NV integer precision */
1947#endif
1948 ) {
1949 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Can this go wrong with rounding? NWC */
1950 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
7234c960 1951 "0x%"UVxf" iv(%"NVgf" => %"IVdf") (precise)\n",
28e5dec8
JH
1952 PTR2UV(sv),
1953 SvNVX(sv),
1954 SvIVX(sv)));
1955
1956 } else {
1957 /* IV not precise. No need to convert from PV, as NV
1958 conversion would already have cached IV if it detected
1959 that PV->IV would be better than PV->NV->IV
1960 flags already correct - don't set public IOK. */
1961 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
7234c960 1962 "0x%"UVxf" iv(%"NVgf" => %"IVdf") (imprecise)\n",
28e5dec8
JH
1963 PTR2UV(sv),
1964 SvNVX(sv),
1965 SvIVX(sv)));
1966 }
1967 /* Can the above go wrong if SvIVX == IV_MIN and SvNVX < IV_MIN,
1968 but the cast (NV)IV_MIN rounds to a the value less (more
1969 negative) than IV_MIN which happens to be equal to SvNVX ??
1970 Analogous to 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF rounding up to NV (2**64) and
1971 NV rounding back to 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF, so UVX == UV(NVX) and
1972 (NV)UVX == NVX are both true, but the values differ. :-(
1973 Hopefully for 2s complement IV_MIN is something like
1974 0x8000000000000000 which will be exact. NWC */
d460ef45 1975 }
25da4f38 1976 else {
607fa7f2 1977 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
1978 if (
1979 (SvNVX(sv) == (NV) SvUVX(sv))
1980#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
1981 /* Make sure it's not 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF */
1982 /*&& (SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX) irrelevant with code below */
1983 && (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) > SvUVX(sv))
1984 /* Don't flag it as "accurately an integer" if the number
1985 came from a (by definition imprecise) NV operation, and
1986 we're outside the range of NV integer precision */
1987#endif
1988 )
1989 SvIOK_on(sv);
25da4f38 1990 SvIsUV_on(sv);
1c846c1f 1991 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
57def98f 1992 "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%"UVuf" => %"IVdf") (as unsigned)\n",
56431972 1993 PTR2UV(sv),
57def98f
JH
1994 SvUVX(sv),
1995 SvUVX(sv)));
25da4f38 1996 }
748a9306
LW
1997 }
1998 else if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) {
c2988b20 1999 UV value;
504618e9 2000 const int numtype = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
af359546 2001 /* We want to avoid a possible problem when we cache an IV/ a UV which
25da4f38 2002 may be later translated to an NV, and the resulting NV is not
c2988b20
NC
2003 the same as the direct translation of the initial string
2004 (eg 123.456 can shortcut to the IV 123 with atol(), but we must
2005 be careful to ensure that the value with the .456 is around if the
2006 NV value is requested in the future).
1c846c1f 2007
af359546 2008 This means that if we cache such an IV/a UV, we need to cache the
25da4f38 2009 NV as well. Moreover, we trade speed for space, and do not
28e5dec8 2010 cache the NV if we are sure it's not needed.
25da4f38 2011 */
16b7a9a4 2012
c2988b20
NC
2013 /* SVt_PVNV is one higher than SVt_PVIV, hence this order */
2014 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2015 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
5e045b90 2016 /* It's definitely an integer, only upgrade to PVIV */
28e5dec8
JH
2017 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVIV)
2018 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
f7bbb42a 2019 (void)SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2020 } else if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2021 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
28e5dec8 2022
f2524eef 2023 /* If NVs preserve UVs then we only use the UV value if we know that
c2988b20
NC
2024 we aren't going to call atof() below. If NVs don't preserve UVs
2025 then the value returned may have more precision than atof() will
2026 return, even though value isn't perfectly accurate. */
2027 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV
2028#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2029 | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT
2030#endif
2031 )) == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2032 /* This won't turn off the public IOK flag if it was set above */
2033 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2034
2035 if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG)) {
2036 /* positive */;
2037 if (value <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 2038 SvIV_set(sv, (IV)value);
c2988b20 2039 } else {
af359546 2040 /* it didn't overflow, and it was positive. */
607fa7f2 2041 SvUV_set(sv, value);
c2988b20
NC
2042 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2043 }
2044 } else {
2045 /* 2s complement assumption */
2046 if (value <= (UV)IV_MIN) {
45977657 2047 SvIV_set(sv, -(IV)value);
c2988b20
NC
2048 } else {
2049 /* Too negative for an IV. This is a double upgrade, but
d1be9408 2050 I'm assuming it will be rare. */
c2988b20
NC
2051 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2052 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
2053 SvNOK_on(sv);
2054 SvIOK_off(sv);
2055 SvIOKp_on(sv);
9d6ce603 2056 SvNV_set(sv, -(NV)value);
45977657 2057 SvIV_set(sv, IV_MIN);
c2988b20
NC
2058 }
2059 }
2060 }
2061 /* For !NV_PRESERVES_UV and IS_NUMBER_IN_UV and IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT we
2062 will be in the previous block to set the IV slot, and the next
2063 block to set the NV slot. So no else here. */
2064
2065 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2066 != IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2067 /* It wasn't an (integer that doesn't overflow the UV). */
3f7c398e 2068 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
28e5dec8 2069
c2988b20
NC
2070 if (! numtype && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2071 not_a_number(sv);
28e5dec8 2072
65202027 2073#if defined(USE_LONG_DOUBLE)
c2988b20
NC
2074 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%" PERL_PRIgldbl ")\n",
2075 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv)));
65202027 2076#else
1779d84d 2077 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%"NVgf")\n",
c2988b20 2078 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv)));
65202027 2079#endif
28e5dec8 2080
28e5dec8 2081#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
af359546
NC
2082 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2083 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
2084 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
2085 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
2086 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
2087 SvIOK_on(sv);
2088 } else {
6f207bd3 2089 NOOP; /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
af359546
NC
2090 }
2091 /* UV will not work better than IV */
2092 } else {
2093 if (SvNVX(sv) > (NV)UV_MAX) {
2094 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2095 /* Integer is inaccurate. NOK, IOKp, is UV */
2096 SvUV_set(sv, UV_MAX);
af359546
NC
2097 } else {
2098 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
2099 /* 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF not an issue in here, NVs
2100 NV preservse UV so can do correct comparison. */
2101 if ((NV)(SvUVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
2102 SvIOK_on(sv);
af359546 2103 } else {
6f207bd3 2104 NOOP; /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp, is UV */
af359546
NC
2105 }
2106 }
4b0c9573 2107 SvIsUV_on(sv);
af359546 2108 }
28e5dec8 2109#else /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
c2988b20
NC
2110 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2111 == (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT)) {
af359546 2112 /* The IV/UV slot will have been set from value returned by
c2988b20
NC
2113 grok_number above. The NV slot has just been set using
2114 Atof. */
560b0c46 2115 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2116 assert (SvIOKp(sv));
2117 } else {
2118 if (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
2119 U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))) {
2120 /* Small enough to preserve all bits. */
2121 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2122 SvNOK_on(sv);
45977657 2123 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
c2988b20
NC
2124 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv))
2125 SvIOK_on(sv);
2126 /* Assumption: first non-preserved integer is < IV_MAX,
2127 this NV is in the preserved range, therefore: */
2128 if (!(U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))
2129 < (UV)IV_MAX)) {
32fdb065 2130 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "sv_2iv assumed (U_V(fabs((double)SvNVX(sv))) < (UV)IV_MAX) but SvNVX(sv)=%"NVgf" U_V is 0x%"UVxf", IV_MAX is 0x%"UVxf"\n", SvNVX(sv), U_V(SvNVX(sv)), (UV)IV_MAX);
c2988b20
NC
2131 }
2132 } else {
2133 /* IN_UV NOT_INT
2134 0 0 already failed to read UV.
2135 0 1 already failed to read UV.
2136 1 0 you won't get here in this case. IV/UV
2137 slot set, public IOK, Atof() unneeded.
2138 1 1 already read UV.
2139 so there's no point in sv_2iuv_non_preserve() attempting
2140 to use atol, strtol, strtoul etc. */
40a17c4c 2141 sv_2iuv_non_preserve (sv, numtype);
c2988b20
NC
2142 }
2143 }
28e5dec8 2144#endif /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
25da4f38 2145 }
af359546
NC
2146 }
2147 else {
675c862f 2148 if (isGV_with_GP(sv))
a0933d07 2149 return glob_2number((GV *)sv);
180488f8 2150
af359546
NC
2151 if (!(SvFLAGS(sv) & SVs_PADTMP)) {
2152 if (!PL_localizing && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
2153 report_uninit(sv);
2154 }
25da4f38
IZ
2155 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_IV)
2156 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
2157 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_IV);
af359546
NC
2158 /* Return 0 from the caller. */
2159 return TRUE;
2160 }
2161 return FALSE;
2162}
2163
2164/*
2165=for apidoc sv_2iv_flags
2166
2167Return the integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string
2168conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first.
2169Normally used via the C<SvIV(sv)> and C<SvIVx(sv)> macros.
2170
2171=cut
2172*/
2173
2174IV
2175Perl_sv_2iv_flags(pTHX_ register SV *sv, I32 flags)
2176{
97aff369 2177 dVAR;
af359546 2178 if (!sv)
a0d0e21e 2179 return 0;
cecf5685
NC
2180 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) || (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV && SvVALID(sv))) {
2181 /* FBMs use the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must let them
50caf62e
NC
2182 cache IVs just in case. In practice it seems that they never
2183 actually anywhere accessible by user Perl code, let alone get used
2184 in anything other than a string context. */
af359546
NC
2185 if (flags & SV_GMAGIC)
2186 mg_get(sv);
2187 if (SvIOKp(sv))
2188 return SvIVX(sv);
2189 if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
2190 return I_V(SvNVX(sv));
2191 }
71c558c3
NC
2192 if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) {
2193 UV value;
2194 const int numtype
2195 = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
2196
2197 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2198 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2199 /* It's definitely an integer */
2200 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) {
2201 if (value < (UV)IV_MIN)
2202 return -(IV)value;
2203 } else {
2204 if (value < (UV)IV_MAX)
2205 return (IV)value;
2206 }
2207 }
2208 if (!numtype) {
2209 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2210 not_a_number(sv);
2211 }
2212 return I_V(Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
2213 }
1c7ff15e
NC
2214 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2215 goto return_rok;
af359546 2216 }
1c7ff15e
NC
2217 assert(SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG);
2218 /* This falls through to the report_uninit inside S_sv_2iuv_common. */
4cb1ec55 2219 } else if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
af359546 2220 if (SvROK(sv)) {
1c7ff15e 2221 return_rok:
af359546
NC
2222 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2223 SV * const tmpstr=AMG_CALLun(sv,numer);
2224 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2225 return SvIV(tmpstr);
2226 }
2227 }
2228 return PTR2IV(SvRV(sv));
2229 }
2230 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
2231 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
2232 }
2233 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
2234 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
2235 report_uninit(sv);
2236 return 0;
2237 }
2238 }
2239 if (!SvIOKp(sv)) {
2240 if (S_sv_2iuv_common(aTHX_ sv))
2241 return 0;
79072805 2242 }
1d7c1841
GS
2243 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%"IVdf")\n",
2244 PTR2UV(sv),SvIVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2245 return SvIsUV(sv) ? (IV)SvUVX(sv) : SvIVX(sv);
79072805
LW
2246}
2247
645c22ef 2248/*
891f9566 2249=for apidoc sv_2uv_flags
645c22ef
DM
2250
2251Return the unsigned integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string
891f9566
YST
2252conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first.
2253Normally used via the C<SvUV(sv)> and C<SvUVx(sv)> macros.
645c22ef
DM
2254
2255=cut
2256*/
2257
ff68c719 2258UV
891f9566 2259Perl_sv_2uv_flags(pTHX_ register SV *sv, I32 flags)
ff68c719 2260{
97aff369 2261 dVAR;
ff68c719
PP
2262 if (!sv)
2263 return 0;
cecf5685
NC
2264 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) || (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV && SvVALID(sv))) {
2265 /* FBMs use the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must let them
50caf62e 2266 cache IVs just in case. */
891f9566
YST
2267 if (flags & SV_GMAGIC)
2268 mg_get(sv);
ff68c719
PP
2269 if (SvIOKp(sv))
2270 return SvUVX(sv);
2271 if (SvNOKp(sv))
2272 return U_V(SvNVX(sv));
71c558c3
NC
2273 if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) {
2274 UV value;
2275 const int numtype
2276 = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
2277
2278 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2279 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2280 /* It's definitely an integer */
2281 if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG))
2282 return value;
2283 }
2284 if (!numtype) {
2285 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2286 not_a_number(sv);
2287 }
2288 return U_V(Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
2289 }
1c7ff15e
NC
2290 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2291 goto return_rok;
3fe9a6f1 2292 }
1c7ff15e
NC
2293 assert(SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG);
2294 /* This falls through to the report_uninit inside S_sv_2iuv_common. */
4cb1ec55 2295 } else if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
ff68c719 2296 if (SvROK(sv)) {
1c7ff15e 2297 return_rok:
deb46114
NC
2298 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2299 SV *const tmpstr = AMG_CALLun(sv,numer);
2300 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2301 return SvUV(tmpstr);
2302 }
2303 }
2304 return PTR2UV(SvRV(sv));
ff68c719 2305 }
765f542d
NC
2306 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
2307 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
8a818333 2308 }
0336b60e 2309 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
0336b60e 2310 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2311 report_uninit(sv);
ff68c719
PP
2312 return 0;
2313 }
2314 }
af359546
NC
2315 if (!SvIOKp(sv)) {
2316 if (S_sv_2iuv_common(aTHX_ sv))
2317 return 0;
ff68c719 2318 }
25da4f38 2319
1d7c1841
GS
2320 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2uv(%"UVuf")\n",
2321 PTR2UV(sv),SvUVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2322 return SvIsUV(sv) ? SvUVX(sv) : (UV)SvIVX(sv);
ff68c719
PP
2323}
2324
645c22ef
DM
2325/*
2326=for apidoc sv_2nv
2327
2328Return the num value of an SV, doing any necessary string or integer
2329conversion, magic etc. Normally used via the C<SvNV(sv)> and C<SvNVx(sv)>
2330macros.
2331
2332=cut
2333*/
2334
65202027 2335NV
864dbfa3 2336Perl_sv_2nv(pTHX_ register SV *sv)
79072805 2337{
97aff369 2338 dVAR;
79072805
LW
2339 if (!sv)
2340 return 0.0;
cecf5685
NC
2341 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) || (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV && SvVALID(sv))) {
2342 /* FBMs use the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must let them
50caf62e 2343 cache IVs just in case. */
463ee0b2
LW
2344 mg_get(sv);
2345 if (SvNOKp(sv))
2346 return SvNVX(sv);
0aa395f8 2347 if ((SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) && !SvIOKp(sv)) {
041457d9 2348 if (!SvIOKp(sv) && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC) &&
504618e9 2349 !grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), NULL))
a0d0e21e 2350 not_a_number(sv);
3f7c398e 2351 return Atof(SvPVX_const(sv));
a0d0e21e 2352 }
25da4f38 2353 if (SvIOKp(sv)) {
1c846c1f 2354 if (SvIsUV(sv))
65202027 2355 return (NV)SvUVX(sv);
25da4f38 2356 else
65202027 2357 return (NV)SvIVX(sv);
47a72cb8
NC
2358 }
2359 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2360 goto return_rok;
2361 }
2362 assert(SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG);
2363 /* This falls through to the report_uninit near the end of the
2364 function. */
2365 } else if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
a0d0e21e 2366 if (SvROK(sv)) {
47a72cb8 2367 return_rok:
deb46114
NC
2368 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2369 SV *const tmpstr = AMG_CALLun(sv,numer);
2370 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2371 return SvNV(tmpstr);
2372 }
2373 }
2374 return PTR2NV(SvRV(sv));
a0d0e21e 2375 }
765f542d
NC
2376 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
2377 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
8a818333 2378 }
0336b60e 2379 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
599cee73 2380 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2381 report_uninit(sv);
ed6116ce
LW
2382 return 0.0;
2383 }
79072805
LW
2384 }
2385 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_NV) {
7e25a7e9
NC
2386 /* The logic to use SVt_PVNV if necessary is in sv_upgrade. */
2387 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_NV);
906f284f 2388#ifdef USE_LONG_DOUBLE
097ee67d 2389 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2390 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1d7c1841
GS
2391 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2392 "0x%"UVxf" num(%" PERL_PRIgldbl ")\n",
2393 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
572bbb43
GS
2394 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2395 });
65202027 2396#else
572bbb43 2397 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2398 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1779d84d 2399 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" num(%"NVgf")\n",
1d7c1841 2400 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
097ee67d
JH
2401 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2402 });
572bbb43 2403#endif
79072805
LW
2404 }
2405 else if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2406 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
59d8ce62
NC
2407 if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
2408 return SvNVX(sv);
61604483 2409 }
59d8ce62 2410 if (SvIOKp(sv)) {
9d6ce603 2411 SvNV_set(sv, SvIsUV(sv) ? (NV)SvUVX(sv) : (NV)SvIVX(sv));
28e5dec8
JH
2412#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2413 SvNOK_on(sv);
2414#else
2415 /* Only set the public NV OK flag if this NV preserves the IV */
2416 /* Check it's not 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF */
2417 if (SvIsUV(sv) ? ((SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX)&&(SvUVX(sv) == U_V(SvNVX(sv))))
2418 : (SvIVX(sv) == I_V(SvNVX(sv))))
2419 SvNOK_on(sv);
2420 else
2421 SvNOKp_on(sv);
2422#endif
93a17b20 2423 }
748a9306 2424 else if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) {
c2988b20 2425 UV value;
3f7c398e 2426 const int numtype = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
041457d9 2427 if (!SvIOKp(sv) && !numtype && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
a0d0e21e 2428 not_a_number(sv);
28e5dec8 2429#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
c2988b20
NC
2430 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2431 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
5e045b90 2432 /* It's definitely an integer */
9d6ce603 2433 SvNV_set(sv, (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) ? -(NV)value : (NV)value);
c2988b20 2434 } else
3f7c398e 2435 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
2436 SvNOK_on(sv);
2437#else
3f7c398e 2438 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
2439 /* Only set the public NV OK flag if this NV preserves the value in
2440 the PV at least as well as an IV/UV would.
2441 Not sure how to do this 100% reliably. */
2442 /* if that shift count is out of range then Configure's test is
2443 wonky. We shouldn't be in here with NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS ==
2444 UV_BITS */
2445 if (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
c2988b20 2446 U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))) {
28e5dec8 2447 SvNOK_on(sv); /* Definitely small enough to preserve all bits */
c2988b20
NC
2448 } else if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_IN_UV)) {
2449 /* Can't use strtol etc to convert this string, so don't try.
2450 sv_2iv and sv_2uv will use the NV to convert, not the PV. */
2451 SvNOK_on(sv);
2452 } else {
2453 /* value has been set. It may not be precise. */
2454 if ((numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) && (value > (UV)IV_MIN)) {
2455 /* 2s complement assumption for (UV)IV_MIN */
2456 SvNOK_on(sv); /* Integer is too negative. */
2457 } else {
2458 SvNOKp_on(sv);
2459 SvIOKp_on(sv);
6fa402ec 2460
c2988b20 2461 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) {
45977657 2462 SvIV_set(sv, -(IV)value);
c2988b20 2463 } else if (value <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 2464 SvIV_set(sv, (IV)value);
c2988b20 2465 } else {
607fa7f2 2466 SvUV_set(sv, value);
c2988b20
NC
2467 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2468 }
2469
2470 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT) {
2471 /* I believe that even if the original PV had decimals,
2472 they are lost beyond the limit of the FP precision.
2473 However, neither is canonical, so both only get p
2474 flags. NWC, 2000/11/25 */
2475 /* Both already have p flags, so do nothing */
2476 } else {
66a1b24b 2477 const NV nv = SvNVX(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2478 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
2479 if (SvIVX(sv) == I_V(nv)) {
2480 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20 2481 } else {
c2988b20
NC
2482 /* It had no "." so it must be integer. */
2483 }
00b6aa41 2484 SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2485 } else {
2486 /* between IV_MAX and NV(UV_MAX).
2487 Could be slightly > UV_MAX */
6fa402ec 2488
c2988b20
NC
2489 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT) {
2490 /* UV and NV both imprecise. */
2491 } else {
66a1b24b 2492 const UV nv_as_uv = U_V(nv);
c2988b20
NC
2493
2494 if (value == nv_as_uv && SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX) {
2495 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20 2496 }
00b6aa41 2497 SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2498 }
2499 }
2500 }
2501 }
2502 }
28e5dec8 2503#endif /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
93a17b20 2504 }
79072805 2505 else {
f7877b28 2506 if (isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
19f6321d 2507 glob_2number((GV *)sv);
180488f8
NC
2508 return 0.0;
2509 }
2510
041457d9 2511 if (!PL_localizing && !(SvFLAGS(sv) & SVs_PADTMP) && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2512 report_uninit(sv);
7e25a7e9
NC
2513 assert (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_NV);
2514 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
2515 /* XXX Ilya implies that this is a bug in callers that assume this
2516 and ideally should be fixed. */
a0d0e21e 2517 return 0.0;
79072805 2518 }
572bbb43 2519#if defined(USE_LONG_DOUBLE)
097ee67d 2520 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2521 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1d7c1841
GS
2522 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2nv(%" PERL_PRIgldbl ")\n",
2523 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
572bbb43
GS
2524 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2525 });
65202027 2526#else
572bbb43 2527 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2528 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1779d84d 2529 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 1nv(%"NVgf")\n",
1d7c1841 2530 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
097ee67d
JH
2531 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2532 });
572bbb43 2533#endif
463ee0b2 2534 return SvNVX(sv);
79072805
LW
2535}
2536
800401ee
JH
2537/*
2538=for apidoc sv_2num
2539
2540Return an SV with the numeric value of the source SV, doing any necessary
a196a5fa
JH
2541reference or overload conversion. You must use the C<SvNUM(sv)> macro to
2542access this function.
800401ee
JH
2543
2544=cut
2545*/
2546
2547SV *
2548Perl_sv_2num(pTHX_ register SV *sv)
2549{
b9ee0594
RGS
2550 if (!SvROK(sv))
2551 return sv;
800401ee
JH
2552 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2553 SV * const tmpsv = AMG_CALLun(sv,numer);
2554 if (tmpsv && (!SvROK(tmpsv) || (SvRV(tmpsv) != SvRV(sv))))
2555 return sv_2num(tmpsv);
2556 }
2557 return sv_2mortal(newSVuv(PTR2UV(SvRV(sv))));
2558}
2559
645c22ef
DM
2560/* uiv_2buf(): private routine for use by sv_2pv_flags(): print an IV or
2561 * UV as a string towards the end of buf, and return pointers to start and
2562 * end of it.
2563 *
2564 * We assume that buf is at least TYPE_CHARS(UV) long.
2565 */
2566
864dbfa3 2567static char *
aec46f14 2568S_uiv_2buf(char *buf, IV iv, UV uv, int is_uv, char **peob)
25da4f38 2569{
25da4f38 2570 char *ptr = buf + TYPE_CHARS(UV);
823a54a3 2571 char * const ebuf = ptr;
25da4f38 2572 int sign;
25da4f38
IZ
2573
2574 if (is_uv)
2575 sign = 0;
2576 else if (iv >= 0) {
2577 uv = iv;
2578 sign = 0;
2579 } else {
2580 uv = -iv;
2581 sign = 1;
2582 }
2583 do {
eb160463 2584 *--ptr = '0' + (char)(uv % 10);
25da4f38
IZ
2585 } while (uv /= 10);
2586 if (sign)
2587 *--ptr = '-';
2588 *peob = ebuf;
2589 return ptr;
2590}
2591
645c22ef
DM
2592/*
2593=for apidoc sv_2pv_flags
2594
ff276b08 2595Returns a pointer to the string value of an SV, and sets *lp to its length.
645c22ef
DM
2596If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first. Coerces sv to a string
2597if necessary.
2598Normally invoked via the C<SvPV_flags> macro. C<sv_2pv()> and C<sv_2pv_nomg>
2599usually end up here too.
2600
2601=cut
2602*/
2603
8d6d96c1
HS
2604char *
2605Perl_sv_2pv_flags(pTHX_ register SV *sv, STRLEN *lp, I32 flags)
2606{
97aff369 2607 dVAR;
79072805 2608 register char *s;
79072805 2609
463ee0b2 2610 if (!sv) {
cdb061a3
NC
2611 if (lp)
2612 *lp = 0;
73d840c0 2613 return (char *)"";
463ee0b2 2614 }
8990e307 2615 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv)) {
8d6d96c1
HS
2616 if (flags & SV_GMAGIC)
2617 mg_get(sv);
463ee0b2 2618 if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
cdb061a3
NC
2619 if (lp)
2620 *lp = SvCUR(sv);
10516c54
NC
2621 if (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
2622 return SvPVX_mutable(sv);
4d84ee25
NC
2623 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN)
2624 return (char *)SvPVX_const(sv);
463ee0b2
LW
2625 return SvPVX(sv);
2626 }
75dfc8ec
NC
2627 if (SvIOKp(sv) || SvNOKp(sv)) {
2628 char tbuf[64]; /* Must fit sprintf/Gconvert of longest IV/NV */
75dfc8ec
NC
2629 STRLEN len;
2630
2631 if (SvIOKp(sv)) {
e80fed9d 2632 len = SvIsUV(sv)
d9fad198
JH
2633 ? my_snprintf(tbuf, sizeof(tbuf), "%"UVuf, (UV)SvUVX(sv))
2634 : my_snprintf(tbuf, sizeof(tbuf), "%"IVdf, (IV)SvIVX(sv));
75dfc8ec 2635 } else {
e8ada2d0
NC
2636 Gconvert(SvNVX(sv), NV_DIG, 0, tbuf);
2637 len = strlen(tbuf);
75dfc8ec 2638 }
b5b886f0
NC
2639 assert(!SvROK(sv));
2640 {
75dfc8ec
NC
2641 dVAR;
2642
2643#ifdef FIXNEGATIVEZERO
e8ada2d0
NC
2644 if (len == 2 && tbuf[0] == '-' && tbuf[1] == '0') {
2645 tbuf[0] = '0';
2646 tbuf[1] = 0;
75dfc8ec
NC
2647 len = 1;
2648 }
2649#endif
2650 SvUPGRADE(sv, SVt_PV);
2651 if (lp)
2652 *lp = len;
2653 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, len + 1);
2654 SvCUR_set(sv, len);
2655 SvPOKp_on(sv);
10edeb5d 2656 return (char*)memcpy(s, tbuf, len + 1);
75dfc8ec 2657 }
463ee0b2 2658 }
1c7ff15e
NC
2659 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2660 goto return_rok;
2661 }
2662 assert(SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG);
2663 /* This falls through to the report_uninit near the end of the
2664 function. */
2665 } else if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
ed6116ce 2666 if (SvROK(sv)) {
1c7ff15e 2667 return_rok:
deb46114
NC
2668 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2669 SV *const tmpstr = AMG_CALLun(sv,string);
2670 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2671 /* Unwrap this: */
2672 /* char *pv = lp ? SvPV(tmpstr, *lp) : SvPV_nolen(tmpstr);
2673 */
2674
2675 char *pv;
2676 if ((SvFLAGS(tmpstr) & (SVf_POK)) == SVf_POK) {
2677 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN) {
2678 pv = (char *) SvPVX_const(tmpstr);
2679 } else {
2680 pv = (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
2681 ? SvPVX_mutable(tmpstr) : SvPVX(tmpstr);
2682 }
2683 if (lp)
2684 *lp = SvCUR(tmpstr);
50adf7d2 2685 } else {
deb46114 2686 pv = sv_2pv_flags(tmpstr, lp, flags);
50adf7d2 2687 }
deb46114
NC
2688 if (SvUTF8(tmpstr))
2689 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2690 else
2691 SvUTF8_off(sv);
2692 return pv;
50adf7d2 2693 }
deb46114
NC
2694 }
2695 {
fafee734
NC
2696 STRLEN len;
2697 char *retval;
2698 char *buffer;
d8eae41e
NC
2699 const SV *const referent = (SV*)SvRV(sv);
2700
2701 if (!referent) {
fafee734
NC
2702 len = 7;
2703 retval = buffer = savepvn("NULLREF", len);
5c35adbb 2704 } else if (SvTYPE(referent) == SVt_REGEXP) {
de8c5301
YO
2705 char *str = NULL;
2706 I32 haseval = 0;
60df1e07 2707 U32 flags = 0;
5c35adbb 2708 struct magic temp;
288b8c02
NC
2709 /* FIXME - get rid of this cast away of const, or work out
2710 how to do it better. */
2711 temp.mg_obj = (SV *)referent;
5c35adbb
NC
2712 assert(temp.mg_obj);
2713 (str) = CALLREG_AS_STR(&temp,lp,&flags,&haseval);
de8c5301
YO
2714 if (flags & 1)
2715 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2716 else
2717 SvUTF8_off(sv);
2718 PL_reginterp_cnt += haseval;
2719 return str;
d8eae41e
NC
2720 } else {
2721 const char *const typestr = sv_reftype(referent, 0);
fafee734
NC
2722 const STRLEN typelen = strlen(typestr);
2723 UV addr = PTR2UV(referent);
2724 const char *stashname = NULL;
2725 STRLEN stashnamelen = 0; /* hush, gcc */
2726 const char *buffer_end;
d8eae41e 2727
d8eae41e 2728 if (SvOBJECT(referent)) {
fafee734
NC
2729 const HEK *const name = HvNAME_HEK(SvSTASH(referent));
2730
2731 if (name) {
2732 stashname = HEK_KEY(name);
2733 stashnamelen = HEK_LEN(name);
2734
2735 if (HEK_UTF8(name)) {
2736 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2737 } else {
2738 SvUTF8_off(sv);
2739 }
2740 } else {
2741 stashname = "__ANON__";
2742 stashnamelen = 8;
2743 }
2744 len = stashnamelen + 1 /* = */ + typelen + 3 /* (0x */
2745 + 2 * sizeof(UV) + 2 /* )\0 */;
2746 } else {
2747 len = typelen + 3 /* (0x */
2748 + 2 * sizeof(UV) + 2 /* )\0 */;
d8eae41e 2749 }
fafee734
NC
2750
2751 Newx(buffer, len, char);
2752 buffer_end = retval = buffer + len;
2753
2754 /* Working backwards */
2755 *--retval = '\0';
2756 *--retval = ')';
2757 do {
2758 *--retval = PL_hexdigit[addr & 15];
2759 } while (addr >>= 4);
2760 *--retval = 'x';
2761 *--retval = '0';
2762 *--retval = '(';
2763
2764 retval -= typelen;
2765 memcpy(retval, typestr, typelen);
2766
2767 if (stashname) {
2768 *--retval = '=';
2769 retval -= stashnamelen;
2770 memcpy(retval, stashname, stashnamelen);
2771 }
2772 /* retval may not neccesarily have reached the start of the
2773 buffer here. */
2774 assert (retval >= buffer);
2775
2776 len = buffer_end - retval - 1; /* -1 for that \0 */
c080367d 2777 }
042dae7a 2778 if (lp)
fafee734
NC
2779 *lp = len;
2780 SAVEFREEPV(buffer);
2781 return retval;
463ee0b2 2782 }
79072805 2783 }
0336b60e 2784 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
0336b60e 2785 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2786 report_uninit(sv);
cdb061a3
NC
2787 if (lp)
2788 *lp = 0;
73d840c0 2789 return (char *)"";
79072805 2790 }
79072805 2791 }
28e5dec8
JH
2792 if (SvIOK(sv) || ((SvIOKp(sv) && !SvNOKp(sv)))) {
2793 /* I'm assuming that if both IV and NV are equally valid then
2794 converting the IV is going to be more efficient */
e1ec3a88 2795 const U32 isUIOK = SvIsUV(sv);
28e5dec8
JH
2796 char buf[TYPE_CHARS(UV)];
2797 char *ebuf, *ptr;
97a130b8 2798 STRLEN len;
28e5dec8
JH
2799
2800 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVIV)
2801 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
4ea1d550 2802 ptr = uiv_2buf(buf, SvIVX(sv), SvUVX(sv), isUIOK, &ebuf);
97a130b8 2803 len = ebuf - ptr;
5902b6a9 2804 /* inlined from sv_setpvn */
97a130b8
NC
2805 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, len + 1);
2806 Move(ptr, s, len, char);
2807 s += len;
28e5dec8 2808 *s = '\0';
28e5dec8
JH
2809 }
2810 else if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
c81271c3 2811 const int olderrno = errno;
79072805
LW
2812 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2813 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
1c846c1f 2814 /* The +20 is pure guesswork. Configure test needed. --jhi */
5902b6a9 2815 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, NV_DIG + 20);
c81271c3 2816 /* some Xenix systems wipe out errno here */
79072805 2817#ifdef apollo
463ee0b2 2818 if (SvNVX(sv) == 0.0)
d1307786 2819 my_strlcpy(s, "0", SvLEN(sv));
79072805
LW
2820 else
2821#endif /*apollo*/
bbce6d69 2822 {
2d4389e4 2823 Gconvert(SvNVX(sv), NV_DIG, 0, s);
bbce6d69 2824 }
79072805 2825 errno = olderrno;
a0d0e21e 2826#ifdef FIXNEGATIVEZERO
20773dcd
NC
2827 if (*s == '-' && s[1] == '0' && !s[2]) {
2828 s[0] = '0';
2829 s[1] = 0;
2830 }
a0d0e21e 2831#endif
79072805
LW
2832 while (*s) s++;
2833#ifdef hcx
2834 if (s[-1] == '.')
46fc3d4c 2835 *--s = '\0';
79072805
LW
2836#endif
2837 }
79072805 2838 else {
675c862f 2839 if (isGV_with_GP(sv))
19f6321d 2840 return glob_2pv((GV *)sv, lp);
180488f8 2841
041457d9 2842 if (!PL_localizing && !(SvFLAGS(sv) & SVs_PADTMP) && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2843 report_uninit(sv);
cdb061a3 2844 if (lp)
00b6aa41 2845 *lp = 0;
25da4f38
IZ
2846 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PV)
2847 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
2848 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PV);
73d840c0 2849 return (char *)"";
79072805 2850 }
cdb061a3 2851 {
823a54a3 2852 const STRLEN len = s - SvPVX_const(sv);
cdb061a3
NC
2853 if (lp)
2854 *lp = len;
2855 SvCUR_set(sv, len);
2856 }
79072805 2857 SvPOK_on(sv);
1d7c1841 2858 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2pv(%s)\n",
3f7c398e 2859 PTR2UV(sv),SvPVX_const(sv)));
4d84ee25
NC
2860 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN)
2861 return (char *)SvPVX_const(sv);
10516c54
NC
2862 if (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
2863 return SvPVX_mutable(sv);
463ee0b2
LW
2864 return SvPVX(sv);
2865}
2866
645c22ef 2867/*
6050d10e
JP
2868=for apidoc sv_copypv
2869
2870Copies a stringified representation of the source SV into the
2871destination SV. Automatically performs any necessary mg_get and
54f0641b 2872coercion of numeric values into strings. Guaranteed to preserve
2575c402 2873UTF8 flag even from overloaded objects. Similar in nature to
54f0641b
NIS
2874sv_2pv[_flags] but operates directly on an SV instead of just the
2875string. Mostly uses sv_2pv_flags to do its work, except when that
6050d10e
JP
2876would lose the UTF-8'ness of the PV.
2877
2878=cut
2879*/
2880
2881void
2882Perl_sv_copypv(pTHX_ SV *dsv, register SV *ssv)
2883{
446eaa42 2884 STRLEN len;
53c1dcc0 2885 const char * const s = SvPV_const(ssv,len);
cb50f42d 2886 sv_setpvn(dsv,s,len);
446eaa42 2887 if (SvUTF8(ssv))
cb50f42d 2888 SvUTF8_on(dsv);
446eaa42 2889 else
cb50f42d 2890 SvUTF8_off(dsv);
6050d10e
JP
2891}
2892
2893/*
645c22ef
DM
2894=for apidoc sv_2pvbyte
2895
2896Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV, and set *lp
1e54db1a 2897to its length. May cause the SV to be downgraded from UTF-8 as a
645c22ef
DM
2898side-effect.
2899
2900Usually accessed via the C<SvPVbyte> macro.
2901
2902=cut
2903*/
2904
7340a771
GS
2905char *
2906Perl_sv_2pvbyte(pTHX_ register SV *sv, STRLEN *lp)
2907{
0875d2fe 2908 sv_utf8_downgrade(sv,0);
97972285 2909 return lp ? SvPV(sv,*lp) : SvPV_nolen(sv);
7340a771
GS
2910}
2911
645c22ef 2912/*
035cbb0e
RGS
2913=for apidoc sv_2pvutf8
2914
2915Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation of the SV, and set *lp
2916to its length. May cause the SV to be upgraded to UTF-8 as a side-effect.
2917
2918Usually accessed via the C<SvPVutf8> macro.
2919
2920=cut
2921*/
645c22ef 2922
7340a771
GS
2923char *
2924Perl_sv_2pvutf8(pTHX_ register SV *sv, STRLEN *lp)
2925{
035cbb0e
RGS
2926 sv_utf8_upgrade(sv);
2927 return lp ? SvPV(sv,*lp) : SvPV_nolen(sv);
7340a771 2928}
1c846c1f 2929
7ee2227d 2930
645c22ef
DM
2931/*
2932=for apidoc sv_2bool
2933
2934This function is only called on magical items, and is only used by
8cf8f3d1 2935sv_true() or its macro equivalent.
645c22ef
DM
2936
2937=cut
2938*/
2939
463ee0b2 2940bool
864dbfa3 2941Perl_sv_2bool(pTHX_ register SV *sv)
463ee0b2 2942{
97aff369 2943 dVAR;
5b295bef 2944 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
463ee0b2 2945
a0d0e21e
LW
2946 if (!SvOK(sv))
2947 return 0;
2948 if (SvROK(sv)) {
fabdb6c0
AL
2949 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2950 SV * const tmpsv = AMG_CALLun(sv,bool_);
2951 if (tmpsv && (!SvROK(tmpsv) || (SvRV(tmpsv) != SvRV(sv))))
2952 return (bool)SvTRUE(tmpsv);
2953 }
2954 return SvRV(sv) != 0;
a0d0e21e 2955 }
463ee0b2 2956 if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
53c1dcc0
AL
2957 register XPV* const Xpvtmp = (XPV*)SvANY(sv);
2958 if (Xpvtmp &&
339049b0 2959 (*sv->sv_u.svu_pv > '0' ||
11343788 2960 Xpvtmp->xpv_cur > 1 ||
339049b0 2961 (Xpvtmp->xpv_cur && *sv->sv_u.svu_pv != '0')))
463ee0b2
LW
2962 return 1;
2963 else
2964 return 0;
2965 }
2966 else {
2967 if (SvIOKp(sv))
2968 return SvIVX(sv) != 0;
2969 else {
2970 if (SvNOKp(sv))
2971 return SvNVX(sv) != 0.0;
180488f8 2972 else {
f7877b28 2973 if (isGV_with_GP(sv))
180488f8
NC
2974 return TRUE;
2975 else
2976 return FALSE;
2977 }
463ee0b2
LW
2978 }
2979 }
79072805
LW
2980}
2981
c461cf8f
JH
2982/*
2983=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade
2984
78ea37eb 2985Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.
645c22ef 2986Forces the SV to string form if it is not already.
4411f3b6
NIS
2987Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks even
2988if all the bytes have hibit clear.
c461cf8f 2989
13a6c0e0
JH
2990This is not as a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface:
2991use the Encode extension for that.
2992
8d6d96c1
HS
2993=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade_flags
2994
78ea37eb 2995Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.
645c22ef 2996Forces the SV to string form if it is not already.
8d6d96c1
HS
2997Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks even
2998if all the bytes have hibit clear. If C<flags> has C<SV_GMAGIC> bit set,
2999will C<mg_get> on C<sv> if appropriate, else not. C<sv_utf8_upgrade> and
3000C<sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg> are implemented in terms of this function.
3001
13a6c0e0
JH
3002This is not as a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface:
3003use the Encode extension for that.
3004
8d6d96c1
HS
3005=cut
3006*/
3007
3008STRLEN
3009Perl_sv_utf8_upgrade_flags(pTHX_ register SV *sv, I32 flags)
3010{
97aff369 3011 dVAR;
808c356f
RGS
3012 if (sv == &PL_sv_undef)
3013 return 0;
e0e62c2a
NIS
3014 if (!SvPOK(sv)) {
3015 STRLEN len = 0;
d52b7888
NC
3016 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && (SvPOKp(sv) || SvIOKp(sv) || SvNOKp(sv))) {
3017 (void) sv_2pv_flags(sv,&len, flags);
3018 if (SvUTF8(sv))
3019 return len;
3020 } else {
3021 (void) SvPV_force(sv,len);
3022 }
e0e62c2a 3023 }
4411f3b6 3024
f5cee72b 3025 if (SvUTF8(sv)) {
5fec3b1d 3026 return SvCUR(sv);
f5cee72b 3027 }
5fec3b1d 3028
765f542d
NC
3029 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
3030 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
db42d148
NIS
3031 }
3032
88632417 3033 if (PL_encoding && !(flags & SV_UTF8_NO_ENCODING))
799ef3cb 3034 sv_recode_to_utf8(sv, PL_encoding);
9f4817db 3035 else { /* Assume Latin-1/EBCDIC */
c4e7c712
NC
3036 /* This function could be much more efficient if we
3037 * had a FLAG in SVs to signal if there are any hibit
3038 * chars in the PV. Given that there isn't such a flag
3039 * make the loop as fast as possible. */
00b6aa41 3040 const U8 * const s = (U8 *) SvPVX_const(sv);
c4420975 3041 const U8 * const e = (U8 *) SvEND(sv);
93524f2b 3042 const U8 *t = s;
c4e7c712
NC
3043
3044 while (t < e) {
53c1dcc0 3045 const U8 ch = *t++;
00b6aa41
AL
3046 /* Check for hi bit */
3047 if (!NATIVE_IS_INVARIANT(ch)) {
3048 STRLEN len = SvCUR(sv) + 1; /* Plus the \0 */
3049 U8 * const recoded = bytes_to_utf8((U8*)s, &len);
3050
3051 SvPV_free(sv); /* No longer using what was there before. */
3052 SvPV_set(sv, (char*)recoded);
3053 SvCUR_set(sv, len - 1);
3054 SvLEN_set(sv, len); /* No longer know the real size. */
c4e7c712 3055 break;
00b6aa41 3056 }
c4e7c712
NC
3057 }
3058 /* Mark as UTF-8 even if no hibit - saves scanning loop */
3059 SvUTF8_on(sv);
560a288e 3060 }
4411f3b6 3061 return SvCUR(sv);
560a288e
GS
3062}
3063
c461cf8f
JH
3064/*
3065=for apidoc sv_utf8_downgrade
3066
78ea37eb
ST
3067Attempts to convert the PV of an SV from characters to bytes.
3068If the PV contains a character beyond byte, this conversion will fail;
3069in this case, either returns false or, if C<fail_ok> is not
c461cf8f
JH
3070true, croaks.
3071
13a6c0e0
JH
3072This is not as a general purpose Unicode to byte encoding interface:
3073use the Encode extension for that.
3074
c461cf8f
JH
3075=cut
3076*/
3077
560a288e
GS
3078bool
3079Perl_sv_utf8_downgrade(pTHX_ register SV* sv, bool fail_ok)
3080{
97aff369 3081 dVAR;
78ea37eb 3082 if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvUTF8(sv)) {
fa301091 3083 if (SvCUR(sv)) {
03cfe0ae 3084 U8 *s;
652088fc 3085 STRLEN len;
fa301091 3086
765f542d
NC
3087 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
3088 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
3089 }
03cfe0ae
NIS
3090 s = (U8 *) SvPV(sv, len);
3091 if (!utf8_to_bytes(s, &len)) {
fa301091
JH
3092 if (fail_ok)
3093 return FALSE;
3094 else {
3095 if (PL_op)
3096 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Wide character in %s",
53e06cf0 3097 OP_DESC(PL_op));
fa301091
JH
3098 else
3099 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Wide character");
3100 }
4b3603a4 3101 }
b162af07 3102 SvCUR_set(sv, len);
67e989fb 3103 }
560a288e 3104 }
ffebcc3e 3105 SvUTF8_off(sv);
560a288e
GS
3106 return TRUE;
3107}
3108
c461cf8f
JH
3109/*
3110=for apidoc sv_utf8_encode
3111
78ea37eb
ST
3112Converts the PV of an SV to UTF-8, but then turns the C<SvUTF8>
3113flag off so that it looks like octets again.
c461cf8f
JH
3114
3115=cut
3116*/
3117
560a288e
GS
3118void
3119Perl_sv_utf8_encode(pTHX_ register SV *sv)
3120{
4c94c214
NC
3121 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
3122 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
3123 }
3124 if (SvREADONLY(sv)) {
3125 Perl_croak(aTHX_ PL_no_modify);
3126 }
a5f5288a 3127 (void) sv_utf8_upgrade(sv);
560a288e
GS
3128 SvUTF8_off(sv);
3129}
3130
4411f3b6
NIS
3131/*
3132=for apidoc sv_utf8_decode
3133
78ea37eb
ST
3134If the PV of the SV is an octet sequence in UTF-8
3135and contains a multiple-byte character, the C<SvUTF8> flag is turned on
3136so that it looks like a character. If the PV contains only single-byte
3137characters, the C<SvUTF8> flag stays being off.
3138Scans PV for validity and returns false if the PV is invalid UTF-8.
4411f3b6
NIS
3139
3140=cut
3141*/
3142
560a288e
GS
3143bool
3144Perl_sv_utf8_decode(pTHX_ register SV *sv)
3145{
78ea37eb 3146 if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
93524f2b
NC
3147 const U8 *c;
3148 const U8 *e;
9cbac4c7 3149
645c22ef
DM
3150 /* The octets may have got themselves encoded - get them back as
3151 * bytes
3152 */
3153 if (!sv_utf8_downgrade(sv, TRUE))
560a288e
GS
3154 return FALSE;
3155
3156 /* it is actually just a matter of turning the utf8 flag on, but
3157 * we want to make sure everything inside is valid utf8 first.
3158 */
93524f2b 3159 c = (const U8 *) SvPVX_const(sv);
63cd0674 3160 if (!is_utf8_string(c, SvCUR(sv)+1))
67e989fb 3161 return FALSE;
93524f2b 3162 e = (const U8 *) SvEND(sv);
511c2ff0 3163 while (c < e) {
b64e5050 3164 const U8 ch = *c++;
c4d5f83a 3165 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(ch)) {
67e989fb
JH
3166 SvUTF8_on(sv);
3167 break;
3168 }
560a288e 3169 }
560a288e
GS
3170 }
3171 return TRUE;
3172}
3173
954c1994
GS
3174/*
3175=for apidoc sv_setsv
3176
645c22ef
DM
3177Copies the contents of the source SV C<ssv> into the destination SV
3178C<dsv>. The source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal, so don't use this
3179function if the source SV needs to be reused. Does not handle 'set' magic.
3180Loosely speaking, it performs a copy-by-value, obliterating any previous
3181content of the destination.
3182
3183You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers, such as
3184C<SvSetSV>, C<SvSetSV_nosteal>, C<SvSetMagicSV> and
3185C<SvSetMagicSV_nosteal>.
3186
8d6d96c1
HS
3187=for apidoc sv_setsv_flags
3188
645c22ef
DM
3189Copies the contents of the source SV C<ssv> into the destination SV
3190C<dsv>. The source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal, so don't use this
3191function if the source SV needs to be reused. Does not handle 'set' magic.
3192Loosely speaking, it performs a copy-by-value, obliterating any previous
3193content of the destination.
3194If the C<flags> parameter has the C<SV_GMAGIC> bit set, will C<mg_get> on
5fcdf167
NC
3195C<ssv> if appropriate, else not. If the C<flags> parameter has the
3196C<NOSTEAL> bit set then the buffers of temps will not be stolen. <sv_setsv>
3197and C<sv_setsv_nomg> are implemented in terms of this function.
645c22ef
DM
3198
3199You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers, such as
3200C<SvSetSV>, C<SvSetSV_nosteal>, C<SvSetMagicSV> and
3201C<SvSetMagicSV_nosteal>.
3202
3203This is the primary function for copying scalars, and most other
3204copy-ish functions and macros use this underneath.
8d6d96c1
HS
3205
3206=cut
3207*/
3208
5d0301b7 3209static void
2eb42952 3210S_glob_assign_glob(pTHX_ SV *dstr, SV *sstr, const int dtype)
5d0301b7 3211{
70cd14a1 3212 I32 mro_changes = 0; /* 1 = method, 2 = isa */
dd69841b 3213
5d0301b7
NC
3214 if (dtype != SVt_PVGV) {
3215 const char * const name = GvNAME(sstr);
3216 const STRLEN len = GvNAMELEN(sstr);
0d092c36 3217 {
f7877b28
NC
3218 if (dtype >= SVt_PV) {
3219 SvPV_free(dstr);
3220 SvPV_set(dstr, 0);
3221 SvLEN_set(dstr, 0);
3222 SvCUR_set(dstr, 0);
3223 }
0d092c36 3224 SvUPGRADE(dstr, SVt_PVGV);
dedf8e73 3225 (void)SvOK_off(dstr);
2e5b91de
NC
3226 /* FIXME - why are we doing this, then turning it off and on again
3227 below? */
3228 isGV_with_GP_on(dstr);
f7877b28 3229 }
5d0301b7
NC
3230 GvSTASH(dstr) = GvSTASH(sstr);
3231 if (GvSTASH(dstr))
3232 Perl_sv_add_backref(aTHX_ (SV*)GvSTASH(dstr), dstr);
ae8cc45f 3233 gv_name_set((GV *)dstr, name, len, GV_ADD);
5d0301b7
NC
3234 SvFAKE_on(dstr); /* can coerce to non-glob */
3235 }
3236
3237#ifdef GV_UNIQUE_CHECK
3238 if (GvUNIQUE((GV*)dstr)) {
3239 Perl_croak(aTHX_ PL_no_modify);
3240 }
3241#endif
3242
dd69841b
BB
3243 if(GvGP((GV*)sstr)) {
3244 /* If source has method cache entry, clear it */
3245 if(GvCVGEN(sstr)) {
3246 SvREFCNT_dec(GvCV(sstr));
3247 GvCV(sstr) = NULL;
3248 GvCVGEN(sstr) = 0;
3249 }
3250 /* If source has a real method, then a method is
3251 going to change */
3252 else if(GvCV((GV*)sstr)) {
70cd14a1 3253 mro_changes = 1;
dd69841b
BB
3254 }
3255 }
3256
3257 /* If dest already had a real method, that's a change as well */
70cd14a1
CB
3258 if(!mro_changes && GvGP((GV*)dstr) && GvCVu((GV*)dstr)) {
3259 mro_changes = 1;
dd69841b
BB
3260 }
3261
70cd14a1
CB
3262 if(strEQ(GvNAME((GV*)dstr),"ISA"))
3263 mro_changes = 2;
3264
f7877b28 3265 gp_free((GV*)dstr);
2e5b91de 3266 isGV_with_GP_off(dstr);
5d0301b7 3267 (void)SvOK_off(dstr);
2e5b91de 3268 isGV_with_GP_on(dstr);
dedf8e73 3269 GvINTRO_off(dstr); /* one-shot flag */
5d0301b7
NC
3270 GvGP(dstr) = gp_ref(GvGP(sstr));
3271 if (SvTAINTED(sstr))
3272 SvTAINT(dstr);
3273 if (GvIMPORTED(dstr) != GVf_IMPORTED
3274 && CopSTASH_ne(PL_curcop, GvSTASH(dstr)))
3275 {
3276 GvIMPORTED_on(dstr);
3277 }
3278 GvMULTI_on(dstr);
70cd14a1
CB
3279 if(mro_changes == 2) mro_isa_changed_in(GvSTASH(dstr));
3280 else if(mro_changes) mro_method_changed_in(GvSTASH(dstr));
5d0301b7
NC
3281 return;
3282}
3283
b8473700 3284static void
2eb42952 3285S_glob_assign_ref(pTHX_ SV *dstr, SV *sstr) {
b8473700
NC
3286 SV * const sref = SvREFCNT_inc(SvRV(sstr));
3287 SV *dref = NULL;
3288 const int intro = GvINTRO(dstr);
2440974c 3289 SV **location;
3386d083 3290 U8 import_flag = 0;
27242d61
NC
3291 const U32 stype = SvTYPE(sref);
3292
b8473700
NC
3293
3294#ifdef GV_UNIQUE_CHECK
3295 if (GvUNIQUE((GV*)dstr)) {
3296 Perl_croak(aTHX_ PL_no_modify);
3297 }
3298#endif
3299
3300 if (intro) {
3301 GvINTRO_off(dstr); /* one-shot flag */
3302 GvLINE(dstr) = CopLINE(PL_curcop);
3303 GvEGV(dstr) = (GV*)dstr;
3304 }
3305 GvMULTI_on(dstr);
27242d61 3306 switch (stype) {
b8473700 3307 case SVt_PVCV:
27242d61
NC
3308 location = (SV **) &GvCV(dstr);
3309 import_flag = GVf_IMPORTED_CV;
3310 goto common;
3311 case SVt_PVHV:
3312 location = (SV **) &GvHV(dstr);
3313 import_flag = GVf_IMPORTED_HV;
3314 goto common;
3315 case SVt_PVAV:
3316 location = (SV **) &GvAV(dstr);
3317 import_flag = GVf_IMPORTED_AV;
3318 goto common;
3319 case SVt_PVIO:
3320 location = (SV **) &GvIOp(dstr);
3321 goto common;
3322 case SVt_PVFM:
3323 location = (SV **) &GvFORM(dstr);
3324 default:
3325 location = &GvSV(dstr);
3326 import_flag = GVf_IMPORTED_SV;
3327 common:
b8473700 3328 if (intro) {
27242d61 3329 if (stype == SVt_PVCV) {
5f2fca8a
BB
3330 /*if (GvCVGEN(dstr) && (GvCV(dstr) != (CV*)sref || GvCVGEN(dstr))) {*/
3331 if (GvCVGEN(dstr)) {
27242d61
NC
3332 SvREFCNT_dec(GvCV(dstr));
3333 GvCV(dstr) = NULL;
3334 GvCVGEN(dstr) = 0; /* Switch off cacheness. */
27242d61 3335 }
b8473700 3336 }
27242d61 3337 SAVEGENERICSV(*location);
b8473700
NC
3338 }
3339 else
27242d61 3340 dref = *location;
5f2fca8a 3341 if (stype == SVt_PVCV && (*location != sref || GvCVGEN(dstr))) {
27242d61 3342 CV* const cv = (CV*)*location;
b8473700
NC
3343 if (cv) {
3344 if (!GvCVGEN((GV*)dstr) &&
3345 (CvROOT(cv) || CvXSUB(cv)))
3346 {
3347 /* Redefining a sub - warning is mandatory if
3348 it was a const and its value changed. */
3349 if (CvCONST(cv) && CvCONST((CV*)sref)
3350 && cv_const_sv(cv) == cv_const_sv((CV*)sref)) {
6f207bd3 3351 NOOP;
b8473700
NC
3352 /* They are 2 constant subroutines generated from
3353 the same constant. This probably means that
3354 they are really the "same" proxy subroutine
3355 instantiated in 2 places. Most likely this is
3356 when a constant is exported twice. Don't warn.
3357 */
3358 }
3359 else if (ckWARN(WARN_REDEFINE)
3360 || (CvCONST(cv)
3361 && (!CvCONST((CV*)sref)
3362 || sv_cmp(cv_const_sv(cv),
3363 cv_const_sv((CV*)sref))))) {
3364 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_REDEFINE),
10edeb5d
JH
3365 (const char *)
3366 (CvCONST(cv)
3367 ? "Constant subroutine %s::%s redefined"
3368 : "Subroutine %s::%s redefined"),
b8473700
NC
3369 HvNAME_get(GvSTASH((GV*)dstr)),
3370 GvENAME((GV*)dstr));
3371 }
3372 }
3373 if (!intro)
cbf82dd0
NC
3374 cv_ckproto_len(cv, (GV*)dstr,
3375 SvPOK(sref) ? SvPVX_const(sref) : NULL,
3376 SvPOK(sref) ? SvCUR(sref) : 0);
b8473700 3377 }
b8473700
NC
3378 GvCVGEN(dstr) = 0; /* Switch off cacheness. */
3379 GvASSUMECV_on(dstr);
dd69841b 3380 if(GvSTASH(dstr)) mro_method_changed_in(GvSTASH(dstr)); /* sub foo { 1 } sub bar { 2 } *bar = \&foo */
b8473700 3381 }
2440974c 3382 *location = sref;
3386d083
NC
3383 if (import_flag && !(GvFLAGS(dstr) & import_flag)
3384 && CopSTASH_ne(PL_curcop, GvSTASH(dstr))) {
3385 GvFLAGS(dstr) |= import_flag;
b8473700
NC
3386 }
3387 break;
3388 }
b37c2d43 3389 SvREFCNT_dec(dref);
b8473700
NC
3390 if (SvTAINTED(sstr))
3391 SvTAINT(dstr);
3392 return;
3393}
3394
8d6d96c1
HS
3395void
3396Perl_sv_setsv_flags(pTHX_ SV *dstr, register SV *sstr, I32 flags)
3397{
97aff369 3398 dVAR;
8990e307
LW
3399 register U32 sflags;
3400 register int dtype;
42d0e0b7 3401 register svtype stype;
463ee0b2 3402
79072805
LW
3403 if (sstr == dstr)
3404 return;
29f4f0ab
NC
3405
3406 if (SvIS_FREED(dstr)) {
3407 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: attempt to copy value %" SVf
be2597df 3408 " to a freed scalar %p", SVfARG(sstr), (void *)dstr);
29f4f0ab 3409 }
765f542d 3410 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(dstr);
79072805 3411 if (!sstr)
3280af22 3412 sstr = &PL_sv_undef;
29f4f0ab 3413 if (SvIS_FREED(sstr)) {
6c9570dc
MHM
3414 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: attempt to copy freed scalar %p to %p",
3415 (void*)sstr, (void*)dstr);
29f4f0ab 3416 }
8990e307
LW
3417 stype = SvTYPE(sstr);
3418 dtype = SvTYPE(dstr);
79072805 3419
52944de8 3420 (void)SvAMAGIC_off(dstr);
7a5fa8a2 3421 if ( SvVOK(dstr) )
ece467f9
JP
3422 {
3423 /* need to nuke the magic */
3424 mg_free(dstr);
3425 SvRMAGICAL_off(dstr);
3426 }
9e7bc3e8 3427
463ee0b2 3428 /* There's a lot of redundancy below but we're going for speed here */
79072805 3429
8990e307 3430 switch (stype) {
79072805 3431 case SVt_NULL:
aece5585 3432 undef_sstr:
20408e3c
GS
3433 if (dtype != SVt_PVGV) {
3434 (void)SvOK_off(dstr);
3435 return;
3436 }
3437 break;
463ee0b2 3438 case SVt_IV:
aece5585
GA
3439 if (SvIOK(sstr)) {
3440 switch (dtype) {
3441 case SVt_NULL:
8990e307 3442 sv_upgrade(dstr, SVt_IV);
aece5585
GA
3443 break;
3444 case SVt_NV:
aece5585 3445 case SVt_PV:
a0d0e21e 3446 sv_upgrade(dstr, SVt_PVIV);
aece5585 3447 break;
010be86b
NC
3448 case SVt_PVGV:
3449 goto end_of_first_switch;
aece5585
GA
3450 }
3451 (void)SvIOK_only(dstr);
45977657 3452 SvIV_set(dstr, SvIVX(sstr));
25da4f38
IZ
3453 if (SvIsUV(sstr))
3454 SvIsUV_on(dstr);
37c25af0
NC
3455 /* SvTAINTED can only be true if the SV has taint magic, which in
3456 turn means that the SV type is PVMG (or greater). This is the
3457 case statement for SVt_IV, so this cannot be true (whatever gcov
3458 may say). */
3459 assert(!SvTAINTED(sstr));
aece5585 3460 return;
8990e307 3461 }
4df7f6af
NC
3462 if (!SvROK(sstr))
3463 goto undef_sstr;
3464 if (dtype < SVt_PV && dtype != SVt_IV)
3465 sv_upgrade(dstr, SVt_IV);
3466 break;
aece5585 3467
463ee0b2 3468 case SVt_NV:
aece5585
GA
3469 if (SvNOK(sstr)) {
3470 switch (dtype) {
3471 case SVt_NULL:
3472 case SVt_IV:
8990e307 3473 sv_upgrade(dstr, SVt_NV);
aece5585 3474 break;
aece5585
GA
3475 case SVt_PV:
3476 case SVt_PVIV:
a0d0e21e 3477 sv_upgrade(dstr, SVt_PVNV);
aece5585 3478 break;
010be86b
NC
3479 case SVt_PVGV:
3480 goto end_of_first_switch;
aece5585 3481 }
9d6ce603 3482 SvNV_set(dstr, SvNVX(sstr));
aece5585 3483 (void)SvNOK_only(dstr);
37c25af0
NC
3484 /* SvTAINTED can only be true if the SV has taint magic, which in
3485 turn means that the SV type is PVMG (or greater). This is the
3486 case statement for SVt_NV, so this cannot be true (whatever gcov
3487 may say). */
3488 assert(!SvTAINTED(sstr));
aece5585 3489 return;
8990e307 3490 }
aece5585
GA
3491 goto undef_sstr;
3492
fc36a67e 3493 case SVt_PVFM:
f8c7b90f 3494#ifdef PERL_OLD_COPY_ON_WRITE
d89fc664
NC
3495 if ((SvFLAGS(sstr) & CAN_COW_MASK) == CAN_COW_FLAGS) {
3496 if (dtype < SVt_PVIV)
3497 sv_upgrade(dstr, SVt_PVIV);
3498 break;
3499 }
3500 /* Fall through */
3501#endif
fd44068c 3502 case SVt_REGEXP:
d89fc664 3503 case SVt_PV:
8990e307 3504 if (dtype < SVt_PV)
463ee0b2 3505 sv_upgrade(dstr, SVt_PV);
463ee0b2
LW
3506 break;
3507 case SVt_PVIV:
8990e307 3508 if (dtype < SVt_PVIV)
463ee0b2 3509 sv_upgrade(dstr, SVt_PVIV);
463ee0b2
LW
3510 break;
3511 case SVt_PVNV:
8990e307 3512 if (dtype < SVt_PVNV)
463ee0b2 3513 sv_upgrade(dstr, SVt_PVNV);
463ee0b2 3514 break;
489f7bfe 3515 default:
a3b680e6
AL
3516 {
3517 const char * const type = sv_reftype(sstr,0);
533c011a 3518 if (PL_op)
a3b680e6 3519 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Bizarre copy of %s in %s", type, OP_NAME(PL_op));
4633a7c4 3520 else
a3b680e6
AL
3521 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Bizarre copy of %s", type);
3522 }
4633a7c4
LW
3523 break;
3524
cecf5685 3525 /* case SVt_BIND: */
39cb70dc 3526 case SVt_PVLV:
79072805 3527 case SVt_PVGV:
cecf5685 3528 if (isGV_with_GP(sstr) && dtype <= SVt_PVGV) {
d4c19fe8 3529 glob_assign_glob(dstr, sstr, dtype);
b8c701c1 3530 return;
79072805 3531 }
cecf5685 3532 /* SvVALID means that this PVGV is playing at being an FBM. */
5f66b61c 3533 /*FALLTHROUGH*/
79072805 3534
489f7bfe 3535 case SVt_PVMG:
8d6d96c1 3536 if (SvGMAGICAL(sstr) && (flags & SV_GMAGIC)) {
973f89ab 3537 mg_get(sstr);
1d9c78c6 3538 if (SvTYPE(sstr) != stype) {
973f89ab 3539 stype = SvTYPE(sstr);
cecf5685 3540 if (isGV_with_GP(sstr) && stype == SVt_PVGV && dtype <= SVt_PVGV) {
d4c19fe8 3541 glob_assign_glob(dstr, sstr, dtype);
b8c701c1
NC
3542 return;
3543 }
973f89ab
CS
3544 }
3545 }
ded42b9f 3546 if (stype == SVt_PVLV)
862a34c6 3547 SvUPGRADE(dstr, SVt_PVNV);
ded42b9f 3548 else
42d0e0b7 3549 SvUPGRADE(dstr, (svtype)stype);
79072805 3550 }
010be86b 3551 end_of_first_switch:
79072805 3552
ff920335
NC
3553 /* dstr may have been upgraded. */
3554 dtype = SvTYPE(dstr);
8990e307
LW
3555 sflags = SvFLAGS(sstr);
3556
ba2fdce6 3557 if (dtype == SVt_PVCV || dtype == SVt_PVFM) {
85324b4d
NC
3558 /* Assigning to a subroutine sets the prototype. */
3559 if (SvOK(sstr)) {
3560 STRLEN len;
3561 const char *const ptr = SvPV_const(sstr, len);
3562
3563 SvGROW(dstr, len + 1);
3564 Copy(ptr, SvPVX(dstr), len + 1, char);
3565 SvCUR_set(dstr, len);
fcddd32e 3566 SvPOK_only(dstr);
ba2fdce6 3567 SvFLAGS(dstr) |= sflags & SVf_UTF8;
85324b4d
NC
3568 } else {
3569 SvOK_off(dstr);
3570 }
ba2fdce6
NC
3571 } else if (dtype == SVt_PVAV || dtype == SVt_PVHV) {
3572 const char * const type = sv_reftype(dstr,0);
3573 if (PL_op)
3574 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Cannot copy to %s in %s", type, OP_NAME(PL_op));
3575 else
3576 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Cannot copy to %s", type);
85324b4d 3577 } else if (sflags & SVf_ROK) {
cecf5685
NC
3578 if (isGV_with_GP(dstr) && dtype == SVt_PVGV
3579 && SvTYPE(SvRV(sstr)) == SVt_PVGV) {
acaa9288
NC
3580 sstr = SvRV(sstr);
3581 if (sstr == dstr) {
3582 if (GvIMPORTED(dstr) != GVf_IMPORTED
3583 && CopSTASH_ne(PL_curcop, GvSTASH(dstr)))
3584 {
3585 GvIMPORTED_on(dstr);
3586 }
3587 GvMULTI_on(dstr);
3588 return;
3589 }
d4c19fe8 3590 glob_assign_glob(dstr, sstr, dtype);
acaa9288
NC
3591 return;
3592 }
3593
8990e307 3594 if (dtype >= SVt_PV) {
fdc5b023 3595 if (dtype == SVt_PVGV && isGV_with_GP(dstr)) {
d4c19fe8 3596 glob_assign_ref(dstr, sstr);
b8c701c1
NC
3597 return;
3598 }
3f7c398e 3599 if (SvPVX_const(dstr)) {
8bd4d4c5 3600 SvPV_free(dstr);
b162af07
SP
3601 SvLEN_set(dstr, 0);
3602 SvCUR_set(dstr, 0);
a0d0e21e 3603 }
8990e307 3604 }
a0d0e21e 3605 (void)SvOK_off(dstr);
b162af07 3606 SvRV_set(dstr, SvREFCNT_inc(SvRV(sstr)));
96d4b0ee 3607 SvFLAGS(dstr) |= sflags & SVf_ROK;
dfd48732
NC
3608 assert(!(sflags & SVp_NOK));
3609 assert(!(sflags & SVp_IOK));
3610 assert(!(sflags & SVf_NOK));
3611 assert(!(sflags & SVf_IOK));
ed6116ce 3612 }
cecf5685 3613 else if (dtype == SVt_PVGV && isGV_with_GP(dstr)) {
c0c44674
NC
3614 if (!(sflags & SVf_OK)) {
3615 if (ckWARN(WARN_MISC))
3616 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_MISC),
3617 "Undefined value assigned to typeglob");
3618 }
3619 else {
3620 GV *gv = gv_fetchsv(sstr, GV_ADD, SVt_PVGV);
3621 if (dstr != (SV*)gv) {
3622 if (GvGP(dstr))
3623 gp_free((GV*)dstr);
3624 GvGP(dstr) = gp_ref(GvGP(gv));
3625 }
3626 }
3627 }
8990e307 3628 else if (sflags & SVp_POK) {
765f542d 3629 bool isSwipe = 0;
79072805
LW
3630
3631 /*
3632 * Check to see if we can just swipe the string. If so, it's a
3633 * possible small lose on short strings, but a big win on long ones.
3f7c398e
SP
3634 * It might even be a win on short strings if SvPVX_const(dstr)
3635 * has to be allocated and SvPVX_const(sstr) has to be freed.
34482cd6
NC
3636 * Likewise if we can set up COW rather than doing an actual copy, we
3637 * drop to the else clause, as the swipe code and the COW setup code
3638 * have much in common.
79072805
LW
3639 */
3640
120fac95
NC
3641 /* Whichever path we take through the next code, we want this true,
3642 and doing it now facilitates the COW check. */
3643 (void)SvPOK_only(dstr);
3644
765f542d 3645 if (
34482cd6
NC
3646 /* If we're already COW then this clause is not true, and if COW
3647 is allowed then we drop down to the else and make dest COW
3648 with us. If caller hasn't said that we're allowed to COW
3649 shared hash keys then we don't do the COW setup, even if the
3650 source scalar is a shared hash key scalar. */
3651 (((flags & SV_COW_SHARED_HASH_KEYS)
3652 ? (sflags & (SVf_FAKE|SVf_READONLY)) != (SVf_FAKE|SVf_READONLY)
3653 : 1 /* If making a COW copy is forbidden then the behaviour we
3654 desire is as if the source SV isn't actually already
3655 COW, even if it is. So we act as if the source flags
3656 are not COW, rather than actually testing them. */
3657 )
f8c7b90f 3658#ifndef PERL_OLD_COPY_ON_WRITE
34482cd6
NC
3659 /* The change that added SV_COW_SHARED_HASH_KEYS makes the logic
3660 when PERL_OLD_COPY_ON_WRITE is defined a little wrong.
3661 Conceptually PERL_OLD_COPY_ON_WRITE being defined should
3662 override SV_COW_SHARED_HASH_KEYS, because it means "always COW"
3663 but in turn, it's somewhat dead code, never expected to go
3664 live, but more kept as a placeholder on how to do it better
3665 in a newer implementation. */
3666 /* If we are COW and dstr is a suitable target then we drop down
3667 into the else and make dest a COW of us. */
b8f9541a
NC
3668 || (SvFLAGS(dstr) & CAN_COW_MASK) != CAN_COW_FLAGS
3669#endif
3670 )