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6e90668e 1# B::Deparse.pm
d989cdac 2# Copyright (c) 1998-2000, 2002, 2003 Stephen McCamant. All rights reserved.
6e90668e
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3# This module is free software; you can redistribute and/or modify
4# it under the same terms as Perl itself.
5
6# This is based on the module of the same name by Malcolm Beattie,
7# but essentially none of his code remains.
8
a798dbf2 9package B::Deparse;
ff97752d 10use Carp;
51a5edaf 11use B qw(class main_root main_start main_cv svref_2object opnumber perlstring
bd0865ec 12 OPf_WANT OPf_WANT_VOID OPf_WANT_SCALAR OPf_WANT_LIST
90c0eb26 13 OPf_KIDS OPf_REF OPf_STACKED OPf_SPECIAL OPf_MOD
ce4e655d 14 OPpLVAL_INTRO OPpOUR_INTRO OPpENTERSUB_AMPER OPpSLICE OPpCONST_BARE
3ed82cfc 15 OPpTRANS_SQUASH OPpTRANS_DELETE OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT OPpTARGET_MY
7e80da18 16 OPpCONST_ARYBASE OPpEXISTS_SUB OPpSORT_NUMERIC OPpSORT_INTEGER
36d57d93 17 OPpSORT_REVERSE OPpSORT_INPLACE OPpSORT_DESCEND OPpITER_REVERSED
d989cdac 18 SVf_IOK SVf_NOK SVf_ROK SVf_POK SVpad_OUR SVf_FAKE SVs_RMG SVs_SMG
06492da6 19 CVf_METHOD CVf_LOCKED CVf_LVALUE CVf_ASSERTION
fcd95d64 20 PMf_KEEP PMf_GLOBAL PMf_CONTINUE PMf_EVAL PMf_ONCE PMf_SKIPWHITE
bd0865ec 21 PMf_MULTILINE PMf_SINGLELINE PMf_FOLD PMf_EXTENDED);
3ac6e0f9 22$VERSION = 0.69;
a798dbf2 23use strict;
2ae48fff 24use vars qw/$AUTOLOAD/;
34a48b4b 25use warnings ();
a798dbf2 26
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27# Changes between 0.50 and 0.51:
28# - fixed nulled leave with live enter in sort { }
29# - fixed reference constants (\"str")
30# - handle empty programs gracefully
31# - handle infinte loops (for (;;) {}, while (1) {})
32# - differentiate between `for my $x ...' and `my $x; for $x ...'
33# - various minor cleanups
34# - moved globals into an object
35# - added `-u', like B::C
36# - package declarations using cop_stash
37# - subs, formats and code sorted by cop_seq
f6f9bdb7 38# Changes between 0.51 and 0.52:
4d1ff10f 39# - added pp_threadsv (special variables under USE_5005THREADS)
f6f9bdb7 40# - added documentation
bd0865ec 41# Changes between 0.52 and 0.53:
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42# - many changes adding precedence contexts and associativity
43# - added `-p' and `-s' output style options
44# - various other minor fixes
bd0865ec 45# Changes between 0.53 and 0.54:
d7f5b6da
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46# - added support for new `for (1..100)' optimization,
47# thanks to Gisle Aas
bd0865ec 48# Changes between 0.54 and 0.55:
90be192f
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49# - added support for new qr// construct
50# - added support for new pp_regcreset OP
bd0865ec 51# Changes between 0.55 and 0.56:
f5aa8f4e
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52# - tested on base/*.t, cmd/*.t, comp/*.t, io/*.t
53# - fixed $# on non-lexicals broken in last big rewrite
54# - added temporary fix for change in opcode of OP_STRINGIFY
55# - fixed problem in 0.54's for() patch in `for (@ary)'
56# - fixed precedence in conditional of ?:
57# - tweaked list paren elimination in `my($x) = @_'
58# - made continue-block detection trickier wrt. null ops
59# - fixed various prototype problems in pp_entersub
60# - added support for sub prototypes that never get GVs
61# - added unquoting for special filehandle first arg in truncate
62# - print doubled rv2gv (a bug) as `*{*GV}' instead of illegal `**GV'
63# - added semicolons at the ends of blocks
64# - added -l `#line' declaration option -- fixes cmd/subval.t 27,28
bd0865ec
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65# Changes between 0.56 and 0.561:
66# - fixed multiply-declared my var in pp_truncate (thanks to Sarathy)
67# - used new B.pm symbolic constants (done by Nick Ing-Simmons)
68# Changes between 0.561 and 0.57:
69# - stylistic changes to symbolic constant stuff
70# - handled scope in s///e replacement code
71# - added unquote option for expanding "" into concats, etc.
72# - split method and proto parts of pp_entersub into separate functions
73# - various minor cleanups
f4a44678
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74# Changes after 0.57:
75# - added parens in \&foo (patch by Albert Dvornik)
76# Changes between 0.57 and 0.58:
77# - fixed `0' statements that weren't being printed
78# - added methods for use from other programs
79# (based on patches from James Duncan and Hugo van der Sanden)
80# - added -si and -sT to control indenting (also based on a patch from Hugo)
81# - added -sv to print something else instead of '???'
82# - preliminary version of utf8 tr/// handling
3ed82cfc
GS
83# Changes after 0.58:
84# - uses of $op->ppaddr changed to new $op->name (done by Sarathy)
d989cdac 85# - added support for Hugo's new OP_SETSTATE (like nextstate)
3ed82cfc
GS
86# Changes between 0.58 and 0.59
87# - added support for Chip's OP_METHOD_NAMED
88# - added support for Ilya's OPpTARGET_MY optimization
89# - elided arrows before `()' subscripts when possible
58cccf98
SM
90# Changes between 0.59 and 0.60
91# - support for method attribues was added
92# - some warnings fixed
93# - separate recognition of constant subs
94# - rewrote continue block handling, now recoginizing for loops
95# - added more control of expanding control structures
c7f67cde
RH
96# Changes between 0.60 and 0.61 (mostly by Robin Houston)
97# - many bug-fixes
98# - support for pragmas and 'use'
99# - support for the little-used $[ variable
100# - support for __DATA__ sections
101# - UTF8 support
102# - BEGIN, CHECK, INIT and END blocks
103# - scoping of subroutine declarations fixed
104# - compile-time output from the input program can be suppressed, so that the
105# output is just the deparsed code. (a change to O.pm in fact)
106# - our() declarations
107# - *all* the known bugs are now listed in the BUGS section
108# - comprehensive test mechanism (TEST -deparse)
9a58b761
RGS
109# Changes between 0.62 and 0.63 (mostly by Rafael Garcia-Suarez)
110# - bug-fixes
111# - new switch -P
112# - support for command-line switches (-l, -0, etc.)
d989cdac
SM
113# Changes between 0.63 and 0.64
114# - support for //, CHECK blocks, and assertions
115# - improved handling of foreach loops and lexicals
116# - option to use Data::Dumper for constants
117# - more bug fixes
118# - discovered lots more bugs not yet fixed
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119
120# Todo:
2a9e2f8a
RH
121# (See also BUGS section at the end of this file)
122#
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123# - finish tr/// changes
124# - add option for even more parens (generalize \&foo change)
90be192f 125# - left/right context
58cccf98 126# - copy comments (look at real text with $^P?)
f5aa8f4e 127# - avoid semis in one-statement blocks
9d2c6865 128# - associativity of &&=, ||=, ?:
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129# - ',' => '=>' (auto-unquote?)
130# - break long lines ("\r" as discretionary break?)
f4a44678
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131# - configurable syntax highlighting: ANSI color, HTML, TeX, etc.
132# - more style options: brace style, hex vs. octal, quotes, ...
133# - print big ints as hex/octal instead of decimal (heuristic?)
3ed82cfc 134# - handle `my $x if 0'?
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135# - version using op_next instead of op_first/sibling?
136# - avoid string copies (pass arrays, one big join?)
9d2c6865 137# - here-docs?
6e90668e 138
d989cdac
SM
139# Current test.deparse failures
140# comp/assertions 38 - disabled assertions should be like "my($x) if 0"
141# 'sub f : assertion {}; no assertions; my $x=1; {f(my $x=2); print "$x\n"}'
142# comp/hints 6 - location of BEGIN blocks wrt. block openings
143# run/switchI 1 - missing -I switches entirely
144# perl -Ifoo -e 'print @INC'
145# op/caller 2 - warning mask propagates backwards before warnings::register
146# 'use warnings; BEGIN {${^WARNING_BITS} eq "U"x12;} use warnings::register'
147# op/getpid 2 - can't assign to shared my() declaration (threads only)
148# 'my $x : shared = 5'
149# op/override 7 - parens on overriden require change v-string interpretation
150# 'BEGIN{*CORE::GLOBAL::require=sub {}} require v5.6'
151# c.f. 'BEGIN { *f = sub {0} }; f 2'
152# op/pat 774 - losing Unicode-ness of Latin1-only strings
153# 'use charnames ":short"; $x="\N{latin:a with acute}"'
154# op/recurse 12 - missing parens on recursive call makes it look like method
155# 'sub f { f($x) }'
156# op/subst 90 - inconsistent handling of utf8 under "use utf8"
157# op/taint 29 - "use re 'taint'" deparsed in the wrong place wrt. block open
158# op/tiehandle compile - "use strict" deparsed in the wrong place
159# uni/tr_ several
160# ext/B/t/xref 11 - line numbers when we add newlines to one-line subs
161# ext/Data/Dumper/t/dumper compile
162# ext/DB_file/several
163# ext/Encode/several
164# ext/Ernno/Errno warnings
165# ext/IO/lib/IO/t/io_sel 23
166# ext/PerlIO/t/encoding compile
167# ext/POSIX/t/posix 6
168# ext/Socket/Socket 8
169# ext/Storable/t/croak compile
170# lib/Attribute/Handlers/t/multi compile
171# lib/bignum/ several
172# lib/charnames 35
173# lib/constant 32
174# lib/English 40
175# lib/ExtUtils/t/bytes 4
176# lib/File/DosGlob compile
177# lib/Filter/Simple/t/data 1
178# lib/Math/BigInt/t/constant 1
179# lib/Net/t/config Deparse-warning
180# lib/overload compile
181# lib/Switch/ several
182# lib/Symbol 4
183# lib/Test/Simple several
184# lib/Term/Complete
185# lib/Tie/File/t/29_downcopy 5
186# lib/vars 22
f5aa8f4e 187
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188# Object fields (were globals):
189#
190# avoid_local:
191# (local($a), local($b)) and local($a, $b) have the same internal
192# representation but the short form looks better. We notice we can
193# use a large-scale local when checking the list, but need to prevent
d989cdac 194# individual locals too. This hash holds the addresses of OPs that
6e90668e
SM
195# have already had their local-ness accounted for. The same thing
196# is done with my().
197#
198# curcv:
199# CV for current sub (or main program) being deparsed
200#
8510e997
RH
201# curcvlex:
202# Cached hash of lexical variables for curcv: keys are names,
203# each value is an array of pairs, indicating the cop_seq of scopes
204# in which a var of that name is valid.
205#
34a48b4b
RH
206# curcop:
207# COP for statement being deparsed
208#
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209# curstash:
210# name of the current package for deparsed code
211#
212# subs_todo:
34a48b4b 213# array of [cop_seq, CV, is_format?] for subs and formats we still
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214# want to deparse
215#
f5aa8f4e
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216# protos_todo:
217# as above, but [name, prototype] for subs that never got a GV
218#
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219# subs_done, forms_done:
220# keys are addresses of GVs for subs and formats we've already
221# deparsed (or at least put into subs_todo)
9d2c6865 222#
0ca62a8e
RH
223# subs_declared
224# keys are names of subs for which we've printed declarations.
225# That means we can omit parentheses from the arguments.
226#
1d38190f
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227# subs_deparsed
228# Keeps track of fully qualified names of all deparsed subs.
229#
9d2c6865 230# parens: -p
f5aa8f4e 231# linenums: -l
bd0865ec 232# unquote: -q
9d2c6865 233# cuddle: ` ' or `\n', depending on -sC
f4a44678
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234# indent_size: -si
235# use_tabs: -sT
236# ex_const: -sv
9d2c6865
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237
238# A little explanation of how precedence contexts and associativity
239# work:
240#
241# deparse() calls each per-op subroutine with an argument $cx (short
242# for context, but not the same as the cx* in the perl core), which is
243# a number describing the op's parents in terms of precedence, whether
f5aa8f4e 244# they're inside an expression or at statement level, etc. (see
9d2c6865
SM
245# chart below). When ops with children call deparse on them, they pass
246# along their precedence. Fractional values are used to implement
247# associativity (`($x + $y) + $z' => `$x + $y + $y') and related
248# parentheses hacks. The major disadvantage of this scheme is that
249# it doesn't know about right sides and left sides, so say if you
250# assign a listop to a variable, it can't tell it's allowed to leave
251# the parens off the listop.
252
253# Precedences:
254# 26 [TODO] inside interpolation context ("")
255# 25 left terms and list operators (leftward)
256# 24 left ->
257# 23 nonassoc ++ --
258# 22 right **
259# 21 right ! ~ \ and unary + and -
260# 20 left =~ !~
261# 19 left * / % x
262# 18 left + - .
263# 17 left << >>
264# 16 nonassoc named unary operators
265# 15 nonassoc < > <= >= lt gt le ge
266# 14 nonassoc == != <=> eq ne cmp
267# 13 left &
268# 12 left | ^
269# 11 left &&
270# 10 left ||
271# 9 nonassoc .. ...
272# 8 right ?:
273# 7 right = += -= *= etc.
274# 6 left , =>
275# 5 nonassoc list operators (rightward)
276# 4 right not
277# 3 left and
278# 2 left or xor
279# 1 statement modifiers
d989cdac 280# 0.5 statements, but still print scopes as do { ... }
9d2c6865
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281# 0 statement level
282
283# Nonprinting characters with special meaning:
284# \cS - steal parens (see maybe_parens_unop)
285# \n - newline and indent
286# \t - increase indent
287# \b - decrease indent (`outdent')
f5aa8f4e 288# \f - flush left (no indent)
9d2c6865 289# \cK - kill following semicolon, if any
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290
291sub null {
292 my $op = shift;
293 return class($op) eq "NULL";
294}
295
296sub todo {
297 my $self = shift;
34a48b4b 298 my($cv, $is_form) = @_;
e31885a0 299 return unless ($cv->FILE eq $0 || exists $self->{files}{$cv->FILE});
6e90668e 300 my $seq;
d989cdac
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301 if ($cv->OUTSIDE_SEQ) {
302 $seq = $cv->OUTSIDE_SEQ;
303 } elsif (!null($cv->START) and is_state($cv->START)) {
6e90668e
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304 $seq = $cv->START->cop_seq;
305 } else {
306 $seq = 0;
307 }
34a48b4b 308 push @{$self->{'subs_todo'}}, [$seq, $cv, $is_form];
1d38190f
RGS
309 unless ($is_form || class($cv->STASH) eq 'SPECIAL') {
310 $self->{'subs_deparsed'}{$cv->STASH->NAME."::".$cv->GV->NAME} = 1;
311 }
6e90668e
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312}
313
314sub next_todo {
315 my $self = shift;
316 my $ent = shift @{$self->{'subs_todo'}};
34a48b4b
RH
317 my $cv = $ent->[1];
318 my $gv = $cv->GV;
319 my $name = $self->gv_name($gv);
6e90668e
SM
320 if ($ent->[2]) {
321 return "format $name =\n"
e31885a0 322 . $self->deparse_format($ent->[1]). "\n";
6e90668e 323 } else {
0ca62a8e 324 $self->{'subs_declared'}{$name} = 1;
34a48b4b
RH
325 if ($name eq "BEGIN") {
326 my $use_dec = $self->begin_is_use($cv);
d989cdac 327 if (defined ($use_dec) and $self->{'expand'} < 5) {
0e7fe0f0
RH
328 return () if 0 == length($use_dec);
329 return $use_dec;
330 }
34a48b4b 331 }
a0035eb8
RH
332 my $l = '';
333 if ($self->{'linenums'}) {
334 my $line = $gv->LINE;
335 my $file = $gv->FILE;
336 $l = "\n\f#line $line \"$file\"\n";
337 }
127212b2
DM
338 my $p = '';
339 if (class($cv->STASH) ne "SPECIAL") {
340 my $stash = $cv->STASH->NAME;
341 if ($stash ne $self->{'curstash'}) {
342 $p = "package $stash;\n";
343 $name = "$self->{'curstash'}::$name" unless $name =~ /::/;
344 $self->{'curstash'} = $stash;
345 }
346 $name =~ s/^\Q$stash\E:://;
347 }
348 return "${p}${l}sub $name " . $self->deparse_sub($cv);
34a48b4b
RH
349 }
350}
351
352# Return a "use" declaration for this BEGIN block, if appropriate
353sub begin_is_use {
354 my ($self, $cv) = @_;
355 my $root = $cv->ROOT;
80dc0729 356 local @$self{qw'curcv curcvlex'} = ($cv);
34a48b4b
RH
357#require B::Debug;
358#B::walkoptree($cv->ROOT, "debug");
359 my $lineseq = $root->first;
360 return if $lineseq->name ne "lineseq";
361
362 my $req_op = $lineseq->first->sibling;
363 return if $req_op->name ne "require";
364
365 my $module;
366 if ($req_op->first->private & OPpCONST_BARE) {
367 # Actually it should always be a bareword
368 $module = $self->const_sv($req_op->first)->PV;
369 $module =~ s[/][::]g;
370 $module =~ s/.pm$//;
371 }
372 else {
d989cdac 373 $module = $self->const($self->const_sv($req_op->first), 6);
34a48b4b
RH
374 }
375
376 my $version;
377 my $version_op = $req_op->sibling;
378 return if class($version_op) eq "NULL";
379 if ($version_op->name eq "lineseq") {
380 # We have a version parameter; skip nextstate & pushmark
381 my $constop = $version_op->first->next->next;
382
383 return unless $self->const_sv($constop)->PV eq $module;
384 $constop = $constop->sibling;
a58644de 385 $version = $self->const_sv($constop);
d989cdac
SM
386 if (class($version) eq "IV") {
387 $version = $version->int_value;
388 } elsif (class($version) eq "NV") {
389 $version = $version->NV;
390 } elsif (class($version) ne "PVMG") {
391 # Includes PVIV and PVNV
a58644de
RGS
392 $version = $version->PV;
393 } else {
394 # version specified as a v-string
395 $version = 'v'.join '.', map ord, split //, $version->PV;
396 }
34a48b4b
RH
397 $constop = $constop->sibling;
398 return if $constop->name ne "method_named";
399 return if $self->const_sv($constop)->PV ne "VERSION";
400 }
401
402 $lineseq = $version_op->sibling;
403 return if $lineseq->name ne "lineseq";
404 my $entersub = $lineseq->first->sibling;
405 if ($entersub->name eq "stub") {
406 return "use $module $version ();\n" if defined $version;
407 return "use $module ();\n";
408 }
409 return if $entersub->name ne "entersub";
410
411 # See if there are import arguments
412 my $args = '';
413
6ec152c3
RH
414 my $svop = $entersub->first->sibling; # Skip over pushmark
415 return unless $self->const_sv($svop)->PV eq $module;
34a48b4b
RH
416
417 # Pull out the arguments
6ec152c3
RH
418 for ($svop=$svop->sibling; $svop->name ne "method_named";
419 $svop = $svop->sibling) {
34a48b4b 420 $args .= ", " if length($args);
6ec152c3 421 $args .= $self->deparse($svop, 6);
34a48b4b
RH
422 }
423
424 my $use = 'use';
6ec152c3 425 my $method_named = $svop;
34a48b4b
RH
426 return if $method_named->name ne "method_named";
427 my $method_name = $self->const_sv($method_named)->PV;
428
429 if ($method_name eq "unimport") {
430 $use = 'no';
431 }
432
433 # Certain pragmas are dealt with using hint bits,
434 # so we ignore them here
435 if ($module eq 'strict' || $module eq 'integer'
0e7fe0f0 436 || $module eq 'bytes' || $module eq 'warnings') {
34a48b4b
RH
437 return "";
438 }
439
440 if (defined $version && length $args) {
441 return "$use $module $version ($args);\n";
442 } elsif (defined $version) {
443 return "$use $module $version;\n";
444 } elsif (length $args) {
445 return "$use $module ($args);\n";
446 } else {
447 return "$use $module;\n";
6e90668e
SM
448 }
449}
450
6e90668e 451sub stash_subs {
34a48b4b
RH
452 my ($self, $pack) = @_;
453 my (@ret, $stash);
454 if (!defined $pack) {
455 $pack = '';
456 $stash = \%::;
f5aa8f4e 457 }
34a48b4b
RH
458 else {
459 $pack =~ s/(::)?$/::/;
460 no strict 'refs';
461 $stash = \%$pack;
462 }
463 my %stash = svref_2object($stash)->ARRAY;
464 while (my ($key, $val) = each %stash) {
465 next if $key eq 'main::'; # avoid infinite recursion
f5aa8f4e
SM
466 my $class = class($val);
467 if ($class eq "PV") {
a0035eb8
RH
468 # Just a prototype. As an ugly but fairly effective way
469 # to find out if it belongs here is to see if the AUTOLOAD
470 # (if any) for the stash was defined in one of our files.
471 my $A = $stash{"AUTOLOAD"};
472 if (defined ($A) && class($A) eq "GV" && defined($A->CV)
473 && class($A->CV) eq "CV") {
474 my $AF = $A->FILE;
475 next unless $AF eq $0 || exists $self->{'files'}{$AF};
476 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
477 push @{$self->{'protos_todo'}}, [$pack . $key, $val->PV];
478 } elsif ($class eq "IV") {
a0035eb8
RH
479 # Just a name. As above.
480 my $A = $stash{"AUTOLOAD"};
481 if (defined ($A) && class($A) eq "GV" && defined($A->CV)
482 && class($A->CV) eq "CV") {
483 my $AF = $A->FILE;
484 next unless $AF eq $0 || exists $self->{'files'}{$AF};
485 }
d989cdac 486 push @{$self->{'protos_todo'}}, [$pack . $key, undef];
f5aa8f4e 487 } elsif ($class eq "GV") {
34a48b4b 488 if (class(my $cv = $val->CV) ne "SPECIAL") {
f5aa8f4e 489 next if $self->{'subs_done'}{$$val}++;
e31885a0 490 next if $$val != ${$cv->GV}; # Ignore imposters
8510e997 491 $self->todo($cv, 0);
f5aa8f4e 492 }
e31885a0 493 if (class(my $cv = $val->FORM) ne "SPECIAL") {
f5aa8f4e 494 next if $self->{'forms_done'}{$$val}++;
e31885a0
RH
495 next if $$val != ${$cv->GV}; # Ignore imposters
496 $self->todo($cv, 1);
f5aa8f4e 497 }
34a48b4b
RH
498 if (class($val->HV) ne "SPECIAL" && $key =~ /::$/) {
499 $self->stash_subs($pack . $key);
500 }
6e90668e
SM
501 }
502 }
503}
a798dbf2 504
f5aa8f4e
SM
505sub print_protos {
506 my $self = shift;
507 my $ar;
508 my @ret;
509 foreach $ar (@{$self->{'protos_todo'}}) {
510 my $proto = (defined $ar->[1] ? " (". $ar->[1] . ")" : "");
511 push @ret, "sub " . $ar->[0] . "$proto;\n";
512 }
513 delete $self->{'protos_todo'};
514 return @ret;
515}
516
9d2c6865
SM
517sub style_opts {
518 my $self = shift;
519 my $opts = shift;
520 my $opt;
521 while (length($opt = substr($opts, 0, 1))) {
522 if ($opt eq "C") {
523 $self->{'cuddle'} = " ";
f4a44678
SM
524 $opts = substr($opts, 1);
525 } elsif ($opt eq "i") {
526 $opts =~ s/^i(\d+)//;
527 $self->{'indent_size'} = $1;
528 } elsif ($opt eq "T") {
529 $self->{'use_tabs'} = 1;
530 $opts = substr($opts, 1);
531 } elsif ($opt eq "v") {
532 $opts =~ s/^v([^.]*)(.|$)//;
533 $self->{'ex_const'} = $1;
9d2c6865 534 }
9d2c6865
SM
535 }
536}
537
f4a44678
SM
538sub new {
539 my $class = shift;
540 my $self = bless {}, $class;
f4a44678 541 $self->{'cuddle'} = "\n";
d989cdac
SM
542 $self->{'curcop'} = undef;
543 $self->{'curstash'} = "main";
544 $self->{'ex_const'} = "'???'";
793e2a70 545 $self->{'expand'} = 0;
d989cdac
SM
546 $self->{'files'} = {};
547 $self->{'indent_size'} = 4;
793e2a70
RH
548 $self->{'linenums'} = 0;
549 $self->{'parens'} = 0;
d989cdac
SM
550 $self->{'subs_todo'} = [];
551 $self->{'unquote'} = 0;
552 $self->{'use_dumper'} = 0;
553 $self->{'use_tabs'} = 0;
08c6f5ec
RH
554
555 $self->{'ambient_arybase'} = 0;
e31885a0 556 $self->{'ambient_warnings'} = undef; # Assume no lexical warnings
a0405c92 557 $self->{'ambient_hints'} = 0;
08c6f5ec
RH
558 $self->init();
559
f4a44678 560 while (my $arg = shift @_) {
d989cdac
SM
561 if ($arg eq "-d") {
562 $self->{'use_dumper'} = 1;
563 require Data::Dumper;
564 } elsif ($arg =~ /^-f(.*)/) {
34a48b4b 565 $self->{'files'}{$1} = 1;
d989cdac
SM
566 } elsif ($arg eq "-l") {
567 $self->{'linenums'} = 1;
f4a44678
SM
568 } elsif ($arg eq "-p") {
569 $self->{'parens'} = 1;
acaaef34
RGS
570 } elsif ($arg eq "-P") {
571 $self->{'noproto'} = 1;
f4a44678
SM
572 } elsif ($arg eq "-q") {
573 $self->{'unquote'} = 1;
574 } elsif (substr($arg, 0, 2) eq "-s") {
575 $self->style_opts(substr $arg, 2);
58cccf98
SM
576 } elsif ($arg =~ /^-x(\d)$/) {
577 $self->{'expand'} = $1;
f4a44678
SM
578 }
579 }
580 return $self;
581}
582
810aef70
RH
583{
584 # Mask out the bits that L<warnings::register> uses
585 my $WARN_MASK;
586 BEGIN {
587 $WARN_MASK = $warnings::Bits{all} | $warnings::DeadBits{all};
588 }
589 sub WARN_MASK () {
590 return $WARN_MASK;
591 }
34a48b4b
RH
592}
593
08c6f5ec
RH
594# Initialise the contextual information, either from
595# defaults provided with the ambient_pragmas method,
596# or from perl's own defaults otherwise.
597sub init {
598 my $self = shift;
599
600 $self->{'arybase'} = $self->{'ambient_arybase'};
e31885a0
RH
601 $self->{'warnings'} = defined ($self->{'ambient_warnings'})
602 ? $self->{'ambient_warnings'} & WARN_MASK
603 : undef;
a0405c92 604 $self->{'hints'} = $self->{'ambient_hints'} & 0xFF;
217aba5d
RH
605
606 # also a convenient place to clear out subs_declared
607 delete $self->{'subs_declared'};
08c6f5ec
RH
608}
609
a798dbf2 610sub compile {
6e90668e 611 my(@args) = @_;
d989cdac 612 return sub {
f4a44678 613 my $self = B::Deparse->new(@args);
d2bc402e
RGS
614 # First deparse command-line args
615 if (defined $^I) { # deparse -i
51a5edaf 616 print q(BEGIN { $^I = ).perlstring($^I).qq(; }\n);
d2bc402e
RGS
617 }
618 if ($^W) { # deparse -w
619 print qq(BEGIN { \$^W = $^W; }\n);
620 }
621 if ($/ ne "\n" or defined $O::savebackslash) { # deparse -l and -0
51a5edaf
RGS
622 my $fs = perlstring($/) || 'undef';
623 my $bs = perlstring($O::savebackslash) || 'undef';
d2bc402e
RGS
624 print qq(BEGIN { \$/ = $fs; \$\\ = $bs; }\n);
625 }
34a48b4b 626 my @BEGINs = B::begin_av->isa("B::AV") ? B::begin_av->ARRAY : ();
ece599bd 627 my @CHECKs = B::check_av->isa("B::AV") ? B::check_av->ARRAY : ();
34a48b4b
RH
628 my @INITs = B::init_av->isa("B::AV") ? B::init_av->ARRAY : ();
629 my @ENDs = B::end_av->isa("B::AV") ? B::end_av->ARRAY : ();
ece599bd 630 for my $block (@BEGINs, @CHECKs, @INITs, @ENDs) {
e31885a0 631 $self->todo($block, 0);
34a48b4b
RH
632 }
633 $self->stash_subs();
d989cdac
SM
634 local($SIG{"__DIE__"}) =
635 sub {
636 if ($self->{'curcop'}) {
637 my $cop = $self->{'curcop'};
638 my($line, $file) = ($cop->line, $cop->file);
639 print STDERR "While deparsing $file near line $line,\n";
640 }
641 };
6e90668e 642 $self->{'curcv'} = main_cv;
8510e997 643 $self->{'curcvlex'} = undef;
f5aa8f4e 644 print $self->print_protos;
6e90668e 645 @{$self->{'subs_todo'}} =
f4a44678 646 sort {$a->[0] <=> $b->[0]} @{$self->{'subs_todo'}};
d989cdac 647 print $self->indent($self->deparse_root(main_root)), "\n"
f4a44678 648 unless null main_root;
6e90668e
SM
649 my @text;
650 while (scalar(@{$self->{'subs_todo'}})) {
651 push @text, $self->next_todo;
652 }
6f611a1a 653 print $self->indent(join("", @text)), "\n" if @text;
e31885a0
RH
654
655 # Print __DATA__ section, if necessary
656 no strict 'refs';
96c57f7e
RGS
657 my $laststash = defined $self->{'curcop'}
658 ? $self->{'curcop'}->stash->NAME : $self->{'curstash'};
659 if (defined *{$laststash."::DATA"}{IO}) {
127212b2
DM
660 print "package $laststash;\n"
661 unless $laststash eq $self->{'curstash'};
e31885a0 662 print "__DATA__\n";
96c57f7e 663 print readline(*{$laststash."::DATA"});
e31885a0 664 }
a798dbf2 665 }
a798dbf2
MB
666}
667
f4a44678
SM
668sub coderef2text {
669 my $self = shift;
670 my $sub = shift;
0853f172 671 croak "Usage: ->coderef2text(CODEREF)" unless UNIVERSAL::isa($sub, "CODE");
08c6f5ec
RH
672
673 $self->init();
f4a44678
SM
674 return $self->indent($self->deparse_sub(svref_2object($sub)));
675}
676
08c6f5ec
RH
677sub ambient_pragmas {
678 my $self = shift;
e31885a0 679 my ($arybase, $hint_bits, $warning_bits) = (0, 0);
08c6f5ec
RH
680
681 while (@_ > 1) {
682 my $name = shift();
683 my $val = shift();
684
685 if ($name eq 'strict') {
686 require strict;
687
688 if ($val eq 'none') {
689 $hint_bits &= ~strict::bits(qw/refs subs vars/);
690 next();
691 }
692
693 my @names;
694 if ($val eq "all") {
695 @names = qw/refs subs vars/;
696 }
697 elsif (ref $val) {
698 @names = @$val;
699 }
700 else {
a0405c92 701 @names = split' ', $val;
08c6f5ec
RH
702 }
703 $hint_bits |= strict::bits(@names);
704 }
705
706 elsif ($name eq '$[') {
707 $arybase = $val;
708 }
709
a0405c92
RH
710 elsif ($name eq 'integer'
711 || $name eq 'bytes'
712 || $name eq 'utf8') {
713 require "$name.pm";
08c6f5ec 714 if ($val) {
a0405c92
RH
715 $hint_bits |= ${$::{"${name}::"}{"hint_bits"}};
716 }
717 else {
718 $hint_bits &= ~${$::{"${name}::"}{"hint_bits"}};
719 }
720 }
721
722 elsif ($name eq 're') {
723 require re;
724 if ($val eq 'none') {
2570cdf1 725 $hint_bits &= ~re::bits(qw/taint eval/);
a0405c92
RH
726 next();
727 }
728
729 my @names;
730 if ($val eq 'all') {
2570cdf1 731 @names = qw/taint eval/;
a0405c92
RH
732 }
733 elsif (ref $val) {
734 @names = @$val;
08c6f5ec
RH
735 }
736 else {
a0405c92 737 @names = split' ',$val;
08c6f5ec 738 }
a0405c92 739 $hint_bits |= re::bits(@names);
08c6f5ec
RH
740 }
741
742 elsif ($name eq 'warnings') {
08c6f5ec 743 if ($val eq 'none') {
810aef70 744 $warning_bits = $warnings::NONE;
08c6f5ec
RH
745 next();
746 }
747
748 my @names;
749 if (ref $val) {
750 @names = @$val;
751 }
752 else {
753 @names = split/\s+/, $val;
754 }
755
810aef70 756 $warning_bits = $warnings::NONE if !defined ($warning_bits);
08c6f5ec
RH
757 $warning_bits |= warnings::bits(@names);
758 }
759
760 elsif ($name eq 'warning_bits') {
761 $warning_bits = $val;
762 }
763
764 elsif ($name eq 'hint_bits') {
765 $hint_bits = $val;
766 }
767
768 else {
769 croak "Unknown pragma type: $name";
770 }
771 }
772 if (@_) {
773 croak "The ambient_pragmas method expects an even number of args";
774 }
775
776 $self->{'ambient_arybase'} = $arybase;
777 $self->{'ambient_warnings'} = $warning_bits;
a0405c92 778 $self->{'ambient_hints'} = $hint_bits;
08c6f5ec
RH
779}
780
d989cdac 781# This method is the inner loop, so try to keep it simple
6e90668e
SM
782sub deparse {
783 my $self = shift;
d989cdac 784 my($op, $cx) = @_;
34a48b4b
RH
785
786 Carp::confess("Null op in deparse") if !defined($op)
787 || class($op) eq "NULL";
3f872cb9 788 my $meth = "pp_" . $op->name;
9d2c6865 789 return $self->$meth($op, $cx);
a798dbf2
MB
790}
791
6e90668e 792sub indent {
f4a44678 793 my $self = shift;
6e90668e
SM
794 my $txt = shift;
795 my @lines = split(/\n/, $txt);
796 my $leader = "";
f4a44678 797 my $level = 0;
6e90668e
SM
798 my $line;
799 for $line (@lines) {
f4a44678
SM
800 my $cmd = substr($line, 0, 1);
801 if ($cmd eq "\t" or $cmd eq "\b") {
802 $level += ($cmd eq "\t" ? 1 : -1) * $self->{'indent_size'};
803 if ($self->{'use_tabs'}) {
804 $leader = "\t" x ($level / 8) . " " x ($level % 8);
805 } else {
806 $leader = " " x $level;
807 }
6e90668e
SM
808 $line = substr($line, 1);
809 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
810 if (substr($line, 0, 1) eq "\f") {
811 $line = substr($line, 1); # no indent
812 } else {
813 $line = $leader . $line;
814 }
9d2c6865 815 $line =~ s/\cK;?//g;
6e90668e
SM
816 }
817 return join("\n", @lines);
818}
819
6e90668e
SM
820sub deparse_sub {
821 my $self = shift;
822 my $cv = shift;
823 my $proto = "";
ce4e655d 824Carp::confess("NULL in deparse_sub") if !defined($cv) || $cv->isa("B::NULL");
34a48b4b
RH
825Carp::confess("SPECIAL in deparse_sub") if $cv->isa("B::SPECIAL");
826 local $self->{'curcop'} = $self->{'curcop'};
6e90668e
SM
827 if ($cv->FLAGS & SVf_POK) {
828 $proto = "(". $cv->PV . ") ";
829 }
06492da6 830 if ($cv->CvFLAGS & (CVf_METHOD|CVf_LOCKED|CVf_LVALUE|CVf_ASSERTION)) {
6aaf4108
SC
831 $proto .= ": ";
832 $proto .= "lvalue " if $cv->CvFLAGS & CVf_LVALUE;
833 $proto .= "locked " if $cv->CvFLAGS & CVf_LOCKED;
834 $proto .= "method " if $cv->CvFLAGS & CVf_METHOD;
06492da6 835 $proto .= "assertion " if $cv->CvFLAGS & CVf_ASSERTION;
6aaf4108
SC
836 }
837
6e90668e 838 local($self->{'curcv'}) = $cv;
8510e997 839 local($self->{'curcvlex'});
a0405c92
RH
840 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
841 = @$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'};
ce4e655d 842 my $body;
6e90668e 843 if (not null $cv->ROOT) {
ce4e655d
RH
844 my $lineseq = $cv->ROOT->first;
845 if ($lineseq->name eq "lineseq") {
846 my @ops;
847 for(my$o=$lineseq->first; $$o; $o=$o->sibling) {
848 push @ops, $o;
849 }
850 $body = $self->lineseq(undef, @ops).";";
851 my $scope_en = $self->find_scope_en($lineseq);
852 if (defined $scope_en) {
853 my $subs = join"", $self->seq_subs($scope_en);
854 $body .= ";\n$subs" if length($subs);
855 }
856 }
857 else {
858 $body = $self->deparse($cv->ROOT->first, 0);
859 }
de3f1649 860 }
ce4e655d
RH
861 else {
862 my $sv = $cv->const_sv;
863 if ($$sv) {
864 # uh-oh. inlinable sub... format it differently
d989cdac 865 return $proto . "{ " . $self->const($sv, 0) . " }\n";
ce4e655d
RH
866 } else { # XSUB? (or just a declaration)
867 return "$proto;\n";
868 }
6e90668e 869 }
ce4e655d 870 return $proto ."{\n\t$body\n\b}" ."\n";
6e90668e
SM
871}
872
873sub deparse_format {
874 my $self = shift;
875 my $form = shift;
876 my @text;
877 local($self->{'curcv'}) = $form;
8510e997 878 local($self->{'curcvlex'});
67fc2416 879 local($self->{'in_format'}) = 1;
a0405c92 880 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
67fc2416 881 = @$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'};
6e90668e
SM
882 my $op = $form->ROOT;
883 my $kid;
fb725297
RGS
884 return "\f." if $op->first->name eq 'stub'
885 || $op->first->name eq 'nextstate';
6e90668e
SM
886 $op = $op->first->first; # skip leavewrite, lineseq
887 while (not null $op) {
888 $op = $op->sibling; # skip nextstate
889 my @exprs;
890 $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
a5b0cd91 891 push @text, "\f".$self->const_sv($kid)->PV;
6e90668e
SM
892 $kid = $kid->sibling;
893 for (; not null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 894 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 0);
6e90668e 895 }
a5b0cd91 896 push @text, "\f".join(", ", @exprs)."\n" if @exprs;
6e90668e
SM
897 $op = $op->sibling;
898 }
a5b0cd91 899 return join("", @text) . "\f.";
6e90668e
SM
900}
901
6e90668e 902sub is_scope {
a798dbf2 903 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
904 return $op->name eq "leave" || $op->name eq "scope"
905 || $op->name eq "lineseq"
d989cdac 906 || ($op->name eq "null" && class($op) eq "UNOP"
3f872cb9 907 && (is_scope($op->first) || $op->first->name eq "enter"));
6e90668e
SM
908}
909
910sub is_state {
3f872cb9
GS
911 my $name = $_[0]->name;
912 return $name eq "nextstate" || $name eq "dbstate" || $name eq "setstate";
6e90668e
SM
913}
914
915sub is_miniwhile { # check for one-line loop (`foo() while $y--')
916 my $op = shift;
d989cdac 917 return (!null($op) and null($op->sibling)
3f872cb9
GS
918 and $op->name eq "null" and class($op) eq "UNOP"
919 and (($op->first->name =~ /^(and|or)$/
920 and $op->first->first->sibling->name eq "lineseq")
921 or ($op->first->name eq "lineseq"
6e90668e 922 and not null $op->first->first->sibling
3f872cb9 923 and $op->first->first->sibling->name eq "unstack")
6e90668e
SM
924 ));
925}
926
d989cdac
SM
927# Check if the op and its sibling are the initialization and the rest of a
928# for (..;..;..) { ... } loop
929sub is_for_loop {
930 my $op = shift;
931 # This OP might be almost anything, though it won't be a
932 # nextstate. (It's the initialization, so in the canonical case it
933 # will be an sassign.) The sibling is a lineseq whose first child
934 # is a nextstate and whose second is a leaveloop.
935 my $lseq = $op->sibling;
936 if (!is_state $op and !null($lseq) and $lseq->name eq "lineseq") {
937 if ($lseq->first && !null($lseq->first) && is_state($lseq->first)
938 && (my $sib = $lseq->first->sibling)) {
939 return (!null($sib) && $sib->name eq "leaveloop");
940 }
941 }
942 return 0;
943}
944
6e90668e
SM
945sub is_scalar {
946 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
947 return ($op->name eq "rv2sv" or
948 $op->name eq "padsv" or
949 $op->name eq "gv" or # only in array/hash constructs
bd0865ec 950 $op->flags & OPf_KIDS && !null($op->first)
3f872cb9 951 && $op->first->name eq "gvsv");
6e90668e
SM
952}
953
9d2c6865
SM
954sub maybe_parens {
955 my $self = shift;
956 my($text, $cx, $prec) = @_;
957 if ($prec < $cx # unary ops nest just fine
958 or $prec == $cx and $cx != 4 and $cx != 16 and $cx != 21
959 or $self->{'parens'})
960 {
961 $text = "($text)";
962 # In a unop, let parent reuse our parens; see maybe_parens_unop
963 $text = "\cS" . $text if $cx == 16;
964 return $text;
965 } else {
966 return $text;
967 }
968}
969
970# same as above, but get around the `if it looks like a function' rule
971sub maybe_parens_unop {
972 my $self = shift;
973 my($name, $kid, $cx) = @_;
974 if ($cx > 16 or $self->{'parens'}) {
a0035eb8
RH
975 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 1);
976 if ($name eq "umask" && $kid =~ /^\d+$/) {
977 $kid = sprintf("%#o", $kid);
978 }
979 return "$name($kid)";
9d2c6865
SM
980 } else {
981 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 16);
a0035eb8
RH
982 if ($name eq "umask" && $kid =~ /^\d+$/) {
983 $kid = sprintf("%#o", $kid);
984 }
9d2c6865
SM
985 if (substr($kid, 0, 1) eq "\cS") {
986 # use kid's parens
987 return $name . substr($kid, 1);
988 } elsif (substr($kid, 0, 1) eq "(") {
989 # avoid looks-like-a-function trap with extra parens
990 # (`+' can lead to ambiguities)
991 return "$name(" . $kid . ")";
992 } else {
993 return "$name $kid";
994 }
995 }
996}
997
998sub maybe_parens_func {
999 my $self = shift;
1000 my($func, $text, $cx, $prec) = @_;
1001 if ($prec <= $cx or substr($text, 0, 1) eq "(" or $self->{'parens'}) {
1002 return "$func($text)";
1003 } else {
1004 return "$func $text";
1005 }
1006}
1007
6e90668e
SM
1008sub maybe_local {
1009 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1010 my($op, $cx, $text) = @_;
ce4e655d
RH
1011 my $our_intro = ($op->name =~ /^(gv|rv2)[ash]v$/) ? OPpOUR_INTRO : 0;
1012 if ($op->private & (OPpLVAL_INTRO|$our_intro)
1013 and not $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$op}) {
1014 my $our_local = ($op->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) ? "local" : "our";
8e3542b6 1015 if( $our_local eq 'our' ) {
cf24a840
SM
1016 # XXX This assertion fails code with non-ASCII identifiers,
1017 # like ./ext/Encode/t/jperl.t
8e3542b6 1018 die "Unexpected our($text)\n" unless $text =~ /^\W(\w+::)*\w+\z/;
d989cdac 1019 $text =~ s/(\w+::)+//;
8e3542b6 1020 }
e8d3f51b 1021 if (want_scalar($op)) {
ce4e655d 1022 return "$our_local $text";
e8d3f51b 1023 } else {
ce4e655d 1024 return $self->maybe_parens_func("$our_local", $text, $cx, 16);
e8d3f51b 1025 }
6e90668e
SM
1026 } else {
1027 return $text;
a798dbf2 1028 }
a798dbf2
MB
1029}
1030
3ed82cfc
GS
1031sub maybe_targmy {
1032 my $self = shift;
1033 my($op, $cx, $func, @args) = @_;
1034 if ($op->private & OPpTARGET_MY) {
1035 my $var = $self->padname($op->targ);
1036 my $val = $func->($self, $op, 7, @args);
1037 return $self->maybe_parens("$var = $val", $cx, 7);
1038 } else {
1039 return $func->($self, $op, $cx, @args);
1040 }
1041}
1042
6e90668e
SM
1043sub padname_sv {
1044 my $self = shift;
1045 my $targ = shift;
d989cdac 1046 return $self->{'curcv'}->PADLIST->ARRAYelt(0)->ARRAYelt($targ);
6e90668e
SM
1047}
1048
1049sub maybe_my {
1050 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1051 my($op, $cx, $text) = @_;
4c1f658f 1052 if ($op->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO and not $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$op}) {
e8d3f51b
RH
1053 if (want_scalar($op)) {
1054 return "my $text";
1055 } else {
1056 return $self->maybe_parens_func("my", $text, $cx, 16);
1057 }
6e90668e
SM
1058 } else {
1059 return $text;
1060 }
1061}
1062
9d2c6865
SM
1063# The following OPs don't have functions:
1064
1065# pp_padany -- does not exist after parsing
9d2c6865 1066
2ae48fff
RGS
1067sub AUTOLOAD {
1068 if ($AUTOLOAD =~ s/^.*::pp_//) {
1069 warn "unexpected OP_".uc $AUTOLOAD;
1070 return "XXX";
1071 } else {
1072 die "Undefined subroutine $AUTOLOAD called";
1073 }
9d2c6865 1074}
6e90668e 1075
611c1e95
IZ
1076sub DESTROY {} # Do not AUTOLOAD
1077
ce4e655d
RH
1078# $root should be the op which represents the root of whatever
1079# we're sequencing here. If it's undefined, then we don't append
1080# any subroutine declarations to the deparsed ops, otherwise we
1081# append appropriate declarations.
58cccf98 1082sub lineseq {
ce4e655d 1083 my($self, $root, @ops) = @_;
58cccf98 1084 my($expr, @exprs);
ce4e655d
RH
1085
1086 my $out_cop = $self->{'curcop'};
1087 my $out_seq = defined($out_cop) ? $out_cop->cop_seq : undef;
1088 my $limit_seq;
1089 if (defined $root) {
1090 $limit_seq = $out_seq;
76df5e8f
DM
1091 my $nseq;
1092 $nseq = $self->find_scope_st($root->sibling) if ${$root->sibling};
ce4e655d
RH
1093 $limit_seq = $nseq if !defined($limit_seq)
1094 or defined($nseq) && $nseq < $limit_seq;
1095 }
1096 $limit_seq = $self->{'limit_seq'}
1097 if defined($self->{'limit_seq'})
1098 && (!defined($limit_seq) || $self->{'limit_seq'} < $limit_seq);
1099 local $self->{'limit_seq'} = $limit_seq;
58cccf98 1100 for (my $i = 0; $i < @ops; $i++) {
6e90668e 1101 $expr = "";
58cccf98
SM
1102 if (is_state $ops[$i]) {
1103 $expr = $self->deparse($ops[$i], 0);
1104 $i++;
e99ebc55
RH
1105 if ($i > $#ops) {
1106 push @exprs, $expr;
1107 last;
1108 }
58cccf98 1109 }
c73811ab
RH
1110 if (!is_state $ops[$i] and (my $ls = $ops[$i+1]) and
1111 !null($ops[$i+1]) and $ops[$i+1]->name eq "lineseq")
58cccf98 1112 {
c73811ab
RH
1113 if ($ls->first && !null($ls->first) && is_state($ls->first)
1114 && (my $sib = $ls->first->sibling)) {
1115 if (!null($sib) && $sib->name eq "leaveloop") {
1116 push @exprs, $expr . $self->for_loop($ops[$i], 0);
1117 $i++;
1118 next;
1119 }
1120 }
6e90668e 1121 }
d989cdac 1122 $expr .= $self->deparse($ops[$i], (@ops != 1)/2);
e99ebc55 1123 $expr =~ s/;\n?\z//;
f99a63a2 1124 push @exprs, $expr;
6e90668e 1125 }
ce4e655d
RH
1126 my $body = join(";\n", grep {length} @exprs);
1127 my $subs = "";
67fc2416 1128 if (defined $root && defined $limit_seq && !$self->{'in_format'}) {
ce4e655d
RH
1129 $subs = join "\n", $self->seq_subs($limit_seq);
1130 }
1131 return join(";\n", grep {length} $body, $subs);
6e90668e
SM
1132}
1133
58cccf98 1134sub scopeop {
d989cdac 1135 my($real_block, $self, $op, $cx) = @_;
58cccf98
SM
1136 my $kid;
1137 my @kids;
a0405c92
RH
1138
1139 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
1140 = @$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'} if $real_block;
58cccf98
SM
1141 if ($real_block) {
1142 $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip enter
1143 if (is_miniwhile($kid)) {
1144 my $top = $kid->first;
1145 my $name = $top->name;
1146 if ($name eq "and") {
1147 $name = "while";
1148 } elsif ($name eq "or") {
1149 $name = "until";
1150 } else { # no conditional -> while 1 or until 0
1151 return $self->deparse($top->first, 1) . " while 1";
1152 }
1153 my $cond = $top->first;
1154 my $body = $cond->sibling->first; # skip lineseq
1155 $cond = $self->deparse($cond, 1);
1156 $body = $self->deparse($body, 1);
1157 return "$body $name $cond";
6e90668e 1158 }
58cccf98
SM
1159 } else {
1160 $kid = $op->first;
1161 }
1162 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
1163 push @kids, $kid;
6e90668e 1164 }
d989cdac 1165 if ($cx > 0) { # inside an expression, (a do {} while for lineseq)
ce4e655d 1166 return "do {\n\t" . $self->lineseq($op, @kids) . "\n\b}";
9d2c6865 1167 } else {
ce4e655d 1168 my $lineseq = $self->lineseq($op, @kids);
7a9b44b9 1169 return (length ($lineseq) ? "$lineseq;" : "");
6e90668e 1170 }
6e90668e
SM
1171}
1172
ce4e655d 1173sub pp_scope { scopeop(0, @_); }
58cccf98
SM
1174sub pp_lineseq { scopeop(0, @_); }
1175sub pp_leave { scopeop(1, @_); }
9d2c6865 1176
d989cdac
SM
1177# This is a special case of scopeop and lineseq, for the case of the
1178# main_root. The difference is that we print the output statements as
1179# soon as we get them, for the sake of impatient users.
1180sub deparse_root {
1181 my $self = shift;
1182 my($op) = @_;
1183 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
1184 = @$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'};
1185 my @kids;
1186 for (my $kid = $op->first->sibling; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
1187 push @kids, $kid;
1188 }
1189 for (my $i = 0; $i < @kids; $i++) {
1190 my $expr = "";
1191 if (is_state $kids[$i]) {
1192 $expr = $self->deparse($kids[$i], 0);
1193 $i++;
1194 if ($i > $#kids) {
1195 print $self->indent($expr);
1196 last;
1197 }
1198 }
1199 if (is_for_loop($kids[$i])) {
1200 $expr .= $self->for_loop($kids[$i], 0);
1201 $expr .= ";\n" unless $i == $#kids;
1202 print $self->indent($expr);
1203 $i++;
1204 next;
1205 }
1206 $expr .= $self->deparse($kids[$i], (@kids != 1)/2);
1207 $expr =~ s/;\n?\z//;
1208 $expr .= ";";
1209 print $self->indent($expr);
1210 print "\n" unless $i == $#kids;
1211 }
1212}
1213
6e90668e
SM
1214# The BEGIN {} is used here because otherwise this code isn't executed
1215# when you run B::Deparse on itself.
1216my %globalnames;
1217BEGIN { map($globalnames{$_}++, "SIG", "STDIN", "STDOUT", "STDERR", "INC",
1218 "ENV", "ARGV", "ARGVOUT", "_"); }
1219
1220sub gv_name {
1221 my $self = shift;
1222 my $gv = shift;
c6e79e55 1223Carp::confess() unless ref($gv) eq "B::GV";
6e90668e 1224 my $stash = $gv->STASH->NAME;
d9963e60 1225 my $name = $gv->SAFENAME;
5c55e82c
HS
1226 if (($stash eq 'main' && $globalnames{$name})
1227 or ($stash eq $self->{'curstash'} && !$globalnames{$name})
9d2c6865
SM
1228 or $name =~ /^[^A-Za-z_]/)
1229 {
6e90668e
SM
1230 $stash = "";
1231 } else {
1232 $stash = $stash . "::";
a798dbf2 1233 }
083bda02
MS
1234 if ($name =~ /^(\^..|{)/) {
1235 $name = "{$name}"; # ${^WARNING_BITS}, etc and ${
6e90668e
SM
1236 }
1237 return $stash . $name;
a798dbf2
MB
1238}
1239
8510e997
RH
1240# Return the name to use for a stash variable.
1241# If a lexical with the same name is in scope, it may need to be
1242# fully-qualified.
1243sub stash_variable {
1244 my ($self, $prefix, $name) = @_;
1245
1246 return "$prefix$name" if $name =~ /::/;
1247
d989cdac 1248 unless ($prefix eq '$' || $prefix eq '@' || #'
8510e997
RH
1249 $prefix eq '%' || $prefix eq '$#') {
1250 return "$prefix$name";
1251 }
1252
1253 my $v = ($prefix eq '$#' ? '@' : $prefix) . $name;
1254 return $prefix .$self->{'curstash'}.'::'. $name if $self->lex_in_scope($v);
1255 return "$prefix$name";
1256}
1257
1258sub lex_in_scope {
1259 my ($self, $name) = @_;
1260 $self->populate_curcvlex() if !defined $self->{'curcvlex'};
1261
6ec152c3 1262 return 0 if !defined($self->{'curcop'});
8510e997
RH
1263 my $seq = $self->{'curcop'}->cop_seq;
1264 return 0 if !exists $self->{'curcvlex'}{$name};
1265 for my $a (@{$self->{'curcvlex'}{$name}}) {
1266 my ($st, $en) = @$a;
1267 return 1 if $seq > $st && $seq <= $en;
1268 }
1269 return 0;
1270}
1271
1272sub populate_curcvlex {
1273 my $self = shift;
ce4e655d 1274 for (my $cv = $self->{'curcv'}; class($cv) eq "CV"; $cv = $cv->OUTSIDE) {
7dafbf52
DM
1275 my $padlist = $cv->PADLIST;
1276 # an undef CV still in lexical chain
1277 next if class($padlist) eq "SPECIAL";
1278 my @padlist = $padlist->ARRAY;
8510e997
RH
1279 my @ns = $padlist[0]->ARRAY;
1280
1281 for (my $i=0; $i<@ns; ++$i) {
1282 next if class($ns[$i]) eq "SPECIAL";
ce4e655d 1283 next if $ns[$i]->FLAGS & SVpad_OUR; # Skip "our" vars
0f2fe21d
RH
1284 if (class($ns[$i]) eq "PV") {
1285 # Probably that pesky lexical @_
1286 next;
1287 }
8510e997 1288 my $name = $ns[$i]->PVX;
7dafbf52
DM
1289 my ($seq_st, $seq_en) =
1290 ($ns[$i]->FLAGS & SVf_FAKE)
1291 ? (0, 999999)
1292 : ($ns[$i]->NVX, $ns[$i]->IVX);
8510e997
RH
1293
1294 push @{$self->{'curcvlex'}{$name}}, [$seq_st, $seq_en];
1295 }
1296 }
1297}
1298
ce4e655d
RH
1299sub find_scope_st { ((find_scope(@_))[0]); }
1300sub find_scope_en { ((find_scope(@_))[1]); }
1301
1302# Recurses down the tree, looking for pad variable introductions and COPs
1303sub find_scope {
1304 my ($self, $op, $scope_st, $scope_en) = @_;
ff97752d 1305 carp("Undefined op in find_scope") if !defined $op;
ce4e655d
RH
1306 return ($scope_st, $scope_en) unless $op->flags & OPf_KIDS;
1307
1308 for (my $o=$op->first; $$o; $o=$o->sibling) {
1309 if ($o->name =~ /^pad.v$/ && $o->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) {
1310 my $s = int($self->padname_sv($o->targ)->NVX);
1311 my $e = $self->padname_sv($o->targ)->IVX;
1312 $scope_st = $s if !defined($scope_st) || $s < $scope_st;
1313 $scope_en = $e if !defined($scope_en) || $e > $scope_en;
1314 }
1315 elsif (is_state($o)) {
1316 my $c = $o->cop_seq;
1317 $scope_st = $c if !defined($scope_st) || $c < $scope_st;
1318 $scope_en = $c if !defined($scope_en) || $c > $scope_en;
1319 }
1320 elsif ($o->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
1321 ($scope_st, $scope_en) =
1322 $self->find_scope($o, $scope_st, $scope_en)
34a48b4b
RH
1323 }
1324 }
ce4e655d
RH
1325
1326 return ($scope_st, $scope_en);
34a48b4b
RH
1327}
1328
1329# Returns a list of subs which should be inserted before the COP
1330sub cop_subs {
1331 my ($self, $op, $out_seq) = @_;
1332 my $seq = $op->cop_seq;
1333 # If we have nephews, then our sequence number indicates
1334 # the cop_seq of the end of some sort of scope.
1335 if (class($op->sibling) ne "NULL" && $op->sibling->flags & OPf_KIDS
ce4e655d
RH
1336 and my $nseq = $self->find_scope_st($op->sibling) ) {
1337 $seq = $nseq;
34a48b4b
RH
1338 }
1339 $seq = $out_seq if defined($out_seq) && $out_seq < $seq;
1340 return $self->seq_subs($seq);
1341}
1342
1343sub seq_subs {
1344 my ($self, $seq) = @_;
1345 my @text;
1346#push @text, "# ($seq)\n";
1347
ce4e655d 1348 return "" if !defined $seq;
34a48b4b
RH
1349 while (scalar(@{$self->{'subs_todo'}})
1350 and $seq > $self->{'subs_todo'}[0][0]) {
1351 push @text, $self->next_todo;
1352 }
1353 return @text;
1354}
1355
08c6f5ec 1356# Notice how subs and formats are inserted between statements here;
a0405c92 1357# also $[ assignments and pragmas.
6e90668e
SM
1358sub pp_nextstate {
1359 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1360 my($op, $cx) = @_;
34a48b4b 1361 $self->{'curcop'} = $op;
6e90668e 1362 my @text;
34a48b4b 1363 push @text, $self->cop_subs($op);
e99ebc55 1364 push @text, $op->label . ": " if $op->label;
11faa288 1365 my $stash = $op->stashpv;
6e90668e
SM
1366 if ($stash ne $self->{'curstash'}) {
1367 push @text, "package $stash;\n";
1368 $self->{'curstash'} = $stash;
1369 }
08c6f5ec 1370
7a9b44b9
RH
1371 if ($self->{'arybase'} != $op->arybase) {
1372 push @text, '$[ = '. $op->arybase .";\n";
1373 $self->{'arybase'} = $op->arybase;
1374 }
1375
1376 my $warnings = $op->warnings;
1377 my $warning_bits;
1378 if ($warnings->isa("B::SPECIAL") && $$warnings == 4) {
810aef70 1379 $warning_bits = $warnings::Bits{"all"} & WARN_MASK;
7a9b44b9 1380 }
e31885a0 1381 elsif ($warnings->isa("B::SPECIAL") && $$warnings == 5) {
810aef70 1382 $warning_bits = $warnings::NONE;
7a9b44b9 1383 }
e31885a0
RH
1384 elsif ($warnings->isa("B::SPECIAL")) {
1385 $warning_bits = undef;
1386 }
7a9b44b9 1387 else {
34a48b4b 1388 $warning_bits = $warnings->PV & WARN_MASK;
7a9b44b9
RH
1389 }
1390
e31885a0
RH
1391 if (defined ($warning_bits) and
1392 !defined($self->{warnings}) || $self->{'warnings'} ne $warning_bits) {
08c6f5ec 1393 push @text, declare_warnings($self->{'warnings'}, $warning_bits);
7a9b44b9
RH
1394 $self->{'warnings'} = $warning_bits;
1395 }
1396
a0405c92
RH
1397 if ($self->{'hints'} != $op->private) {
1398 push @text, declare_hints($self->{'hints'}, $op->private);
1399 $self->{'hints'} = $op->private;
1400 }
1401
d989cdac
SM
1402 # This should go after of any branches that add statements, to
1403 # increase the chances that it refers to the same line it did in
1404 # the original program.
1405 if ($self->{'linenums'}) {
1406 push @text, "\f#line " . $op->line .
1407 ' "' . $op->file, qq'"\n';
1408 }
1409
6e90668e
SM
1410 return join("", @text);
1411}
1412
08c6f5ec
RH
1413sub declare_warnings {
1414 my ($from, $to) = @_;
6ec152c3 1415 if (($to & WARN_MASK) eq warnings::bits("all")) {
a0405c92
RH
1416 return "use warnings;\n";
1417 }
6ec152c3 1418 elsif (($to & WARN_MASK) eq "\0"x length($to)) {
a0405c92
RH
1419 return "no warnings;\n";
1420 }
51a5edaf 1421 return "BEGIN {\${^WARNING_BITS} = ".perlstring($to)."}\n";
a0405c92
RH
1422}
1423
1424sub declare_hints {
1425 my ($from, $to) = @_;
a0035eb8
RH
1426 my $use = $to & ~$from;
1427 my $no = $from & ~$to;
1428 my $decls = "";
1429 for my $pragma (hint_pragmas($use)) {
1430 $decls .= "use $pragma;\n";
1431 }
1432 for my $pragma (hint_pragmas($no)) {
1433 $decls .= "no $pragma;\n";
1434 }
1435 return $decls;
1436}
1437
1438sub hint_pragmas {
1439 my ($bits) = @_;
1440 my @pragmas;
1441 push @pragmas, "integer" if $bits & 0x1;
1442 push @pragmas, "strict 'refs'" if $bits & 0x2;
1443 push @pragmas, "bytes" if $bits & 0x8;
1444 return @pragmas;
08c6f5ec
RH
1445}
1446
6e90668e 1447sub pp_dbstate { pp_nextstate(@_) }
3f872cb9 1448sub pp_setstate { pp_nextstate(@_) }
6e90668e
SM
1449
1450sub pp_unstack { return "" } # see also leaveloop
1451
1452sub baseop {
1453 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1454 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1455 return $name;
1456}
1457
e99ebc55
RH
1458sub pp_stub {
1459 my $self = shift;
1460 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
d989cdac 1461 if ($cx >= 1) {
e99ebc55
RH
1462 return "()";
1463 }
1464 else {
1465 return "();";
1466 }
1467}
6e90668e
SM
1468sub pp_wantarray { baseop(@_, "wantarray") }
1469sub pp_fork { baseop(@_, "fork") }
3ed82cfc
GS
1470sub pp_wait { maybe_targmy(@_, \&baseop, "wait") }
1471sub pp_getppid { maybe_targmy(@_, \&baseop, "getppid") }
1472sub pp_time { maybe_targmy(@_, \&baseop, "time") }
6e90668e
SM
1473sub pp_tms { baseop(@_, "times") }
1474sub pp_ghostent { baseop(@_, "gethostent") }
1475sub pp_gnetent { baseop(@_, "getnetent") }
1476sub pp_gprotoent { baseop(@_, "getprotoent") }
1477sub pp_gservent { baseop(@_, "getservent") }
1478sub pp_ehostent { baseop(@_, "endhostent") }
1479sub pp_enetent { baseop(@_, "endnetent") }
1480sub pp_eprotoent { baseop(@_, "endprotoent") }
1481sub pp_eservent { baseop(@_, "endservent") }
1482sub pp_gpwent { baseop(@_, "getpwent") }
1483sub pp_spwent { baseop(@_, "setpwent") }
1484sub pp_epwent { baseop(@_, "endpwent") }
1485sub pp_ggrent { baseop(@_, "getgrent") }
1486sub pp_sgrent { baseop(@_, "setgrent") }
1487sub pp_egrent { baseop(@_, "endgrent") }
1488sub pp_getlogin { baseop(@_, "getlogin") }
1489
1490sub POSTFIX () { 1 }
1491
9d2c6865
SM
1492# I couldn't think of a good short name, but this is the category of
1493# symbolic unary operators with interesting precedence
1494
1495sub pfixop {
1496 my $self = shift;
1497 my($op, $cx, $name, $prec, $flags) = (@_, 0);
1498 my $kid = $op->first;
1499 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, $prec);
1500 return $self->maybe_parens(($flags & POSTFIX) ? "$kid$name" : "$name$kid",
1501 $cx, $prec);
1502}
1503
1504sub pp_preinc { pfixop(@_, "++", 23) }
1505sub pp_predec { pfixop(@_, "--", 23) }
3ed82cfc
GS
1506sub pp_postinc { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "++", 23, POSTFIX) }
1507sub pp_postdec { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "--", 23, POSTFIX) }
9d2c6865
SM
1508sub pp_i_preinc { pfixop(@_, "++", 23) }
1509sub pp_i_predec { pfixop(@_, "--", 23) }
3ed82cfc
GS
1510sub pp_i_postinc { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "++", 23, POSTFIX) }
1511sub pp_i_postdec { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "--", 23, POSTFIX) }
68cc8748 1512sub pp_complement { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "~", 21) }
9d2c6865 1513
3ed82cfc
GS
1514sub pp_negate { maybe_targmy(@_, \&real_negate) }
1515sub real_negate {
9d2c6865
SM
1516 my $self = shift;
1517 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3f872cb9 1518 if ($op->first->name =~ /^(i_)?negate$/) {
9d2c6865
SM
1519 # avoid --$x
1520 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "-", 21.5);
1521 } else {
1522 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "-", 21);
1523 }
1524}
1525sub pp_i_negate { pp_negate(@_) }
1526
1527sub pp_not {
1528 my $self = shift;
1529 my($op, $cx) = @_;
1530 if ($cx <= 4) {
1531 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "not ", 4);
1532 } else {
1533 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "!", 21);
1534 }
1535}
1536
6e90668e
SM
1537sub unop {
1538 my $self = shift;
f4a44678 1539 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e 1540 my $kid;
9d2c6865 1541 if ($op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
6e90668e 1542 $kid = $op->first;
d989cdac 1543 if (defined prototype("CORE::$name")
e31885a0
RH
1544 && prototype("CORE::$name") =~ /^;?\*/
1545 && $kid->name eq "rv2gv") {
1546 $kid = $kid->first;
1547 }
1548
9d2c6865 1549 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $kid, $cx);
6e90668e 1550 } else {
d989cdac 1551 return $name . ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL ? "()" : "");
6e90668e 1552 }
6e90668e
SM
1553}
1554
3ed82cfc
GS
1555sub pp_chop { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chop") }
1556sub pp_chomp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chomp") }
1557sub pp_schop { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chop") }
1558sub pp_schomp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chomp") }
6e90668e
SM
1559sub pp_defined { unop(@_, "defined") }
1560sub pp_undef { unop(@_, "undef") }
1561sub pp_study { unop(@_, "study") }
6e90668e
SM
1562sub pp_ref { unop(@_, "ref") }
1563sub pp_pos { maybe_local(@_, unop(@_, "pos")) }
1564
3ed82cfc
GS
1565sub pp_sin { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "sin") }
1566sub pp_cos { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "cos") }
1567sub pp_rand { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "rand") }
6e90668e 1568sub pp_srand { unop(@_, "srand") }
3ed82cfc
GS
1569sub pp_exp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "exp") }
1570sub pp_log { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "log") }
1571sub pp_sqrt { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "sqrt") }
1572sub pp_int { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "int") }
1573sub pp_hex { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "hex") }
1574sub pp_oct { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "oct") }
1575sub pp_abs { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "abs") }
1576
1577sub pp_length { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "length") }
1578sub pp_ord { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "ord") }
1579sub pp_chr { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chr") }
6e90668e
SM
1580
1581sub pp_each { unop(@_, "each") }
1582sub pp_values { unop(@_, "values") }
1583sub pp_keys { unop(@_, "keys") }
1584sub pp_pop { unop(@_, "pop") }
1585sub pp_shift { unop(@_, "shift") }
1586
1587sub pp_caller { unop(@_, "caller") }
1588sub pp_reset { unop(@_, "reset") }
1589sub pp_exit { unop(@_, "exit") }
1590sub pp_prototype { unop(@_, "prototype") }
1591
1592sub pp_close { unop(@_, "close") }
1593sub pp_fileno { unop(@_, "fileno") }
1594sub pp_umask { unop(@_, "umask") }
6e90668e
SM
1595sub pp_untie { unop(@_, "untie") }
1596sub pp_tied { unop(@_, "tied") }
1597sub pp_dbmclose { unop(@_, "dbmclose") }
1598sub pp_getc { unop(@_, "getc") }
1599sub pp_eof { unop(@_, "eof") }
1600sub pp_tell { unop(@_, "tell") }
1601sub pp_getsockname { unop(@_, "getsockname") }
1602sub pp_getpeername { unop(@_, "getpeername") }
1603
3ed82cfc
GS
1604sub pp_chdir { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chdir") }
1605sub pp_chroot { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chroot") }
6e90668e 1606sub pp_readlink { unop(@_, "readlink") }
3ed82cfc 1607sub pp_rmdir { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "rmdir") }
6e90668e
SM
1608sub pp_readdir { unop(@_, "readdir") }
1609sub pp_telldir { unop(@_, "telldir") }
1610sub pp_rewinddir { unop(@_, "rewinddir") }
1611sub pp_closedir { unop(@_, "closedir") }
3ed82cfc 1612sub pp_getpgrp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "getpgrp") }
6e90668e
SM
1613sub pp_localtime { unop(@_, "localtime") }
1614sub pp_gmtime { unop(@_, "gmtime") }
1615sub pp_alarm { unop(@_, "alarm") }
3ed82cfc 1616sub pp_sleep { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "sleep") }
6e90668e
SM
1617
1618sub pp_dofile { unop(@_, "do") }
1619sub pp_entereval { unop(@_, "eval") }
1620
1621sub pp_ghbyname { unop(@_, "gethostbyname") }
1622sub pp_gnbyname { unop(@_, "getnetbyname") }
1623sub pp_gpbyname { unop(@_, "getprotobyname") }
1624sub pp_shostent { unop(@_, "sethostent") }
1625sub pp_snetent { unop(@_, "setnetent") }
1626sub pp_sprotoent { unop(@_, "setprotoent") }
1627sub pp_sservent { unop(@_, "setservent") }
1628sub pp_gpwnam { unop(@_, "getpwnam") }
1629sub pp_gpwuid { unop(@_, "getpwuid") }
1630sub pp_ggrnam { unop(@_, "getgrnam") }
1631sub pp_ggrgid { unop(@_, "getgrgid") }
1632
1633sub pp_lock { unop(@_, "lock") }
1634
1635sub pp_exists {
1636 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1637 my($op, $cx) = @_;
34a48b4b
RH
1638 my $arg;
1639 if ($op->private & OPpEXISTS_SUB) {
1640 # Checking for the existence of a subroutine
1641 return $self->maybe_parens_func("exists",
1642 $self->pp_rv2cv($op->first, 16), $cx, 16);
1643 }
1644 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1645 # Array element, not hash element
1646 return $self->maybe_parens_func("exists",
1647 $self->pp_aelem($op->first, 16), $cx, 16);
1648 }
9d2c6865
SM
1649 return $self->maybe_parens_func("exists", $self->pp_helem($op->first, 16),
1650 $cx, 16);
6e90668e
SM
1651}
1652
6e90668e
SM
1653sub pp_delete {
1654 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1655 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1656 my $arg;
1657 if ($op->private & OPpSLICE) {
34a48b4b
RH
1658 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1659 # Deleting from an array, not a hash
1660 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1661 $self->pp_aslice($op->first, 16),
1662 $cx, 16);
1663 }
9d2c6865
SM
1664 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1665 $self->pp_hslice($op->first, 16),
1666 $cx, 16);
6e90668e 1667 } else {
34a48b4b
RH
1668 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1669 # Deleting from an array, not a hash
1670 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1671 $self->pp_aelem($op->first, 16),
1672 $cx, 16);
1673 }
9d2c6865
SM
1674 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1675 $self->pp_helem($op->first, 16),
1676 $cx, 16);
6e90668e 1677 }
6e90668e
SM
1678}
1679
6e90668e
SM
1680sub pp_require {
1681 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1682 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3f872cb9 1683 if (class($op) eq "UNOP" and $op->first->name eq "const"
4c1f658f 1684 and $op->first->private & OPpCONST_BARE)
6e90668e 1685 {
18228111 1686 my $name = $self->const_sv($op->first)->PV;
6e90668e
SM
1687 $name =~ s[/][::]g;
1688 $name =~ s/\.pm//g;
34a48b4b 1689 return "require $name";
6e90668e 1690 } else {
9d2c6865 1691 $self->unop($op, $cx, "require");
6e90668e
SM
1692 }
1693}
1694
d989cdac 1695sub pp_scalar {
9d2c6865
SM
1696 my $self = shift;
1697 my($op, $cv) = @_;
1698 my $kid = $op->first;
1699 if (not null $kid->sibling) {
1700 # XXX Was a here-doc
1701 return $self->dquote($op);
1702 }
1703 $self->unop(@_, "scalar");
1704}
1705
1706
6e90668e
SM
1707sub padval {
1708 my $self = shift;
1709 my $targ = shift;
d989cdac 1710 return $self->{'curcv'}->PADLIST->ARRAYelt(1)->ARRAYelt($targ);
6e90668e
SM
1711}
1712
1713sub pp_refgen {
1714 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1715 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 1716 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9 1717 if ($kid->name eq "null") {
6e90668e 1718 $kid = $kid->first;
3f872cb9
GS
1719 if ($kid->name eq "anonlist" || $kid->name eq "anonhash") {
1720 my($pre, $post) = @{{"anonlist" => ["[","]"],
1721 "anonhash" => ["{","}"]}->{$kid->name}};
6e90668e
SM
1722 my($expr, @exprs);
1723 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
1724 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 1725 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
1726 push @exprs, $expr;
1727 }
1728 return $pre . join(", ", @exprs) . $post;
d989cdac 1729 } elsif (!null($kid->sibling) and
3f872cb9 1730 $kid->sibling->name eq "anoncode") {
6e90668e
SM
1731 return "sub " .
1732 $self->deparse_sub($self->padval($kid->sibling->targ));
3f872cb9
GS
1733 } elsif ($kid->name eq "pushmark") {
1734 my $sib_name = $kid->sibling->name;
1735 if ($sib_name =~ /^(pad|rv2)[ah]v$/
c8c62db7
AD
1736 and not $kid->sibling->flags & OPf_REF)
1737 {
1738 # The @a in \(@a) isn't in ref context, but only when the
1739 # parens are there.
127212b2 1740 return "\\(" . $self->pp_list($op->first) . ")";
3f872cb9 1741 } elsif ($sib_name eq 'entersub') {
c8c62db7
AD
1742 my $text = $self->deparse($kid->sibling, 1);
1743 # Always show parens for \(&func()), but only with -p otherwise
1744 $text = "($text)" if $self->{'parens'}
1745 or $kid->sibling->private & OPpENTERSUB_AMPER;
1746 return "\\$text";
1747 }
1748 }
6e90668e 1749 }
9d2c6865 1750 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "\\", 20);
6e90668e
SM
1751}
1752
1753sub pp_srefgen { pp_refgen(@_) }
1754
1755sub pp_readline {
1756 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1757 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 1758 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9 1759 $kid = $kid->first if $kid->name eq "rv2gv"; # <$fh>
e31885a0
RH
1760 return "<" . $self->deparse($kid, 1) . ">" if is_scalar($kid);
1761 return $self->unop($op, $cx, "readline");
6e90668e
SM
1762}
1763
ad8caead
RGS
1764sub pp_rcatline {
1765 my $self = shift;
1766 my($op) = @_;
d989cdac 1767 return "<" . $self->gv_name($self->gv_or_padgv($op)) . ">";
ad8caead
RGS
1768}
1769
bd0865ec
GS
1770# Unary operators that can occur as pseudo-listops inside double quotes
1771sub dq_unop {
1772 my $self = shift;
1773 my($op, $cx, $name, $prec, $flags) = (@_, 0, 0);
1774 my $kid;
1775 if ($op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
1776 $kid = $op->first;
1777 # If there's more than one kid, the first is an ex-pushmark.
1778 $kid = $kid->sibling if not null $kid->sibling;
1779 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $kid, $cx);
1780 } else {
d989cdac 1781 return $name . ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL ? "()" : "");
bd0865ec
GS
1782 }
1783}
1784
1785sub pp_ucfirst { dq_unop(@_, "ucfirst") }
1786sub pp_lcfirst { dq_unop(@_, "lcfirst") }
1787sub pp_uc { dq_unop(@_, "uc") }
1788sub pp_lc { dq_unop(@_, "lc") }
3ed82cfc 1789sub pp_quotemeta { maybe_targmy(@_, \&dq_unop, "quotemeta") }
bd0865ec 1790
6e90668e
SM
1791sub loopex {
1792 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1793 my ($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e 1794 if (class($op) eq "PVOP") {
9d2c6865
SM
1795 return "$name " . $op->pv;
1796 } elsif (class($op) eq "OP") {
1797 return $name;
6e90668e 1798 } elsif (class($op) eq "UNOP") {
9d2c6865
SM
1799 # Note -- loop exits are actually exempt from the
1800 # looks-like-a-func rule, but a few extra parens won't hurt
1801 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $op->first, $cx);
6e90668e 1802 }
6e90668e
SM
1803}
1804
1805sub pp_last { loopex(@_, "last") }
1806sub pp_next { loopex(@_, "next") }
1807sub pp_redo { loopex(@_, "redo") }
1808sub pp_goto { loopex(@_, "goto") }
1809sub pp_dump { loopex(@_, "dump") }
1810
1811sub ftst {
1812 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1813 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e 1814 if (class($op) eq "UNOP") {
9d2c6865
SM
1815 # Genuine `-X' filetests are exempt from the LLAFR, but not
1816 # l?stat(); for the sake of clarity, give'em all parens
1817 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $op->first, $cx);
d989cdac 1818 } elsif (class($op) =~ /^(SV|PAD)OP$/) {
9d2c6865 1819 return $self->maybe_parens_func($name, $self->pp_gv($op, 1), $cx, 16);
6e90668e 1820 } else { # I don't think baseop filetests ever survive ck_ftst, but...
9d2c6865 1821 return $name;
6e90668e 1822 }
6e90668e
SM
1823}
1824
d989cdac
SM
1825sub pp_lstat { ftst(@_, "lstat") }
1826sub pp_stat { ftst(@_, "stat") }
1827sub pp_ftrread { ftst(@_, "-R") }
6e90668e 1828sub pp_ftrwrite { ftst(@_, "-W") }
d989cdac
SM
1829sub pp_ftrexec { ftst(@_, "-X") }
1830sub pp_fteread { ftst(@_, "-r") }
e31885a0 1831sub pp_ftewrite { ftst(@_, "-w") }
d989cdac
SM
1832sub pp_fteexec { ftst(@_, "-x") }
1833sub pp_ftis { ftst(@_, "-e") }
6e90668e
SM
1834sub pp_fteowned { ftst(@_, "-O") }
1835sub pp_ftrowned { ftst(@_, "-o") }
d989cdac
SM
1836sub pp_ftzero { ftst(@_, "-z") }
1837sub pp_ftsize { ftst(@_, "-s") }
1838sub pp_ftmtime { ftst(@_, "-M") }
1839sub pp_ftatime { ftst(@_, "-A") }
1840sub pp_ftctime { ftst(@_, "-C") }
1841sub pp_ftsock { ftst(@_, "-S") }
1842sub pp_ftchr { ftst(@_, "-c") }
1843sub pp_ftblk { ftst(@_, "-b") }
1844sub pp_ftfile { ftst(@_, "-f") }
1845sub pp_ftdir { ftst(@_, "-d") }
1846sub pp_ftpipe { ftst(@_, "-p") }
1847sub pp_ftlink { ftst(@_, "-l") }
1848sub pp_ftsuid { ftst(@_, "-u") }
1849sub pp_ftsgid { ftst(@_, "-g") }
1850sub pp_ftsvtx { ftst(@_, "-k") }
1851sub pp_fttty { ftst(@_, "-t") }
1852sub pp_fttext { ftst(@_, "-T") }
6e90668e
SM
1853sub pp_ftbinary { ftst(@_, "-B") }
1854
a798dbf2 1855sub SWAP_CHILDREN () { 1 }
6e90668e 1856sub ASSIGN () { 2 } # has OP= variant
7013e6ae 1857sub LIST_CONTEXT () { 4 } # Assignment is in list context
6e90668e 1858
9d2c6865
SM
1859my(%left, %right);
1860
1861sub assoc_class {
1862 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
1863 my $name = $op->name;
1864 if ($name eq "concat" and $op->first->name eq "concat") {
9d2c6865 1865 # avoid spurious `=' -- see comment in pp_concat
3f872cb9 1866 return "concat";
9d2c6865 1867 }
3f872cb9
GS
1868 if ($name eq "null" and class($op) eq "UNOP"
1869 and $op->first->name =~ /^(and|x?or)$/
9d2c6865
SM
1870 and null $op->first->sibling)
1871 {
1872 # Like all conditional constructs, OP_ANDs and OP_ORs are topped
1873 # with a null that's used as the common end point of the two
1874 # flows of control. For precedence purposes, ignore it.
1875 # (COND_EXPRs have these too, but we don't bother with
1876 # their associativity).
1877 return assoc_class($op->first);
1878 }
1879 return $name . ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED ? "=" : "");
1880}
1881
1882# Left associative operators, like `+', for which
1883# $a + $b + $c is equivalent to ($a + $b) + $c
1884
1885BEGIN {
3f872cb9
GS
1886 %left = ('multiply' => 19, 'i_multiply' => 19,
1887 'divide' => 19, 'i_divide' => 19,
1888 'modulo' => 19, 'i_modulo' => 19,
1889 'repeat' => 19,
1890 'add' => 18, 'i_add' => 18,
1891 'subtract' => 18, 'i_subtract' => 18,
1892 'concat' => 18,
1893 'left_shift' => 17, 'right_shift' => 17,
1894 'bit_and' => 13,
1895 'bit_or' => 12, 'bit_xor' => 12,
1896 'and' => 3,
1897 'or' => 2, 'xor' => 2,
9d2c6865
SM
1898 );
1899}
1900
1901sub deparse_binop_left {
1902 my $self = shift;
1903 my($op, $left, $prec) = @_;
58231d39 1904 if ($left{assoc_class($op)} && $left{assoc_class($left)}
9d2c6865
SM
1905 and $left{assoc_class($op)} == $left{assoc_class($left)})
1906 {
1907 return $self->deparse($left, $prec - .00001);
1908 } else {
1909 return $self->deparse($left, $prec);
1910 }
1911}
1912
1913# Right associative operators, like `=', for which
1914# $a = $b = $c is equivalent to $a = ($b = $c)
1915
1916BEGIN {
3f872cb9
GS
1917 %right = ('pow' => 22,
1918 'sassign=' => 7, 'aassign=' => 7,
1919 'multiply=' => 7, 'i_multiply=' => 7,
1920 'divide=' => 7, 'i_divide=' => 7,
1921 'modulo=' => 7, 'i_modulo=' => 7,
1922 'repeat=' => 7,
1923 'add=' => 7, 'i_add=' => 7,
1924 'subtract=' => 7, 'i_subtract=' => 7,
1925 'concat=' => 7,
1926 'left_shift=' => 7, 'right_shift=' => 7,
1927 'bit_and=' => 7,
1928 'bit_or=' => 7, 'bit_xor=' => 7,
1929 'andassign' => 7,
1930 'orassign' => 7,
9d2c6865
SM
1931 );
1932}
1933
1934sub deparse_binop_right {
1935 my $self = shift;
1936 my($op, $right, $prec) = @_;
58231d39 1937 if ($right{assoc_class($op)} && $right{assoc_class($right)}
9d2c6865
SM
1938 and $right{assoc_class($op)} == $right{assoc_class($right)})
1939 {
1940 return $self->deparse($right, $prec - .00001);
1941 } else {
1942 return $self->deparse($right, $prec);
1943 }
1944}
1945
a798dbf2 1946sub binop {
6e90668e 1947 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1948 my ($op, $cx, $opname, $prec, $flags) = (@_, 0);
a798dbf2
MB
1949 my $left = $op->first;
1950 my $right = $op->last;
9d2c6865
SM
1951 my $eq = "";
1952 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED && $flags & ASSIGN) {
1953 $eq = "=";
1954 $prec = 7;
1955 }
a798dbf2
MB
1956 if ($flags & SWAP_CHILDREN) {
1957 ($left, $right) = ($right, $left);
1958 }
9d2c6865 1959 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $prec);
90c0eb26
RH
1960 $left = "($left)" if $flags & LIST_CONTEXT
1961 && $left !~ /^(my|our|local|)[\@\(]/;
9d2c6865
SM
1962 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $prec);
1963 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $opname$eq $right", $cx, $prec);
1964}
1965
3ed82cfc
GS
1966sub pp_add { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "+", 18, ASSIGN) }
1967sub pp_multiply { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "*", 19, ASSIGN) }
1968sub pp_subtract { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "-",18, ASSIGN) }
1969sub pp_divide { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "/", 19, ASSIGN) }
1970sub pp_modulo { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "%", 19, ASSIGN) }
1971sub pp_i_add { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "+", 18, ASSIGN) }
1972sub pp_i_multiply { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "*", 19, ASSIGN) }
1973sub pp_i_subtract { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "-", 18, ASSIGN) }
1974sub pp_i_divide { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "/", 19, ASSIGN) }
1975sub pp_i_modulo { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "%", 19, ASSIGN) }
1976sub pp_pow { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "**", 22, ASSIGN) }
1977
1978sub pp_left_shift { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "<<", 17, ASSIGN) }
1979sub pp_right_shift { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, ">>", 17, ASSIGN) }
1980sub pp_bit_and { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "&", 13, ASSIGN) }
1981sub pp_bit_or { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "|", 12, ASSIGN) }
1982sub pp_bit_xor { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "^", 12, ASSIGN) }
9d2c6865
SM
1983
1984sub pp_eq { binop(@_, "==", 14) }
1985sub pp_ne { binop(@_, "!=", 14) }
1986sub pp_lt { binop(@_, "<", 15) }
1987sub pp_gt { binop(@_, ">", 15) }
1988sub pp_ge { binop(@_, ">=", 15) }
1989sub pp_le { binop(@_, "<=", 15) }
1990sub pp_ncmp { binop(@_, "<=>", 14) }
1991sub pp_i_eq { binop(@_, "==", 14) }
1992sub pp_i_ne { binop(@_, "!=", 14) }
1993sub pp_i_lt { binop(@_, "<", 15) }
1994sub pp_i_gt { binop(@_, ">", 15) }
1995sub pp_i_ge { binop(@_, ">=", 15) }
1996sub pp_i_le { binop(@_, "<=", 15) }
1997sub pp_i_ncmp { binop(@_, "<=>", 14) }
1998
1999sub pp_seq { binop(@_, "eq", 14) }
2000sub pp_sne { binop(@_, "ne", 14) }
2001sub pp_slt { binop(@_, "lt", 15) }
2002sub pp_sgt { binop(@_, "gt", 15) }
2003sub pp_sge { binop(@_, "ge", 15) }
2004sub pp_sle { binop(@_, "le", 15) }
2005sub pp_scmp { binop(@_, "cmp", 14) }
2006
2007sub pp_sassign { binop(@_, "=", 7, SWAP_CHILDREN) }
7013e6ae 2008sub pp_aassign { binop(@_, "=", 7, SWAP_CHILDREN | LIST_CONTEXT) }
6e90668e
SM
2009
2010# `.' is special because concats-of-concats are optimized to save copying
2011# by making all but the first concat stacked. The effect is as if the
2012# programmer had written `($a . $b) .= $c', except legal.
3ed82cfc
GS
2013sub pp_concat { maybe_targmy(@_, \&real_concat) }
2014sub real_concat {
6e90668e 2015 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2016 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2017 my $left = $op->first;
2018 my $right = $op->last;
2019 my $eq = "";
9d2c6865 2020 my $prec = 18;
3f872cb9 2021 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED and $op->first->name ne "concat") {
6e90668e 2022 $eq = "=";
9d2c6865 2023 $prec = 7;
6e90668e 2024 }
9d2c6865
SM
2025 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $prec);
2026 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $prec);
2027 return $self->maybe_parens("$left .$eq $right", $cx, $prec);
6e90668e
SM
2028}
2029
2030# `x' is weird when the left arg is a list
2031sub pp_repeat {
2032 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2033 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2034 my $left = $op->first;
2035 my $right = $op->last;
9d2c6865
SM
2036 my $eq = "";
2037 my $prec = 19;
2038 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
2039 $eq = "=";
2040 $prec = 7;
2041 }
6e90668e
SM
2042 if (null($right)) { # list repeat; count is inside left-side ex-list
2043 my $kid = $left->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
2044 my @exprs;
2045 for (; !null($kid->sibling); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2046 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2047 }
2048 $right = $kid;
2049 $left = "(" . join(", ", @exprs). ")";
2050 } else {
9d2c6865 2051 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $prec);
6e90668e 2052 }
9d2c6865
SM
2053 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $prec);
2054 return $self->maybe_parens("$left x$eq $right", $cx, $prec);
6e90668e
SM
2055}
2056
2057sub range {
2058 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2059 my ($op, $cx, $type) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2060 my $left = $op->first;
2061 my $right = $left->sibling;
9d2c6865
SM
2062 $left = $self->deparse($left, 9);
2063 $right = $self->deparse($right, 9);
2064 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $type $right", $cx, 9);
6e90668e
SM
2065}
2066
2067sub pp_flop {
2068 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2069 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2070 my $flip = $op->first;
2071 my $type = ($flip->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) ? "..." : "..";
9d2c6865 2072 return $self->range($flip->first, $cx, $type);
6e90668e
SM
2073}
2074
2075# one-line while/until is handled in pp_leave
2076
2077sub logop {
2078 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2079 my ($op, $cx, $lowop, $lowprec, $highop, $highprec, $blockname) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2080 my $left = $op->first;
2081 my $right = $op->first->sibling;
d989cdac 2082 if ($cx < 1 and is_scope($right) and $blockname
58cccf98
SM
2083 and $self->{'expand'} < 7)
2084 { # if ($a) {$b}
9d2c6865
SM
2085 $left = $self->deparse($left, 1);
2086 $right = $self->deparse($right, 0);
2087 return "$blockname ($left) {\n\t$right\n\b}\cK";
d989cdac 2088 } elsif ($cx < 1 and $blockname and not $self->{'parens'}
58cccf98 2089 and $self->{'expand'} < 7) { # $b if $a
9d2c6865
SM
2090 $right = $self->deparse($right, 1);
2091 $left = $self->deparse($left, 1);
2092 return "$right $blockname $left";
2093 } elsif ($cx > $lowprec and $highop) { # $a && $b
2094 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $highprec);
2095 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $highprec);
2096 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $highop $right", $cx, $highprec);
2097 } else { # $a and $b
2098 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $lowprec);
2099 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $lowprec);
d989cdac 2100 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $lowop $right", $cx, $lowprec);
9d2c6865
SM
2101 }
2102}
2103
2104sub pp_and { logop(@_, "and", 3, "&&", 11, "if") }
f4a44678 2105sub pp_or { logop(@_, "or", 2, "||", 10, "unless") }
c963b151 2106sub pp_dor { logop(@_, "err", 2, "//", 10, "") }
3ed82cfc
GS
2107
2108# xor is syntactically a logop, but it's really a binop (contrary to
2109# old versions of opcode.pl). Syntax is what matters here.
9d2c6865 2110sub pp_xor { logop(@_, "xor", 2, "", 0, "") }
6e90668e
SM
2111
2112sub logassignop {
2113 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2114 my ($op, $cx, $opname) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2115 my $left = $op->first;
2116 my $right = $op->first->sibling->first; # skip sassign
9d2c6865
SM
2117 $left = $self->deparse($left, 7);
2118 $right = $self->deparse($right, 7);
2119 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $opname $right", $cx, 7);
a798dbf2
MB
2120}
2121
6e90668e 2122sub pp_andassign { logassignop(@_, "&&=") }
c963b151
BD
2123sub pp_orassign { logassignop(@_, "||=") }
2124sub pp_dorassign { logassignop(@_, "//=") }
6e90668e
SM
2125
2126sub listop {
2127 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
2128 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
2129 my(@exprs);
2130 my $parens = ($cx >= 5) || $self->{'parens'};
2131 my $kid = $op->first->sibling;
2132 return $name if null $kid;
e31885a0 2133 my $first;
fb725297 2134 $name = "socketpair" if $name eq "sockpair";
b72c97e8
RGS
2135 my $proto = prototype("CORE::$name");
2136 if (defined $proto
2137 && $proto =~ /^;?\*/
e31885a0
RH
2138 && $kid->name eq "rv2gv") {
2139 $first = $self->deparse($kid->first, 6);
2140 }
2141 else {
2142 $first = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
2143 }
e99ebc55 2144 if ($name eq "chmod" && $first =~ /^\d+$/) {
a0035eb8 2145 $first = sprintf("%#o", $first);
e99ebc55 2146 }
9d2c6865
SM
2147 $first = "+$first" if not $parens and substr($first, 0, 1) eq "(";
2148 push @exprs, $first;
2149 $kid = $kid->sibling;
e1f56625 2150 if (defined $proto && $proto =~ /^\*\*/ && $kid->name eq "rv2gv") {
b72c97e8
RGS
2151 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid->first, 6);
2152 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2153 }
9d2c6865
SM
2154 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
2155 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
2156 }
2157 if ($parens) {
2158 return "$name(" . join(", ", @exprs) . ")";
2159 } else {
2160 return "$name " . join(", ", @exprs);
6e90668e 2161 }
6e90668e 2162}
a798dbf2 2163
6e90668e 2164sub pp_bless { listop(@_, "bless") }
3ed82cfc 2165sub pp_atan2 { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "atan2") }
6e90668e
SM
2166sub pp_substr { maybe_local(@_, listop(@_, "substr")) }
2167sub pp_vec { maybe_local(@_, listop(@_, "vec")) }
3ed82cfc
GS
2168sub pp_index { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "index") }
2169sub pp_rindex { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "rindex") }
2170sub pp_sprintf { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "sprintf") }
6e90668e 2171sub pp_formline { listop(@_, "formline") } # see also deparse_format
3ed82cfc 2172sub pp_crypt { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "crypt") }
6e90668e
SM
2173sub pp_unpack { listop(@_, "unpack") }
2174sub pp_pack { listop(@_, "pack") }
3ed82cfc 2175sub pp_join { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "join") }
6e90668e 2176sub pp_splice { listop(@_, "splice") }
3ed82cfc
GS
2177sub pp_push { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "push") }
2178sub pp_unshift { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "unshift") }
6e90668e
SM
2179sub pp_reverse { listop(@_, "reverse") }
2180sub pp_warn { listop(@_, "warn") }
2181sub pp_die { listop(@_, "die") }
9d2c6865
SM
2182# Actually, return is exempt from the LLAFR (see examples in this very
2183# module!), but for consistency's sake, ignore that fact
6e90668e
SM
2184sub pp_return { listop(@_, "return") }
2185sub pp_open { listop(@_, "open") }
2186sub pp_pipe_op { listop(@_, "pipe") }
2187sub pp_tie { listop(@_, "tie") }
82bafd27 2188sub pp_binmode { listop(@_, "binmode") }
6e90668e
SM
2189sub pp_dbmopen { listop(@_, "dbmopen") }
2190sub pp_sselect { listop(@_, "select") }
2191sub pp_select { listop(@_, "select") }
2192sub pp_read { listop(@_, "read") }
2193sub pp_sysopen { listop(@_, "sysopen") }
2194sub pp_sysseek { listop(@_, "sysseek") }
2195sub pp_sysread { listop(@_, "sysread") }
2196sub pp_syswrite { listop(@_, "syswrite") }
2197sub pp_send { listop(@_, "send") }
2198sub pp_recv { listop(@_, "recv") }
2199sub pp_seek { listop(@_, "seek") }
6e90668e
SM
2200sub pp_fcntl { listop(@_, "fcntl") }
2201sub pp_ioctl { listop(@_, "ioctl") }
3ed82cfc 2202sub pp_flock { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "flock") }
6e90668e
SM
2203sub pp_socket { listop(@_, "socket") }
2204sub pp_sockpair { listop(@_, "sockpair") }
2205sub pp_bind { listop(@_, "bind") }
2206sub pp_connect { listop(@_, "connect") }
2207sub pp_listen { listop(@_, "listen") }
2208sub pp_accept { listop(@_, "accept") }
2209sub pp_shutdown { listop(@_, "shutdown") }
2210sub pp_gsockopt { listop(@_, "getsockopt") }
2211sub pp_ssockopt { listop(@_, "setsockopt") }
3ed82cfc
GS
2212sub pp_chown { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "chown") }
2213sub pp_unlink { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "unlink") }
2214sub pp_chmod { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "chmod") }
2215sub pp_utime { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "utime") }
2216sub pp_rename { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "rename") }
2217sub pp_link { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "link") }
2218sub pp_symlink { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "symlink") }
2219sub pp_mkdir { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "mkdir") }
6e90668e
SM
2220sub pp_open_dir { listop(@_, "opendir") }
2221sub pp_seekdir { listop(@_, "seekdir") }
3ed82cfc
GS
2222sub pp_waitpid { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "waitpid") }
2223sub pp_system { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "system") }
2224sub pp_exec { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "exec") }
2225sub pp_kill { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "kill") }
2226sub pp_setpgrp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "setpgrp") }
2227sub pp_getpriority { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "getpriority") }
2228sub pp_setpriority { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "setpriority") }
6e90668e
SM
2229sub pp_shmget { listop(@_, "shmget") }
2230sub pp_shmctl { listop(@_, "shmctl") }
2231sub pp_shmread { listop(@_, "shmread") }
2232sub pp_shmwrite { listop(@_, "shmwrite") }
2233sub pp_msgget { listop(@_, "msgget") }
2234sub pp_msgctl { listop(@_, "msgctl") }
2235sub pp_msgsnd { listop(@_, "msgsnd") }
2236sub pp_msgrcv { listop(@_, "msgrcv") }
2237sub pp_semget { listop(@_, "semget") }
2238sub pp_semctl { listop(@_, "semctl") }
2239sub pp_semop { listop(@_, "semop") }
2240sub pp_ghbyaddr { listop(@_, "gethostbyaddr") }
2241sub pp_gnbyaddr { listop(@_, "getnetbyaddr") }
2242sub pp_gpbynumber { listop(@_, "getprotobynumber") }
2243sub pp_gsbyname { listop(@_, "getservbyname") }
2244sub pp_gsbyport { listop(@_, "getservbyport") }
2245sub pp_syscall { listop(@_, "syscall") }
2246
2247sub pp_glob {
2248 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2249 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2250 my $text = $self->dq($op->first->sibling); # skip pushmark
2251 if ($text =~ /^\$?(\w|::|\`)+$/ # could look like a readline
d989cdac 2252 or $text =~ /[<>]/) {
6e90668e
SM
2253 return 'glob(' . single_delim('qq', '"', $text) . ')';
2254 } else {
2255 return '<' . $text . '>';
2256 }
2257}
2258
f5aa8f4e
SM
2259# Truncate is special because OPf_SPECIAL makes a bareword first arg
2260# be a filehandle. This could probably be better fixed in the core
2261# by moving the GV lookup into ck_truc.
2262
2263sub pp_truncate {
2264 my $self = shift;
2265 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2266 my(@exprs);
2267 my $parens = ($cx >= 5) || $self->{'parens'};
2268 my $kid = $op->first->sibling;
acba1d67 2269 my $fh;
f5aa8f4e
SM
2270 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
2271 # $kid is an OP_CONST
18228111 2272 $fh = $self->const_sv($kid)->PV;
f5aa8f4e
SM
2273 } else {
2274 $fh = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
2275 $fh = "+$fh" if not $parens and substr($fh, 0, 1) eq "(";
2276 }
2277 my $len = $self->deparse($kid->sibling, 6);
2278 if ($parens) {
2279 return "truncate($fh, $len)";
2280 } else {
2281 return "truncate $fh, $len";
2282 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
2283}
2284
6e90668e
SM
2285sub indirop {
2286 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2287 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2288 my($expr, @exprs);
2289 my $kid = $op->first->sibling;
2290 my $indir = "";
2291 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
2292 $indir = $kid;
2293 $indir = $indir->first; # skip rv2gv
2294 if (is_scope($indir)) {
9d2c6865 2295 $indir = "{" . $self->deparse($indir, 0) . "}";
d989cdac 2296 $indir = "{;}" if $indir eq "{}";
c73811ab
RH
2297 } elsif ($indir->name eq "const" && $indir->private & OPpCONST_BARE) {
2298 $indir = $self->const_sv($indir)->PV;
6e90668e 2299 } else {
9d2c6865 2300 $indir = $self->deparse($indir, 24);
6e90668e
SM
2301 }
2302 $indir = $indir . " ";
2303 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2304 }
7e80da18 2305 if ($name eq "sort" && $op->private & (OPpSORT_NUMERIC | OPpSORT_INTEGER)) {
3ac6e0f9 2306 $indir = ($op->private & OPpSORT_DESCEND) ? '{$b <=> $a} '
7e80da18
RH
2307 : '{$a <=> $b} ';
2308 }
3ac6e0f9 2309 elsif ($name eq "sort" && $op->private & OPpSORT_DESCEND) {
7e80da18
RH
2310 $indir = '{$b cmp $a} ';
2311 }
6e90668e 2312 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2313 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2314 push @exprs, $expr;
2315 }
3ac6e0f9
RGS
2316 my $name2 = $name;
2317 if ($name eq "sort" && $op->private & OPpSORT_REVERSE) {
2318 $name2 = 'reverse sort';
2319 }
2b6e98cb 2320 if ($name eq "sort" && ($op->private & OPpSORT_INPLACE)) {
3ac6e0f9 2321 return "$exprs[0] = $name2 $indir $exprs[0]";
2b6e98cb
DM
2322 }
2323
d989cdac
SM
2324 my $args = $indir . join(", ", @exprs);
2325 if ($indir ne "" and $name eq "sort") {
2326 # We don't want to say "sort(f 1, 2, 3)", since perl -w will
2327 # give bareword warnings in that case. Therefore if context
2328 # requires, we'll put parens around the outside "(sort f 1, 2,
2329 # 3)". Unfortunately, we'll currently think the parens are
2330 # neccessary more often that they really are, because we don't
2331 # distinguish which side of an assignment we're on.
2332 if ($cx >= 5) {
3ac6e0f9 2333 return "($name2 $args)";
d989cdac 2334 } else {
3ac6e0f9 2335 return "$name2 $args";
d989cdac
SM
2336 }
2337 } else {
3ac6e0f9 2338 return $self->maybe_parens_func($name2, $args, $cx, 5);
d989cdac
SM
2339 }
2340
6e90668e
SM
2341}
2342
2343sub pp_prtf { indirop(@_, "printf") }
2344sub pp_print { indirop(@_, "print") }
2345sub pp_sort { indirop(@_, "sort") }
2346
2347sub mapop {
2348 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2349 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2350 my($expr, @exprs);
2351 my $kid = $op->first; # this is the (map|grep)start
2352 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip a pushmark
2353 my $code = $kid->first; # skip a null
2354 if (is_scope $code) {
f4a44678 2355 $code = "{" . $self->deparse($code, 0) . "} ";
6e90668e 2356 } else {
9d2c6865 2357 $code = $self->deparse($code, 24) . ", ";
6e90668e
SM
2358 }
2359 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2360 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2361 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
9a58b761 2362 push @exprs, $expr if defined $expr;
6e90668e 2363 }
9d2c6865 2364 return $self->maybe_parens_func($name, $code . join(", ", @exprs), $cx, 5);
6e90668e
SM
2365}
2366
d989cdac
SM
2367sub pp_mapwhile { mapop(@_, "map") }
2368sub pp_grepwhile { mapop(@_, "grep") }
6e90668e
SM
2369
2370sub pp_list {
2371 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2372 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2373 my($expr, @exprs);
2374 my $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
2375 my $lop;
ce4e655d 2376 my $local = "either"; # could be local(...), my(...) or our(...)
6e90668e
SM
2377 for ($lop = $kid; !null($lop); $lop = $lop->sibling) {
2378 # This assumes that no other private flags equal 128, and that
2379 # OPs that store things other than flags in their op_private,
2380 # like OP_AELEMFAST, won't be immediate children of a list.
b8e103fc
RH
2381 #
2382 # OP_ENTERSUB can break this logic, so check for it.
2383 # I suspect that open and exit can too.
2384
2385 if (!($lop->private & (OPpLVAL_INTRO|OPpOUR_INTRO)
ce4e655d 2386 or $lop->name eq "undef")
b8e103fc
RH
2387 or $lop->name eq "entersub"
2388 or $lop->name eq "exit"
2389 or $lop->name eq "open")
6e90668e
SM
2390 {
2391 $local = ""; # or not
2392 last;
2393 }
3f872cb9 2394 if ($lop->name =~ /^pad[ash]v$/) { # my()
ce4e655d 2395 ($local = "", last) if $local eq "local" || $local eq "our";
6e90668e 2396 $local = "my";
b8e103fc
RH
2397 } elsif ($lop->name =~ /^(gv|rv2)[ash]v$/
2398 && $lop->private & OPpOUR_INTRO
2399 or $lop->name eq "null" && $lop->first->name eq "gvsv"
2400 && $lop->first->private & OPpOUR_INTRO) { # our()
ce4e655d
RH
2401 ($local = "", last) if $local eq "my" || $local eq "local";
2402 $local = "our";
3ac6e0f9
RGS
2403 } elsif ($lop->name ne "undef"
2404 # specifically avoid the "reverse sort" optimisation,
2405 # where "reverse" is nullified
36d57d93 2406 && !($lop->name eq 'sort' && ($lop->flags & OPpSORT_REVERSE)))
3ac6e0f9
RGS
2407 {
2408 # local()
ce4e655d 2409 ($local = "", last) if $local eq "my" || $local eq "our";
6e90668e
SM
2410 $local = "local";
2411 }
2412 }
2413 $local = "" if $local eq "either"; # no point if it's all undefs
f5aa8f4e 2414 return $self->deparse($kid, $cx) if null $kid->sibling and not $local;
6e90668e
SM
2415 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
2416 if ($local) {
3f872cb9 2417 if (class($kid) eq "UNOP" and $kid->first->name eq "gvsv") {
6e90668e
SM
2418 $lop = $kid->first;
2419 } else {
2420 $lop = $kid;
2421 }
2422 $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$lop}++;
9d2c6865 2423 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2424 delete $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$lop};
2425 } else {
9d2c6865 2426 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2427 }
2428 push @exprs, $expr;
2429 }
9d2c6865
SM
2430 if ($local) {
2431 return "$local(" . join(", ", @exprs) . ")";
2432 } else {
2433 return $self->maybe_parens( join(", ", @exprs), $cx, 6);
2434 }
6e90668e
SM
2435}
2436
6f611a1a
GS
2437sub is_ifelse_cont {
2438 my $op = shift;
2439 return ($op->name eq "null" and class($op) eq "UNOP"
2440 and $op->first->name =~ /^(and|cond_expr)$/
2441 and is_scope($op->first->first->sibling));
2442}
2443
6e90668e
SM
2444sub pp_cond_expr {
2445 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2446 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2447 my $cond = $op->first;
2448 my $true = $cond->sibling;
2449 my $false = $true->sibling;
9d2c6865 2450 my $cuddle = $self->{'cuddle'};
d989cdac 2451 unless ($cx < 1 and (is_scope($true) and $true->name ne "null") and
58cccf98
SM
2452 (is_scope($false) || is_ifelse_cont($false))
2453 and $self->{'expand'} < 7) {
f5aa8f4e 2454 $cond = $self->deparse($cond, 8);
9d2c6865
SM
2455 $true = $self->deparse($true, 8);
2456 $false = $self->deparse($false, 8);
2457 return $self->maybe_parens("$cond ? $true : $false", $cx, 8);
6f611a1a
GS
2458 }
2459
f5aa8f4e 2460 $cond = $self->deparse($cond, 1);
d989cdac 2461 $true = $self->deparse($true, 0);
6f611a1a
GS
2462 my $head = "if ($cond) {\n\t$true\n\b}";
2463 my @elsifs;
2464 while (!null($false) and is_ifelse_cont($false)) {
2465 my $newop = $false->first;
2466 my $newcond = $newop->first;
2467 my $newtrue = $newcond->sibling;
2468 $false = $newtrue->sibling; # last in chain is OP_AND => no else
2469 $newcond = $self->deparse($newcond, 1);
2470 $newtrue = $self->deparse($newtrue, 0);
2471 push @elsifs, "elsif ($newcond) {\n\t$newtrue\n\b}";
2472 }
d989cdac 2473 if (!null($false)) {
6f611a1a
GS
2474 $false = $cuddle . "else {\n\t" .
2475 $self->deparse($false, 0) . "\n\b}\cK";
2476 } else {
2477 $false = "\cK";
6e90668e 2478 }
d989cdac 2479 return $head . join($cuddle, "", @elsifs) . $false;
6e90668e
SM
2480}
2481
58cccf98 2482sub loop_common {
6e90668e 2483 my $self = shift;
58cccf98 2484 my($op, $cx, $init) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2485 my $enter = $op->first;
2486 my $kid = $enter->sibling;
a0405c92
RH
2487 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
2488 = @$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'};
6e90668e 2489 my $head = "";
9d2c6865 2490 my $bare = 0;
58cccf98
SM
2491 my $body;
2492 my $cond = undef;
d989cdac 2493 if ($kid->name eq "lineseq") { # bare or infinite loop
241416b8 2494 if ($kid->last->name eq "unstack") { # infinite
e99ebc55 2495 $head = "while (1) "; # Can't use for(;;) if there's a continue
58cccf98 2496 $cond = "";
9d2c6865
SM
2497 } else {
2498 $bare = 1;
6e90668e 2499 }
58cccf98 2500 $body = $kid;
3f872cb9 2501 } elsif ($enter->name eq "enteriter") { # foreach
6e90668e
SM
2502 my $ary = $enter->first->sibling; # first was pushmark
2503 my $var = $ary->sibling;
36d57d93
RGS
2504 if ($ary->name eq 'null' and $enter->private & OPpITER_REVERSED) {
2505 # "reverse" was optimised away
aae53c41 2506 $ary = listop($self, $ary->first->sibling, 1, 'reverse');
36d57d93 2507 } elsif ($enter->flags & OPf_STACKED
f5aa8f4e
SM
2508 and not null $ary->first->sibling->sibling)
2509 {
d7f5b6da
SM
2510 $ary = $self->deparse($ary->first->sibling, 9) . " .. " .
2511 $self->deparse($ary->first->sibling->sibling, 9);
d8d95777
GA
2512 } else {
2513 $ary = $self->deparse($ary, 1);
2514 }
6e90668e 2515 if (null $var) {
f6f9bdb7 2516 if ($enter->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) { # thread special var
9d2c6865 2517 $var = $self->pp_threadsv($enter, 1);
f6f9bdb7 2518 } else { # regular my() variable
9d2c6865 2519 $var = $self->pp_padsv($enter, 1);
6e90668e 2520 }
3f872cb9 2521 } elsif ($var->name eq "rv2gv") {
9d2c6865 2522 $var = $self->pp_rv2sv($var, 1);
241416b8
DM
2523 if ($enter->private & OPpOUR_INTRO) {
2524 # our declarations don't have package names
2525 $var =~ s/^(.).*::/$1/;
2526 $var = "our $var";
2527 }
3f872cb9 2528 } elsif ($var->name eq "gv") {
9d2c6865 2529 $var = "\$" . $self->deparse($var, 1);
6e90668e 2530 }
58cccf98 2531 $body = $kid->first->first->sibling; # skip OP_AND and OP_ITER
cf24a840
SM
2532 if (!is_state $body->first and $body->first->name ne "stub") {
2533 confess unless $var eq '$_';
2534 $body = $body->first;
2535 return $self->deparse($body, 2) . " foreach ($ary)";
2536 }
2537 $head = "foreach $var ($ary) ";
3f872cb9 2538 } elsif ($kid->name eq "null") { # while/until
6e90668e 2539 $kid = $kid->first;
58cccf98
SM
2540 my $name = {"and" => "while", "or" => "until"}->{$kid->name};
2541 $cond = $self->deparse($kid->first, 1);
2542 $head = "$name ($cond) ";
2543 $body = $kid->first->sibling;
3f872cb9 2544 } elsif ($kid->name eq "stub") { # bare and empty
9d2c6865 2545 return "{;}"; # {} could be a hashref
6e90668e 2546 }
58cccf98 2547 # If there isn't a continue block, then the next pointer for the loop
241416b8 2548 # will point to the unstack, which is kid's last child, except
58cccf98 2549 # in a bare loop, when it will point to the leaveloop. When neither of
241416b8 2550 # these conditions hold, then the second-to-last child is the continue
58cccf98
SM
2551 # block (or the last in a bare loop).
2552 my $cont_start = $enter->nextop;
2553 my $cont;
241416b8 2554 if ($$cont_start != $$op && ${$cont_start} != ${$body->last}) {
58cccf98
SM
2555 if ($bare) {
2556 $cont = $body->last;
2557 } else {
2558 $cont = $body->first;
241416b8 2559 while (!null($cont->sibling->sibling)) {
58cccf98
SM
2560 $cont = $cont->sibling;
2561 }
2562 }
2563 my $state = $body->first;
2564 my $cuddle = $self->{'cuddle'};
2565 my @states;
2566 for (; $$state != $$cont; $state = $state->sibling) {
2567 push @states, $state;
2568 }
ce4e655d 2569 $body = $self->lineseq(undef, @states);
58cccf98
SM
2570 if (defined $cond and not is_scope $cont and $self->{'expand'} < 3) {
2571 $head = "for ($init; $cond; " . $self->deparse($cont, 1) .") ";
2572 $cont = "\cK";
2573 } else {
2574 $cont = $cuddle . "continue {\n\t" .
2575 $self->deparse($cont, 0) . "\n\b}\cK";
6e90668e 2576 }
6e90668e 2577 } else {
7a9b44b9 2578 return "" if !defined $body;
c73811ab
RH
2579 if (length $init) {
2580 $head = "for ($init; $cond;) ";
2581 }
9d2c6865 2582 $cont = "\cK";
58cccf98 2583 $body = $self->deparse($body, 0);
6e90668e 2584 }
ce4e655d 2585 $body =~ s/;?$/;\n/;
34a48b4b
RH
2586
2587 return $head . "{\n\t" . $body . "\b}" . $cont;
58cccf98
SM
2588}
2589
2590sub pp_leaveloop { loop_common(@_, "") }
2591
2592sub for_loop {
2593 my $self = shift;
2594 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2595 my $init = $self->deparse($op, 1);
c73811ab 2596 return $self->loop_common($op->sibling->first->sibling, $cx, $init);
6e90668e
SM
2597}
2598
2599sub pp_leavetry {
2600 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2601 return "eval {\n\t" . $self->pp_leave(@_) . "\n\b}";
bd0865ec 2602}
6e90668e 2603
bd0865ec
GS
2604BEGIN { eval "sub OP_CONST () {" . opnumber("const") . "}" }
2605BEGIN { eval "sub OP_STRINGIFY () {" . opnumber("stringify") . "}" }
a9760014 2606BEGIN { eval "sub OP_RV2SV () {" . opnumber("rv2sv") . "}" }
90c0eb26 2607BEGIN { eval "sub OP_LIST () {" . opnumber("list") . "}" }
f5aa8f4e 2608
a798dbf2 2609sub pp_null {
6e90668e 2610 my $self = shift;
d989cdac 2611 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 2612 if (class($op) eq "OP") {
f4a44678
SM
2613 # old value is lost
2614 return $self->{'ex_const'} if $op->targ == OP_CONST;
3f872cb9 2615 } elsif ($op->first->name eq "pushmark") {
9d2c6865 2616 return $self->pp_list($op, $cx);
3f872cb9 2617 } elsif ($op->first->name eq "enter") {
9d2c6865 2618 return $self->pp_leave($op, $cx);
bd0865ec 2619 } elsif ($op->targ == OP_STRINGIFY) {
6f611a1a 2620 return $self->dquote($op, $cx);
6e90668e 2621 } elsif (!null($op->first->sibling) and
3f872cb9 2622 $op->first->sibling->name eq "readline" and
6e90668e 2623 $op->first->sibling->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
2624 return $self->maybe_parens($self->deparse($op->first, 7) . " = "
2625 . $self->deparse($op->first->sibling, 7),
2626 $cx, 7);
6e90668e 2627 } elsif (!null($op->first->sibling) and
3f872cb9 2628 $op->first->sibling->name eq "trans" and
6e90668e 2629 $op->first->sibling->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
2630 return $self->maybe_parens($self->deparse($op->first, 20) . " =~ "
2631 . $self->deparse($op->first->sibling, 20),
2632 $cx, 20);
d989cdac
SM
2633 } elsif ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL && $cx < 1 && !$op->targ) {
2634 return "do {\n\t". $self->deparse($op->first, $cx) ."\n\b};";
ad8caead
RGS
2635 } elsif (!null($op->first->sibling) and
2636 $op->first->sibling->name eq "null" and
2637 class($op->first->sibling) eq "UNOP" and
2638 $op->first->sibling->first->flags & OPf_STACKED and
2639 $op->first->sibling->first->name eq "rcatline") {
2640 return $self->maybe_parens($self->deparse($op->first, 18) . " .= "
2641 . $self->deparse($op->first->sibling, 18),
2642 $cx, 18);
6e90668e 2643 } else {
9d2c6865 2644 return $self->deparse($op->first, $cx);
6e90668e 2645 }
a798dbf2
MB
2646}
2647
6e90668e
SM
2648sub padname {
2649 my $self = shift;
2650 my $targ = shift;
68223ea3 2651 return $self->padname_sv($targ)->PVX;
6e90668e
SM
2652}
2653
2654sub padany {
2655 my $self = shift;
2656 my $op = shift;
2657 return substr($self->padname($op->targ), 1); # skip $/@/%
2658}
2659
2660sub pp_padsv {
2661 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
2662 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2663 return $self->maybe_my($op, $cx, $self->padname($op->targ));
6e90668e
SM
2664}
2665
2666sub pp_padav { pp_padsv(@_) }
2667sub pp_padhv { pp_padsv(@_) }
2668
9d2c6865
SM
2669my @threadsv_names;
2670
2671BEGIN {
2672 @threadsv_names = ("_", "1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8", "9",
2673 "&", "`", "'", "+", "/", ".", ",", "\\", '"', ";",
2674 "^", "-", "%", "=", "|", "~", ":", "^A", "^E",
2675 "!", "@");
2676}
f6f9bdb7
SM
2677
2678sub pp_threadsv {
2679 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
2680 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2681 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, "\$" . $threadsv_names[$op->targ]);
d989cdac 2682}
f6f9bdb7 2683
6f611a1a 2684sub gv_or_padgv {
18228111
GS
2685 my $self = shift;
2686 my $op = shift;
6f611a1a
GS
2687 if (class($op) eq "PADOP") {
2688 return $self->padval($op->padix);
2689 } else { # class($op) eq "SVOP"
2690 return $op->gv;
18228111 2691 }
18228111
GS
2692}
2693
6e90668e
SM
2694sub pp_gvsv {
2695 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2696 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6f611a1a 2697 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($op);
8510e997
RH
2698 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, $self->stash_variable("\$",
2699 $self->gv_name($gv)));
6e90668e
SM
2700}
2701
2702sub pp_gv {
2703 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2704 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6f611a1a 2705 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($op);
18228111 2706 return $self->gv_name($gv);
6e90668e
SM
2707}
2708
2709sub pp_aelemfast {
2710 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2711 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6a077020
DM
2712 my $name;
2713 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) { # optimised PADAV
2714 $name = $self->padname($op->targ);
2715 $name =~ s/^@/\$/;
2716 }
2717 else {
2718 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($op);
2719 $name = $self->gv_name($gv);
2720 $name = $self->{'curstash'}."::$name"
2721 if $name !~ /::/ && $self->lex_in_scope('@'.$name);
2722 $name = '$' . $name;
2723 }
ce4e655d 2724
6a077020 2725 return $name . "[" . ($op->private + $self->{'arybase'}) . "]";
6e90668e
SM
2726}
2727
2728sub rv2x {
2729 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2730 my($op, $cx, $type) = @_;
90c0eb26
RH
2731
2732 if (class($op) eq 'NULL' || !$op->can("first")) {
ff97752d 2733 carp("Unexpected op in pp_rv2x");
90c0eb26
RH
2734 return 'XXX';
2735 }
6e90668e 2736 my $kid = $op->first;
d989cdac
SM
2737 if ($kid->name eq "gv") {
2738 return $self->stash_variable($type, $self->deparse($kid, 0));
2739 } elsif (is_scalar $kid) {
2740 my $str = $self->deparse($kid, 0);
2741 if ($str =~ /^\$([^\w\d])\z/) {
2742 # "$$+" isn't a legal way to write the scalar dereference
2743 # of $+, since the lexer can't tell you aren't trying to
2744 # do something like "$$ + 1" to get one more than your
2745 # PID. Either "${$+}" or "$${+}" are workable
2746 # disambiguations, but if the programmer did the former,
2747 # they'd be in the "else" clause below rather than here.
2748 # It's not clear if this should somehow be unified with
2749 # the code in dq and re_dq that also adds lexer
2750 # disambiguation braces.
2751 $str = '$' . "{$1}"; #'
2752 }
2753 return $type . $str;
2754 } else {
2755 return $type . "{" . $self->deparse($kid, 0) . "}";
2756 }
6e90668e
SM
2757}
2758
2759sub pp_rv2sv { maybe_local(@_, rv2x(@_, "\$")) }
2760sub pp_rv2hv { maybe_local(@_, rv2x(@_, "%")) }
2761sub pp_rv2gv { maybe_local(@_, rv2x(@_, "*")) }
2762
2763# skip rv2av
2764sub pp_av2arylen {
2765 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2766 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3f872cb9 2767 if ($op->first->name eq "padav") {
9d2c6865 2768 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, '$#' . $self->padany($op->first));
6e90668e 2769 } else {
f5aa8f4e
SM
2770 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx,
2771 $self->rv2x($op->first, $cx, '$#'));
6e90668e
SM
2772 }
2773}
2774
2775# skip down to the old, ex-rv2cv
90c0eb26
RH
2776sub pp_rv2cv {
2777 my ($self, $op, $cx) = @_;
2778 if (!null($op->first) && $op->first->name eq 'null' &&
2779 $op->first->targ eq OP_LIST)
2780 {
2781 return $self->rv2x($op->first->first->sibling, $cx, "&")
2782 }
2783 else {
2784 return $self->rv2x($op, $cx, "")
2785 }
2786}
6e90668e 2787
d989cdac
SM
2788sub list_const {
2789 my $self = shift;
2790 my($cx, @list) = @_;
2791 my @a = map $self->const($_, 6), @list;
2792 if (@a == 0) {
2793 return "()";
2794 } elsif (@a == 1) {
2795 return $a[0];
2796 } elsif ( @a > 2 and !grep(!/^-?\d+$/, @a)) {
2797 # collapse (-1,0,1,2) into (-1..2)
2798 my ($s, $e) = @a[0,-1];
2799 my $i = $s;
2800 return $self->maybe_parens("$s..$e", $cx, 9)
2801 unless grep $i++ != $_, @a;
2802 }
2803 return $self->maybe_parens(join(", ", @a), $cx, 6);
2804}
2805
6e90668e
SM
2806sub pp_rv2av {
2807 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2808 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 2809 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9 2810 if ($kid->name eq "const") { # constant list
18228111 2811 my $av = $self->const_sv($kid);
d989cdac 2812 return $self->list_const($cx, $av->ARRAY);
6e90668e 2813 } else {
9d2c6865 2814 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, $self->rv2x($op, $cx, "\@"));
6e90668e
SM
2815 }
2816 }
2817
3ed82cfc
GS
2818sub is_subscriptable {
2819 my $op = shift;
2820 if ($op->name =~ /^[ahg]elem/) {
2821 return 1;
2822 } elsif ($op->name eq "entersub") {
2823 my $kid = $op->first;
2824 return 0 unless null $kid->sibling;
2825 $kid = $kid->first;
2826 $kid = $kid->sibling until null $kid->sibling;
2827 return 0 if is_scope($kid);
2828 $kid = $kid->first;
2829 return 0 if $kid->name eq "gv";
2830 return 0 if is_scalar($kid);
2831 return is_subscriptable($kid);
2832 } else {
2833 return 0;
2834 }
2835}
6e90668e
SM
2836
2837sub elem {
2838 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2839 my ($op, $cx, $left, $right, $padname) = @_;
6e90668e 2840 my($array, $idx) = ($op->first, $op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 2841 unless ($array->name eq $padname) { # Maybe this has been fixed
6e90668e
SM
2842 $array = $array->first; # skip rv2av (or ex-rv2av in _53+)
2843 }
3f872cb9 2844 if ($array->name eq $padname) {
6e90668e
SM
2845 $array = $self->padany($array);
2846 } elsif (is_scope($array)) { # ${expr}[0]
9d2c6865 2847 $array = "{" . $self->deparse($array, 0) . "}";
ce4e655d
RH
2848 } elsif ($array->name eq "gv") {
2849 $array = $self->gv_name($self->gv_or_padgv($array));
2850 if ($array !~ /::/) {
2851 my $prefix = ($left eq '[' ? '@' : '%');
2852 $array = $self->{curstash}.'::'.$array
2853 if $self->lex_in_scope($prefix . $array);
2854 }
6e90668e 2855 } elsif (is_scalar $array) { # $x[0], $$x[0], ...
9d2c6865 2856 $array = $self->deparse($array, 24);
6e90668e
SM
2857 } else {
2858 # $x[20][3]{hi} or expr->[20]
3ed82cfc 2859 my $arrow = is_subscriptable($array) ? "" : "->";
9d2c6865
SM
2860 return $self->deparse($array, 24) . $arrow .
2861 $left . $self->deparse($idx, 1) . $right;
6e90668e 2862 }
9d2c6865 2863 $idx = $self->deparse($idx, 1);
7a9b44b9
RH
2864
2865 # Outer parens in an array index will confuse perl
2866 # if we're interpolating in a regular expression, i.e.
2867 # /$x$foo[(-1)]/ is *not* the same as /$x$foo[-1]/
2868 #
2869 # If $self->{parens}, then an initial '(' will
2870 # definitely be paired with a final ')'. If
2871 # !$self->{parens}, the misleading parens won't
2872 # have been added in the first place.
2873 #
2874 # [You might think that we could get "(...)...(...)"
2875 # where the initial and final parens do not match
2876 # each other. But we can't, because the above would
2877 # only happen if there's an infix binop between the
2878 # two pairs of parens, and *that* means that the whole
2879 # expression would be parenthesized as well.]
2880 #
2881 $idx =~ s/^\((.*)\)$/$1/ if $self->{'parens'};
2882
098251bc
RH
2883 # Hash-element braces will autoquote a bareword inside themselves.
2884 # We need to make sure that C<$hash{warn()}> doesn't come out as
2885 # C<$hash{warn}>, which has a quite different meaning. Currently
2886 # B::Deparse will always quote strings, even if the string was a
2887 # bareword in the original (i.e. the OPpCONST_BARE flag is ignored
2888 # for constant strings.) So we can cheat slightly here - if we see
2889 # a bareword, we know that it is supposed to be a function call.
2890 #
2891 $idx =~ s/^([A-Za-z_]\w*)$/$1()/;
2892
6e90668e
SM
2893 return "\$" . $array . $left . $idx . $right;
2894}
2895
3f872cb9
GS
2896sub pp_aelem { maybe_local(@_, elem(@_, "[", "]", "padav")) }
2897sub pp_helem { maybe_local(@_, elem(@_, "{", "}", "padhv")) }
6e90668e
SM
2898
2899sub pp_gelem {
2900 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2901 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2902 my($glob, $part) = ($op->first, $op->last);
2903 $glob = $glob->first; # skip rv2gv
3f872cb9 2904 $glob = $glob->first if $glob->name eq "rv2gv"; # this one's a bug
9d2c6865
SM
2905 my $scope = is_scope($glob);
2906 $glob = $self->deparse($glob, 0);
2907 $part = $self->deparse($part, 1);
6e90668e
SM
2908 return "*" . ($scope ? "{$glob}" : $glob) . "{$part}";
2909}
2910
2911sub slice {
2912 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2913 my ($op, $cx, $left, $right, $regname, $padname) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2914 my $last;
2915 my(@elems, $kid, $array, $list);
2916 if (class($op) eq "LISTOP") {
2917 $last = $op->last;
2918 } else { # ex-hslice inside delete()
2919 for ($kid = $op->first; !null $kid->sibling; $kid = $kid->sibling) {}
2920 $last = $kid;
2921 }
2922 $array = $last;
2923 $array = $array->first
3f872cb9 2924 if $array->name eq $regname or $array->name eq "null";
6e90668e 2925 if (is_scope($array)) {
9d2c6865 2926 $array = "{" . $self->deparse($array, 0) . "}";
3f872cb9 2927 } elsif ($array->name eq $padname) {
6e90668e
SM
2928 $array = $self->padany($array);
2929 } else {
9d2c6865 2930 $array = $self->deparse($array, 24);
6e90668e
SM
2931 }
2932 $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
3f872cb9 2933 if ($kid->name eq "list") {
6e90668e
SM
2934 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip list, pushmark
2935 for (; !null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2936 push @elems, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2937 }
2938 $list = join(", ", @elems);
2939 } else {
9d2c6865 2940 $list = $self->deparse($kid, 1);
6e90668e
SM
2941 }
2942 return "\@" . $array . $left . $list . $right;
2943}
2944
3ed82cfc
GS
2945sub pp_aslice { maybe_local(@_, slice(@_, "[", "]", "rv2av", "padav")) }
2946sub pp_hslice { maybe_local(@_, slice(@_, "{", "}", "rv2hv", "padhv")) }
6e90668e
SM
2947
2948sub pp_lslice {
2949 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2950 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2951 my $idx = $op->first;
2952 my $list = $op->last;
2953 my(@elems, $kid);
9d2c6865
SM
2954 $list = $self->deparse($list, 1);
2955 $idx = $self->deparse($idx, 1);
2956 return "($list)" . "[$idx]";
6e90668e
SM
2957}
2958
6e90668e
SM
2959sub want_scalar {
2960 my $op = shift;
2961 return ($op->flags & OPf_WANT) == OPf_WANT_SCALAR;
2962}
2963
bd0865ec
GS
2964sub want_list {
2965 my $op = shift;
2966 return ($op->flags & OPf_WANT) == OPf_WANT_LIST;
2967}
2968
2969sub method {
6e90668e 2970 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2971 my($op, $cx) = @_;
bd0865ec
GS
2972 my $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
2973 my($meth, $obj, @exprs);
3f872cb9 2974 if ($kid->name eq "list" and want_list $kid) {
bd0865ec
GS
2975 # When an indirect object isn't a bareword but the args are in
2976 # parens, the parens aren't part of the method syntax (the LLAFR
2977 # doesn't apply), but they make a list with OPf_PARENS set that
2978 # doesn't get flattened by the append_elem that adds the method,
2979 # making a (object, arg1, arg2, ...) list where the object
d989cdac 2980 # usually is. This can be distinguished from
bd0865ec
GS
2981 # `($obj, $arg1, $arg2)->meth()' (which is legal if $arg2 is an
2982 # object) because in the later the list is in scalar context
2983 # as the left side of -> always is, while in the former
2984 # the list is in list context as method arguments always are.
2985 # (Good thing there aren't method prototypes!)
3ed82cfc 2986 $meth = $kid->sibling;
bd0865ec
GS
2987 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
2988 $obj = $kid;
6e90668e 2989 $kid = $kid->sibling;
bd0865ec 2990 for (; not null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2991 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e 2992 }
bd0865ec
GS
2993 } else {
2994 $obj = $kid;
2995 $kid = $kid->sibling;
90c0eb26
RH
2996 for (; !null ($kid->sibling) && $kid->name ne "method_named";
2997 $kid = $kid->sibling) {
bd0865ec 2998 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e 2999 }
3ed82cfc 3000 $meth = $kid;
bd0865ec
GS
3001 }
3002 $obj = $self->deparse($obj, 24);
3ed82cfc 3003 if ($meth->name eq "method_named") {
18228111 3004 $meth = $self->const_sv($meth)->PV;
bd0865ec 3005 } else {
3ed82cfc
GS
3006 $meth = $meth->first;
3007 if ($meth->name eq "const") {
3008 # As of 5.005_58, this case is probably obsoleted by the
3009 # method_named case above
18228111 3010 $meth = $self->const_sv($meth)->PV; # needs to be bare
3ed82cfc
GS
3011 } else {
3012 $meth = $self->deparse($meth, 1);
3013 }
bd0865ec
GS
3014 }
3015 my $args = join(", ", @exprs);
3016 $kid = $obj . "->" . $meth;
145eb477 3017 if (length $args) {
bd0865ec
GS
3018 return $kid . "(" . $args . ")"; # parens mandatory
3019 } else {
3020 return $kid;
3021 }
3022}
3023
3024# returns "&" if the prototype doesn't match the args,
3025# or ("", $args_after_prototype_demunging) if it does.
3026sub check_proto {
3027 my $self = shift;
acaaef34 3028 return "&" if $self->{'noproto'};
bd0865ec
GS
3029 my($proto, @args) = @_;
3030 my($arg, $real);
3031 my $doneok = 0;
3032 my @reals;
3033 # An unbackslashed @ or % gobbles up the rest of the args
2ae48fff 3034 1 while $proto =~ s/(?<!\\)([@%])[^\]]+$/$1/;
bd0865ec 3035 while ($proto) {
2ae48fff 3036 $proto =~ s/^(\\?[\$\@&%*]|\\\[[\$\@&%*]+\]|;)//;
bd0865ec
GS
3037 my $chr = $1;
3038 if ($chr eq "") {
3039 return "&" if @args;
3040 } elsif ($chr eq ";") {
3041 $doneok = 1;
3042 } elsif ($chr eq "@" or $chr eq "%") {
3043 push @reals, map($self->deparse($_, 6), @args);
3044 @args = ();
6e90668e 3045 } else {
bd0865ec
GS
3046 $arg = shift @args;
3047 last unless $arg;
3048 if ($chr eq "\$") {
3049 if (want_scalar $arg) {
3050 push @reals, $self->deparse($arg, 6);
3051 } else {
3052 return "&";
3053 }
3054 } elsif ($chr eq "&") {
3f872cb9 3055 if ($arg->name =~ /^(s?refgen|undef)$/) {
bd0865ec
GS
3056 push @reals, $self->deparse($arg, 6);
3057 } else {
3058 return "&";
3059 }
3060 } elsif ($chr eq "*") {
3f872cb9
GS
3061 if ($arg->name =~ /^s?refgen$/
3062 and $arg->first->first->name eq "rv2gv")
bd0865ec
GS
3063 {
3064 $real = $arg->first->first; # skip refgen, null
3f872cb9 3065 if ($real->first->name eq "gv") {
bd0865ec
GS
3066 push @reals, $self->deparse($real, 6);
3067 } else {
3068 push @reals, $self->deparse($real->first, 6);
3069 }
3070 } else {
3071 return "&";
3072 }
3073 } elsif (substr($chr, 0, 1) eq "\\") {
2ae48fff 3074 $chr =~ tr/\\[]//d;
3f872cb9 3075 if ($arg->name =~ /^s?refgen$/ and
bd0865ec 3076 !null($real = $arg->first) and
2ae48fff
RGS
3077 ($chr =~ /\$/ && is_scalar($real->first)
3078 or ($chr =~ /@/
3079 && class($real->first->sibling) ne 'NULL'
3f872cb9
GS
3080 && $real->first->sibling->name
3081 =~ /^(rv2|pad)av$/)
2ae48fff
RGS
3082 or ($chr =~ /%/
3083 && class($real->first->sibling) ne 'NULL'
3f872cb9
GS
3084 && $real->first->sibling->name
3085 =~ /^(rv2|pad)hv$/)
2ae48fff 3086 #or ($chr =~ /&/ # This doesn't work
3f872cb9 3087 # && $real->first->name eq "rv2cv")
2ae48fff 3088 or ($chr =~ /\*/
3f872cb9 3089 && $real->first->name eq "rv2gv")))
bd0865ec
GS
3090 {
3091 push @reals, $self->deparse($real, 6);
3092 } else {
3093 return "&";
3094 }
3095 }
3096 }
9d2c6865 3097 }
bd0865ec
GS
3098 return "&" if $proto and !$doneok; # too few args and no `;'
3099 return "&" if @args; # too many args
3100 return ("", join ", ", @reals);
3101}
3102
3103sub pp_entersub {
3104 my $self = shift;
3105 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3106 return $self->method($op, $cx) unless null $op->first->sibling;
3107 my $prefix = "";
3108 my $amper = "";
3109 my($kid, @exprs);
90c0eb26 3110 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL && !($op->flags & OPf_MOD)) {
9d2c6865
SM
3111 $prefix = "do ";
3112 } elsif ($op->private & OPpENTERSUB_AMPER) {
3113 $amper = "&";
3114 }
3115 $kid = $op->first;
3116 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip ex-list, pushmark
3117 for (; not null $kid->sibling; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
3118 push @exprs, $kid;
3119 }
bd0865ec
GS
3120 my $simple = 0;
3121 my $proto = undef;
9d2c6865
SM
3122 if (is_scope($kid)) {
3123 $amper = "&";
3124 $kid = "{" . $self->deparse($kid, 0) . "}";
3f872cb9 3125 } elsif ($kid->first->name eq "gv") {
6f611a1a 3126 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($kid->first);
9d2c6865
SM
3127 if (class($gv->CV) ne "SPECIAL") {
3128 $proto = $gv->CV->PV if $gv->CV->FLAGS & SVf_POK;
3129 }
bd0865ec 3130 $simple = 1; # only calls of named functions can be prototyped
9d2c6865 3131 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 24);
90c0eb26 3132 } elsif (is_scalar ($kid->first) && $kid->first->name ne 'rv2cv') {
9d2c6865
SM
3133 $amper = "&";
3134 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 24);
3135 } else {
3136 $prefix = "";
3ed82cfc
GS
3137 my $arrow = is_subscriptable($kid->first) ? "" : "->";
3138 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 24) . $arrow;
9d2c6865 3139 }
0ca62a8e
RH
3140
3141 # Doesn't matter how many prototypes there are, if
3142 # they haven't happened yet!
1d38190f
RGS
3143 my $declared;
3144 {
3145 no strict 'refs';
3146 no warnings 'uninitialized';
3147 $declared = exists $self->{'subs_declared'}{$kid}
d989cdac 3148 || (
1d38190f
RGS
3149 defined &{ %{$self->{'curstash'}."::"}->{$kid} }
3150 && !exists
3151 $self->{'subs_deparsed'}{$self->{'curstash'}."::".$kid}
3152 && defined prototype $self->{'curstash'}."::".$kid
3153 );
3154 if (!$declared && defined($proto)) {
3155 # Avoid "too early to check prototype" warning
3156 ($amper, $proto) = ('&');
3157 }
e99ebc55 3158 }
0ca62a8e 3159
bd0865ec 3160 my $args;
0ca62a8e 3161 if ($declared and defined $proto and not $amper) {
bd0865ec
GS
3162 ($amper, $args) = $self->check_proto($proto, @exprs);
3163 if ($amper eq "&") {
9d2c6865
SM
3164 $args = join(", ", map($self->deparse($_, 6), @exprs));
3165 }
3166 } else {
3167 $args = join(", ", map($self->deparse($_, 6), @exprs));
6e90668e 3168 }
9d2c6865
SM
3169 if ($prefix or $amper) {
3170 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
3171 return $prefix . $amper . $kid . "(" . $args . ")";
3172 } else {
3173 return $prefix . $amper. $kid;
3174 }
6e90668e 3175 } else {
34a48b4b 3176 # glob() invocations can be translated into calls of
d1be9408 3177 # CORE::GLOBAL::glob with a second parameter, a number.
34a48b4b
RH
3178 # Reverse this.
3179 if ($kid eq "CORE::GLOBAL::glob") {
3180 $kid = "glob";
3181 $args =~ s/\s*,[^,]+$//;
3182 }
3183
3184 # It's a syntax error to call CORE::GLOBAL::foo without a prefix,
3185 # so it must have been translated from a keyword call. Translate
3186 # it back.
3187 $kid =~ s/^CORE::GLOBAL:://;
3188
d989cdac 3189 my $dproto = defined($proto) ? $proto : "undefined";
0ca62a8e
RH
3190 if (!$declared) {
3191 return "$kid(" . $args . ")";
d989cdac 3192 } elsif ($dproto eq "") {
9d2c6865 3193 return $kid;
d989cdac
SM
3194 } elsif ($dproto eq "\$" and is_scalar($exprs[0])) {
3195 # is_scalar is an excessively conservative test here:
3196 # really, we should be comparing to the precedence of the
3197 # top operator of $exprs[0] (ala unop()), but that would
3198 # take some major code restructuring to do right.
9d2c6865 3199 return $self->maybe_parens_func($kid, $args, $cx, 16);
d989cdac 3200 } elsif ($dproto ne '$' and defined($proto) || $simple) { #'
9d2c6865
SM
3201 return $self->maybe_parens_func($kid, $args, $cx, 5);
3202 } else {
3203 return "$kid(" . $args . ")";
3204 }
6e90668e
SM
3205 }
3206}
3207
3208sub pp_enterwrite { unop(@_, "write") }
3209
3210# escape things that cause interpolation in double quotes,
3211# but not character escapes
3212sub uninterp {
3213 my($str) = @_;
3f766ba3 3214 $str =~ s/(^|\G|[^\\])((?:\\\\)*)([\$\@]|\\[uUlLQE])/$1$2\\$3/g;
9d2c6865
SM
3215 return $str;
3216}
3217
b7dad2dc
RH
3218{
3219my $bal;
3220BEGIN {
cdf8218f
RH
3221 use re "eval";
3222 # Matches any string which is balanced with respect to {braces}
b7dad2dc 3223 $bal = qr(
cdf8218f
RH
3224 (?:
3225 [^\\{}]
3226 | \\\\
3227 | \\[{}]
3228 | \{(??{$bal})\}
3229 )*
3230 )x;
b7dad2dc
RH
3231}
3232
3233# the same, but treat $|, $), $( and $ at the end of the string differently
3234sub re_uninterp {
3235 my($str) = @_;
cdf8218f
RH
3236
3237 $str =~ s/
3238 ( ^|\G # $1
3239 | [^\\]
3240 )
3241
3242 ( # $2
3243 (?:\\\\)*
3244 )
3245
3246 ( # $3
3247 (\(\?\??\{$bal\}\)) # $4
3248 | [\$\@]
3249 (?!\||\)|\(|$)
3250 | \\[uUlLQE]
3251 )
3252
2621462b 3253 /defined($4) && length($4) ? "$1$2$4" : "$1$2\\$3"/xeg;
cdf8218f 3254
6e90668e
SM
3255 return $str;
3256}
3257
b7dad2dc
RH
3258# This is for regular expressions with the /x modifier
3259# We have to leave comments unmangled.
a9760014 3260sub re_uninterp_extended {
b7dad2dc
RH
3261 my($str) = @_;
3262
3263 $str =~ s/
3264 ( ^|\G # $1
3265 | [^\\]
3266 )
3267
3268 ( # $2
3269 (?:\\\\)*
3270 )
3271
3272 ( # $3
3273 ( \(\?\??\{$bal\}\) # $4 (skip over (?{}) and (??{}) blocks)
3274 | \#[^\n]* # (skip over comments)
3275 )
3276 | [\$\@]
9a58b761 3277 (?!\||\)|\(|$|\s)
b7dad2dc
RH
3278 | \\[uUlLQE]
3279 )
3280
c7de4c66 3281 /defined($4) && length($4) ? "$1$2$4" : "$1$2\\$3"/xeg;
b7dad2dc 3282
a9760014
RH
3283 return $str;
3284}
b7dad2dc 3285}
a9760014 3286
57aa3c4e
JH
3287my %unctrl = # portable to to EBCDIC
3288 (
3289 "\c@" => '\c@', # unused
3290 "\cA" => '\cA',
3291 "\cB" => '\cB',
3292 "\cC" => '\cC',
3293 "\cD" => '\cD',
3294 "\cE" => '\cE',
3295 "\cF" => '\cF',
3296 "\cG" => '\cG',
3297 "\cH" => '\cH',
3298 "\cI" => '\cI',
3299 "\cJ" => '\cJ',
3300 "\cK" => '\cK',
3301 "\cL" => '\cL',
3302 "\cM" => '\cM',
3303 "\cN" => '\cN',
3304 "\cO" => '\cO',
3305 "\cP" => '\cP',
3306 "\cQ" => '\cQ',
3307 "\cR" => '\cR',
3308 "\cS" => '\cS',
3309 "\cT" => '\cT',
3310 "\cU" => '\cU',
3311 "\cV" => '\cV',
3312 "\cW" => '\cW',
3313 "\cX" => '\cX',
3314 "\cY" => '\cY',
3315 "\cZ" => '\cZ',
3316 "\c[" => '\c[', # unused
3317 "\c\\" => '\c\\', # unused
3318 "\c]" => '\c]', # unused
3319 "\c_" => '\c_', # unused
3320 );
3321
6e90668e 3322# character escapes, but not delimiters that might need to be escaped
746698c5 3323sub escape_str { # ASCII, UTF8
6e90668e 3324 my($str) = @_;
cef22867 3325 $str =~ s/(.)/ord($1) > 255 ? sprintf("\\x{%x}", ord($1)) : $1/eg;
6e90668e 3326 $str =~ s/\a/\\a/g;
d989cdac 3327# $str =~ s/\cH/\\b/g; # \b means something different in a regex
6e90668e
SM
3328 $str =~ s/\t/\\t/g;
3329 $str =~ s/\n/\\n/g;
3330 $str =~ s/\e/\\e/g;
3331 $str =~ s/\f/\\f/g;
3332 $str =~ s/\r/\\r/g;
fc132725 3333 $str =~ s/([\cA-\cZ])/$unctrl{$1}/ge;
cef22867 3334 $str =~ s/([[:^print:]])/sprintf("\\%03o", ord($1))/ge;
6e90668e
SM
3335 return $str;
3336}
3337
b7dad2dc
RH
3338# For regexes with the /x modifier.
3339# Leave whitespace unmangled.
a9760014
RH
3340sub escape_extended_re {
3341 my($str) = @_;
cef22867 3342 $str =~ s/(.)/ord($1) > 255 ? sprintf("\\x{%x}", ord($1)) : $1/eg;
aee8fd8d
RGS
3343 $str =~ s/([[:^print:]])/
3344 ($1 =~ y! \t\n!!) ? $1 : sprintf("\\%03o", ord($1))/ge;
a9760014
RH
3345 $str =~ s/\n/\n\f/g;
3346 return $str;
3347}
3348
9d2c6865
SM
3349# Don't do this for regexen
3350sub unback {
3351 my($str) = @_;
3352 $str =~ s/\\/\\\\/g;
3353 return $str;
3354}
3355
08c6f5ec
RH
3356# Remove backslashes which precede literal control characters,
3357# to avoid creating ambiguity when we escape the latter.
3358sub re_unback {
3359 my($str) = @_;
3360
3361 # the insane complexity here is due to the behaviour of "\c\"
cef22867 3362 $str =~ s/(^|[^\\]|\\c\\)(?<!\\c)\\(\\\\)*(?=[[:^print:]])/$1$2/g;
08c6f5ec
RH
3363 return $str;
3364}
3365
6e90668e
SM
3366sub balanced_delim {
3367 my($str) = @_;
3368 my @str = split //, $str;
3369 my($ar, $open, $close, $fail, $c, $cnt);
3370 for $ar (['[',']'], ['(',')'], ['<','>'], ['{','}']) {
3371 ($open, $close) = @$ar;
3372 $fail = 0; $cnt = 0;
3373 for $c (@str) {
3374 if ($c eq $open) {
3375 $cnt++;
3376 } elsif ($c eq $close) {
3377 $cnt--;
3378 if ($cnt < 0) {
bd0865ec 3379 # qq()() isn't ")("
6e90668e
SM
3380 $fail = 1;
3381 last;
3382 }
3383 }
3384 }
3385 $fail = 1 if $cnt != 0;
3386 return ($open, "$open$str$close") if not $fail;
3387 }
3388 return ("", $str);
3389}
3390
3391sub single_delim {
3392 my($q, $default, $str) = @_;
90be192f 3393 return "$default$str$default" if $default and index($str, $default) == -1;
8347ad86
RGS
3394 if ($q ne 'qr') {
3395 (my $succeed, $str) = balanced_delim($str);
3396 return "$q$str" if $succeed;
3397 }
3398 for my $delim ('/', '"', '#') {
6e90668e
SM
3399 return "$q$delim" . $str . $delim if index($str, $delim) == -1;
3400 }
90be192f
SM
3401 if ($default) {
3402 $str =~ s/$default/\\$default/g;
3403 return "$default$str$default";
3404 } else {
3405 $str =~ s[/][\\/]g;
3406 return "$q/$str/";
3407 }
6e90668e
SM
3408}
3409
d989cdac
SM
3410my $max_prec;
3411BEGIN { $max_prec = int(0.999 + 8*length(pack("F", 42))*log(2)/log(10)); }
3412
3413# Split a floating point number into an integer mantissa and a binary
3414# exponent. Assumes you've already made sure the number isn't zero or
3415# some weird infinity or NaN.
3416sub split_float {
3417 my($f) = @_;
3418 my $exponent = 0;
3419 if ($f == int($f)) {
3420 while ($f % 2 == 0) {
3421 $f /= 2;
3422 $exponent++;
3423 }
3424 } else {
3425 while ($f != int($f)) {
3426 $f *= 2;
3427 $exponent--;
3428 }
3429 }
3430 my $mantissa = sprintf("%.0f", $f);
3431 return ($mantissa, $exponent);
3432}
3433
6e90668e 3434sub const {
d989cdac
SM
3435 my $self = shift;
3436 my($sv, $cx) = @_;
3437 if ($self->{'use_dumper'}) {
3438 return $self->const_dumper($sv, $cx);
3439 }
6e90668e 3440 if (class($sv) eq "SPECIAL") {
d989cdac
SM
3441 # sv_undef, sv_yes, sv_no
3442 return ('undef', '1', $self->maybe_parens("!1", $cx, 21))[$$sv-1];
7a9b44b9
RH
3443 } elsif (class($sv) eq "NULL") {
3444 return 'undef';
127212b2
DM
3445 }
3446 # convert a version object into the "v1.2.3" string in its V magic
3447 if ($sv->FLAGS & SVs_RMG) {
3448 for (my $mg = $sv->MAGIC; $mg; $mg = $mg->MOREMAGIC) {
3449 return $mg->PTR if $mg->TYPE eq 'V';
3450 }
3451 }
3452
3453 if ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_IOK) {
d989cdac
SM
3454 my $str = $sv->int_value;
3455 $str = $self->maybe_parens($str, $cx, 21) if $str < 0;
3456 return $str;
6e90668e 3457 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_NOK) {
d989cdac
SM
3458 my $nv = $sv->NV;
3459 if ($nv == 0) {
3460 if (pack("F", $nv) eq pack("F", 0)) {
3461 # positive zero
3462 return "0";
3463 } else {
3464 # negative zero
3465 return $self->maybe_parens("-.0", $cx, 21);
3466 }
3467 } elsif (1/$nv == 0) {
3468 if ($nv > 0) {
3469 # positive infinity
3470 return $self->maybe_parens("9**9**9", $cx, 22);
3471 } else {
3472 # negative infinity
3473 return $self->maybe_parens("-9**9**9", $cx, 21);
3474 }
3475 } elsif ($nv != $nv) {
3476 # NaN
3477 if (pack("F", $nv) eq pack("F", sin(9**9**9))) {
3478 # the normal kind
3479 return "sin(9**9**9)";
3480 } elsif (pack("F", $nv) eq pack("F", -sin(9**9**9))) {
3481 # the inverted kind
3482 return $self->maybe_parens("-sin(9**9**9)", $cx, 21);
3483 } else {
3484 # some other kind
3485 my $hex = unpack("h*", pack("F", $nv));
3486 return qq'unpack("F", pack("h*", "$hex"))';
3487 }
fecea806 3488 }
d989cdac
SM
3489 # first, try the default stringification
3490 my $str = "$nv";
3491 if ($str != $nv) {
3492 # failing that, try using more precision
3493 $str = sprintf("%.${max_prec}g", $nv);
3494# if (pack("F", $str) ne pack("F", $nv)) {
3495 if ($str != $nv) {
3496 # not representable in decimal with whatever sprintf()
3497 # and atof() Perl is using here.
3498 my($mant, $exp) = split_float($nv);
3499 return $self->maybe_parens("$mant * 2**$exp", $cx, 19);
3500 }
3501 }
3502 $str = $self->maybe_parens($str, $cx, 21) if $nv < 0;
3503 return $str;
7a9b44b9 3504 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_ROK && $sv->can("RV")) {
d989cdac
SM
3505 my $ref = $sv->RV;
3506 if (class($ref) eq "AV") {
3507 return "[" . $self->list_const(2, $ref->ARRAY) . "]";
3508 } elsif (class($ref) eq "HV") {
3509 my %hash = $ref->ARRAY;
3510 my @elts;
3511 for my $k (sort keys %hash) {
3512 push @elts, "$k => " . $self->const($hash{$k}, 6);
3513 }
3514 return "{" . join(", ", @elts) . "}";
3515 } elsif (class($ref) eq "CV") {
3516 return "sub " . $self->deparse_sub($ref);
3517 }
3518 if ($ref->FLAGS & SVs_SMG) {
3519 for (my $mg = $ref->MAGIC; $mg; $mg = $mg->MOREMAGIC) {
3520 if ($mg->TYPE eq 'r') {
3521 my $re = re_uninterp(escape_str(re_unback($mg->precomp)));
3522 return single_delim("qr", "", $re);
3523 }
3524 }
3525 }
3526
3527 return $self->maybe_parens("\\" . $self->const($ref, 20), $cx, 20);
34768ba5 3528 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_POK) {
6e90668e 3529 my $str = $sv->PV;
bd0865ec 3530 if ($str =~ /[^ -~]/) { # ASCII for non-printing
9d2c6865 3531 return single_delim("qq", '"', uninterp escape_str unback $str);
6e90668e 3532 } else {
bd0865ec 3533 return single_delim("q", "'", unback $str);
6e90668e 3534 }
34768ba5
RH
3535 } else {
3536 return "undef";
a798dbf2
MB
3537 }
3538}
3539
d989cdac
SM
3540sub const_dumper {
3541 my $self = shift;
3542 my($sv, $cx) = @_;
3543 my $ref = $sv->object_2svref();
3544 my $dumper = Data::Dumper->new([$$ref], ['$v']);
3545 $dumper->Purity(1)->Terse(1)->Deparse(1)->Indent(0)->Useqq(1)->Sortkeys(1);
3546 my $str = $dumper->Dump();
3547 if ($str =~ /^\$v/) {
3548 return '${my ' . $str . ' \$v}';
3549 } else {
3550 return $str;
3551 }
3552}
3553
18228111
GS
3554sub const_sv {
3555 my $self = shift;
3556 my $op = shift;
3557 my $sv = $op->sv;
3558 # the constant could be in the pad (under useithreads)
3559 $sv = $self->padval($op->targ) unless $$sv;
3560 return $sv;
3561}
3562
6e90668e
SM
3563sub pp_const {
3564 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 3565 my($op, $cx) = @_;
7e40138b
RH
3566 if ($op->private & OPpCONST_ARYBASE) {