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Remove obsolete error messages
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
e476b1b5 12 (S) A severe warning (default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
30Default warnings are always enabled unless they are explicitly disabled
31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
6df41af2 53=item Allocation too large: %lx
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
6df41af2 92=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 93
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94(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
95redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
96redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 97
6df41af2 98=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 99
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100(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
101redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
102into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
103though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
104which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 105
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106 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
107 while (<STDIN>) {
108 print;
109 print OUT;
110 }
111 close OUT;
c9f97d15 112
6df41af2 113=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 114
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115(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
116transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
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117one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
118a scalar value -- the length of an array, or the population info of a
119hash -- and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
120you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
121alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 122
6df41af2 123=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 124
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125(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
126with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
127impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
128for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 129
6df41af2 130=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 131
6df41af2 132(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 133
8ea97a1e 134=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element
a0d0e21e 135
8ea97a1e 136(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element, such as:
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137
138 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 139 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
a0d0e21e 140
8ea97a1e 141=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 142
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143(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
144such as:
5f05dabc 145
146 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 147 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 148
8ea97a1e 149or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 150
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151 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
152 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 153
6df41af2 154=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 155
6df41af2 156(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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157name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
158error.
a0d0e21e 159
f86702cc 160=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 161
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162(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
163that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
164will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 165
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166=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
167
168(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
169forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
170data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
171the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
172If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
173the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
174
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175=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
176
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177(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
178spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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179
180=item assertion botched: %s
181
182(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
183
184=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
185
186(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
187
188=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
189
190(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
191must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
192know which context to supply to the right side.
193
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194=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
195
196(W) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
197thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
198Usually it's a good idea to first collect the return values of the
199created threads by joining them, and only then exit from the main
200thread. See L<threads>.
201
2393f1b9 202=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 203
49293501 204(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 205the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 206
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207=item Attempt to bless into a reference
208
209(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
210the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
211supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
212
213 bless $self, $proto;
214
215when you intended
216
217 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
218
219If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
220of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
221example by:
222
223 bless $self, "$proto";
224
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225=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
226
227(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
228which is not in its key set.
229
230=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
231
232(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
233declared readonly from a restricted hash.
234
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235=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
236
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237(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
238that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
239outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 240
54310121 241=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 242
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243(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
244strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
245strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
246of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 247
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248=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
249
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250(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
251free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
252SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
253free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
254try to free it.
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255
256=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
257
e476b1b5 258(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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259
260=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
261
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262(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
263see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
264earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
265This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
266that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
267mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
268corrupted.
a0d0e21e 269
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270=item Attempt to join self
271
272(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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273impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
274to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 275
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276=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
277
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278(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
279function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
280means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
281invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
282literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
283avoid this warning.
84902520 284
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285=item Attempt to set length of freed array
286
287(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
288can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
289of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
290
291 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
292 $$r = 503
293
b7a902f4 294=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
295
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296(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
297used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
298dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 299
dc26df50 300=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %s
a0d0e21e 301
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302(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
303or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 304S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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305S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
306
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307=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
308
496a33f5 309(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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310substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
311most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
312
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313=item Bad filehandle: %s
314
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315(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
316symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
317open(), or did it in another package.
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318
319=item Bad free() ignored
320
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321(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
322been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 323setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 324
9ea8bc6d 325This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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326dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
327which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 328
aa689395 329=item Bad hash
330
331(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
332
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333=item Badly placed ()'s
334
335(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
336of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
337Perl yourself.
338
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339=item Bad name after %s::
340
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341(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
342didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
343of quotes, so
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344
345 $var = 'myvar';
346 $sym = mypack::$var;
347
348is not the same as
349
350 $var = 'myvar';
351 $sym = "mypack::$var";
352
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353=item Bad realloc() ignored
354
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355(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
356never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
357by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 358
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359=item Bad symbol for array
360
361(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
362wasn't a symbol table entry.
363
364=item Bad symbol for filehandle
365
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366(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
367that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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368
369=item Bad symbol for hash
370
371(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
372wasn't a symbol table entry.
373
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374=item Bareword found in conditional
375
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376(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
377conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
378of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
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379
380 open FOO || die;
381
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382It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
383a bareword:
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384
385 use constant TYPO => 1;
386 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
387
388The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
389
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390=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
391
392(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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393subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
394symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
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395
396=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
397
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398(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
399compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
400you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 401
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402=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
403
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404(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
405subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
406exited.
a0d0e21e 407
68dc0745 408=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
409
410(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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411implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
412occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
413be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
414depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 415
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416=item \1 better written as $1
417
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418(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
419The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
420substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
421because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
422there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 423
252aa082
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424=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
425
e476b1b5 426(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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427(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
428L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 429
69282e91 430=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 431
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432(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
433check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 434
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435=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
436
437(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
438Check you control flow and number of arguments.
439
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440=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
441
e476b1b5 442(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 443
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444=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
445
be771a83 446(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
b45f050a 447copyable.
4633a7c4 448
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449=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
450
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451(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
452iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
453which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 454
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455=item Callback called exit
456
4929bf7b 457(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
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458exited by calling exit.
459
6df41af2 460=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 461
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462(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
463parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
464that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
465early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
466subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
467checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
468function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
469the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 470
49704364 471=item Cannot compress integer in pack
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472
473(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
474compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
475attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
476See L<perlfunc/pack>.
477
49704364 478=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
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479
480(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
481format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
482
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483=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
484
485(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
486integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
487to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
488
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489=item Can't bless non-reference value
490
491(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
492encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
493
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494=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
495
496(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
497functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
498in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
499
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500=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
501
502(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
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503object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
504like this will reproduce the error:
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505
506 $BADREF = undef;
507 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
508 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
509
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510=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
511
54310121 512(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
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513ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
514didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
515object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
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516
517=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
518
519(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
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520object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
521defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
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522Something like this will reproduce the error:
523
524 $BADREF = 42;
525 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
526 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
527
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528=item Can't chdir to %s
529
530(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
531that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
532
0545a864 533=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 534
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535(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
536nosuid.
104d25b7 537
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538=item Can't coerce array into hash
539
540(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
541information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
542only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
543
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544=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
545
546(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 547(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
548say things like:
549
550 *foo += 1;
551
552You CAN say
553
554 $foo = *foo;
555 $foo += 1;
556
557but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
558
559=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
560
561(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 562(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
563
564=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
565
566(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 567(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
568
569=item Can't create pipe mailbox
570
be771a83
GS
571(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
572quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 573
eb64745e 574=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 575
2f7e735d
AMS
576(F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared with a specific
577class qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration. The semantics may be
578extended for other types of variables in future.
eb64745e
GS
579
580=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
581
582(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my" or
583"our" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 584
6df41af2
GS
585=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
586
be771a83
GS
587(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
588a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 589
a0d0e21e
LW
590=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
591
be771a83
GS
592(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
593reason.
a0d0e21e 594
54310121 595=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 596
be771a83
GS
597(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
598reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
599C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 600
10f9c03d 601=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 602
e476b1b5 603(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
604characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
605inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 606
7253e4e3 607=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 608
b45f050a 609(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 610regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 611regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
612
613=item Can't do setegid!
614
be771a83
GS
615(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
616suidperl.
a0d0e21e
LW
617
618=item Can't do seteuid!
619
620(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
621
622=item Can't do setuid
623
be771a83
GS
624(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to do
625setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the form
626sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides under
627the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines. If the
628file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask your
629sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
a0d0e21e
LW
630
631=item Can't do waitpid with flags
632
be771a83
GS
633(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
634waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 635
a0d0e21e
LW
636=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
637
be771a83
GS
638(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
639point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
640line.
a0d0e21e 641
1109a392
MHM
642=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
643
644(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
645or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
646little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
647See L<perlfunc/pack>.
648
a0d0e21e
LW
649=item Can't exec "%s": %s
650
d1be9408 651(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
652named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
653permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
654C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
655architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
656can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
657#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
658
659=item Can't exec %s
660
be771a83
GS
661(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
662that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
663need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
664
665=item Can't execute %s
666
be771a83
GS
667(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
668found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 669
6df41af2 670=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 671
be771a83
GS
672(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
673is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 674
56ca2fc0
JH
675=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
676
677(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
89d60977 678could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property
56ca2fc0
JH
679(remember that the names of character properties consist only of
680alphanumeric characters), or maybe you forgot the C<Is> or C<In> prefix?
681
6df41af2
GS
682=item Can't find label %s
683
be771a83
GS
684(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
685possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
686
687=item Can't find %s on PATH
688
be771a83
GS
689(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
690found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 691
6df41af2 692=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 693
be771a83
GS
694(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
695found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
696script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e 697
96ebfdd7
RK
698=item Can't find %s property definition %s
699
700(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property (for
701example C<\p{Lu}> is all uppercase letters). If you did mean to use a
702Unicode property, see L<perlunicode> for the list of known properties.
703If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
704by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
705possible C<\E>).
706
a0d0e21e
LW
707=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
708
be771a83
GS
709(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
710that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
711nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 712
fb73857a 713 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
714
be771a83
GS
715If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
716unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
717editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
718
719=item Can't fork
720
be771a83
GS
721(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
722pipeline.
a0d0e21e 723
748a9306
LW
724=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
725
be771a83
GS
726(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
727between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
728Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
729the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
730account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
731the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
732the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
733the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
734if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
735because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
736appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
737and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
738routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
739shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
740only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 741
a0d0e21e
LW
742=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
743
be771a83
GS
744(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
745pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
746
747=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
748
748a9306
LW
749(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
750mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 751
6df41af2 752=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 753
be771a83
GS
754(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
755loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
756
757=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
758
be771a83
GS
759(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
760a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
761you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
762See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 763
c74ace89 764=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 765
be771a83 766(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 767"string" or block.
b150fb22 768
6df41af2
GS
769=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
770
be771a83
GS
771(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
772subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
773cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
774routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 775
0b5b802d
GS
776=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
777
be771a83
GS
778(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
779signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
780signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
781processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
782situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
783may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 784
6df41af2 785=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 786
6df41af2 787(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
788except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
789block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
790block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
791usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
792inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
793L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 794
b8170e59
JB
795=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
796
797(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
798may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
799incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
800between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 801extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
802installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
803extensions.
804
748a9306
LW
805=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
806
2ba9eb46 807(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
808lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
809localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
810package name.
811
6df41af2 812=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 813
6df41af2
GS
814(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
815handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 816pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 817that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 818
ea071790 819=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
820
821(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
822found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
823unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
824need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
825the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
826to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
827L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 828
6df41af2
GS
829=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
830
be771a83
GS
831(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
832autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
833are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
834the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 835
b8170e59
JB
836=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
837
838(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
839for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
840unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
841
a0d0e21e
LW
842=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
843
844(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
845functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 846method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
847
848=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
849
be771a83
GS
850(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
851doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 852
2f7da168
RK
853=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
854
855(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
856e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
857
3e3baf6d
TB
858=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
859
be771a83
GS
860(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
861VMS.
3e3baf6d 862
a0d0e21e
LW
863=item Can't modify %s in %s
864
be771a83
GS
865(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
866to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 867
54310121 868=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
869
870(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
871a NULL.
872
6df41af2
GS
873=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
874
875(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
876such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
877
5f05dabc 878=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 879
5f05dabc 880(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
881buffer.
882
6df41af2
GS
883=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
884
885(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
886there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
887count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
888grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
889though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
890once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 891
a0d0e21e
LW
892=item Can't open %s: %s
893
c47ff5f1 894(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
895filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
896switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
897is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
898the command line.
a0d0e21e 899
9a869a14
RGS
900=item Can't open a reference
901
902(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
903using the 3-arg open() syntax :
904
905 open FH, '>', $ref;
906
907but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
908open is not supported.
909
a0d0e21e
LW
910=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
911
be771a83
GS
912(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
913You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
914as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
915">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 916
748a9306
LW
917=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
918
be771a83
GS
919(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
920redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
921the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
922
923=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
924
be771a83
GS
925(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
926redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
927command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
928
929=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
930
be771a83
GS
931(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
932redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
933the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
934
935=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
936
be771a83
GS
937(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
938redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
939for stdout.
748a9306 940
2b8ca739 941=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
942
943(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
944
fa3aa65a
JC
945If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
946shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
947you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
948
6df41af2
GS
949=item Can't read CRTL environ
950
951(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
952from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
953missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
954or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
955searched.
6df41af2 956
7bac28a0 957=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
958
959(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
be771a83
GS
960pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when
961it was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
7bac28a0 962this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
963
6df41af2
GS
964=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
965
966(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
967there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
968count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
969or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
970though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
971loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
972
64977eb6 973=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 974
be771a83
GS
975(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
976file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
977the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 978
a0d0e21e
LW
979=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
980
e476b1b5 981(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 982probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 983
748a9306
LW
984=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
985
be771a83
GS
986(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
987to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 988
6df41af2
GS
989=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
990
be771a83
GS
991(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
992to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
993method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 994
a0d0e21e
LW
995=item Can't reswap uid and euid
996
be771a83
GS
997(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
998suidperl.
a0d0e21e 999
cd06dffe
GS
1000=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1001
be771a83
GS
1002(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1003temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1004is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1005
96ebfdd7
RK
1006=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1007
1008(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1009there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1010
78f9721b
SM
1011=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1012
1013(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1014but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1015to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1016the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1017list context.
1018
a0d0e21e
LW
1019=item Can't stat script "%s"
1020
be771a83
GS
1021(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1022open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e
LW
1023
1024=item Can't swap uid and euid
1025
be771a83
GS
1026(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
1027suidperl.
a0d0e21e
LW
1028
1029=item Can't take log of %g
1030
fb73857a 1031(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1032negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1033standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1034negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1035
1036=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1037
1038(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a 1039negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1040with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1041
1042=item Can't undef active subroutine
1043
1044(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1045however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1046redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1047
1048=item Can't unshift
1049
1050(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1051as the main Perl stack.
1052
1053=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
1054
be771a83
GS
1055(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1056into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1057specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1058indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e
LW
1059
1060=item Can't upgrade to undef
1061
be771a83
GS
1062(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme of
1063upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the code
1064calling sv_upgrade.
a0d0e21e 1065
1db89ea5
BS
1066=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1067
e27ad1f2 1068(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1069table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1070for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1071
96ebfdd7
RK
1072=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1073
1074(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1075be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1076
6df41af2
GS
1077=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1078
be771a83
GS
1079(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1080references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1081
90b75b61 1082=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1083
1084(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1085Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1086provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1087
1109a392
MHM
1088=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1089
1090(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1091byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1092allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1093
6df41af2
GS
1094=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1095
be771a83
GS
1096(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1097foreach.
6df41af2
GS
1098
1099=item Can't use global %s in "my"
1100
be771a83
GS
1101(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1102is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1103(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1104have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1105weren't.
1106
6d3b25aa
RGS
1107=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1108
1109(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1110that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1111For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1112is inside a big-endian group.
1113
c07a80fd 1114=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1115
1116(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1117You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd 1118and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1119Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1120lexical variable.
1121
a0d0e21e
LW
1122=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1123
1124(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1125reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1126test the type of the reference, if need be.
1127
748a9306 1128=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1129
be771a83
GS
1130(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1131references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1132
748a9306
LW
1133=item Can't use subscript on %s
1134
1135(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1136subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
1137didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
1138
6df41af2
GS
1139=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1140
75b44862
GS
1141(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1142creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1143backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1144expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1145value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1146instead.
6df41af2 1147
810b8aa5
GS
1148=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1149
1150(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1151references can be weakened.
1152
5f05dabc 1153=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1154
be771a83
GS
1155(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1156with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1157Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1158
f337b084 1159=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1160
1161(W pack) You said
1162
1163 pack("C", $x)
1164
1165where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1166only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1167and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1168
1169 pack("C", $x & 255)
1170
1171If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1172instead.
1173
f337b084
TH
1174=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1175
1176(W pack) You said
1177
1178 pack("U0W", $x)
1179
1180where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1181all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1182meant:
1183
1184 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1185
1186=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1187
1188(W pack) You said
1189
1190 pack("c", $x)
1191
1192where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1193is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1194and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1195
1196 pack("c", $x & 255);
1197
1198If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1199instead.
1200
f337b084
TH
1201=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1202
1203(W unpack) You tried something like
1204
1205 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1206
1207where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
1208below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1209modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1210
1211 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1212
1213=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1214
1215(W pack) You tried something like
1216
1217 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1218
1219where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1220value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
1221uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1222
1223 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1224
1225=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1226
1227(W unpack) You tried something like
1228
1229 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1230
1231where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1232value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
1233uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1234
1235 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1236
96ebfdd7
RK
1237=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1238
1239(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1240
49704364
WL
1241=item Code missing after '/'
1242
1243(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1244template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1245
6df41af2
GS
1246=item %s: Command not found
1247
be771a83
GS
1248(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1249Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1250
7a2e2cd6 1251=item Compilation failed in require
1252
1253(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1254Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1255encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1256
c3464db5
DD
1257=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1258
be771a83
GS
1259(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1260situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1261to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1262arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1263recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1264under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1265in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1266that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1267on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1268
38875929
DM
1269=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1270
1271(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1272cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
1273function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1274cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1275has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1276first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1277after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1278lock.
1279
38875929
DM
1280=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1281
1282(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1283cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
1284function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1285cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1286has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1287first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1288after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1289lock.
1290
69282e91 1291=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1292
be771a83
GS
1293(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1294to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1295L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1296
41ab332f 1297=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1298
be771a83
GS
1299(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1300an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1301specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1302corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1303L<overload>.
6df41af2 1304
779c5bc9
GS
1305=item Constant is not %s reference
1306
1307(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1308is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1309The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1310usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1311See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1312
4cee8e80
CS
1313=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1314
bb028877 1315(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1316eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1317commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1318
9607fc9c 1319=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1320
be771a83
GS
1321(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1322for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1323workarounds.
9607fc9c 1324
e7ea3e70
IZ
1325=item Copy method did not return a reference
1326
64977eb6 1327(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1328L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1329
6798c92b
GS
1330=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1331
1332(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1333
a0d0e21e
LW
1334=item corrupted regexp pointers
1335
1336(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1337expression compiler gave it.
1338
1339=item corrupted regexp program
1340
be771a83
GS
1341(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1342valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1343
6df41af2
GS
1344=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1345
1346(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1347
49704364
WL
1348=item Count after length/code in unpack
1349
1350(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1351you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1352L<perlfunc/pack>.
1353
a0d0e21e
LW
1354=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1355
be771a83
GS
1356(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1357100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1358infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1359which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1360
f10b0346 1361=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1362
be771a83
GS
1363(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1364checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1365array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1366
f10b0346 1367=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1368
be771a83
GS
1369(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1370checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1371is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1372
62658f4d
PM
1373=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1374
1375(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1376there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1377
fc36a67e 1378=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1379
be771a83
GS
1380(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1381long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1382that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1383
6d3b25aa
RGS
1384=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1385
1386(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1387There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1388not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1389conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1390static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1391relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1392declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
1393
1394 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1395
1396becomes
1397
1398 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1399
500ab966
RGS
1400=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1401
1402(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1403just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1404to create a dangling reference.
1405
3cdd684c
TP
1406=item Did not produce a valid header
1407
1408See Server error.
1409
6df41af2
GS
1410=item %s did not return a true value
1411
1412(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1413it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1414traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1415do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1416
cc507455 1417=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1418
be771a83
GS
1419(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some
1420such.
4633a7c4 1421
cc507455 1422=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1423
be771a83
GS
1424(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1425variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1426seems superfluous.
33633739 1427
cc507455 1428=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1429
be771a83
GS
1430(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1431@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1432carried away.
748a9306 1433
7e1af8bc 1434=item Died
5f05dabc 1435
1436(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1437you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1438
3cdd684c
TP
1439=item Document contains no data
1440
1441See Server error.
1442
62658f4d
PM
1443=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1444
1445(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1446define a C<$VERSION.>
1447
49704364
WL
1448=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1449
1450(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1451See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1452
a0d0e21e
LW
1453=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1454
1455(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1456
1457=item do_study: out of memory
1458
1459(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1460
6df41af2
GS
1461=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1462
56da5a46
RGS
1463(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1464"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1465name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1466because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1467"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1468something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1469subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1470"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1471
ac206dc8
RGS
1472=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1473
1474(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1475qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1476
a0d0e21e
LW
1477=item Duplicate free() ignored
1478
be771a83
GS
1479(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1480already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1481
1109a392
MHM
1482=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1483
1484(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1485in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1486
4633a7c4
LW
1487=item elseif should be elsif
1488
56da5a46
RGS
1489(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1490ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1491"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1492unlikely to be what you want.
1493
ab13f0c7
JH
1494=item Empty %s
1495
af6f566e
HS
1496(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1497described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1498a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1499
85ab1d1d 1500=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1501
85ab1d1d 1502(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1503effective uids or gids failed.
1504
c038024b
RGS
1505=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1506
1507(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1508aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1509program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1510
748a9306
LW
1511=item Error converting file specification %s
1512
5f05dabc 1513(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1514specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1515single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1516an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1517conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1518
e4d48cc9
GS
1519=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1520
be771a83
GS
1521(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1522expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1523is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1524
e4d48cc9
GS
1525=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1526
be771a83
GS
1527(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1528C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1529pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1530is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1531building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1532that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1533
6df41af2
GS
1534=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1535
be771a83
GS
1536(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1537assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1538pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1539
fc36a67e 1540=item Excessively long <> operator
1541
1542(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1543Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1544filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1545variable and glob that.
1546
ed9aa3b7
SG
1547=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1548
1549(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented in MacPerl. See L<perlport>.
1550
f86702cc 1551=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1552
1553(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1554
1555=item Exiting eval via %s
1556
be771a83
GS
1557(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1558goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1559
1560=item Exiting format via %s
1561
9a2ff54b 1562(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1563goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1564
0a753a76 1565=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1566
be771a83
GS
1567(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1568sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1569loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1570
a0d0e21e
LW
1571=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1572
be771a83
GS
1573(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1574as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1575
1576=item Exiting substitution via %s
1577
be771a83
GS
1578(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1579as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1580
7b8d334a
GS
1581=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1582
be771a83
GS
1583(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1584the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1585usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1586e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1587
6df41af2
GS
1588=item %s: Expression syntax
1589
be771a83
GS
1590(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1591Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1592
1593=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1594
1595(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a CHECK, INIT, or
1596END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the queue of such
1597routines has been prematurely ended.
1598
7253e4e3 1599=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1600
be771a83 1601(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1602character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1603in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1604"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1605problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1606
748a9306 1607=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1608
be771a83
GS
1609(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1610system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1611details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1612you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1613
1614=item fcntl is not implemented
1615
1616(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1617PDP-11 or something?
1618
f337b084
TH
1619=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1620
1621(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1622which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1623a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
1624C<u63> as format.
1625
af8c498a 1626=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1627
6c8d78fb
HS
1628(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1629it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1630"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1631write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1632
af8c498a 1633=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1634
6c8d78fb
HS
1635(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1636you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
be771a83
GS
1637with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1638intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
6c8d78fb
HS
1639Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0
1640(also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1641
1642=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1643
1644(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
1645as STDOUT or STDERR. This occured because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
1646previously.
1647
1648=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1649
1650(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
1651as STDIN. This occured because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1652
1653=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1654
1655(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1656a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1657happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1658name.
a0d0e21e 1659
56e90b21
GS
1660=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1661
be771a83 1662(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1663some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1664filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1665same name?
56e90b21 1666
6df41af2
GS
1667=item Format not terminated
1668
1669(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1670to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1671
a0d0e21e
LW
1672=item Format %s redefined
1673
e476b1b5 1674(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1675
1676 {
271595cc 1677 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1678 eval "format NAME =...";
1679 }
1680
a0d0e21e
LW
1681=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1682
e476b1b5 1683(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1684
1685 if ($foo = 123)
1686
1687when you meant
1688
1689 if ($foo == 123)
1690
1691(or something like that).
1692
6df41af2
GS
1693=item %s found where operator expected
1694
56da5a46
RGS
1695(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1696If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1697operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1698operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1699
a0d0e21e
LW
1700=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1701
1702(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1703
1704=item gethostent not implemented
1705
1706(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1707because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1708on the Internet.
1709
69282e91 1710=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1711
be771a83
GS
1712(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1713socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1714
748a9306
LW
1715=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1716
1717(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1718C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1719
6df41af2
GS
1720=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1721
be771a83
GS
1722(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1723forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1724L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1725
1726=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1727
1728(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1729must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), declared beforehand using
1730"our", or explicitly qualified to say which package the global variable
1731is in (using "::").
1732
e476b1b5
GS
1733=item glob failed (%s)
1734
be771a83
GS
1735(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1736C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1737C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1738nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1739resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1740broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1741config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1742were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1743empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1744think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1745C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1746
a0d0e21e
LW
1747=item Glob not terminated
1748
1749(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1750a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1751not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1752earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1753
6df41af2 1754=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1755
6df41af2
GS
1756(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1757version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1758
1759=item goto must have label
1760
1761(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1762unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1763
49704364 1764=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1765
49704364 1766(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is
18529408 1767supposed to follow something: a template character or a ()-group.
49704364 1768 See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1769
6df41af2
GS
1770=item %s had compilation errors
1771
1772(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1773
a0d0e21e
LW
1774=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1775
be771a83
GS
1776(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1777to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1778created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1779
1780=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1781
be771a83
GS
1782(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1783spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1784
6df41af2
GS
1785=item %s has too many errors
1786
1787(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1788Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1789
252aa082
JH
1790=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1791
e476b1b5 1792(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1793(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1794L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1795
8903cb82 1796=item Identifier too long
1797
1798(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 1799about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
1800names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
1801of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1802
6df41af2 1803=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 1804
6df41af2 1805(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 1806
6df41af2 1807=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 1808
be771a83
GS
1809(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
1810binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
1811offending digit.
a0d0e21e 1812
4fdae800 1813=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1814
d5898338 1815(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
1816would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
1817when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
1818version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
1819to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 1820
d37a9538
ST
1821=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
1822
420cdfc1 1823(W syntax) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration. Legal
d37a9538
ST
1824characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
1825
904d85c5
RGS
1826=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
1827
1828(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
1829you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
1830
8e742a20
MHM
1831=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
1832
1833(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
1834
a0d0e21e
LW
1835=item Illegal division by zero
1836
be771a83
GS
1837(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
1838your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
1839meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 1840
6df41af2
GS
1841=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
1842
be771a83
GS
1843(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
1844A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
1845number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 1846
a0d0e21e
LW
1847=item Illegal modulus zero
1848
be771a83
GS
1849(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
1850numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 1851
6df41af2 1852=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 1853
6df41af2
GS
1854(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
1855two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
1856
1857=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 1858
d1be9408 1859(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 1860
399388f4 1861=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 1862
d1be9408 1863(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 1864Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 1865
6df41af2 1866=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
6ff81951 1867
6df41af2 1868(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1c4db469 1869following switches: B<-[DIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 1870
6df41af2 1871=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 1872
75b44862 1873(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
1874internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
1875delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 1876
6df41af2 1877=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 1878
be771a83
GS
1879(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
1880name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1881didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
1882ignored.
54310121 1883
8fa7688f
SF
1884=item Impossible to activate assertion call
1885
1886(W assertions) You're calling an assertion function in a block that is
1887not under the control of the C<assertions> pragma.
1888
6df41af2 1889=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 1890
be771a83
GS
1891(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
1892the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
1893system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
1894times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
1895would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 1896
be771a83
GS
1897Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
1898also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 1899
979699d9
JH
1900=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
1901
1902(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
1903Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
1904encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
1905
a0d0e21e
LW
1906=item Insecure dependency in %s
1907
8b1a09fc 1908(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
1909The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
1910setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
1911tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
1912from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
1913such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
1914L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
1915
1916=item Insecure directory in %s
1917
be771a83
GS
1918(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
1919setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
1920the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
1921See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 1922
62f468fc 1923=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1924
1925(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 1926setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
1927C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
1928supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
1929the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 1930
a7ae9550
GS
1931=item Integer overflow in %s number
1932
75b44862 1933(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
1934either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
1935your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
1936On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
1937representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
19380b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
1939transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
1940internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
1941operations.
bbce6d69 1942
46314c13
JP
1943=item Integer overflow in version
1944
1945(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
1946size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
1947because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
1948element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
1949trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
1950100/9.
1951
7253e4e3 1952=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
1953
1954(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 1955The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
1956discovered.
1957
748a9306
LW
1958=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1959
be771a83
GS
1960(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
1961you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
1962to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
1963L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
1964Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
1965terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 1966
7253e4e3 1967=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 1968
7253e4e3
RK
1969(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
1970<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1971discovered.
a0d0e21e 1972
6df41af2
GS
1973=item %s (...) interpreted as function
1974
75b44862 1975(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 1976followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 1977operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 1978L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 1979
09bef843
SB
1980=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
1981
1982The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
1983by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1984
1985=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
1986
be771a83
GS
1987The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
1988recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 1989
c635e13b 1990=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1991
be771a83
GS
1992(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
1993L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 1994
7253e4e3 1995=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
1996
1997(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
1998greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
1999C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2000up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2001problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2002
d1573ac7 2003=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2004
2005(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2006character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2007
09bef843
SB
2008=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2009
0120eecf 2010(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2011elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2012parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2013See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2014
b4581f09
JH
2015=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2016
2017(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2018colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
2019If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2020list was terminated too soon.
2021
49704364 2022=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2023
49704364
WL
2024(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2025See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2026(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2027silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2028
46314c13
JP
2029=item Invalid version format (multiple underscores)
2030
2031(F) Versions may contain at most a single underscore, which signals
2032that the version is a beta release. See L<version> for the allowed
2033version formats.
2034
2035=item Invalid version format (underscores before decimal)
2036
2037(F) Versions may not contain decimals after the optional underscore.
2038See L<version> for the allowed version formats.
2039
a0d0e21e
LW
2040=item ioctl is not implemented
2041
2042(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2043strange for a machine that supports C.
2044
c289d2f7
JH
2045=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2046
2047(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
2048Check you control flow and number of arguments.
2049
363c40c4
SB
2050=item IO layers (like "%s") unavailable
2051
2052(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
2053you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO Perl must be configured
2054with 'useperlio'.
2055
80cbd5ad
JH
2056=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2057
2058(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
2059neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
2060
b4581f09
JH
2061=item $* is no longer supported
2062
2063(D deprecated) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older perls, has
2064been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2065C<//m> and C<//s> regexp modifiers instead.
2066
8ae1fe26
RGS
2067=item $# is no longer supported
2068
2069(D deprecated) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older perls, has
2070been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2071printf/sprintf functions instead.
2072
6ad11d81
JH
2073=item `%s' is not a code reference
2074
04a80ee0
RGS
2075(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2076needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2077to a subroutine.
2078
2079=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2080
04a80ee0
RGS
2081(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2082unaware of.
6ad11d81 2083
a0d0e21e
LW
2084=item junk on end of regexp
2085
2086(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2087
2088=item Label not found for "last %s"
2089
be771a83
GS
2090(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2091of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2092L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2093
2094=item Label not found for "next %s"
2095
2096(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2097that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2098L<perlfunc/last>.
2099
2100=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2101
2102(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2103that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2104L<perlfunc/last>.
2105
85ab1d1d 2106=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2107
85ab1d1d 2108(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2109effective uids or gids failed.
2110
49704364
WL
2111=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2112
2113(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was alread used up when an unpack
2114length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2115an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2116
69282e91 2117=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2118
be771a83
GS
2119(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2120to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2121L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2122
49704364 2123=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2124
2125(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
7253e4e3
RK
2126handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release. The <-- HERE
2127shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2e50fd82 2128
2f7da168
RK
2129=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2130
2131(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2132by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2133instead on the filehandle.)
2134
96ebfdd7
RK
2135=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2136
2137(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2138values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2139L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2140
49704364
WL
2141=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
2142
2143(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2144are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2145
2146=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2147
2148(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2149are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2150
6df41af2
GS
2151=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2152
2153(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2154
2155 prefix1;prefix2
2156
2157or
6df41af2
GS
2158 prefix1 prefix2
2159
be771a83
GS
2160with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2161a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2162appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2163"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2164
2f758a16
ST
2165=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2166
d37a9538
ST
2167(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2168syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2169obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2170when the function is called.
2f758a16 2171
ba210ebe
JH
2172=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2173
10749184 2174(W utf8) Perl detected something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding rules.
ba210ebe 2175
901b21bf
JH
2176One possible cause is that you read in data that you thought to be in
2177UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy 8-bit data). Another
2178possibility is careless use of utf8::upgrade().
2179
dea0fc0b
JH
2180=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
2181
2182Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2183doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2184
f337b084
TH
2185=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2186
2187(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2188rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2189
2190=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2191
2192(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2193rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2194
2195=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2196
2197(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2198rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2199
49704364 2200=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2201
2202(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
2203regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2204shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2205See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2206
25f58aea
PN
2207=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2208
2209(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2210interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2211"use" or "my".
2212
49704364 2213=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2214
2215(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2216checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2217See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2218
a0d0e21e
LW
2219=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2220
2221(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2222doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2223
3cdd684c
TP
2224=item Method %s not permitted
2225
2226See Server error.
2227
a0d0e21e
LW
2228=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2229
2230(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2231by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2232ended earlier on the current line.
2233
2234=item Misplaced _ in number
2235
d4ced10d
JH
2236(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2237separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2238
9e81e6a1
RGS
2239=item Missing argument to -%c
2240
2241(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2242immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2243
4a2d328f 2244=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 2245
4a2d328f 2246(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
2247double-quotish context.
2248
a0d0e21e
LW
2249=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2250
2251(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2252"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2253
06eaf0bc
GS
2254=item Missing command in piped open
2255
be771a83
GS
2256(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2257C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2258blank.
06eaf0bc 2259
961ce445
RGS
2260=item Missing control char name in \c
2261
2262(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2263character name.
2264
6df41af2
GS
2265=item Missing name in "my sub"
2266
be771a83
GS
2267(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2268they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2269
2270=item Missing $ on loop variable
2271
be771a83
GS
2272(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2273are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2274can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2275
cc507455 2276=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2277
56da5a46
RGS
2278(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2279"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2280
ab13f0c7
JH
2281=item Missing right brace on %s
2282
2283(F) Missing right brace in C<\p{...}> or C<\P{...}>.
2284
d98d5fff 2285=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2286
be771a83
GS
2287(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2288ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2289were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2290
6df41af2
GS
2291=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2292
56da5a46
RGS
2293(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2294"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2295the previous line just because you saw this message.
2296
a0d0e21e
LW
2297=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2298
2299(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2300constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2301catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2302
2303 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2304 mod(2);
2305
2306Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2307
c5674021
PDF
2308Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2309is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2310
2311 $x = 1;
2312 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2313 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2314 }
c5674021 2315
7a4340ed 2316=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2317
2318(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2319subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2320backwards.
2321
7a4340ed 2322=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2323
be771a83
GS
2324(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2325couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2326
2327=item Module name must be constant
2328
2329(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2330
be98fb35 2331=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2332
be98fb35
GS
2333(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2334you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2335about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2336
ed9aa3b7
SG
2337=item More than one argument to open
2338
2339(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2340can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2341list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2342See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2343
a0d0e21e
LW
2344=item msg%s not implemented
2345
2346(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2347
2348=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2349
75b44862
GS
2350(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2351They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2352
49704364 2353=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2354
49704364
WL
2355(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2356follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2357See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2358
2359=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2360
be771a83
GS
2361(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2362that yet.
6df41af2
GS
2363
2364=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
2365
be771a83
GS
2366(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2367sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2368local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2369
8b1a09fc 2370=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2371
e476b1b5 2372(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2373If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2374again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2375provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e 2376
64b374f4
FD
2377NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2378%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2379the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2380will not trigger this warning.
2381
49704364
WL
2382=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2383
2384(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2385negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2386
a0d0e21e
LW
2387=item Negative length
2388
be771a83
GS
2389(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2390length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2391
ed9aa3b7
SG
2392=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2393
2394(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2395greater than or equal to zero.
2396
7253e4e3 2397=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2398
b45f050a 2399(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2400things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2401expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2402
7253e4e3 2403Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2404C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2405
6df41af2 2406=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2407
be771a83
GS
2408(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2409scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e
LW
2410
2411=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2412
be771a83
GS
2413(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2414setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2415will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2416securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2417
a0d0e21e
LW
2418=item No comma allowed after %s
2419
2420(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2421allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2422Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2423
0a753a76 2424One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2425constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2426importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2427does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2428explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2429L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2430would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2431remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2432constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2433list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2434this error was triggered?
2435
748a9306
LW
2436=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2437
be771a83
GS
2438(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2439redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2440doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2441
a0d0e21e
LW
2442=item No DB::DB routine defined
2443
be771a83 2444(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
ccafdc96
RGS
2445for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2446module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2447statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2448
2449=item No dbm on this machine
2450
2451(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2452supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2453
ccafdc96 2454=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2455
ccafdc96
RGS
2456(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2457for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2458module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2459of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2460
96ebfdd7
RK
2461=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2462
2463(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2464
c47ff5f1 2465=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2466
be771a83
GS
2467(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2468redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2469find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2470
49704364
WL
2471=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2472
2473(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2474matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2475
c47ff5f1 2476=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2477
be771a83
GS
2478(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2479redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2480name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2481
6df41af2
GS
2482=item No #! line
2483
2484(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2485even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2486
2487=item "no" not allowed in expression
2488
be771a83
GS
2489(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2490returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2491
c47ff5f1 2492=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2493
be771a83
GS
2494(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2495redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2496doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2497
c47ff5f1 2498=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2499
be771a83
GS
2500(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2501redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2502find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2503
1ec3e8de
GS
2504=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2505
be771a83
GS
2506(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2507declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2508semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2509
a0d0e21e
LW
2510=item No Perl script found in input
2511
2512(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2513with #! and containing the word "perl".
2514
2515=item No setregid available
2516
2517(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2518your system.
2519
2520=item No setreuid available
2521
2522(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2523your system.
2524
6df41af2
GS
2525=item No %s specified for -%c
2526
2527(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2528you haven't specified one.
2529
e75d1f10
RD
2530=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2531
2532(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2533but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2534package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2535
2c692339
RGS
2536=item No such class %s
2537
2538(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration, but
2539this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2540
6df41af2
GS
2541=item No such pipe open
2542
2543(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2544close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2545earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2546
a0d0e21e
LW
2547=item No such signal: SIG%s
2548
be771a83
GS
2549(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2550not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2551names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2552
2553=item Not a CODE reference
2554
2555(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2556subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2557use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2558also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2559
2560=item Not a format reference
2561
2562(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2563format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2564
2565=item Not a GLOB reference
2566
be771a83
GS
2567(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
2568symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2569something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
2570kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2571
2572=item Not a HASH reference
2573
be771a83
GS
2574(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
2575reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
2576find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2577
6df41af2
GS
2578=item Not an ARRAY reference
2579
be771a83
GS
2580(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
2581a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2582to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 2583
a0d0e21e
LW
2584=item Not a perl script
2585
2586(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2587even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2588mention perl.
2589
2590=item Not a SCALAR reference
2591
be771a83
GS
2592(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
2593a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2594to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2595
2596=item Not a subroutine reference
2597
2598(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2599subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2600use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2601also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2602
e7ea3e70 2603=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2604
2605(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2606doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2607
a0d0e21e
LW
2608=item Not enough arguments for %s
2609
2610(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2611
6df41af2
GS
2612=item Not enough format arguments
2613
be771a83
GS
2614(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
2615supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
2616
2617=item %s: not found
2618
be771a83
GS
2619(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
2620of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
2621yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2622
2623=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 2624
6df41af2
GS
2625(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
2626timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
2627to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
2628F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
2629need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2630
2631=item Null filename used
2632
be771a83
GS
2633(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
2634machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2635
6df41af2
GS
2636=item NULL OP IN RUN
2637
be771a83
GS
2638(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
2639pointer.
6df41af2 2640
55497cff 2641=item Null picture in formline
2642
2643(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2644specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2645supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2646
a0d0e21e
LW
2647=item Null realloc
2648
2649(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2650
2651=item NULL regexp argument
2652
5f05dabc 2653(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2654
2655=item NULL regexp parameter
2656
2657(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2658
fc36a67e 2659=item Number too long
2660
be771a83 2661(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 2662about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
2663versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
2664the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
2665"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 2666
6df41af2
GS
2667=item Octal number in vector unsupported
2668
be771a83
GS
2669(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
2670The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
2671future version.
6df41af2 2672
252aa082
JH
2673=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2674
75b44862 2675(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
2676(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2677L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2678
2679See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2680
6ad11d81
JH
2681=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
2682
04a80ee0
RGS
2683(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
2684arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 2685
b21befc1
MG
2686=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
2687
2688(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2689which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
2690
1930e939 2691=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2692
be771a83
GS
2693(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2694which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2695
bbce6d69 2696=item Offset outside string
2697
2698(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
be771a83
GS
2699pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine. The sole
2700exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer will extend
2701the buffer and zero pad the new area.
bbce6d69 2702
c289d2f7 2703=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
2704
2705(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
2706never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
2707call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
2708
96ebfdd7
RK
2709=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
2710
2711(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
2712that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2713
a0d0e21e
LW
2714=item oops: oopsAV
2715
e476b1b5 2716(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
2717
2718=item oops: oopsHV
2719
e476b1b5 2720(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 2721
a0288114 2722=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2723
be771a83
GS
2724(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
2725handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
2726of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
2727C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2728
748a9306
LW
2729=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2730
be771a83
GS
2731(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
2732was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
2733use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
2734example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
2735"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 2736
6df41af2
GS
2737=item "our" variable %s redeclared
2738
be771a83
GS
2739(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
2740in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 2741
a80b8354
GS
2742=item Out of memory!
2743
2744(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
2745remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
2746no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 2747
19a52907
JH
2748At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
2749process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
2750C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
2751the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
2752and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
2753
6d3b25aa
RGS
2754=item Out of memory during %s extend
2755
2756(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
2757the largest possible memory allocation.
2758
6df41af2 2759=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 2760
6df41af2
GS
2761(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2762remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
2763the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
2764possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 2765
1b979e0a 2766=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2767
be771a83
GS
2768(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
2769insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
2770request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2771
2772The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2773depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
2774However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
2775emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
2776is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
2777where the failed request happened.
55497cff 2778
1b979e0a
IZ
2779=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2780
2781(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
2782is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
2783C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 2784
6df41af2
GS
2785=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2786
be771a83
GS
2787(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
2788parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
2789otherwise.
6df41af2 2790
28be1210
TH
2791=item '.' outside of string in pack
2792
2793(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
2794position to before the start of the packed string being built.
2795
49704364 2796=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 2797
49704364 2798(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
2799the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2800
f337b084
TH
2801=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
2802
2803(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
2804the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
2805UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2806
6df41af2
GS
2807=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
2808
be771a83
GS
2809(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
2810package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
2811some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
2812mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 2813
96ebfdd7
RK
2814=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
2815
2816(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
2817signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2818
a0d0e21e
LW
2819=item page overflow
2820
be771a83
GS
2821(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
2822page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 2823
6df41af2
GS
2824=item panic: %s
2825
2826(P) An internal error.
2827
a0d0e21e
LW
2828=item panic: ck_grep
2829
2830(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
2831
2832=item panic: ck_split
2833
2834(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
2835
2836=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
2837
be771a83
GS
2838(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
2839there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 2840
810b8aa5
GS
2841=item panic: del_backref
2842
2843(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
2844reference.
2845
7619c85e
RG
2846=item panic: Devel::DProf inconsistent subroutine return
2847
2848(P) Devel::DProf called a subroutine that exited using goto(LABEL),
2849last(LABEL) or next(LABEL). Leaving that way a subroutine called from
2850an XSUB will lead very probably to a crash of the interpreter. This is
2851a bug that will hopefully one day get fixed.
2852
a0d0e21e
LW
2853=item panic: die %s
2854
2855(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
2856it wasn't an eval context.
2857
a0d0e21e
LW
2858=item panic: do_subst
2859
be771a83
GS
2860(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational
2861data.
a0d0e21e 2862
2269b42e 2863=item panic: do_trans_%s
a0d0e21e 2864
2269b42e 2865(P) The internal do_trans routines were called with invalid operational
be771a83 2866data.
a0d0e21e 2867
c635e13b 2868=item panic: frexp
2869
2870(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2871
a0d0e21e
LW
2872=item panic: goto
2873
2874(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2875and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2876
2877=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2878
2879(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2880
2881=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2882
2883(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2884
e446cec8
IZ
2885=item panic: kid popen errno read
2886
2887(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2888
a0d0e21e
LW
2889=item panic: last
2890
2891(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2892it wasn't a block context.
2893
2894=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2895
be771a83
GS
2896(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the
2897scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2898
2899=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2900
2901(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2902invalid enum on the top of it.
2903
810b8aa5
GS
2904=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
2905
2906(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
2907references to an object.
2908
6df41af2
GS
2909=item panic: malloc
2910
2911(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2912
a0d0e21e
LW
2913=item panic: mapstart
2914
2915(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2916
27d5b266
JH
2917=item panic: memory wrap
2918
2919(P) Something tried to allocate more memory than possible.
2920
a0d0e21e
LW
2921=item panic: null array
2922
2923(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2924
2925=item panic: pad_alloc
2926
2927(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2928and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2929
2930=item panic: pad_free curpad
2931
2932(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2933and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2934
2935=item panic: pad_free po
2936
2937(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2938
2939=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2940
2941(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2942and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2943
2944=item panic: pad_sv po
2945
2946(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2947
2948=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2949
2950(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2951and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2952
2953=item panic: pad_swipe po
2954
2955(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2956
2957=item panic: pp_iter
2958
2959(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2960
96ebfdd7
RK
2961=item panic: pp_match%s
2962
2963(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational
2964data.
2965
2269b42e
JH
2966=item panic: pp_split
2967
2968(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
2969
a0d0e21e
LW
2970=item panic: realloc
2971
2972(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2973
2974=item panic: restartop
2975
2976(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2977didn't supply the destination.
2978
2979=item panic: return
2980
2981(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2982then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2983
2984=item panic: scan_num
2985
2986(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2987
2988=item panic: sv_insert
2989
2990(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2991was string.
2992
2993=item panic: top_env
2994
6224f72b 2995(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e 2996
dea0fc0b
JH
2997=item panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen
2998
2999(P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8 with an odd (as opposed
64977eb6 3000to even) byte length.
dea0fc0b 3001
2f7da168
RK
3002=item panic: yylex
3003
3004(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
3005
7b8d334a 3006=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e 3007
e476b1b5 3008(W parenthesis) You said something like
a0d0e21e
LW
3009
3010 my $foo, $bar = @_;
3011
3012when you meant
3013
3014 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
3015
54884818 3016Remember that "my", "our", and "local" bind tighter than comma.
a0d0e21e 3017
96ebfdd7
RK
3018=item C<-p> destination: %s
3019
3020(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
3021command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
3022redirected it with select().)
3023
3024=item (perhaps you forgot to load "%s"?)
3025
3026(F) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
3027"Can't locate object method \"%s\" via package \"%s\"". It often means
3028that a method requires a package that has not been loaded.
3029
1109a392
MHM
3030=item Perl_my_%s() not available
3031
3032(F) Your platform has very uncommon byte-order and integer size,
3033so it was not possible to set up some or all fixed-width byte-order
3034conversion functions. This is only a problem when you're using the
3035'<' or '>' modifiers in (un)pack templates. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3036
6d3b25aa
RGS
3037=item Perl %s required--this is only version %s, stopped
3038
3039(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more
3040recent than the currently running version. How long has it been since
3041you upgraded, anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
3042
6df41af2
GS
3043=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
3044
3045(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
fecfaeb8 3046C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 3047
96ebfdd7
RK
3048=item PERL_SIGNALS illegal: "%s"
3049
3050See L<perlrun/PERL_SIGNALS> for legal values.
3051
6df41af2
GS
3052=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3053
3054(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
3055
3056 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3057 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
3058 LC_ALL = "En_US",
3059 LANG = (unset)
3060 are supported and installed on your system.
3061 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
3062
3063Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
3064settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
0ea6b70f
JH
3065This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your operating
3066system supplier and/or system administrator have set up the so-called
3067locale system but Perl could not use those settings. This was not
3068dead serious, fortunately: there is a "default locale" called "C" that
3069Perl can and will use, the script will be run. Before you really fix
3070the problem, however, you will get the same error message each time
3071you run Perl. How to really fix the problem can be found in
3072L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
6df41af2 3073
a0d0e21e
LW
3074=item Permission denied
3075
3076(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
3077
bd3fa61c 3078=item pid %x not a child
748a9306 3079
be771a83
GS
3080(W exec) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a
3081process which isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is
3082fine from VMS' perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
748a9306 3083
49704364 3084=item 'P' must have an explicit size in unpack
3bf38418
WL
3085
3086(F) The unpack format P must have an explicit size, not "*".
3087
96ebfdd7
RK
3088=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
3089
3090(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
3091which provides a race condition that breaks security.
3092
3093=item POSIX class [:%s:] unknown in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3094
3095(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown. The <-- HERE
3096shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
3097Note that the POSIX character classes do B<not> have the C<is> prefix
3098the corresponding C interfaces have: in other words, it's C<[[:print:]]>,
3099not C<isprint>. See L<perlre>.
3100
3101=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
3102
3103(F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
3104the BSD version, which takes a pid.
3105
49704364 3106=item POSIX syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 3107
9a0b3859 3108(W regexp) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
7253e4e3
RK
3109I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct, for example:
3110/[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that [= =] and [. .] are not currently
3111implemented; they are simply placeholders for future extensions and will
3112cause fatal errors. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
3113where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 3114
49704364 3115=item POSIX syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3116
3117(F regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
7253e4e3
RK
3118beginning with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
3119If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
3120expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
3121backslash: "\[." and ".\]". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression
3122about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 3123
49704364 3124=item POSIX syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 3125
7253e4e3
RK
3126(F) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
3127with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions. If you
3128need to represent those character sequences inside a regular expression
3129character class, just quote the square brackets with the backslash: "\[="
3130and "=\]". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
3131problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 3132
bbce6d69 3133=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
3134
e476b1b5 3135(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
75b44862 3136strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated as
be771a83
GS
3137literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
3138parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 3139
774d564b 3140You probably wrote something like this:
3141
54310121 3142 @list = qw(
774d564b 3143 a # a comment
bbce6d69 3144 b # another comment
774d564b 3145 );
bbce6d69 3146
3147when you should have written this:
3148
774d564b 3149 @list = qw(
54310121 3150 a
3151 b
774d564b 3152 );
3153
3154If you really want comments, build your list the
3155old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
3156
3157 @list = (
3158 'a', # a comment
3159 'b', # another comment
3160 );
bbce6d69 3161
3162=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
3163
be771a83
GS
3164(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore
3165commas aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used
3166different delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also
3167frequently used.)
bbce6d69 3168
54310121 3169You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 3170
774d564b 3171 qw! a, b, c !;
3172
3173which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
3174commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 3175
774d564b 3176 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 3177
a0d0e21e
LW
3178=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
3179
3180(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
3181Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
3182end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
3183Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
3184
276b2a0c
RGS
3185=item Possible precedence problem on bitwise %c operator
3186
3187(W precedence) Your program uses a bitwise logical operator in conjunction
3188with a numeric comparison operator, like this :
3189
3190 if ($x & $y == 0) { ... }
3191
3192This expression is actually equivalent to C<$x & ($y == 0)>, due to the
3193higher precedence of C<==>. This is probably not what you want. (If you
96a925ab
YST
3194really meant to write this, disable the warning, or, better, put the
3195parentheses explicitly and write C<$x & ($y == 0)>).
276b2a0c 3196
18623440
PS
3197=item Possible unintended interpolation of %s in string
3198
3199(W ambiguous) You said something like `@foo' in a double-quoted string
32b0a12e
AMS
3200but there was no array C<@foo> in scope at the time. If you wanted a
3201literal @foo, then write it as \@foo; otherwise find out what happened
3202to the array you apparently lost track of.
18623440 3203
8cd79558
GS
3204=item pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME : ATTRS" instead
3205
a1063b2d 3206(D deprecated) You have written something like this:
8cd79558
GS
3207
3208 sub doit
3209 {
3210 use attrs qw(locked);
3211 }
3212
3213You should use the new declaration syntax instead.
3214
3215 sub doit : locked
3216 {
3217 ...
3218
3219The C<use attrs> pragma is now obsolete, and is only provided for
3220backward-compatibility. See L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes">.
3221
a0d0e21e
LW
3222=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
3223
e476b1b5 3224(S precedence) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 3225
a0d0e21e
LW
3226 open FOO || die;
3227
3228is now misinterpreted as
3229
3230 open(FOO || die);
3231
be771a83
GS
3232because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary and
3233list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must put
3234parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator instead
3235of "||".
a0d0e21e 3236
3cdd684c
TP
3237=item Premature end of script headers
3238
3239See Server error.
3240
6df41af2
GS
3241=item printf() on closed filehandle %s
3242
be771a83 3243(W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 3244before now. Check your control flow.
6df41af2 3245
9a7dcd9c 3246=item print() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 3247
be771a83 3248(W closed) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 3249before now. Check your control flow.
a0d0e21e 3250
6df41af2 3251=item Process terminated by SIG%s
a0d0e21e 3252
6df41af2
GS
3253(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
3254applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
3255port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
3256L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
fecfaeb8 3257in L<perlos2>.
a0d0e21e 3258
3fe9a6f1 3259=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 3260
9a0b3859 3261(S prototype) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been
be771a83 3262declared or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 3263
ed9aa3b7
SG
3264=item Prototype not terminated
3265
2a6fd447 3266(F) You've omitted the closing parenthesis in a function prototype
ed9aa3b7
SG
3267definition.
3268
96ebfdd7
RK
3269=item Quantifier follows nothing in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3270
3271(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it if you
3272meant it literally. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
3273where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
3274
49704364 3275=item Quantifier in {,} bigger than %d in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
9baa0206 3276
b45f050a 3277(F) There is currently a limit to the size of the min and max values of the
7253e4e3 3278{min,max} construct. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where
b45f050a 3279the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
9baa0206 3280
49704364 3281=item Quantifier unexpected on zero-length expression; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
9baa0206 3282
b45f050a
JF
3283(W regexp) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where
3284it makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion. Try putting the
3285quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example, the way to match
3286"abc" provided that it is followed by three repetitions of "xyz" is
3287C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
9baa0206 3288
7253e4e3
RK
3289The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
3290discovered.
3291
89ea2908
GA
3292=item Range iterator outside integer range
3293
3294(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
3295are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
be771a83
GS
3296One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string increment
3297by prepending "0" to your numbers.
89ea2908 3298
96ebfdd7
RK
3299=item readline() on closed filehandle %s
3300
3301(W closed) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime
3302before now. Check your control flow.
3303
b5fe5ca2
SR
3304=item read() on closed filehandle %s
3305
3306(W closed) You tried to read from a closed filehandle.
3307
3308=item read() on unopened filehandle %s
3309
3310(W unopened) You tried to read from a filehandle that was never opened.
3311
6df41af2
GS
3312=item Reallocation too large: %lx
3313
3314(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
3315
4ad56ec9
IZ
3316=item realloc() of freed memory ignored
3317
be771a83
GS
3318(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
3319already been freed.
4ad56ec9 3320
a0d0e21e
LW
3321=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
3322
be771a83
GS
3323(F debugging) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce
3324the desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
a0d0e21e
LW
3325which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
3326
3e0ccd42 3327=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
3328
3329(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
3330an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
3331
7a4340ed 3332=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method %s
3e0ccd42 3333
be771a83
GS
3334(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking
3335a method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance
3336hierarchy.
3e0ccd42 3337
1930e939
TP
3338=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
3339
be771a83
GS
3340(W misc) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list
3341with an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This usually
3342means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant to use
3343parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
3344
3345 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
3346 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
3347 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
3348 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
3349
810b8aa5
GS
3350=item Reference is already weak
3351
e476b1b5 3352(W misc) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.
810b8aa5
GS
3353Doing so has no effect.
3354
a0d0e21e
LW
3355=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
3356
be771a83
GS
3357(W internal) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with
3358a reference count of other than 1.
a0d0e21e 3359
49704364 3360=item Reference to nonexistent group in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3361
3362(F) You used something like C<\7> in your regular expression, but there are
3363not at least seven sets of capturing parentheses in the expression. If you
3364wanted to have the character with value 7 inserted into the regular expression,
3365prepend a zero to make the number at least two digits: C<\07>
9baa0206 3366
7253e4e3 3367The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a 3368discovered.
9baa0206 3369
a0d0e21e
LW
3370=item regexp memory corruption
3371
3372(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
3373expression compiler gave it.
3374
b45f050a 3375=item Regexp out of space
a0d0e21e 3376
be771a83
GS
3377(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it
3378earlier.
a0d0e21e 3379
a1b95068
WL
3380=item Repeated format line will never terminate (~~ and @# incompatible)
3381
3382(F) Your format containes the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence and a
3383numeric field that will never go blank so that the repetition never
3384terminates. You might use ^# instead. See L<perlform>.
3385
a0d0e21e
LW
3386=item Reversed %s= operator
3387
be771a83
GS
3388(W syntax) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must
3389always comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
a0d0e21e
LW
3390
3391=item Runaway format
3392
3393(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
3394produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
3395199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
3396themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
3397shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
3398
96ebfdd7
RK
3399=item Scalars leaked: %d
3400
3401(P) Something went wrong in Perl's internal bookkeeping of scalars:
3402not all scalar variables were deallocated by the time Perl exited.
3403What this usually indicates is a memory leak, which is of course bad,
3404especially if the Perl program is intended to be long-running.
3405
a0d0e21e
LW
3406=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
3407
be771a83
GS
3408(W syntax) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a
3409single element of an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar
3410value (indicated by $). The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always
3411behaves like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when evaluating its
3412argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves like a list when you assign to it,
3413and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
3414if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 3415
748a9306 3416On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 3417element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
3418Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
3419L<perlref>.
3420
a6006777 3421=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
3422
75b44862 3423(W syntax) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single
be771a83
GS
3424element of a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value
3425(indicated by $). The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves
3426like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when evaluating its
3