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9133bbab 1This document is written in pod format hence there are punctuation
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2characters in odd places. Do not worry, you've apparently got the
3ASCII->EBCDIC translation worked out correctly. You can read more
4about pod in pod/perlpod.pod or the short summary in the INSTALL file.
9d116dd7 5
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6=head1 NAME
7
37a78d01 8README.os390 - building and installing Perl for OS/390 and z/OS
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9
10=head1 SYNOPSIS
11
12This document will help you Configure, build, test and install Perl
37a78d01 13on OS/390 (aka z/OS) Unix System Services.
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14
15=head1 DESCRIPTION
16
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17This is a fully ported Perl for OS/390 Version 2 Release 3, 5, 6, 7,
188, and 9. It may work on other versions or releases, but those are
eae55d03 19the ones we've tested it on.
8fde188e 20
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21You may need to carry out some system configuration tasks before
22running the Configure script for Perl.
8fde188e 23
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24
25=head2 Tools
26
27The z/OS Unix Tools and Toys list may prove helpful and contains links
f110302f 28to ports of much of the software helpful for building Perl.
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29http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html
30
31
a83b6f46 32=head2 Unpacking Perl distribution on OS/390
9d116dd7 33
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34If using ftp remember to transfer the distribution in binary format.
35
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36Gunzip/gzip for OS/390 is discussed at:
37
37a78d01 38 http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/faq/bpxqp1.html
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39
40to extract an ASCII tar archive on OS/390, try this:
41
42 pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < latest.tar
43
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44or
45
46 zcat latest.tar.Z | pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r
47
0e7519cd 48If you get lots of errors of the form
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49
50 tar: FSUM7171 ...: cannot set uid/gid: EDC5139I Operation not permitted.
bbee22da 51
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52you didn't read the above and tried to use tar instead of pax, you'll
53first have to remove the (now corrupt) perl directory
54
55 rm -rf perl-...
56
57and then use pax.
bbee22da 58
a83b6f46 59=head2 Setup and utilities for Perl on OS/390
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60
61Be sure that your yacc installation is in place including any necessary
62parser template files. If you have not already done so then be sure to:
63
64 cp /samples/yyparse.c /etc
65
9133bbab 66This may also be a good time to ensure that your /etc/protocol file
8fde188e 67and either your /etc/resolv.conf or /etc/hosts files are in place.
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68The IBM document that described such USS system setup issues was
69SC28-1890-07 "OS/390 UNIX System Services Planning", in particular
70Chapter 6 on customizing the OE shell.
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72GNU make for OS/390, which is recommended for the build of perl (as
73well as building CPAN modules and extensions), is available from the
74L</Tools>.
9d116dd7 75
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76Some people have reported encountering "Out of memory!" errors while
77trying to build Perl using GNU make binaries. If you encounter such
78trouble then try to download the source code kit and build GNU make
79from source to eliminate any such trouble. You might also find GNU make
80(as well as Perl and Apache) in the red-piece/book "Open Source Software
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81for OS/390 UNIX", SG24-5944-00 from IBM.
82
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83If instead of the recommended GNU make you would like to use the system
84supplied make program then be sure to install the default rules file
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85properly via the shell command:
86
87 cp /samples/startup.mk /etc
88
89and be sure to also set the environment variable _C89_CCMODE=1 (exporting
90_C89_CCMODE=1 is also a good idea for users of GNU make).
91
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92You might also want to have GNU groff for OS/390 installed before
93running the `make install` step for Perl.
94
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95There is a syntax error in the /usr/include/sys/socket.h header file
96that IBM supplies with USS V2R7, V2R8, and possibly V2R9. The problem with
97the header file is that near the definition of the SO_REUSEPORT constant
98there is a spurious extra '/' character outside of a comment like so:
99
100 #define SO_REUSEPORT 0x0200 /* allow local address & port
101 reuse */ /
102
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103You could edit that header yourself to remove that last '/', or you might
104note that Language Environment (LE) APAR PQ39997 describes the problem
eae55d03 105and PTF's UQ46272 and UQ46271 are the (R8 at least) fixes and apply them.
9133bbab 106If left unattended that syntax error will turn up as an inability for Perl
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107to build its "Socket" extension.
108
9133bbab 109For successful testing you may need to turn on the sticky bit for your
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110world readable /tmp directory if you have not already done so (see man chmod).
111
a83b6f46 112=head2 Configure Perl on OS/390
8fde188e 113
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114Once you've unpacked the distribution, run "sh Configure" (see INSTALL
115for a full discussion of the Configure options). There is a "hints" file
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116for os390 that specifies the correct values for most things. Some things
117to watch out for include:
118
119=over 4
120
121=item *
122
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123A message of the form:
124
125 (I see you are using the Korn shell. Some ksh's blow up on Configure,
126 mainly on older exotic systems. If yours does, try the Bourne shell instead.)
127
128is nothing to worry about at all.
129
130=item *
131
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132Some of the parser default template files in /samples are needed in /etc.
133In particular be sure that you at least copy /samples/yyparse.c to /etc
eae55d03 134before running Perl's Configure. This step ensures successful extraction
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135of EBCDIC versions of parser files such as perly.c, perly.h, and x2p/a2p.c.
136This has to be done before running Configure the first time. If you failed
137to do so then the easiest way to re-Configure Perl is to delete your
138misconfigured build root and re-extract the source from the tar ball.
139Then you must ensure that /etc/yyparse.c is properly in place before
59c9e5d6 140attempting to re-run Configure.
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141
142=item *
143
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144This port will support dynamic loading, but it is not selected by
145default. If you would like to experiment with dynamic loading then
146be sure to specify -Dusedl in the arguments to the Configure script.
147See the comments in hints/os390.sh for more information on dynamic loading.
148If you build with dynamic loading then you will need to add the
149$archlibexp/CORE directory to your LIBPATH environment variable in order
150for perl to work. See the config.sh file for the value of $archlibexp.
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151If in trying to use Perl you see an error message similar to:
152
153 CEE3501S The module libperl.dll was not found.
154 From entry point __dllstaticinit at compile unit offset +00000194 at
155
9133bbab 156then your LIBPATH does not have the location of libperl.x and either
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157libperl.dll or libperl.so in it. Add that directory to your LIBPATH and
158proceed.
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159
160=item *
9d116dd7 161
eae55d03 162Do not turn on the compiler optimization flag "-O". There is
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163a bug in either the optimizer or perl that causes perl to
164not work correctly when the optimizer is on.
9d116dd7 165
8fde188e 166=item *
9d116dd7 167
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168Some of the configuration files in /etc used by the
169networking APIs are either missing or have the wrong
170names. In particular, make sure that there's either
eae55d03 171an /etc/resolv.conf or an /etc/hosts, so that
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172gethostbyname() works, and make sure that the file
173/etc/proto has been renamed to /etc/protocol (NOT
174/etc/protocols, as used by other Unix systems).
59c9e5d6 175You may have to look for things like HOSTNAME and DOMAINORIGIN
9133bbab 176in the "//'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'" PDS member in order to
59c9e5d6 177properly set up your /etc networking files.
9d116dd7 178
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179=back
180
a83b6f46 181=head2 Build, Test, Install Perl on OS/390
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182
183Simply put:
184
185 sh Configure
186 make
187 make test
188
eae55d03 189if everything looks ok (see the next section for test/IVP diagnosis) then:
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190
191 make install
192
193this last step may or may not require UID=0 privileges depending
194on how you answered the questions that Configure asked and whether
195or not you have write access to the directories you specified.
196
a83b6f46 197=head2 Build Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
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198
199"Out of memory!" messages during the build of Perl are most often fixed
200by re building the GNU make utility for OS/390 from a source code kit.
201
202Another memory limiting item to check is your MAXASSIZE parameter in your
203'SYS1.PARMLIB(BPXPRMxx)' data set (note too that as of V2R8 address space
9133bbab 204limits can be set on a per user ID basis in the USS segment of a RACF
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205profile). People have reported successful builds of Perl with MAXASSIZE
206parameters as small as 503316480 (and it may be possible to build Perl
207with a MAXASSIZE smaller than that).
208
9133bbab 209Within USS your /etc/profile or $HOME/.profile may limit your ulimit
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210settings. Check that the following command returns reasonable values:
211
212 ulimit -a
213
214To conserve memory you should have your compiler modules loaded into the
215Link Pack Area (LPA/ELPA) rather than in a link list or step lib.
216
217If the c89 compiler complains of syntax errors during the build of the
218Socket extension then be sure to fix the syntax error in the system
219header /usr/include/sys/socket.h.
220
a83b6f46 221=head2 Testing Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
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222
223The `make test` step runs a Perl Verification Procedure, usually before
224installation. You might encounter STDERR messages even during a successful
225run of `make test`. Here is a guide to some of the more commonly seen
226anomalies:
227
228=over 4
229
230=item *
231
232A message of the form:
233
234 comp/cpp.............ERROR CBC3191 ./.301989890.c:1 The character $ is not a
235 valid C source character.
236 FSUM3065 The COMPILE step ended with return code 12.
237 FSUM3017 Could not compile .301989890.c. Correct the errors and try again.
238 ok
239
240indicates that the t/comp/cpp.t test of Perl's -P command line switch has
241passed but that the particular invocation of c89 -E in the cpp script does
242not suppress the C compiler check of source code validity.
243
244=item *
245
246A message of the form:
247
248 io/openpid...........CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
249 CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
250 CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
251 ok
252
253indicates that the t/io/openpid.t test of Perl has passed but done so
254with extraneous messages on stderr from CEE.
255
256=item *
257
258A message of the form:
259
260 lib/ftmp-security....File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/) is not safe
261 (sticky bit not set when world writable?) at lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
262 File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/) is not safe (sticky bit not
263 set when world writable?) at lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
264 ok
265
266indicates a problem with the permissions on your /tmp directory within the HFS.
267To correct that problem issue the command:
268
269 chmod a+t /tmp
270
271from an account with write access to the directory entry for /tmp.
272
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273=item *
274
275Out of Memory!
276
277Recent perl test suite is quite memory hunrgy. In addition to the comments
278above on memory limitations it is also worth checking for _CEE_RUNOPTS
279in your environment. Perl now has (in miniperlmain.c) a C #pragma
210b36aa 280to set CEE run options, but the environment variable wins.
9133bbab 281
210b36aa 282The C code asks for:
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283
284 #pragma runopts(HEAP(2M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K) STACK(,,ANY,) ALL31(ON))
285
286The important parts of that are the second argument (the increment) to HEAP,
287and allowing the stack to be "Above the (16M) line". If the heap
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288increment is too small then when perl (for example loading unicode/Name.pl) tries
289to create a "big" (400K+) string it cannot fit in a single segment
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290and you get "Out of Memory!" - even if there is still plenty of memory
291available.
292
293A related issue is use with perl's malloc. Perl's malloc uses C<sbrk()>
294to get memory, and C<sbrk()> is limited to the first allocation so in this
295case something like:
296
297 HEAP(8M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K)
298
299is needed to get through the test suite.
300
301
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302=back
303
a83b6f46 304=head2 Installation Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
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305
306The installman script will try to run on OS/390. There will be fewer errors
9133bbab 307if you have a roff utility installed. You can obtain GNU groff from the
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308Redbook SG24-5944-00 ftp site.
309
a83b6f46 310=head2 Usage Hints for Perl on OS/390
64d55c8a 311
9d116dd7 312When using perl on OS/390 please keep in mind that the EBCDIC and ASCII
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313character sets are different. See perlebcdic.pod for more on such character
314set issues. Perl builtin functions that may behave differently under
eae55d03 315EBCDIC are also mentioned in the perlport.pod document.
9d116dd7 316
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317Open Edition (UNIX System Services) from V2R8 onward does support
318#!/path/to/perl script invocation. There is a PTF available from
eae55d03 319IBM for V2R7 that will allow shell/kernel support for #!. USS
9133bbab 320releases prior to V2R7 did not support the #! means of script invocation.
eae55d03 321If you are running V2R6 or earlier then see:
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322
323 head `whence perldoc`
324
325for an example of how to use the "eval exec" trick to ask the shell to
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326have Perl run your scripts on those older releases of Unix System Services.
327
59c9e5d6 328If you are having trouble with square brackets then consider switching your
9133bbab 329rlogin or telnet client. Try to avoid older 3270 emulators and ISHELL for
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330working with Perl on USS.
331
a83b6f46 332=head2 Floating Point Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
35a77668 333
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334There appears to be a bug in the floating point implementation on S/390
335systems such that calling int() on the product of a number and a small
336magnitude number is not the same as calling int() on the quotient of
337that number and a large magnitude number. For example, in the following
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338Perl code:
339
340 my $x = 100000.0;
341 my $y = int($x * 1e-5) * 1e5; # '0'
342 my $z = int($x / 1e+5) * 1e5; # '100000'
343 print "\$y is $y and \$z is $z\n"; # $y is 0 and $z is 100000
344
9133bbab 345Although one would expect the quantities $y and $z to be the same and equal
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346to 100000 they will differ and instead will be 0 and 100000 respectively.
347
348The problem can be further examined in a roughly equivalent C program:
349
350 #include <stdio.h>
351 #include <math.h>
352 main()
353 {
354 double r1,r2;
355 double x = 100000.0;
356 double y = 0.0;
357 double z = 0.0;
358 x = 100000.0 * 1e-5;
359 r1 = modf (x,&y);
360 x = 100000.0 / 1e+5;
361 r2 = modf (x,&z);
362 printf("y is %e and z is %e\n",y*1e5,z*1e5);
363 /* y is 0.000000e+00 and z is 1.000000e+05 (with c89) */
364 }
365
a83b6f46 366=head2 Modules and Extensions for Perl on OS/390
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367
368Pure pure (that is non xs) modules may be installed via the usual:
369
370 perl Makefile.PL
371 make
372 make test
373 make install
374
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375If you built perl with dynamic loading capability then that would also
376be the way to build xs based extensions. However, if you built perl with
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377the default static linking you can still build xs based extensions for OS/390
378but you will need to follow the instructions in ExtUtils::MakeMaker for
379building statically linked perl binaries. In the simplest configurations
59c9e5d6 380building a static perl + xs extension boils down to:
9d116dd7 381
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382 perl Makefile.PL
383 make
384 make perl
385 make test
386 make install
387 make -f Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl
8fde188e 388
9133bbab 389In most cases people have reported better results with GNU make rather
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390than the system's /bin/make program, whether for plain modules or for
391xs based extensions.
8fde188e 392
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393If the make process encounters trouble with either compilation or
394linking then try setting the _C89_CCMODE to 1. Assuming sh is your
395login shell then run:
396
397 export _C89_CCMODE=1
398
399If tcsh is your login shell then use the setenv command.
400
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401=head1 AUTHORS
402
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403David Fiander and Peter Prymmer with thanks to Dennis Longnecker
404and William Raffloer for valuable reports, LPAR and PTF feedback.
405Thanks to Mike MacIsaac and Egon Terwedow for SG24-5944-00.
35a77668 406Thanks to Ignasi Roca for pointing out the floating point problems.
f2766b05 407Thanks to John Goodyear for dynamic loading help.
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408
409=head1 SEE ALSO
410
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411L<INSTALL>, L<perlport>, L<perlebcdic>, L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>.
412
37a78d01 413 http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html
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414
415 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg245944.html
416
1e32511c 417 http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1ty1.html#opensrc
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418
419 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
8fde188e 420
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421 http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/ceea3030/
422
423 http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/CBCUG030/
424
a83b6f46 425=head2 Mailing list for Perl on OS/390
8fde188e 426
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427If you are interested in the VM/ESA, z/OS (formerly known as OS/390)
428and POSIX-BC (BS2000) ports of Perl then see the perl-mvs mailing list.
429To subscribe, send an empty message to perl-mvs-subscribe@perl.org.
9d116dd7 430
3f66d419 431See also:
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432
433 http://lists.perl.org/showlist.cgi?name=perl-mvs
434
435There are web archives of the mailing list at:
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436
437 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
35a77668 438 http://archive.develooper.com/perl-mvs@perl.org/
9d116dd7 439
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440=head1 HISTORY
441
442This document was originally written by David Fiander for the 5.005
443release of Perl.
444
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445This document was podified for the 5.005_03 release of Perl 11 March 1999.
446
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447Updated 28 November 2001 for broken URLs.
448
eae55d03 449Updated 12 November 2000 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
8fde188e 450
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451Updated 15 January 2001 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
452
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453Updated 24 January 2001 to mention dynamic loading.
454
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455Updated 12 March 2001 to mention //'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'.
456
8fde188e 457=cut
eae55d03 458