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a0d0e21e 1/* sv.c
79072805 2 *
1129b882 3 * Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
83706693
RGS
4 * 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 by Larry Wall
5 * and others
79072805
LW
6 *
7 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
8 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
9 *
4ac71550
TC
10 */
11
12/*
13 * 'I wonder what the Entish is for "yes" and "no",' he thought.
14 * --Pippin
15 *
16 * [p.480 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/iv: "Treebeard"]
17 */
18
19/*
645c22ef
DM
20 *
21 *
5e045b90
AMS
22 * This file contains the code that creates, manipulates and destroys
23 * scalar values (SVs). The other types (AV, HV, GV, etc.) reuse the
24 * structure of an SV, so their creation and destruction is handled
25 * here; higher-level functions are in av.c, hv.c, and so on. Opcode
26 * level functions (eg. substr, split, join) for each of the types are
27 * in the pp*.c files.
79072805
LW
28 */
29
30#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 31#define PERL_IN_SV_C
79072805 32#include "perl.h"
d2f185dc 33#include "regcomp.h"
79072805 34
07208e09 35#ifndef HAS_C99
4b2d6671 36# if __STDC_VERSION__ >= 199901L && !defined(VMS)
07208e09
CS
37# define HAS_C99 1
38# endif
39#endif
40#if HAS_C99
41# include <stdint.h>
42#endif
43
51371543 44#define FCALL *f
2c5424a7 45
2f8ed50e
OS
46#ifdef __Lynx__
47/* Missing proto on LynxOS */
48 char *gconvert(double, int, int, char *);
49#endif
50
e23c8137 51#ifdef PERL_UTF8_CACHE_ASSERT
ab455f60 52/* if adding more checks watch out for the following tests:
e23c8137
JH
53 * t/op/index.t t/op/length.t t/op/pat.t t/op/substr.t
54 * lib/utf8.t lib/Unicode/Collate/t/index.t
55 * --jhi
56 */
6f207bd3 57# define ASSERT_UTF8_CACHE(cache) \
ab455f60
NC
58 STMT_START { if (cache) { assert((cache)[0] <= (cache)[1]); \
59 assert((cache)[2] <= (cache)[3]); \
60 assert((cache)[3] <= (cache)[1]);} \
61 } STMT_END
e23c8137 62#else
6f207bd3 63# define ASSERT_UTF8_CACHE(cache) NOOP
e23c8137
JH
64#endif
65
f8c7b90f 66#ifdef PERL_OLD_COPY_ON_WRITE
765f542d 67#define SV_COW_NEXT_SV(sv) INT2PTR(SV *,SvUVX(sv))
607fa7f2 68#define SV_COW_NEXT_SV_SET(current,next) SvUV_set(current, PTR2UV(next))
b5ccf5f2 69/* This is a pessimistic view. Scalar must be purely a read-write PV to copy-
765f542d 70 on-write. */
765f542d 71#endif
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72
73/* ============================================================================
74
75=head1 Allocation and deallocation of SVs.
76
d2a0f284
JC
77An SV (or AV, HV, etc.) is allocated in two parts: the head (struct
78sv, av, hv...) contains type and reference count information, and for
79many types, a pointer to the body (struct xrv, xpv, xpviv...), which
80contains fields specific to each type. Some types store all they need
81in the head, so don't have a body.
82
486ec47a 83In all but the most memory-paranoid configurations (ex: PURIFY), heads
d2a0f284
JC
84and bodies are allocated out of arenas, which by default are
85approximately 4K chunks of memory parcelled up into N heads or bodies.
93e68bfb
JC
86Sv-bodies are allocated by their sv-type, guaranteeing size
87consistency needed to allocate safely from arrays.
88
d2a0f284
JC
89For SV-heads, the first slot in each arena is reserved, and holds a
90link to the next arena, some flags, and a note of the number of slots.
91Snaked through each arena chain is a linked list of free items; when
92this becomes empty, an extra arena is allocated and divided up into N
93items which are threaded into the free list.
94
95SV-bodies are similar, but they use arena-sets by default, which
96separate the link and info from the arena itself, and reclaim the 1st
97slot in the arena. SV-bodies are further described later.
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98
99The following global variables are associated with arenas:
100
101 PL_sv_arenaroot pointer to list of SV arenas
102 PL_sv_root pointer to list of free SV structures
103
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JC
104 PL_body_arenas head of linked-list of body arenas
105 PL_body_roots[] array of pointers to list of free bodies of svtype
106 arrays are indexed by the svtype needed
93e68bfb 107
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JC
108A few special SV heads are not allocated from an arena, but are
109instead directly created in the interpreter structure, eg PL_sv_undef.
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110The size of arenas can be changed from the default by setting
111PERL_ARENA_SIZE appropriately at compile time.
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112
113The SV arena serves the secondary purpose of allowing still-live SVs
114to be located and destroyed during final cleanup.
115
116At the lowest level, the macros new_SV() and del_SV() grab and free
117an SV head. (If debugging with -DD, del_SV() calls the function S_del_sv()
118to return the SV to the free list with error checking.) new_SV() calls
119more_sv() / sv_add_arena() to add an extra arena if the free list is empty.
120SVs in the free list have their SvTYPE field set to all ones.
121
ff276b08 122At the time of very final cleanup, sv_free_arenas() is called from
645c22ef 123perl_destruct() to physically free all the arenas allocated since the
6a93a7e5 124start of the interpreter.
645c22ef 125
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DM
126The function visit() scans the SV arenas list, and calls a specified
127function for each SV it finds which is still live - ie which has an SvTYPE
128other than all 1's, and a non-zero SvREFCNT. visit() is used by the
129following functions (specified as [function that calls visit()] / [function
130called by visit() for each SV]):
131
132 sv_report_used() / do_report_used()
f2524eef 133 dump all remaining SVs (debugging aid)
645c22ef 134
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DM
135 sv_clean_objs() / do_clean_objs(),do_clean_named_objs(),
136 do_clean_named_io_objs()
645c22ef 137 Attempt to free all objects pointed to by RVs,
c3b19b5c 138 and try to do the same for all objects indirectly
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DM
139 referenced by typeglobs too. Called once from
140 perl_destruct(), prior to calling sv_clean_all()
141 below.
142
143 sv_clean_all() / do_clean_all()
144 SvREFCNT_dec(sv) each remaining SV, possibly
145 triggering an sv_free(). It also sets the
146 SVf_BREAK flag on the SV to indicate that the
147 refcnt has been artificially lowered, and thus
148 stopping sv_free() from giving spurious warnings
149 about SVs which unexpectedly have a refcnt
150 of zero. called repeatedly from perl_destruct()
151 until there are no SVs left.
152
93e68bfb 153=head2 Arena allocator API Summary
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154
155Private API to rest of sv.c
156
157 new_SV(), del_SV(),
158
df0f0429 159 new_XPVNV(), del_XPVGV(),
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DM
160 etc
161
162Public API:
163
8cf8f3d1 164 sv_report_used(), sv_clean_objs(), sv_clean_all(), sv_free_arenas()
645c22ef 165
645c22ef
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166=cut
167
3e8320cc 168 * ========================================================================= */
645c22ef 169
4561caa4
CS
170/*
171 * "A time to plant, and a time to uproot what was planted..."
172 */
173
d7a2c63c
MHM
174#ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG
175# define MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(sv, file, line, func) \
176 Perl_mem_log_new_sv(sv, file, line, func)
177# define MEM_LOG_DEL_SV(sv, file, line, func) \
178 Perl_mem_log_del_sv(sv, file, line, func)
179#else
180# define MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(sv, file, line, func) NOOP
181# define MEM_LOG_DEL_SV(sv, file, line, func) NOOP
182#endif
183
fd0854ff 184#ifdef DEBUG_LEAKING_SCALARS
22162ca8 185# define FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(sv) Safefree((sv)->sv_debug_file)
d7a2c63c
MHM
186# define DEBUG_SV_SERIAL(sv) \
187 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf": (%05ld) del_SV\n", \
188 PTR2UV(sv), (long)(sv)->sv_debug_serial))
fd0854ff
DM
189#else
190# define FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(sv)
d7a2c63c 191# define DEBUG_SV_SERIAL(sv) NOOP
fd0854ff
DM
192#endif
193
48614a46
NC
194#ifdef PERL_POISON
195# define SvARENA_CHAIN(sv) ((sv)->sv_u.svu_rv)
daba3364 196# define SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv,val) (sv)->sv_u.svu_rv = MUTABLE_SV((val))
48614a46
NC
197/* Whilst I'd love to do this, it seems that things like to check on
198 unreferenced scalars
7e337ee0 199# define POSION_SV_HEAD(sv) PoisonNew(sv, 1, struct STRUCT_SV)
48614a46 200*/
7e337ee0
JH
201# define POSION_SV_HEAD(sv) PoisonNew(&SvANY(sv), 1, void *), \
202 PoisonNew(&SvREFCNT(sv), 1, U32)
48614a46
NC
203#else
204# define SvARENA_CHAIN(sv) SvANY(sv)
3eef1deb 205# define SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv,val) SvANY(sv) = (void *)(val)
48614a46
NC
206# define POSION_SV_HEAD(sv)
207#endif
208
990198f0
DM
209/* Mark an SV head as unused, and add to free list.
210 *
211 * If SVf_BREAK is set, skip adding it to the free list, as this SV had
212 * its refcount artificially decremented during global destruction, so
213 * there may be dangling pointers to it. The last thing we want in that
214 * case is for it to be reused. */
215
053fc874
GS
216#define plant_SV(p) \
217 STMT_START { \
990198f0 218 const U32 old_flags = SvFLAGS(p); \
d7a2c63c
MHM
219 MEM_LOG_DEL_SV(p, __FILE__, __LINE__, FUNCTION__); \
220 DEBUG_SV_SERIAL(p); \
fd0854ff 221 FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(p); \
48614a46 222 POSION_SV_HEAD(p); \
053fc874 223 SvFLAGS(p) = SVTYPEMASK; \
990198f0 224 if (!(old_flags & SVf_BREAK)) { \
3eef1deb 225 SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(p, PL_sv_root); \
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DM
226 PL_sv_root = (p); \
227 } \
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GS
228 --PL_sv_count; \
229 } STMT_END
a0d0e21e 230
053fc874
GS
231#define uproot_SV(p) \
232 STMT_START { \
233 (p) = PL_sv_root; \
daba3364 234 PL_sv_root = MUTABLE_SV(SvARENA_CHAIN(p)); \
053fc874
GS
235 ++PL_sv_count; \
236 } STMT_END
237
645c22ef 238
cac9b346
NC
239/* make some more SVs by adding another arena */
240
cac9b346
NC
241STATIC SV*
242S_more_sv(pTHX)
243{
97aff369 244 dVAR;
cac9b346 245 SV* sv;
9a87bd09
NC
246 char *chunk; /* must use New here to match call to */
247 Newx(chunk,PERL_ARENA_SIZE,char); /* Safefree() in sv_free_arenas() */
248 sv_add_arena(chunk, PERL_ARENA_SIZE, 0);
cac9b346
NC
249 uproot_SV(sv);
250 return sv;
251}
252
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DM
253/* new_SV(): return a new, empty SV head */
254
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DM
255#ifdef DEBUG_LEAKING_SCALARS
256/* provide a real function for a debugger to play with */
257STATIC SV*
d7a2c63c 258S_new_SV(pTHX_ const char *file, int line, const char *func)
eba0f806
DM
259{
260 SV* sv;
261
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DM
262 if (PL_sv_root)
263 uproot_SV(sv);
264 else
cac9b346 265 sv = S_more_sv(aTHX);
eba0f806
DM
266 SvANY(sv) = 0;
267 SvREFCNT(sv) = 1;
268 SvFLAGS(sv) = 0;
fd0854ff 269 sv->sv_debug_optype = PL_op ? PL_op->op_type : 0;
e385c3bf
DM
270 sv->sv_debug_line = (U16) (PL_parser && PL_parser->copline != NOLINE
271 ? PL_parser->copline
272 : PL_curcop
f24aceb1
DM
273 ? CopLINE(PL_curcop)
274 : 0
e385c3bf 275 );
fd0854ff 276 sv->sv_debug_inpad = 0;
cd676548 277 sv->sv_debug_parent = NULL;
fd0854ff 278 sv->sv_debug_file = PL_curcop ? savepv(CopFILE(PL_curcop)): NULL;
d7a2c63c
MHM
279
280 sv->sv_debug_serial = PL_sv_serial++;
281
282 MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(sv, file, line, func);
283 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf": (%05ld) new_SV (from %s:%d [%s])\n",
284 PTR2UV(sv), (long)sv->sv_debug_serial, file, line, func));
285
eba0f806
DM
286 return sv;
287}
d7a2c63c 288# define new_SV(p) (p)=S_new_SV(aTHX_ __FILE__, __LINE__, FUNCTION__)
eba0f806
DM
289
290#else
291# define new_SV(p) \
053fc874 292 STMT_START { \
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GS
293 if (PL_sv_root) \
294 uproot_SV(p); \
295 else \
cac9b346 296 (p) = S_more_sv(aTHX); \
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GS
297 SvANY(p) = 0; \
298 SvREFCNT(p) = 1; \
299 SvFLAGS(p) = 0; \
d7a2c63c 300 MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(p, __FILE__, __LINE__, FUNCTION__); \
053fc874 301 } STMT_END
eba0f806 302#endif
463ee0b2 303
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DM
304
305/* del_SV(): return an empty SV head to the free list */
306
a0d0e21e 307#ifdef DEBUGGING
4561caa4 308
053fc874
GS
309#define del_SV(p) \
310 STMT_START { \
aea4f609 311 if (DEBUG_D_TEST) \
053fc874
GS
312 del_sv(p); \
313 else \
314 plant_SV(p); \
053fc874 315 } STMT_END
a0d0e21e 316
76e3520e 317STATIC void
cea2e8a9 318S_del_sv(pTHX_ SV *p)
463ee0b2 319{
97aff369 320 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
321
322 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_DEL_SV;
323
aea4f609 324 if (DEBUG_D_TEST) {
4633a7c4 325 SV* sva;
a3b680e6 326 bool ok = 0;
daba3364 327 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(sva))) {
53c1dcc0
AL
328 const SV * const sv = sva + 1;
329 const SV * const svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva)];
c0ff570e 330 if (p >= sv && p < svend) {
a0d0e21e 331 ok = 1;
c0ff570e
NC
332 break;
333 }
a0d0e21e
LW
334 }
335 if (!ok) {
9b387841
NC
336 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_INTERNAL),
337 "Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%"UVxf
338 pTHX__FORMAT, PTR2UV(p) pTHX__VALUE);
a0d0e21e
LW
339 return;
340 }
341 }
4561caa4 342 plant_SV(p);
463ee0b2 343}
a0d0e21e 344
4561caa4
CS
345#else /* ! DEBUGGING */
346
347#define del_SV(p) plant_SV(p)
348
349#endif /* DEBUGGING */
463ee0b2 350
645c22ef
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351
352/*
ccfc67b7
JH
353=head1 SV Manipulation Functions
354
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DM
355=for apidoc sv_add_arena
356
357Given a chunk of memory, link it to the head of the list of arenas,
358and split it into a list of free SVs.
359
360=cut
361*/
362
d2bd4e7f
NC
363static void
364S_sv_add_arena(pTHX_ char *const ptr, const U32 size, const U32 flags)
463ee0b2 365{
97aff369 366 dVAR;
daba3364 367 SV *const sva = MUTABLE_SV(ptr);
463ee0b2
LW
368 register SV* sv;
369 register SV* svend;
4633a7c4 370
7918f24d
NC
371 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_ADD_ARENA;
372
4633a7c4 373 /* The first SV in an arena isn't an SV. */
3280af22 374 SvANY(sva) = (void *) PL_sv_arenaroot; /* ptr to next arena */
4633a7c4
LW
375 SvREFCNT(sva) = size / sizeof(SV); /* number of SV slots */
376 SvFLAGS(sva) = flags; /* FAKE if not to be freed */
377
3280af22
NIS
378 PL_sv_arenaroot = sva;
379 PL_sv_root = sva + 1;
4633a7c4
LW
380
381 svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva) - 1];
382 sv = sva + 1;
463ee0b2 383 while (sv < svend) {
3eef1deb 384 SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv, (sv + 1));
03e36789 385#ifdef DEBUGGING
978b032e 386 SvREFCNT(sv) = 0;
03e36789 387#endif
4b69cbe3 388 /* Must always set typemask because it's always checked in on cleanup
03e36789 389 when the arenas are walked looking for objects. */
8990e307 390 SvFLAGS(sv) = SVTYPEMASK;
463ee0b2
LW
391 sv++;
392 }
3eef1deb 393 SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv, 0);
03e36789
NC
394#ifdef DEBUGGING
395 SvREFCNT(sv) = 0;
396#endif
4633a7c4
LW
397 SvFLAGS(sv) = SVTYPEMASK;
398}
399
055972dc
DM
400/* visit(): call the named function for each non-free SV in the arenas
401 * whose flags field matches the flags/mask args. */
645c22ef 402
5226ed68 403STATIC I32
de37a194 404S_visit(pTHX_ SVFUNC_t f, const U32 flags, const U32 mask)
8990e307 405{
97aff369 406 dVAR;
4633a7c4 407 SV* sva;
5226ed68 408 I32 visited = 0;
8990e307 409
7918f24d
NC
410 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_VISIT;
411
daba3364 412 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(sva))) {
53c1dcc0 413 register const SV * const svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva)];
a3b680e6 414 register SV* sv;
4561caa4 415 for (sv = sva + 1; sv < svend; ++sv) {
055972dc
DM
416 if (SvTYPE(sv) != SVTYPEMASK
417 && (sv->sv_flags & mask) == flags
418 && SvREFCNT(sv))
419 {
acfe0abc 420 (FCALL)(aTHX_ sv);
5226ed68
JH
421 ++visited;
422 }
8990e307
LW
423 }
424 }
5226ed68 425 return visited;
8990e307
LW
426}
427
758a08c3
JH
428#ifdef DEBUGGING
429
645c22ef
DM
430/* called by sv_report_used() for each live SV */
431
432static void
5fa45a31 433do_report_used(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
645c22ef
DM
434{
435 if (SvTYPE(sv) != SVTYPEMASK) {
436 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "****\n");
437 sv_dump(sv);
438 }
439}
758a08c3 440#endif
645c22ef
DM
441
442/*
443=for apidoc sv_report_used
444
445Dump the contents of all SVs not yet freed. (Debugging aid).
446
447=cut
448*/
449
8990e307 450void
864dbfa3 451Perl_sv_report_used(pTHX)
4561caa4 452{
ff270d3a 453#ifdef DEBUGGING
055972dc 454 visit(do_report_used, 0, 0);
96a5add6
AL
455#else
456 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
ff270d3a 457#endif
4561caa4
CS
458}
459
645c22ef
DM
460/* called by sv_clean_objs() for each live SV */
461
462static void
de37a194 463do_clean_objs(pTHX_ SV *const ref)
645c22ef 464{
97aff369 465 dVAR;
ea724faa
NC
466 assert (SvROK(ref));
467 {
823a54a3
AL
468 SV * const target = SvRV(ref);
469 if (SvOBJECT(target)) {
470 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Cleaning object ref:\n "), sv_dump(ref)));
471 if (SvWEAKREF(ref)) {
472 sv_del_backref(target, ref);
473 SvWEAKREF_off(ref);
474 SvRV_set(ref, NULL);
475 } else {
476 SvROK_off(ref);
477 SvRV_set(ref, NULL);
478 SvREFCNT_dec(target);
479 }
645c22ef
DM
480 }
481 }
482
483 /* XXX Might want to check arrays, etc. */
484}
485
645c22ef 486
e4487e9b
DM
487/* clear any slots in a GV which hold objects - except IO;
488 * called by sv_clean_objs() for each live GV */
489
645c22ef 490static void
f30de749 491do_clean_named_objs(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
645c22ef 492{
97aff369 493 dVAR;
57ef47cc 494 SV *obj;
ea724faa 495 assert(SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV);
d011219a 496 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
57ef47cc
DM
497 if (!GvGP(sv))
498 return;
499
500 /* freeing GP entries may indirectly free the current GV;
501 * hold onto it while we mess with the GP slots */
502 SvREFCNT_inc(sv);
503
504 if ( ((obj = GvSV(sv) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
505 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
506 "Cleaning named glob SV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
507 GvSV(sv) = NULL;
508 SvREFCNT_dec(obj);
509 }
510 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvAV(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
511 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
512 "Cleaning named glob AV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
513 GvAV(sv) = NULL;
514 SvREFCNT_dec(obj);
515 }
516 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvHV(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
517 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
518 "Cleaning named glob HV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
519 GvHV(sv) = NULL;
520 SvREFCNT_dec(obj);
521 }
522 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvCV(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
523 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
524 "Cleaning named glob CV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
c43ae56f 525 GvCV_set(sv, NULL);
57ef47cc
DM
526 SvREFCNT_dec(obj);
527 }
e4487e9b
DM
528 SvREFCNT_dec(sv); /* undo the inc above */
529}
530
68b590d9 531/* clear any IO slots in a GV which hold objects (except stderr, defout);
e4487e9b
DM
532 * called by sv_clean_objs() for each live GV */
533
534static void
535do_clean_named_io_objs(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
536{
537 dVAR;
538 SV *obj;
539 assert(SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV);
540 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
68b590d9 541 if (!GvGP(sv) || sv == (SV*)PL_stderrgv || sv == (SV*)PL_defoutgv)
e4487e9b
DM
542 return;
543
544 SvREFCNT_inc(sv);
57ef47cc
DM
545 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvIO(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
546 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
547 "Cleaning named glob IO object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
548 GvIOp(sv) = NULL;
549 SvREFCNT_dec(obj);
645c22ef 550 }
57ef47cc 551 SvREFCNT_dec(sv); /* undo the inc above */
645c22ef 552}
645c22ef 553
4155e4fe
FC
554/* Void wrapper to pass to visit() */
555static void
556do_curse(pTHX_ SV * const sv) {
c2910e6c
FC
557 if ((PL_stderrgv && GvGP(PL_stderrgv) && (SV*)GvIO(PL_stderrgv) == sv)
558 || (PL_defoutgv && GvGP(PL_defoutgv) && (SV*)GvIO(PL_defoutgv) == sv))
4155e4fe
FC
559 return;
560 (void)curse(sv, 0);
561}
562
645c22ef
DM
563/*
564=for apidoc sv_clean_objs
565
566Attempt to destroy all objects not yet freed
567
568=cut
569*/
570
4561caa4 571void
864dbfa3 572Perl_sv_clean_objs(pTHX)
4561caa4 573{
97aff369 574 dVAR;
68b590d9 575 GV *olddef, *olderr;
3280af22 576 PL_in_clean_objs = TRUE;
055972dc 577 visit(do_clean_objs, SVf_ROK, SVf_ROK);
e4487e9b
DM
578 /* Some barnacles may yet remain, clinging to typeglobs.
579 * Run the non-IO destructors first: they may want to output
580 * error messages, close files etc */
d011219a 581 visit(do_clean_named_objs, SVt_PVGV|SVpgv_GP, SVTYPEMASK|SVp_POK|SVpgv_GP);
e4487e9b 582 visit(do_clean_named_io_objs, SVt_PVGV|SVpgv_GP, SVTYPEMASK|SVp_POK|SVpgv_GP);
4155e4fe
FC
583 /* And if there are some very tenacious barnacles clinging to arrays,
584 closures, or what have you.... */
585 visit(do_curse, SVs_OBJECT, SVs_OBJECT);
68b590d9
DM
586 olddef = PL_defoutgv;
587 PL_defoutgv = NULL; /* disable skip of PL_defoutgv */
588 if (olddef && isGV_with_GP(olddef))
589 do_clean_named_io_objs(aTHX_ MUTABLE_SV(olddef));
590 olderr = PL_stderrgv;
591 PL_stderrgv = NULL; /* disable skip of PL_stderrgv */
592 if (olderr && isGV_with_GP(olderr))
593 do_clean_named_io_objs(aTHX_ MUTABLE_SV(olderr));
594 SvREFCNT_dec(olddef);
3280af22 595 PL_in_clean_objs = FALSE;
4561caa4
CS
596}
597
645c22ef
DM
598/* called by sv_clean_all() for each live SV */
599
600static void
de37a194 601do_clean_all(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
645c22ef 602{
97aff369 603 dVAR;
daba3364 604 if (sv == (const SV *) PL_fdpid || sv == (const SV *)PL_strtab) {
cddfcddc 605 /* don't clean pid table and strtab */
d17ea597 606 return;
cddfcddc 607 }
645c22ef
DM
608 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Cleaning loops: SV at 0x%"UVxf"\n", PTR2UV(sv)) ));
609 SvFLAGS(sv) |= SVf_BREAK;
610 SvREFCNT_dec(sv);
611}
612
613/*
614=for apidoc sv_clean_all
615
616Decrement the refcnt of each remaining SV, possibly triggering a
617cleanup. This function may have to be called multiple times to free
ff276b08 618SVs which are in complex self-referential hierarchies.
645c22ef
DM
619
620=cut
621*/
622
5226ed68 623I32
864dbfa3 624Perl_sv_clean_all(pTHX)
8990e307 625{
97aff369 626 dVAR;
5226ed68 627 I32 cleaned;
3280af22 628 PL_in_clean_all = TRUE;
055972dc 629 cleaned = visit(do_clean_all, 0,0);
5226ed68 630 return cleaned;
8990e307 631}
463ee0b2 632
5e258f8c
JC
633/*
634 ARENASETS: a meta-arena implementation which separates arena-info
635 into struct arena_set, which contains an array of struct
636 arena_descs, each holding info for a single arena. By separating
637 the meta-info from the arena, we recover the 1st slot, formerly
638 borrowed for list management. The arena_set is about the size of an
39244528 639 arena, avoiding the needless malloc overhead of a naive linked-list.
5e258f8c
JC
640
641 The cost is 1 arena-set malloc per ~320 arena-mallocs, + the unused
642 memory in the last arena-set (1/2 on average). In trade, we get
643 back the 1st slot in each arena (ie 1.7% of a CV-arena, less for
d2a0f284 644 smaller types). The recovery of the wasted space allows use of
e15dad31
JC
645 small arenas for large, rare body types, by changing array* fields
646 in body_details_by_type[] below.
5e258f8c 647*/
5e258f8c 648struct arena_desc {
398c677b
NC
649 char *arena; /* the raw storage, allocated aligned */
650 size_t size; /* its size ~4k typ */
e5973ed5 651 svtype utype; /* bodytype stored in arena */
5e258f8c
JC
652};
653
e6148039
NC
654struct arena_set;
655
656/* Get the maximum number of elements in set[] such that struct arena_set
e15dad31 657 will fit within PERL_ARENA_SIZE, which is probably just under 4K, and
e6148039
NC
658 therefore likely to be 1 aligned memory page. */
659
660#define ARENAS_PER_SET ((PERL_ARENA_SIZE - sizeof(struct arena_set*) \
661 - 2 * sizeof(int)) / sizeof (struct arena_desc))
5e258f8c
JC
662
663struct arena_set {
664 struct arena_set* next;
0a848332
NC
665 unsigned int set_size; /* ie ARENAS_PER_SET */
666 unsigned int curr; /* index of next available arena-desc */
5e258f8c
JC
667 struct arena_desc set[ARENAS_PER_SET];
668};
669
645c22ef
DM
670/*
671=for apidoc sv_free_arenas
672
673Deallocate the memory used by all arenas. Note that all the individual SV
674heads and bodies within the arenas must already have been freed.
675
676=cut
677*/
4633a7c4 678void
864dbfa3 679Perl_sv_free_arenas(pTHX)
4633a7c4 680{
97aff369 681 dVAR;
4633a7c4
LW
682 SV* sva;
683 SV* svanext;
0a848332 684 unsigned int i;
4633a7c4
LW
685
686 /* Free arenas here, but be careful about fake ones. (We assume
687 contiguity of the fake ones with the corresponding real ones.) */
688
3280af22 689 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = svanext) {
daba3364 690 svanext = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(sva));
4633a7c4 691 while (svanext && SvFAKE(svanext))
daba3364 692 svanext = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(svanext));
4633a7c4
LW
693
694 if (!SvFAKE(sva))
1df70142 695 Safefree(sva);
4633a7c4 696 }
93e68bfb 697
5e258f8c 698 {
0a848332
NC
699 struct arena_set *aroot = (struct arena_set*) PL_body_arenas;
700
701 while (aroot) {
702 struct arena_set *current = aroot;
703 i = aroot->curr;
704 while (i--) {
5e258f8c
JC
705 assert(aroot->set[i].arena);
706 Safefree(aroot->set[i].arena);
707 }
0a848332
NC
708 aroot = aroot->next;
709 Safefree(current);
5e258f8c
JC
710 }
711 }
dc8220bf 712 PL_body_arenas = 0;
fdda85ca 713
0a848332
NC
714 i = PERL_ARENA_ROOTS_SIZE;
715 while (i--)
93e68bfb 716 PL_body_roots[i] = 0;
93e68bfb 717
3280af22
NIS
718 PL_sv_arenaroot = 0;
719 PL_sv_root = 0;
4633a7c4
LW
720}
721
bd81e77b
NC
722/*
723 Here are mid-level routines that manage the allocation of bodies out
724 of the various arenas. There are 5 kinds of arenas:
29489e7c 725
bd81e77b
NC
726 1. SV-head arenas, which are discussed and handled above
727 2. regular body arenas
728 3. arenas for reduced-size bodies
729 4. Hash-Entry arenas
29489e7c 730
bd81e77b
NC
731 Arena types 2 & 3 are chained by body-type off an array of
732 arena-root pointers, which is indexed by svtype. Some of the
733 larger/less used body types are malloced singly, since a large
734 unused block of them is wasteful. Also, several svtypes dont have
735 bodies; the data fits into the sv-head itself. The arena-root
736 pointer thus has a few unused root-pointers (which may be hijacked
737 later for arena types 4,5)
29489e7c 738
bd81e77b
NC
739 3 differs from 2 as an optimization; some body types have several
740 unused fields in the front of the structure (which are kept in-place
741 for consistency). These bodies can be allocated in smaller chunks,
742 because the leading fields arent accessed. Pointers to such bodies
743 are decremented to point at the unused 'ghost' memory, knowing that
744 the pointers are used with offsets to the real memory.
29489e7c 745
d2a0f284
JC
746
747=head1 SV-Body Allocation
748
749Allocation of SV-bodies is similar to SV-heads, differing as follows;
750the allocation mechanism is used for many body types, so is somewhat
751more complicated, it uses arena-sets, and has no need for still-live
752SV detection.
753
754At the outermost level, (new|del)_X*V macros return bodies of the
755appropriate type. These macros call either (new|del)_body_type or
756(new|del)_body_allocated macro pairs, depending on specifics of the
757type. Most body types use the former pair, the latter pair is used to
758allocate body types with "ghost fields".
759
760"ghost fields" are fields that are unused in certain types, and
69ba284b 761consequently don't need to actually exist. They are declared because
d2a0f284
JC
762they're part of a "base type", which allows use of functions as
763methods. The simplest examples are AVs and HVs, 2 aggregate types
764which don't use the fields which support SCALAR semantics.
765
69ba284b 766For these types, the arenas are carved up into appropriately sized
d2a0f284
JC
767chunks, we thus avoid wasted memory for those unaccessed members.
768When bodies are allocated, we adjust the pointer back in memory by the
69ba284b 769size of the part not allocated, so it's as if we allocated the full
d2a0f284
JC
770structure. (But things will all go boom if you write to the part that
771is "not there", because you'll be overwriting the last members of the
772preceding structure in memory.)
773
69ba284b
NC
774We calculate the correction using the STRUCT_OFFSET macro on the first
775member present. If the allocated structure is smaller (no initial NV
776actually allocated) then the net effect is to subtract the size of the NV
777from the pointer, to return a new pointer as if an initial NV were actually
778allocated. (We were using structures named *_allocated for this, but
779this turned out to be a subtle bug, because a structure without an NV
780could have a lower alignment constraint, but the compiler is allowed to
781optimised accesses based on the alignment constraint of the actual pointer
782to the full structure, for example, using a single 64 bit load instruction
783because it "knows" that two adjacent 32 bit members will be 8-byte aligned.)
d2a0f284
JC
784
785This is the same trick as was used for NV and IV bodies. Ironically it
786doesn't need to be used for NV bodies any more, because NV is now at
787the start of the structure. IV bodies don't need it either, because
788they are no longer allocated.
789
790In turn, the new_body_* allocators call S_new_body(), which invokes
791new_body_inline macro, which takes a lock, and takes a body off the
1e30fcd5 792linked list at PL_body_roots[sv_type], calling Perl_more_bodies() if
d2a0f284
JC
793necessary to refresh an empty list. Then the lock is released, and
794the body is returned.
795
99816f8d 796Perl_more_bodies allocates a new arena, and carves it up into an array of N
d2a0f284
JC
797bodies, which it strings into a linked list. It looks up arena-size
798and body-size from the body_details table described below, thus
799supporting the multiple body-types.
800
801If PURIFY is defined, or PERL_ARENA_SIZE=0, arenas are not used, and
802the (new|del)_X*V macros are mapped directly to malloc/free.
803
d2a0f284
JC
804For each sv-type, struct body_details bodies_by_type[] carries
805parameters which control these aspects of SV handling:
806
807Arena_size determines whether arenas are used for this body type, and if
808so, how big they are. PURIFY or PERL_ARENA_SIZE=0 set this field to
809zero, forcing individual mallocs and frees.
810
811Body_size determines how big a body is, and therefore how many fit into
812each arena. Offset carries the body-pointer adjustment needed for
69ba284b 813"ghost fields", and is used in *_allocated macros.
d2a0f284
JC
814
815But its main purpose is to parameterize info needed in
816Perl_sv_upgrade(). The info here dramatically simplifies the function
69ba284b 817vs the implementation in 5.8.8, making it table-driven. All fields
d2a0f284
JC
818are used for this, except for arena_size.
819
820For the sv-types that have no bodies, arenas are not used, so those
821PL_body_roots[sv_type] are unused, and can be overloaded. In
822something of a special case, SVt_NULL is borrowed for HE arenas;
c6f8b1d0 823PL_body_roots[HE_SVSLOT=SVt_NULL] is filled by S_more_he, but the
d2a0f284 824bodies_by_type[SVt_NULL] slot is not used, as the table is not
c6f8b1d0 825available in hv.c.
d2a0f284 826
29489e7c
DM
827*/
828
bd81e77b 829struct body_details {
0fb58b32 830 U8 body_size; /* Size to allocate */
10666ae3 831 U8 copy; /* Size of structure to copy (may be shorter) */
0fb58b32 832 U8 offset;
10666ae3
NC
833 unsigned int type : 4; /* We have space for a sanity check. */
834 unsigned int cant_upgrade : 1; /* Cannot upgrade this type */
835 unsigned int zero_nv : 1; /* zero the NV when upgrading from this */
836 unsigned int arena : 1; /* Allocated from an arena */
837 size_t arena_size; /* Size of arena to allocate */
bd81e77b 838};
29489e7c 839
bd81e77b
NC
840#define HADNV FALSE
841#define NONV TRUE
29489e7c 842
d2a0f284 843
bd81e77b
NC
844#ifdef PURIFY
845/* With -DPURFIY we allocate everything directly, and don't use arenas.
846 This seems a rather elegant way to simplify some of the code below. */
847#define HASARENA FALSE
848#else
849#define HASARENA TRUE
850#endif
851#define NOARENA FALSE
29489e7c 852
d2a0f284
JC
853/* Size the arenas to exactly fit a given number of bodies. A count
854 of 0 fits the max number bodies into a PERL_ARENA_SIZE.block,
855 simplifying the default. If count > 0, the arena is sized to fit
856 only that many bodies, allowing arenas to be used for large, rare
857 bodies (XPVFM, XPVIO) without undue waste. The arena size is
858 limited by PERL_ARENA_SIZE, so we can safely oversize the
859 declarations.
860 */
95db5f15
MB
861#define FIT_ARENA0(body_size) \
862 ((size_t)(PERL_ARENA_SIZE / body_size) * body_size)
863#define FIT_ARENAn(count,body_size) \
864 ( count * body_size <= PERL_ARENA_SIZE) \
865 ? count * body_size \
866 : FIT_ARENA0 (body_size)
867#define FIT_ARENA(count,body_size) \
868 count \
869 ? FIT_ARENAn (count, body_size) \
870 : FIT_ARENA0 (body_size)
d2a0f284 871
bd81e77b
NC
872/* Calculate the length to copy. Specifically work out the length less any
873 final padding the compiler needed to add. See the comment in sv_upgrade
874 for why copying the padding proved to be a bug. */
29489e7c 875
bd81e77b
NC
876#define copy_length(type, last_member) \
877 STRUCT_OFFSET(type, last_member) \
daba3364 878 + sizeof (((type*)SvANY((const SV *)0))->last_member)
29489e7c 879
bd81e77b 880static const struct body_details bodies_by_type[] = {
829cd18a
NC
881 /* HEs use this offset for their arena. */
882 { 0, 0, 0, SVt_NULL, FALSE, NONV, NOARENA, 0 },
d2a0f284 883
1cb9cd50 884 /* The bind placeholder pretends to be an RV for now.
c6f8b1d0 885 Also it's marked as "can't upgrade" to stop anyone using it before it's
1cb9cd50
NC
886 implemented. */
887 { 0, 0, 0, SVt_BIND, TRUE, NONV, NOARENA, 0 },
888
db93c0c4
NC
889 /* IVs are in the head, so the allocation size is 0. */
890 { 0,
d2a0f284 891 sizeof(IV), /* This is used to copy out the IV body. */
10666ae3 892 STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVIV, xiv_iv), SVt_IV, FALSE, NONV,
db93c0c4 893 NOARENA /* IVS don't need an arena */, 0
d2a0f284
JC
894 },
895
6e128786
NC
896 { sizeof(NV), sizeof(NV),
897 STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVNV, xnv_u),
898 SVt_NV, FALSE, HADNV, HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(NV)) },
d2a0f284 899
bc337e5c 900 { sizeof(XPV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
889d28b2
NC
901 copy_length(XPV, xpv_len) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
902 + STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
69ba284b 903 SVt_PV, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA,
889d28b2 904 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur)) },
d2a0f284 905
bc337e5c 906 { sizeof(XPVIV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
889d28b2
NC
907 copy_length(XPVIV, xiv_u) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
908 + STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
909 SVt_PVIV, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA,
910 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVIV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur)) },
d2a0f284 911
bc337e5c 912 { sizeof(XPVNV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
889d28b2
NC
913 copy_length(XPVNV, xnv_u) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
914 + STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
915 SVt_PVNV, FALSE, HADNV, HASARENA,
916 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVNV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur)) },
d2a0f284 917
6e128786 918 { sizeof(XPVMG), copy_length(XPVMG, xnv_u), 0, SVt_PVMG, FALSE, HADNV,
d2a0f284 919 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVMG)) },
4df7f6af 920
601dfd0a
NC
921 { sizeof(regexp),
922 sizeof(regexp),
923 0,
08e44740 924 SVt_REGEXP, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA,
eaeb1e7f 925 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(regexp))
5c35adbb 926 },
4df7f6af 927
10666ae3 928 { sizeof(XPVGV), sizeof(XPVGV), 0, SVt_PVGV, TRUE, HADNV,
d2a0f284
JC
929 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVGV)) },
930
10666ae3 931 { sizeof(XPVLV), sizeof(XPVLV), 0, SVt_PVLV, TRUE, HADNV,
d2a0f284
JC
932 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVLV)) },
933
601dfd0a 934 { sizeof(XPVAV),
4f7003f5 935 copy_length(XPVAV, xav_alloc),
601dfd0a 936 0,
69ba284b 937 SVt_PVAV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 938 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVAV)) },
d2a0f284 939
601dfd0a 940 { sizeof(XPVHV),
359164a0 941 copy_length(XPVHV, xhv_max),
601dfd0a 942 0,
69ba284b 943 SVt_PVHV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 944 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVHV)) },
d2a0f284 945
601dfd0a
NC
946 { sizeof(XPVCV),
947 sizeof(XPVCV),
948 0,
69ba284b 949 SVt_PVCV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 950 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVCV)) },
69ba284b 951
601dfd0a
NC
952 { sizeof(XPVFM),
953 sizeof(XPVFM),
954 0,
69ba284b 955 SVt_PVFM, TRUE, NONV, NOARENA,
601dfd0a 956 FIT_ARENA(20, sizeof(XPVFM)) },
d2a0f284 957
601dfd0a
NC
958 { sizeof(XPVIO),
959 sizeof(XPVIO),
960 0,
b6f60916 961 SVt_PVIO, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 962 FIT_ARENA(24, sizeof(XPVIO)) },
bd81e77b 963};
29489e7c 964
bd81e77b 965#define new_body_allocated(sv_type) \
d2a0f284 966 (void *)((char *)S_new_body(aTHX_ sv_type) \
bd81e77b 967 - bodies_by_type[sv_type].offset)
29489e7c 968
26359cfa
NC
969/* return a thing to the free list */
970
971#define del_body(thing, root) \
972 STMT_START { \
973 void ** const thing_copy = (void **)thing; \
974 *thing_copy = *root; \
975 *root = (void*)thing_copy; \
976 } STMT_END
29489e7c 977
bd81e77b 978#ifdef PURIFY
29489e7c 979
beeec492
NC
980#define new_XNV() safemalloc(sizeof(XPVNV))
981#define new_XPVNV() safemalloc(sizeof(XPVNV))
982#define new_XPVMG() safemalloc(sizeof(XPVMG))
29489e7c 983
beeec492 984#define del_XPVGV(p) safefree(p)
29489e7c 985
bd81e77b 986#else /* !PURIFY */
29489e7c 987
65ac1738 988#define new_XNV() new_body_allocated(SVt_NV)
65ac1738 989#define new_XPVNV() new_body_allocated(SVt_PVNV)
65ac1738 990#define new_XPVMG() new_body_allocated(SVt_PVMG)
645c22ef 991
26359cfa
NC
992#define del_XPVGV(p) del_body(p + bodies_by_type[SVt_PVGV].offset, \
993 &PL_body_roots[SVt_PVGV])
1d7c1841 994
bd81e77b 995#endif /* PURIFY */
93e68bfb 996
bd81e77b 997/* no arena for you! */
93e68bfb 998
bd81e77b 999#define new_NOARENA(details) \
beeec492 1000 safemalloc((details)->body_size + (details)->offset)
bd81e77b 1001#define new_NOARENAZ(details) \
beeec492 1002 safecalloc((details)->body_size + (details)->offset, 1)
d2a0f284 1003
1e30fcd5
NC
1004void *
1005Perl_more_bodies (pTHX_ const svtype sv_type, const size_t body_size,
1006 const size_t arena_size)
d2a0f284
JC
1007{
1008 dVAR;
1009 void ** const root = &PL_body_roots[sv_type];
99816f8d
NC
1010 struct arena_desc *adesc;
1011 struct arena_set *aroot = (struct arena_set *) PL_body_arenas;
1012 unsigned int curr;
d2a0f284
JC
1013 char *start;
1014 const char *end;
02982131 1015 const size_t good_arena_size = Perl_malloc_good_size(arena_size);
0b2d3faa 1016#if defined(DEBUGGING) && !defined(PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT_PRIVATE)
23e9d66c
NC
1017 static bool done_sanity_check;
1018
0b2d3faa
JH
1019 /* PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT_PRIVATE cannot coexist with global
1020 * variables like done_sanity_check. */
10666ae3 1021 if (!done_sanity_check) {
ea471437 1022 unsigned int i = SVt_LAST;
10666ae3
NC
1023
1024 done_sanity_check = TRUE;
1025
1026 while (i--)
1027 assert (bodies_by_type[i].type == i);
1028 }
1029#endif
1030
02982131 1031 assert(arena_size);
23e9d66c 1032
99816f8d
NC
1033 /* may need new arena-set to hold new arena */
1034 if (!aroot || aroot->curr >= aroot->set_size) {
1035 struct arena_set *newroot;
1036 Newxz(newroot, 1, struct arena_set);
1037 newroot->set_size = ARENAS_PER_SET;
1038 newroot->next = aroot;
1039 aroot = newroot;
1040 PL_body_arenas = (void *) newroot;
1041 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "new arenaset %p\n", (void*)aroot));
1042 }
1043
1044 /* ok, now have arena-set with at least 1 empty/available arena-desc */
1045 curr = aroot->curr++;
1046 adesc = &(aroot->set[curr]);
1047 assert(!adesc->arena);
1048
1049 Newx(adesc->arena, good_arena_size, char);
1050 adesc->size = good_arena_size;
1051 adesc->utype = sv_type;
1052 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "arena %d added: %p size %"UVuf"\n",
1053 curr, (void*)adesc->arena, (UV)good_arena_size));
1054
1055 start = (char *) adesc->arena;
d2a0f284 1056
29657bb6
NC
1057 /* Get the address of the byte after the end of the last body we can fit.
1058 Remember, this is integer division: */
02982131 1059 end = start + good_arena_size / body_size * body_size;
d2a0f284 1060
486ec47a 1061 /* computed count doesn't reflect the 1st slot reservation */
d8fca402
NC
1062#if defined(MYMALLOC) || defined(HAS_MALLOC_GOOD_SIZE)
1063 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1064 "arena %p end %p arena-size %d (from %d) type %d "
1065 "size %d ct %d\n",
02982131
NC
1066 (void*)start, (void*)end, (int)good_arena_size,
1067 (int)arena_size, sv_type, (int)body_size,
1068 (int)good_arena_size / (int)body_size));
d8fca402 1069#else
d2a0f284
JC
1070 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1071 "arena %p end %p arena-size %d type %d size %d ct %d\n",
6c9570dc 1072 (void*)start, (void*)end,
02982131
NC
1073 (int)arena_size, sv_type, (int)body_size,
1074 (int)good_arena_size / (int)body_size));
d8fca402 1075#endif
d2a0f284
JC
1076 *root = (void *)start;
1077
29657bb6
NC
1078 while (1) {
1079 /* Where the next body would start: */
d2a0f284 1080 char * const next = start + body_size;
29657bb6
NC
1081
1082 if (next >= end) {
1083 /* This is the last body: */
1084 assert(next == end);
1085
1086 *(void **)start = 0;
1087 return *root;
1088 }
1089
d2a0f284
JC
1090 *(void**) start = (void *)next;
1091 start = next;
1092 }
d2a0f284
JC
1093}
1094
1095/* grab a new thing from the free list, allocating more if necessary.
1096 The inline version is used for speed in hot routines, and the
1097 function using it serves the rest (unless PURIFY).
1098*/
1099#define new_body_inline(xpv, sv_type) \
1100 STMT_START { \
1101 void ** const r3wt = &PL_body_roots[sv_type]; \
11b79775 1102 xpv = (PTR_TBL_ENT_t*) (*((void **)(r3wt)) \
1e30fcd5 1103 ? *((void **)(r3wt)) : Perl_more_bodies(aTHX_ sv_type, \
02982131
NC
1104 bodies_by_type[sv_type].body_size,\
1105 bodies_by_type[sv_type].arena_size)); \
d2a0f284 1106 *(r3wt) = *(void**)(xpv); \
d2a0f284
JC
1107 } STMT_END
1108
1109#ifndef PURIFY
1110
1111STATIC void *
de37a194 1112S_new_body(pTHX_ const svtype sv_type)
d2a0f284
JC
1113{
1114 dVAR;
1115 void *xpv;
1116 new_body_inline(xpv, sv_type);
1117 return xpv;
1118}
1119
1120#endif
93e68bfb 1121
238b27b3
NC
1122static const struct body_details fake_rv =
1123 { 0, 0, 0, SVt_IV, FALSE, NONV, NOARENA, 0 };
1124
bd81e77b
NC
1125/*
1126=for apidoc sv_upgrade
93e68bfb 1127
bd81e77b
NC
1128Upgrade an SV to a more complex form. Generally adds a new body type to the
1129SV, then copies across as much information as possible from the old body.
1130You generally want to use the C<SvUPGRADE> macro wrapper. See also C<svtype>.
93e68bfb 1131
bd81e77b 1132=cut
93e68bfb 1133*/
93e68bfb 1134
bd81e77b 1135void
aad570aa 1136Perl_sv_upgrade(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, svtype new_type)
cac9b346 1137{
97aff369 1138 dVAR;
bd81e77b
NC
1139 void* old_body;
1140 void* new_body;
42d0e0b7 1141 const svtype old_type = SvTYPE(sv);
d2a0f284 1142 const struct body_details *new_type_details;
238b27b3 1143 const struct body_details *old_type_details
bd81e77b 1144 = bodies_by_type + old_type;
4df7f6af 1145 SV *referant = NULL;
cac9b346 1146
7918f24d
NC
1147 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UPGRADE;
1148
1776cbe8
NC
1149 if (old_type == new_type)
1150 return;
1151
1152 /* This clause was purposefully added ahead of the early return above to
1153 the shared string hackery for (sort {$a <=> $b} keys %hash), with the
1154 inference by Nick I-S that it would fix other troublesome cases. See
1155 changes 7162, 7163 (f130fd4589cf5fbb24149cd4db4137c8326f49c1 and parent)
1156
1157 Given that shared hash key scalars are no longer PVIV, but PV, there is
1158 no longer need to unshare so as to free up the IVX slot for its proper
1159 purpose. So it's safe to move the early return earlier. */
1160
bd81e77b
NC
1161 if (new_type != SVt_PV && SvIsCOW(sv)) {
1162 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
1163 }
cac9b346 1164
bd81e77b 1165 old_body = SvANY(sv);
de042e1d 1166
bd81e77b
NC
1167 /* Copying structures onto other structures that have been neatly zeroed
1168 has a subtle gotcha. Consider XPVMG
cac9b346 1169
bd81e77b
NC
1170 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+
1171 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH |
1172 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+
1173 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28
645c22ef 1174
bd81e77b
NC
1175 where NVs are aligned to 8 bytes, so that sizeof that structure is
1176 actually 32 bytes long, with 4 bytes of padding at the end:
08742458 1177
bd81e77b
NC
1178 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+
1179 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH | ??? |
1180 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+
1181 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32
08742458 1182
bd81e77b 1183 so what happens if you allocate memory for this structure:
30f9da9e 1184
bd81e77b
NC
1185 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+------+...
1186 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH | GP | NAME |
1187 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+------+...
1188 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36
bfc44f79 1189
bd81e77b
NC
1190 zero it, then copy sizeof(XPVMG) bytes on top of it? Not quite what you
1191 expect, because you copy the area marked ??? onto GP. Now, ??? may have
1192 started out as zero once, but it's quite possible that it isn't. So now,
1193 rather than a nicely zeroed GP, you have it pointing somewhere random.
1194 Bugs ensue.
bfc44f79 1195
bd81e77b
NC
1196 (In fact, GP ends up pointing at a previous GP structure, because the
1197 principle cause of the padding in XPVMG getting garbage is a copy of
6c9e42f7
NC
1198 sizeof(XPVMG) bytes from a XPVGV structure in sv_unglob. Right now
1199 this happens to be moot because XPVGV has been re-ordered, with GP
1200 no longer after STASH)
30f9da9e 1201
bd81e77b
NC
1202 So we are careful and work out the size of used parts of all the
1203 structures. */
bfc44f79 1204
bd81e77b
NC
1205 switch (old_type) {
1206 case SVt_NULL:
1207 break;
1208 case SVt_IV:
4df7f6af
NC
1209 if (SvROK(sv)) {
1210 referant = SvRV(sv);
238b27b3
NC
1211 old_type_details = &fake_rv;
1212 if (new_type == SVt_NV)
1213 new_type = SVt_PVNV;
4df7f6af
NC
1214 } else {
1215 if (new_type < SVt_PVIV) {
1216 new_type = (new_type == SVt_NV)
1217 ? SVt_PVNV : SVt_PVIV;
1218 }
bd81e77b
NC
1219 }
1220 break;
1221 case SVt_NV:
1222 if (new_type < SVt_PVNV) {
1223 new_type = SVt_PVNV;
bd81e77b
NC
1224 }
1225 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1226 case SVt_PV:
1227 assert(new_type > SVt_PV);
1228 assert(SVt_IV < SVt_PV);
1229 assert(SVt_NV < SVt_PV);
1230 break;
1231 case SVt_PVIV:
1232 break;
1233 case SVt_PVNV:
1234 break;
1235 case SVt_PVMG:
1236 /* Because the XPVMG of PL_mess_sv isn't allocated from the arena,
1237 there's no way that it can be safely upgraded, because perl.c
1238 expects to Safefree(SvANY(PL_mess_sv)) */
1239 assert(sv != PL_mess_sv);
1240 /* This flag bit is used to mean other things in other scalar types.
1241 Given that it only has meaning inside the pad, it shouldn't be set
1242 on anything that can get upgraded. */
00b1698f 1243 assert(!SvPAD_TYPED(sv));
bd81e77b
NC
1244 break;
1245 default:
1246 if (old_type_details->cant_upgrade)
c81225bc
NC
1247 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't upgrade %s (%" UVuf ") to %" UVuf,
1248 sv_reftype(sv, 0), (UV) old_type, (UV) new_type);
bd81e77b 1249 }
3376de98
NC
1250
1251 if (old_type > new_type)
1252 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "sv_upgrade from type %d down to type %d",
1253 (int)old_type, (int)new_type);
1254
2fa1109b 1255 new_type_details = bodies_by_type + new_type;
645c22ef 1256
bd81e77b
NC
1257 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~SVTYPEMASK;
1258 SvFLAGS(sv) |= new_type;
932e9ff9 1259
ab4416c0
NC
1260 /* This can't happen, as SVt_NULL is <= all values of new_type, so one of
1261 the return statements above will have triggered. */
1262 assert (new_type != SVt_NULL);
bd81e77b 1263 switch (new_type) {
bd81e77b
NC
1264 case SVt_IV:
1265 assert(old_type == SVt_NULL);
1266 SvANY(sv) = (XPVIV*)((char*)&(sv->sv_u.svu_iv) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVIV, xiv_iv));
1267 SvIV_set(sv, 0);
1268 return;
1269 case SVt_NV:
1270 assert(old_type == SVt_NULL);
1271 SvANY(sv) = new_XNV();
1272 SvNV_set(sv, 0);
1273 return;
bd81e77b 1274 case SVt_PVHV:
bd81e77b 1275 case SVt_PVAV:
d2a0f284 1276 assert(new_type_details->body_size);
c1ae03ae
NC
1277
1278#ifndef PURIFY
1279 assert(new_type_details->arena);
d2a0f284 1280 assert(new_type_details->arena_size);
c1ae03ae 1281 /* This points to the start of the allocated area. */
d2a0f284
JC
1282 new_body_inline(new_body, new_type);
1283 Zero(new_body, new_type_details->body_size, char);
c1ae03ae
NC
1284 new_body = ((char *)new_body) - new_type_details->offset;
1285#else
1286 /* We always allocated the full length item with PURIFY. To do this
1287 we fake things so that arena is false for all 16 types.. */
1288 new_body = new_NOARENAZ(new_type_details);
1289#endif
1290 SvANY(sv) = new_body;
1291 if (new_type == SVt_PVAV) {
1292 AvMAX(sv) = -1;
1293 AvFILLp(sv) = -1;
1294 AvREAL_only(sv);
64484faa 1295 if (old_type_details->body_size) {
ac572bf4
NC
1296 AvALLOC(sv) = 0;
1297 } else {
1298 /* It will have been zeroed when the new body was allocated.
1299 Lets not write to it, in case it confuses a write-back
1300 cache. */
1301 }
78ac7dd9
NC
1302 } else {
1303 assert(!SvOK(sv));
1304 SvOK_off(sv);
1305#ifndef NODEFAULT_SHAREKEYS
1306 HvSHAREKEYS_on(sv); /* key-sharing on by default */
1307#endif
1308 HvMAX(sv) = 7; /* (start with 8 buckets) */
c1ae03ae 1309 }
aeb18a1e 1310
bd81e77b
NC
1311 /* SVt_NULL isn't the only thing upgraded to AV or HV.
1312 The target created by newSVrv also is, and it can have magic.
1313 However, it never has SvPVX set.
1314 */
4df7f6af
NC
1315 if (old_type == SVt_IV) {
1316 assert(!SvROK(sv));
1317 } else if (old_type >= SVt_PV) {
bd81e77b
NC
1318 assert(SvPVX_const(sv) == 0);
1319 }
aeb18a1e 1320
bd81e77b 1321 if (old_type >= SVt_PVMG) {
e736a858 1322 SvMAGIC_set(sv, ((XPVMG*)old_body)->xmg_u.xmg_magic);
bd81e77b 1323 SvSTASH_set(sv, ((XPVMG*)old_body)->xmg_stash);
797c7171
NC
1324 } else {
1325 sv->sv_u.svu_array = NULL; /* or svu_hash */
bd81e77b
NC
1326 }
1327 break;
93e68bfb 1328
93e68bfb 1329
b9ad13ac
NC
1330 case SVt_REGEXP:
1331 /* This ensures that SvTHINKFIRST(sv) is true, and hence that
1332 sv_force_normal_flags(sv) is called. */
1333 SvFAKE_on(sv);
bd81e77b
NC
1334 case SVt_PVIV:
1335 /* XXX Is this still needed? Was it ever needed? Surely as there is
1336 no route from NV to PVIV, NOK can never be true */
1337 assert(!SvNOKp(sv));
1338 assert(!SvNOK(sv));
1339 case SVt_PVIO:
1340 case SVt_PVFM:
bd81e77b
NC
1341 case SVt_PVGV:
1342 case SVt_PVCV:
1343 case SVt_PVLV:
1344 case SVt_PVMG:
1345 case SVt_PVNV:
1346 case SVt_PV:
93e68bfb 1347
d2a0f284 1348 assert(new_type_details->body_size);
bd81e77b
NC
1349 /* We always allocated the full length item with PURIFY. To do this
1350 we fake things so that arena is false for all 16 types.. */
1351 if(new_type_details->arena) {
1352 /* This points to the start of the allocated area. */
d2a0f284
JC
1353 new_body_inline(new_body, new_type);
1354 Zero(new_body, new_type_details->body_size, char);
bd81e77b
NC
1355 new_body = ((char *)new_body) - new_type_details->offset;
1356 } else {
1357 new_body = new_NOARENAZ(new_type_details);
1358 }
1359 SvANY(sv) = new_body;
5e2fc214 1360
bd81e77b 1361 if (old_type_details->copy) {
f9ba3d20
NC
1362 /* There is now the potential for an upgrade from something without
1363 an offset (PVNV or PVMG) to something with one (PVCV, PVFM) */
1364 int offset = old_type_details->offset;
1365 int length = old_type_details->copy;
1366
1367 if (new_type_details->offset > old_type_details->offset) {
d4c19fe8 1368 const int difference
f9ba3d20
NC
1369 = new_type_details->offset - old_type_details->offset;
1370 offset += difference;
1371 length -= difference;
1372 }
1373 assert (length >= 0);
1374
1375 Copy((char *)old_body + offset, (char *)new_body + offset, length,
1376 char);
bd81e77b
NC
1377 }
1378
1379#ifndef NV_ZERO_IS_ALLBITS_ZERO
f2524eef 1380 /* If NV 0.0 is stores as all bits 0 then Zero() already creates a
e5ce394c
NC
1381 * correct 0.0 for us. Otherwise, if the old body didn't have an
1382 * NV slot, but the new one does, then we need to initialise the
1383 * freshly created NV slot with whatever the correct bit pattern is
1384 * for 0.0 */
e22a937e
NC
1385 if (old_type_details->zero_nv && !new_type_details->zero_nv
1386 && !isGV_with_GP(sv))
bd81e77b 1387 SvNV_set(sv, 0);
82048762 1388#endif
5e2fc214 1389
85dca89a
NC
1390 if (new_type == SVt_PVIO) {
1391 IO * const io = MUTABLE_IO(sv);
d963bf01 1392 GV *iogv = gv_fetchpvs("IO::File::", GV_ADD, SVt_PVHV);
85dca89a
NC
1393
1394 SvOBJECT_on(io);
1395 /* Clear the stashcache because a new IO could overrule a package
1396 name */
1397 hv_clear(PL_stashcache);
1398
85dca89a 1399 SvSTASH_set(io, MUTABLE_HV(SvREFCNT_inc(GvHV(iogv))));
f2524eef 1400 IoPAGE_LEN(sv) = 60;
85dca89a 1401 }
4df7f6af
NC
1402 if (old_type < SVt_PV) {
1403 /* referant will be NULL unless the old type was SVt_IV emulating
1404 SVt_RV */
1405 sv->sv_u.svu_rv = referant;
1406 }
bd81e77b
NC
1407 break;
1408 default:
afd78fd5
JH
1409 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: sv_upgrade to unknown type %lu",
1410 (unsigned long)new_type);
bd81e77b 1411 }
73171d91 1412
db93c0c4 1413 if (old_type > SVt_IV) {
bd81e77b 1414#ifdef PURIFY
beeec492 1415 safefree(old_body);
bd81e77b 1416#else
bc786448
GG
1417 /* Note that there is an assumption that all bodies of types that
1418 can be upgraded came from arenas. Only the more complex non-
1419 upgradable types are allowed to be directly malloc()ed. */
1420 assert(old_type_details->arena);
bd81e77b
NC
1421 del_body((void*)((char*)old_body + old_type_details->offset),
1422 &PL_body_roots[old_type]);
1423#endif
1424 }
1425}
73171d91 1426
bd81e77b
NC
1427/*
1428=for apidoc sv_backoff
73171d91 1429
bd81e77b
NC
1430Remove any string offset. You should normally use the C<SvOOK_off> macro
1431wrapper instead.
73171d91 1432
bd81e77b 1433=cut
73171d91
NC
1434*/
1435
bd81e77b 1436int
aad570aa 1437Perl_sv_backoff(pTHX_ register SV *const sv)
bd81e77b 1438{
69240efd 1439 STRLEN delta;
7a4bba22 1440 const char * const s = SvPVX_const(sv);
7918f24d
NC
1441
1442 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_BACKOFF;
96a5add6 1443 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
7918f24d 1444
bd81e77b
NC
1445 assert(SvOOK(sv));
1446 assert(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV);
1447 assert(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV);
7a4bba22 1448
69240efd
NC
1449 SvOOK_offset(sv, delta);
1450
7a4bba22
NC
1451 SvLEN_set(sv, SvLEN(sv) + delta);
1452 SvPV_set(sv, SvPVX(sv) - delta);
1453 Move(s, SvPVX(sv), SvCUR(sv)+1, char);
bd81e77b
NC
1454 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~SVf_OOK;
1455 return 0;
1456}
73171d91 1457
bd81e77b
NC
1458/*
1459=for apidoc sv_grow
73171d91 1460
bd81e77b
NC
1461Expands the character buffer in the SV. If necessary, uses C<sv_unref> and
1462upgrades the SV to C<SVt_PV>. Returns a pointer to the character buffer.
1463Use the C<SvGROW> wrapper instead.
93e68bfb 1464
bd81e77b
NC
1465=cut
1466*/
93e68bfb 1467
bd81e77b 1468char *
aad570aa 1469Perl_sv_grow(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, register STRLEN newlen)
bd81e77b
NC
1470{
1471 register char *s;
93e68bfb 1472
7918f24d
NC
1473 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_GROW;
1474
5db06880
NC
1475 if (PL_madskills && newlen >= 0x100000) {
1476 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1477 "Allocation too large: %"UVxf"\n", (UV)newlen);
1478 }
bd81e77b
NC
1479#ifdef HAS_64K_LIMIT
1480 if (newlen >= 0x10000) {
1481 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1482 "Allocation too large: %"UVxf"\n", (UV)newlen);
1483 my_exit(1);
1484 }
1485#endif /* HAS_64K_LIMIT */
1486 if (SvROK(sv))
1487 sv_unref(sv);
1488 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PV) {
1489 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PV);
1490 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
1491 }
1492 else if (SvOOK(sv)) { /* pv is offset? */
1493 sv_backoff(sv);
1494 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
1495 if (newlen > SvLEN(sv))
1496 newlen += 10 * (newlen - SvCUR(sv)); /* avoid copy each time */
1497#ifdef HAS_64K_LIMIT
1498 if (newlen >= 0x10000)
1499 newlen = 0xFFFF;
1500#endif
1501 }
1502 else
1503 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
aeb18a1e 1504
bd81e77b 1505 if (newlen > SvLEN(sv)) { /* need more room? */
f1200559
WH
1506 STRLEN minlen = SvCUR(sv);
1507 minlen += (minlen >> PERL_STRLEN_EXPAND_SHIFT) + 10;
1508 if (newlen < minlen)
1509 newlen = minlen;
aedff202 1510#ifndef Perl_safesysmalloc_size
bd81e77b 1511 newlen = PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(newlen);
bd81e77b 1512#endif
98653f18 1513 if (SvLEN(sv) && s) {
10edeb5d 1514 s = (char*)saferealloc(s, newlen);
bd81e77b
NC
1515 }
1516 else {
10edeb5d 1517 s = (char*)safemalloc(newlen);
bd81e77b
NC
1518 if (SvPVX_const(sv) && SvCUR(sv)) {
1519 Move(SvPVX_const(sv), s, (newlen < SvCUR(sv)) ? newlen : SvCUR(sv), char);
1520 }
1521 }
1522 SvPV_set(sv, s);
ca7c1a29 1523#ifdef Perl_safesysmalloc_size
98653f18
NC
1524 /* Do this here, do it once, do it right, and then we will never get
1525 called back into sv_grow() unless there really is some growing
1526 needed. */
ca7c1a29 1527 SvLEN_set(sv, Perl_safesysmalloc_size(s));
98653f18 1528#else
bd81e77b 1529 SvLEN_set(sv, newlen);
98653f18 1530#endif
bd81e77b
NC
1531 }
1532 return s;
1533}
aeb18a1e 1534
bd81e77b
NC
1535/*
1536=for apidoc sv_setiv
932e9ff9 1537
bd81e77b
NC
1538Copies an integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
1539Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<sv_setiv_mg>.
463ee0b2 1540
bd81e77b
NC
1541=cut
1542*/
463ee0b2 1543
bd81e77b 1544void
aad570aa 1545Perl_sv_setiv(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const IV i)
bd81e77b 1546{
97aff369 1547 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1548
1549 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETIV;
1550
bd81e77b
NC
1551 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(sv);
1552 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
1553 case SVt_NULL:
bd81e77b 1554 case SVt_NV:
3376de98 1555 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_IV);
bd81e77b 1556 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1557 case SVt_PV:
1558 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
1559 break;
463ee0b2 1560
bd81e77b 1561 case SVt_PVGV:
6e592b3a
BM
1562 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
1563 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1564 case SVt_PVAV:
1565 case SVt_PVHV:
1566 case SVt_PVCV:
1567 case SVt_PVFM:
1568 case SVt_PVIO:
22e74366 1569 /* diag_listed_as: Can't coerce %s to %s in %s */
bd81e77b
NC
1570 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't coerce %s to integer in %s", sv_reftype(sv,0),
1571 OP_DESC(PL_op));
42d0e0b7 1572 default: NOOP;
bd81e77b
NC
1573 }
1574 (void)SvIOK_only(sv); /* validate number */
1575 SvIV_set(sv, i);
1576 SvTAINT(sv);
1577}
932e9ff9 1578
bd81e77b
NC
1579/*
1580=for apidoc sv_setiv_mg
d33b2eba 1581
bd81e77b 1582Like C<sv_setiv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1c846c1f 1583
bd81e77b
NC
1584=cut
1585*/
d33b2eba 1586
bd81e77b 1587void
aad570aa 1588Perl_sv_setiv_mg(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const IV i)
bd81e77b 1589{
7918f24d
NC
1590 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETIV_MG;
1591
bd81e77b
NC
1592 sv_setiv(sv,i);
1593 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
1594}
727879eb 1595
bd81e77b
NC
1596/*
1597=for apidoc sv_setuv
d33b2eba 1598
bd81e77b
NC
1599Copies an unsigned integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
1600Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<sv_setuv_mg>.
9b94d1dd 1601
bd81e77b
NC
1602=cut
1603*/
d33b2eba 1604
bd81e77b 1605void
aad570aa 1606Perl_sv_setuv(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const UV u)
bd81e77b 1607{
7918f24d
NC
1608 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETUV;
1609
bd81e77b
NC
1610 /* With these two if statements:
1611 u=1.49 s=0.52 cu=72.49 cs=10.64 scripts=270 tests=20865
d33b2eba 1612
bd81e77b
NC
1613 without
1614 u=1.35 s=0.47 cu=73.45 cs=11.43 scripts=270 tests=20865
1c846c1f 1615
bd81e77b
NC
1616 If you wish to remove them, please benchmark to see what the effect is
1617 */
1618 if (u <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
1619 sv_setiv(sv, (IV)u);
1620 return;
1621 }
1622 sv_setiv(sv, 0);
1623 SvIsUV_on(sv);
1624 SvUV_set(sv, u);
1625}
d33b2eba 1626
bd81e77b
NC
1627/*
1628=for apidoc sv_setuv_mg
727879eb 1629
bd81e77b 1630Like C<sv_setuv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
9b94d1dd 1631
bd81e77b
NC
1632=cut
1633*/
5e2fc214 1634
bd81e77b 1635void
aad570aa 1636Perl_sv_setuv_mg(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const UV u)
bd81e77b 1637{
7918f24d
NC
1638 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETUV_MG;
1639
bd81e77b
NC
1640 sv_setuv(sv,u);
1641 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
1642}
5e2fc214 1643
954c1994 1644/*
bd81e77b 1645=for apidoc sv_setnv
954c1994 1646
bd81e77b
NC
1647Copies a double into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
1648Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<sv_setnv_mg>.
954c1994
GS
1649
1650=cut
1651*/
1652
63f97190 1653void
aad570aa 1654Perl_sv_setnv(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const NV num)
79072805 1655{
97aff369 1656 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1657
1658 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETNV;
1659
bd81e77b
NC
1660 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(sv);
1661 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
79072805 1662 case SVt_NULL:
79072805 1663 case SVt_IV:
bd81e77b 1664 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_NV);
79072805
LW
1665 break;
1666 case SVt_PV:
79072805 1667 case SVt_PVIV:
bd81e77b 1668 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
79072805 1669 break;
bd4b1eb5 1670
bd4b1eb5 1671 case SVt_PVGV:
6e592b3a
BM
1672 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
1673 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1674 case SVt_PVAV:
1675 case SVt_PVHV:
79072805 1676 case SVt_PVCV:
bd81e77b
NC
1677 case SVt_PVFM:
1678 case SVt_PVIO:
22e74366 1679 /* diag_listed_as: Can't coerce %s to %s in %s */
bd81e77b 1680 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't coerce %s to number in %s", sv_reftype(sv,0),
94bbb3f4 1681 OP_DESC(PL_op));
42d0e0b7 1682 default: NOOP;
2068cd4d 1683 }
bd81e77b
NC
1684 SvNV_set(sv, num);
1685 (void)SvNOK_only(sv); /* validate number */
1686 SvTAINT(sv);
79072805
LW
1687}
1688
645c22ef 1689/*
bd81e77b 1690=for apidoc sv_setnv_mg
645c22ef 1691
bd81e77b 1692Like C<sv_setnv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
645c22ef
DM
1693
1694=cut
1695*/
1696
bd81e77b 1697void
aad570aa 1698Perl_sv_setnv_mg(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const NV num)
79072805 1699{
7918f24d
NC
1700 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETNV_MG;
1701
bd81e77b
NC
1702 sv_setnv(sv,num);
1703 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
79072805
LW
1704}
1705
bd81e77b
NC
1706/* Print an "isn't numeric" warning, using a cleaned-up,
1707 * printable version of the offending string
1708 */
954c1994 1709
bd81e77b 1710STATIC void
aad570aa 1711S_not_a_number(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
79072805 1712{
97aff369 1713 dVAR;
bd81e77b
NC
1714 SV *dsv;
1715 char tmpbuf[64];
1716 const char *pv;
94463019 1717
7918f24d
NC
1718 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_NOT_A_NUMBER;
1719
94463019 1720 if (DO_UTF8(sv)) {
84bafc02 1721 dsv = newSVpvs_flags("", SVs_TEMP);
94463019
JH
1722 pv = sv_uni_display(dsv, sv, 10, 0);
1723 } else {
1724 char *d = tmpbuf;
551405c4 1725 const char * const limit = tmpbuf + sizeof(tmpbuf) - 8;
94463019
JH
1726 /* each *s can expand to 4 chars + "...\0",
1727 i.e. need room for 8 chars */
ecdeb87c 1728
00b6aa41
AL
1729 const char *s = SvPVX_const(sv);
1730 const char * const end = s + SvCUR(sv);
1731 for ( ; s < end && d < limit; s++ ) {
94463019
JH
1732 int ch = *s & 0xFF;
1733 if (ch & 128 && !isPRINT_LC(ch)) {
1734 *d++ = 'M';
1735 *d++ = '-';
1736 ch &= 127;
1737 }
1738 if (ch == '\n') {
1739 *d++ = '\\';
1740 *d++ = 'n';
1741 }
1742 else if (ch == '\r') {
1743 *d++ = '\\';
1744 *d++ = 'r';
1745 }
1746 else if (ch == '\f') {
1747 *d++ = '\\';
1748 *d++ = 'f';
1749 }
1750 else if (ch == '\\') {
1751 *d++ = '\\';
1752 *d++ = '\\';
1753 }
1754 else if (ch == '\0') {
1755 *d++ = '\\';
1756 *d++ = '0';
1757 }
1758 else if (isPRINT_LC(ch))
1759 *d++ = ch;
1760 else {
1761 *d++ = '^';
1762 *d++ = toCTRL(ch);
1763 }
1764 }
1765 if (s < end) {
1766 *d++ = '.';
1767 *d++ = '.';
1768 *d++ = '.';
1769 }
1770 *d = '\0';
1771 pv = tmpbuf;
a0d0e21e 1772 }
a0d0e21e 1773
533c011a 1774 if (PL_op)
9014280d 1775 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NUMERIC),
94463019
JH
1776 "Argument \"%s\" isn't numeric in %s", pv,
1777 OP_DESC(PL_op));
a0d0e21e 1778 else
9014280d 1779 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NUMERIC),
94463019 1780 "Argument \"%s\" isn't numeric", pv);
a0d0e21e
LW
1781}
1782
c2988b20
NC
1783/*
1784=for apidoc looks_like_number
1785
645c22ef
DM
1786Test if the content of an SV looks like a number (or is a number).
1787C<Inf> and C<Infinity> are treated as numbers (so will not issue a
1788non-numeric warning), even if your atof() doesn't grok them.
c2988b20
NC
1789
1790=cut
1791*/
1792
1793I32
aad570aa 1794Perl_looks_like_number(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
c2988b20 1795{
a3b680e6 1796 register const char *sbegin;
c2988b20
NC
1797 STRLEN len;
1798
7918f24d
NC
1799 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_LOOKS_LIKE_NUMBER;
1800
c2988b20 1801 if (SvPOK(sv)) {
3f7c398e 1802 sbegin = SvPVX_const(sv);
c2988b20
NC
1803 len = SvCUR(sv);
1804 }
1805 else if (SvPOKp(sv))
83003860 1806 sbegin = SvPV_const(sv, len);
c2988b20 1807 else
e0ab1c0e 1808 return SvFLAGS(sv) & (SVf_NOK|SVp_NOK|SVf_IOK|SVp_IOK);
c2988b20
NC
1809 return grok_number(sbegin, len, NULL);
1810}
25da4f38 1811
19f6321d
NC
1812STATIC bool
1813S_glob_2number(pTHX_ GV * const gv)
180488f8
NC
1814{
1815 const U32 wasfake = SvFLAGS(gv) & SVf_FAKE;
1816 SV *const buffer = sv_newmortal();
1817
7918f24d
NC
1818 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_GLOB_2NUMBER;
1819
180488f8
NC
1820 /* FAKE globs can get coerced, so need to turn this off temporarily if it
1821 is on. */
1822 SvFAKE_off(gv);
1823 gv_efullname3(buffer, gv, "*");
1824 SvFLAGS(gv) |= wasfake;
1825
675c862f
AL
1826 /* We know that all GVs stringify to something that is not-a-number,
1827 so no need to test that. */
1828 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
1829 not_a_number(buffer);
1830 /* We just want something true to return, so that S_sv_2iuv_common
1831 can tail call us and return true. */
19f6321d 1832 return TRUE;
675c862f
AL
1833}
1834
25da4f38
IZ
1835/* Actually, ISO C leaves conversion of UV to IV undefined, but
1836 until proven guilty, assume that things are not that bad... */
1837
645c22ef
DM
1838/*
1839 NV_PRESERVES_UV:
1840
1841 As 64 bit platforms often have an NV that doesn't preserve all bits of
28e5dec8
JH
1842 an IV (an assumption perl has been based on to date) it becomes necessary
1843 to remove the assumption that the NV always carries enough precision to
1844 recreate the IV whenever needed, and that the NV is the canonical form.
1845 Instead, IV/UV and NV need to be given equal rights. So as to not lose
645c22ef 1846 precision as a side effect of conversion (which would lead to insanity
28e5dec8
JH
1847 and the dragon(s) in t/op/numconvert.t getting very angry) the intent is
1848 1) to distinguish between IV/UV/NV slots that have cached a valid
1849 conversion where precision was lost and IV/UV/NV slots that have a
1850 valid conversion which has lost no precision
645c22ef 1851 2) to ensure that if a numeric conversion to one form is requested that
28e5dec8
JH
1852 would lose precision, the precise conversion (or differently
1853 imprecise conversion) is also performed and cached, to prevent
1854 requests for different numeric formats on the same SV causing
1855 lossy conversion chains. (lossless conversion chains are perfectly
1856 acceptable (still))
1857
1858
1859 flags are used:
1860 SvIOKp is true if the IV slot contains a valid value
1861 SvIOK is true only if the IV value is accurate (UV if SvIOK_UV true)
1862 SvNOKp is true if the NV slot contains a valid value
1863 SvNOK is true only if the NV value is accurate
1864
1865 so
645c22ef 1866 while converting from PV to NV, check to see if converting that NV to an
28e5dec8
JH
1867 IV(or UV) would lose accuracy over a direct conversion from PV to
1868 IV(or UV). If it would, cache both conversions, return NV, but mark
1869 SV as IOK NOKp (ie not NOK).
1870
645c22ef 1871 While converting from PV to IV, check to see if converting that IV to an
28e5dec8
JH
1872 NV would lose accuracy over a direct conversion from PV to NV. If it
1873 would, cache both conversions, flag similarly.
1874
1875 Before, the SV value "3.2" could become NV=3.2 IV=3 NOK, IOK quite
1876 correctly because if IV & NV were set NV *always* overruled.
645c22ef
DM
1877 Now, "3.2" will become NV=3.2 IV=3 NOK, IOKp, because the flag's meaning
1878 changes - now IV and NV together means that the two are interchangeable:
28e5dec8 1879 SvIVX == (IV) SvNVX && SvNVX == (NV) SvIVX;
d460ef45 1880
645c22ef
DM
1881 The benefit of this is that operations such as pp_add know that if
1882 SvIOK is true for both left and right operands, then integer addition
1883 can be used instead of floating point (for cases where the result won't
1884 overflow). Before, floating point was always used, which could lead to
28e5dec8
JH
1885 loss of precision compared with integer addition.
1886
1887 * making IV and NV equal status should make maths accurate on 64 bit
1888 platforms
1889 * may speed up maths somewhat if pp_add and friends start to use
645c22ef 1890 integers when possible instead of fp. (Hopefully the overhead in
28e5dec8
JH
1891 looking for SvIOK and checking for overflow will not outweigh the
1892 fp to integer speedup)
1893 * will slow down integer operations (callers of SvIV) on "inaccurate"
1894 values, as the change from SvIOK to SvIOKp will cause a call into
1895 sv_2iv each time rather than a macro access direct to the IV slot
1896 * should speed up number->string conversion on integers as IV is
645c22ef 1897 favoured when IV and NV are equally accurate
28e5dec8
JH
1898
1899 ####################################################################
645c22ef
DM
1900 You had better be using SvIOK_notUV if you want an IV for arithmetic:
1901 SvIOK is true if (IV or UV), so you might be getting (IV)SvUV.
1902 On the other hand, SvUOK is true iff UV.
28e5dec8
JH
1903 ####################################################################
1904
645c22ef 1905 Your mileage will vary depending your CPU's relative fp to integer
28e5dec8
JH
1906 performance ratio.
1907*/
1908
1909#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
645c22ef
DM
1910# define IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_IV 1
1911# define IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_UV 2
1912# define IS_NUMBER_IV_AND_UV 2
1913# define IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_IV 4
1914# define IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV 5
1915
1916/* sv_2iuv_non_preserve(): private routine for use by sv_2iv() and sv_2uv() */
28e5dec8
JH
1917
1918/* For sv_2nv these three cases are "SvNOK and don't bother casting" */
1919STATIC int
5de3775c 1920S_sv_2iuv_non_preserve(pTHX_ register SV *const sv
47031da6
NC
1921# ifdef DEBUGGING
1922 , I32 numtype
1923# endif
1924 )
28e5dec8 1925{
97aff369 1926 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1927
1928 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2IUV_NON_PRESERVE;
1929
3f7c398e 1930 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,"sv_2iuv_non '%s', IV=0x%"UVxf" NV=%"NVgf" inttype=%"UVXf"\n", SvPVX_const(sv), SvIVX(sv), SvNVX(sv), (UV)numtype));
28e5dec8
JH
1931 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MIN) {
1932 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
1933 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
45977657 1934 SvIV_set(sv, IV_MIN);
28e5dec8
JH
1935 return IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_IV;
1936 }
1937 if (SvNVX(sv) > (NV)UV_MAX) {
1938 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
1939 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
1940 SvIsUV_on(sv);
607fa7f2 1941 SvUV_set(sv, UV_MAX);
28e5dec8
JH
1942 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV;
1943 }
c2988b20
NC
1944 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
1945 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
1946 /* Can't use strtol etc to convert this string. (See truth table in
1947 sv_2iv */
1948 if (SvNVX(sv) <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 1949 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
c2988b20
NC
1950 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
1951 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Integer is precise. NOK, IOK */
1952 } else {
1953 /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
1954 }
1955 return SvNVX(sv) < 0 ? IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_UV : IS_NUMBER_IV_AND_UV;
1956 }
1957 SvIsUV_on(sv);
607fa7f2 1958 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
c2988b20
NC
1959 if ((NV)(SvUVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
1960 if (SvUVX(sv) == UV_MAX) {
1961 /* As we know that NVs don't preserve UVs, UV_MAX cannot
1962 possibly be preserved by NV. Hence, it must be overflow.
1963 NOK, IOKp */
1964 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV;
1965 }
1966 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Integer is precise. NOK, UOK */
1967 } else {
1968 /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
28e5dec8 1969 }
c2988b20 1970 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_IV;
28e5dec8 1971}
645c22ef
DM
1972#endif /* !NV_PRESERVES_UV*/
1973
af359546 1974STATIC bool
7918f24d
NC
1975S_sv_2iuv_common(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
1976{
97aff369 1977 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1978
1979 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2IUV_COMMON;
1980
af359546 1981 if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
28e5dec8
JH
1982 /* erm. not sure. *should* never get NOKp (without NOK) from sv_2nv
1983 * without also getting a cached IV/UV from it at the same time
1984 * (ie PV->NV conversion should detect loss of accuracy and cache
af359546
NC
1985 * IV or UV at same time to avoid this. */
1986 /* IV-over-UV optimisation - choose to cache IV if possible */
25da4f38
IZ
1987
1988 if (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_NV)
1989 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
1990
28e5dec8
JH
1991 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv); /* Must do this first, to clear any SvOOK */
1992 /* < not <= as for NV doesn't preserve UV, ((NV)IV_MAX+1) will almost
1993 certainly cast into the IV range at IV_MAX, whereas the correct
1994 answer is the UV IV_MAX +1. Hence < ensures that dodgy boundary
1995 cases go to UV */
cab190d4
JD
1996#if defined(NAN_COMPARE_BROKEN) && defined(Perl_isnan)
1997 if (Perl_isnan(SvNVX(sv))) {
1998 SvUV_set(sv, 0);
1999 SvIsUV_on(sv);
fdbe6d7c 2000 return FALSE;
cab190d4 2001 }
cab190d4 2002#endif
28e5dec8 2003 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
45977657 2004 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
2005 if (SvNVX(sv) == (NV) SvIVX(sv)
2006#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2007 && (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
2008 (UV)(SvIVX(sv) > 0 ? SvIVX(sv) : -SvIVX(sv)))
2009 /* Don't flag it as "accurately an integer" if the number
2010 came from a (by definition imprecise) NV operation, and
2011 we're outside the range of NV integer precision */
2012#endif
2013 ) {
a43d94f2
NC
2014 if (SvNOK(sv))
2015 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Can this go wrong with rounding? NWC */
2016 else {
2017 /* scalar has trailing garbage, eg "42a" */
2018 }
28e5dec8 2019 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
7234c960 2020 "0x%"UVxf" iv(%"NVgf" => %"IVdf") (precise)\n",
28e5dec8
JH
2021 PTR2UV(sv),
2022 SvNVX(sv),
2023 SvIVX(sv)));
2024
2025 } else {
2026 /* IV not precise. No need to convert from PV, as NV
2027 conversion would already have cached IV if it detected
2028 that PV->IV would be better than PV->NV->IV
2029 flags already correct - don't set public IOK. */
2030 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
7234c960 2031 "0x%"UVxf" iv(%"NVgf" => %"IVdf") (imprecise)\n",
28e5dec8
JH
2032 PTR2UV(sv),
2033 SvNVX(sv),
2034 SvIVX(sv)));
2035 }
2036 /* Can the above go wrong if SvIVX == IV_MIN and SvNVX < IV_MIN,
2037 but the cast (NV)IV_MIN rounds to a the value less (more
2038 negative) than IV_MIN which happens to be equal to SvNVX ??
2039 Analogous to 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF rounding up to NV (2**64) and
2040 NV rounding back to 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF, so UVX == UV(NVX) and
2041 (NV)UVX == NVX are both true, but the values differ. :-(
2042 Hopefully for 2s complement IV_MIN is something like
2043 0x8000000000000000 which will be exact. NWC */
d460ef45 2044 }
25da4f38 2045 else {
607fa7f2 2046 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
2047 if (
2048 (SvNVX(sv) == (NV) SvUVX(sv))
2049#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2050 /* Make sure it's not 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF */
2051 /*&& (SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX) irrelevant with code below */
2052 && (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) > SvUVX(sv))
2053 /* Don't flag it as "accurately an integer" if the number
2054 came from a (by definition imprecise) NV operation, and
2055 we're outside the range of NV integer precision */
2056#endif
a43d94f2 2057 && SvNOK(sv)
28e5dec8
JH
2058 )
2059 SvIOK_on(sv);
25da4f38 2060 SvIsUV_on(sv);
1c846c1f 2061 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
57def98f 2062 "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%"UVuf" => %"IVdf") (as unsigned)\n",
56431972 2063 PTR2UV(sv),
57def98f
JH
2064 SvUVX(sv),
2065 SvUVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2066 }
748a9306
LW
2067 }
2068 else if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) {
c2988b20 2069 UV value;
504618e9 2070 const int numtype = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
af359546 2071 /* We want to avoid a possible problem when we cache an IV/ a UV which
25da4f38 2072 may be later translated to an NV, and the resulting NV is not
c2988b20
NC
2073 the same as the direct translation of the initial string
2074 (eg 123.456 can shortcut to the IV 123 with atol(), but we must
2075 be careful to ensure that the value with the .456 is around if the
2076 NV value is requested in the future).
1c846c1f 2077
af359546 2078 This means that if we cache such an IV/a UV, we need to cache the
25da4f38 2079 NV as well. Moreover, we trade speed for space, and do not
28e5dec8 2080 cache the NV if we are sure it's not needed.
25da4f38 2081 */
16b7a9a4 2082
c2988b20
NC
2083 /* SVt_PVNV is one higher than SVt_PVIV, hence this order */
2084 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2085 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
5e045b90 2086 /* It's definitely an integer, only upgrade to PVIV */
28e5dec8
JH
2087 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVIV)
2088 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
f7bbb42a 2089 (void)SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2090 } else if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2091 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
28e5dec8 2092
f2524eef 2093 /* If NVs preserve UVs then we only use the UV value if we know that
c2988b20
NC
2094 we aren't going to call atof() below. If NVs don't preserve UVs
2095 then the value returned may have more precision than atof() will
2096 return, even though value isn't perfectly accurate. */
2097 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV
2098#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2099 | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT
2100#endif
2101 )) == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2102 /* This won't turn off the public IOK flag if it was set above */
2103 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2104
2105 if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG)) {
2106 /* positive */;
2107 if (value <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 2108 SvIV_set(sv, (IV)value);
c2988b20 2109 } else {
af359546 2110 /* it didn't overflow, and it was positive. */
607fa7f2 2111 SvUV_set(sv, value);
c2988b20
NC
2112 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2113 }
2114 } else {
2115 /* 2s complement assumption */
2116 if (value <= (UV)IV_MIN) {
45977657 2117 SvIV_set(sv, -(IV)value);
c2988b20
NC
2118 } else {
2119 /* Too negative for an IV. This is a double upgrade, but
d1be9408 2120 I'm assuming it will be rare. */
c2988b20
NC
2121 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2122 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
2123 SvNOK_on(sv);
2124 SvIOK_off(sv);
2125 SvIOKp_on(sv);
9d6ce603 2126 SvNV_set(sv, -(NV)value);
45977657 2127 SvIV_set(sv, IV_MIN);
c2988b20
NC
2128 }
2129 }
2130 }
2131 /* For !NV_PRESERVES_UV and IS_NUMBER_IN_UV and IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT we
2132 will be in the previous block to set the IV slot, and the next
2133 block to set the NV slot. So no else here. */
2134
2135 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2136 != IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2137 /* It wasn't an (integer that doesn't overflow the UV). */
3f7c398e 2138 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
28e5dec8 2139
c2988b20
NC
2140 if (! numtype && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2141 not_a_number(sv);
28e5dec8 2142
65202027 2143#if defined(USE_LONG_DOUBLE)
c2988b20
NC
2144 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%" PERL_PRIgldbl ")\n",
2145 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv)));
65202027 2146#else
1779d84d 2147 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%"NVgf")\n",
c2988b20 2148 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv)));
65202027 2149#endif
28e5dec8 2150
28e5dec8 2151#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
af359546
NC
2152 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2153 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
2154 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
2155 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
2156 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
2157 SvIOK_on(sv);
2158 } else {
6f207bd3 2159 NOOP; /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
af359546
NC
2160 }
2161 /* UV will not work better than IV */
2162 } else {
2163 if (SvNVX(sv) > (NV)UV_MAX) {
2164 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2165 /* Integer is inaccurate. NOK, IOKp, is UV */
2166 SvUV_set(sv, UV_MAX);
af359546
NC
2167 } else {
2168 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
2169 /* 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF not an issue in here, NVs
2170 NV preservse UV so can do correct comparison. */
2171 if ((NV)(SvUVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
2172 SvIOK_on(sv);
af359546 2173 } else {
6f207bd3 2174 NOOP; /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp, is UV */
af359546
NC
2175 }
2176 }
4b0c9573 2177 SvIsUV_on(sv);
af359546 2178 }
28e5dec8 2179#else /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
c2988b20
NC
2180 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2181 == (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT)) {
af359546 2182 /* The IV/UV slot will have been set from value returned by
c2988b20
NC
2183 grok_number above. The NV slot has just been set using
2184 Atof. */
560b0c46 2185 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2186 assert (SvIOKp(sv));
2187 } else {
2188 if (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
2189 U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))) {
2190 /* Small enough to preserve all bits. */
2191 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2192 SvNOK_on(sv);
45977657 2193 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
c2988b20
NC
2194 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv))
2195 SvIOK_on(sv);
2196 /* Assumption: first non-preserved integer is < IV_MAX,
2197 this NV is in the preserved range, therefore: */
2198 if (!(U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))
2199 < (UV)IV_MAX)) {
32fdb065 2200 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "sv_2iv assumed (U_V(fabs((double)SvNVX(sv))) < (UV)IV_MAX) but SvNVX(sv)=%"NVgf" U_V is 0x%"UVxf", IV_MAX is 0x%"UVxf"\n", SvNVX(sv), U_V(SvNVX(sv)), (UV)IV_MAX);
c2988b20
NC
2201 }
2202 } else {
2203 /* IN_UV NOT_INT
2204 0 0 already failed to read UV.
2205 0 1 already failed to read UV.
2206 1 0 you won't get here in this case. IV/UV
2207 slot set, public IOK, Atof() unneeded.
2208 1 1 already read UV.
2209 so there's no point in sv_2iuv_non_preserve() attempting
2210 to use atol, strtol, strtoul etc. */
47031da6 2211# ifdef DEBUGGING
40a17c4c 2212 sv_2iuv_non_preserve (sv, numtype);
47031da6
NC
2213# else
2214 sv_2iuv_non_preserve (sv);
2215# endif
c2988b20
NC
2216 }
2217 }
28e5dec8 2218#endif /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
a43d94f2
NC
2219 /* It might be more code efficient to go through the entire logic above
2220 and conditionally set with SvIOKp_on() rather than SvIOK(), but it
2221 gets complex and potentially buggy, so more programmer efficient
2222 to do it this way, by turning off the public flags: */
2223 if (!numtype)
2224 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~(SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK);
25da4f38 2225 }
af359546
NC
2226 }
2227 else {
675c862f 2228 if (isGV_with_GP(sv))
159b6efe 2229 return glob_2number(MUTABLE_GV(sv));
180488f8 2230
af359546
NC
2231 if (!(SvFLAGS(sv) & SVs_PADTMP)) {
2232 if (!PL_localizing && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
2233 report_uninit(sv);
2234 }
25da4f38
IZ
2235 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_IV)
2236 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
2237 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_IV);
af359546
NC
2238 /* Return 0 from the caller. */
2239 return TRUE;
2240 }
2241 return FALSE;
2242}
2243
2244/*
2245=for apidoc sv_2iv_flags
2246
2247Return the integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string
2248conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first.
2249Normally used via the C<SvIV(sv)> and C<SvIVx(sv)> macros.
2250
2251=cut
2252*/
2253
2254IV
5de3775c 2255Perl_sv_2iv_flags(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
af359546 2256{
97aff369 2257 dVAR;
af359546 2258 if (!sv)
a0d0e21e 2259 return 0;
a672f009 2260 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) || SvVALID(sv)) {
2b2b6d6d
NC
2261 /* FBMs use the space for SvIVX and SvNVX for other purposes, and use
2262 the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must not let them cache IVs.
2263 In practice they are extremely unlikely to actually get anywhere
2264 accessible by user Perl code - the only way that I'm aware of is when
2265 a constant subroutine which is used as the second argument to index.
2266 */
af359546
NC
2267 if (flags & SV_GMAGIC)
2268 mg_get(sv);
2269 if (SvIOKp(sv))
2270 return SvIVX(sv);
2271 if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
2272 return I_V(SvNVX(sv));
2273 }
71c558c3
NC
2274 if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) {
2275 UV value;
2276 const int numtype
2277 = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
2278
2279 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2280 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2281 /* It's definitely an integer */
2282 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) {
2283 if (value < (UV)IV_MIN)
2284 return -(IV)value;
2285 } else {
2286 if (value < (UV)IV_MAX)
2287 return (IV)value;
2288 }
2289 }
2290 if (!numtype) {
2291 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2292 not_a_number(sv);
2293 }
2294 return I_V(Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
2295 }
1c7ff15e
NC
2296 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2297 goto return_rok;
af359546 2298 }
1c7ff15e
NC
2299 assert(SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG);
2300 /* This falls through to the report_uninit inside S_sv_2iuv_common. */
4cb1ec55 2301 } else if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
af359546 2302 if (SvROK(sv)) {
1c7ff15e 2303 return_rok:
af359546 2304 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
aee036bb
DM
2305 SV * tmpstr;
2306 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2307 return 0;
31d632c3 2308 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
af359546
NC
2309 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2310 return SvIV(tmpstr);
2311 }
2312 }
2313 return PTR2IV(SvRV(sv));
2314 }
2315 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
2316 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
2317 }
2318 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
2319 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
2320 report_uninit(sv);
2321 return 0;
2322 }
2323 }
2324 if (!SvIOKp(sv)) {
2325 if (S_sv_2iuv_common(aTHX_ sv))
2326 return 0;
79072805 2327 }
1d7c1841
GS
2328 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%"IVdf")\n",
2329 PTR2UV(sv),SvIVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2330 return SvIsUV(sv) ? (IV)SvUVX(sv) : SvIVX(sv);
79072805
LW
2331}
2332
645c22ef 2333/*
891f9566 2334=for apidoc sv_2uv_flags
645c22ef
DM
2335
2336Return the unsigned integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string
891f9566
YST
2337conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first.
2338Normally used via the C<SvUV(sv)> and C<SvUVx(sv)> macros.
645c22ef
DM
2339
2340=cut
2341*/
2342
ff68c719 2343UV
5de3775c 2344Perl_sv_2uv_flags(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
ff68c719 2345{
97aff369 2346 dVAR;
ff68c719
PP
2347 if (!sv)
2348 return 0;
a672f009 2349 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) || SvVALID(sv)) {
2b2b6d6d
NC
2350 /* FBMs use the space for SvIVX and SvNVX for other purposes, and use
2351 the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must not let them cache IVs. */
891f9566
YST
2352 if (flags & SV_GMAGIC)
2353 mg_get(sv);
ff68c719
PP
2354 if (SvIOKp(sv))
2355 return SvUVX(sv);
2356 if (SvNOKp(sv))
2357 return U_V(SvNVX(sv));
71c558c3
NC
2358 if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) {
2359 UV value;
2360 const int numtype
2361 = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
2362
2363 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2364 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2365 /* It's definitely an integer */
2366 if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG))
2367 return value;
2368 }
2369 if (!numtype) {
2370 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2371 not_a_number(sv);
2372 }
2373 return U_V(Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
2374 }
1c7ff15e
NC
2375 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2376 goto return_rok;
3fe9a6f1 2377 }
1c7ff15e
NC
2378 assert(SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG);
2379 /* This falls through to the report_uninit inside S_sv_2iuv_common. */
4cb1ec55 2380 } else if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
ff68c719 2381 if (SvROK(sv)) {
1c7ff15e 2382 return_rok:
deb46114 2383 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
aee036bb
DM
2384 SV *tmpstr;
2385 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2386 return 0;
31d632c3 2387 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
deb46114
NC
2388 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2389 return SvUV(tmpstr);
2390 }
2391 }
2392 return PTR2UV(SvRV(sv));
ff68c719 2393 }
765f542d
NC
2394 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
2395 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
8a818333 2396 }
0336b60e 2397 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
0336b60e 2398 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2399 report_uninit(sv);
ff68c719
PP
2400 return 0;
2401 }
2402 }
af359546
NC
2403 if (!SvIOKp(sv)) {
2404 if (S_sv_2iuv_common(aTHX_ sv))
2405 return 0;
ff68c719 2406 }
25da4f38 2407
1d7c1841
GS
2408 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2uv(%"UVuf")\n",
2409 PTR2UV(sv),SvUVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2410 return SvIsUV(sv) ? SvUVX(sv) : (UV)SvIVX(sv);
ff68c719
PP
2411}
2412
645c22ef 2413/*
196007d1 2414=for apidoc sv_2nv_flags
645c22ef
DM
2415
2416Return the num value of an SV, doing any necessary string or integer
39d5de13
DM
2417conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first.
2418Normally used via the C<SvNV(sv)> and C<SvNVx(sv)> macros.
645c22ef
DM
2419
2420=cut
2421*/
2422
65202027 2423NV
39d5de13 2424Perl_sv_2nv_flags(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
79072805 2425{
97aff369 2426 dVAR;
79072805
LW
2427 if (!sv)
2428 return 0.0;
a672f009 2429 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) || SvVALID(sv)) {
2b2b6d6d
NC
2430 /* FBMs use the space for SvIVX and SvNVX for other purposes, and use
2431 the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must not let them cache NVs. */
39d5de13
DM
2432 if (flags & SV_GMAGIC)
2433 mg_get(sv);
463ee0b2
LW
2434 if (SvNOKp(sv))
2435 return SvNVX(sv);
0aa395f8 2436 if ((SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) && !SvIOKp(sv)) {
041457d9 2437 if (!SvIOKp(sv) && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC) &&
504618e9 2438 !grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), NULL))
a0d0e21e 2439 not_a_number(sv);
3f7c398e 2440 return Atof(SvPVX_const(sv));
a0d0e21e 2441 }
25da4f38 2442 if (SvIOKp(sv)) {
1c846c1f 2443 if (SvIsUV(sv))
65202027 2444 return (NV)SvUVX(sv);
25da4f38 2445 else
65202027 2446 return (NV)SvIVX(sv);
47a72cb8
NC
2447 }
2448 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2449 goto return_rok;
2450 }
2451 assert(SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG);
2452 /* This falls through to the report_uninit near the end of the
2453 function. */
2454 } else if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
a0d0e21e 2455 if (SvROK(sv)) {
47a72cb8 2456 return_rok:
deb46114 2457 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
aee036bb
DM
2458 SV *tmpstr;
2459 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2460 return 0;
31d632c3 2461 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
deb46114
NC
2462 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2463 return SvNV(tmpstr);
2464 }
2465 }
2466 return PTR2NV(SvRV(sv));
a0d0e21e 2467 }
765f542d
NC
2468 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
2469 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
8a818333 2470 }
0336b60e 2471 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
599cee73 2472 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2473 report_uninit(sv);
ed6116ce
LW
2474 return 0.0;
2475 }
79072805
LW
2476 }
2477 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_NV) {
7e25a7e9
NC
2478 /* The logic to use SVt_PVNV if necessary is in sv_upgrade. */
2479 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_NV);
906f284f 2480#ifdef USE_LONG_DOUBLE
097ee67d 2481 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2482 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1d7c1841
GS
2483 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2484 "0x%"UVxf" num(%" PERL_PRIgldbl ")\n",
2485 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
572bbb43
GS
2486 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2487 });
65202027 2488#else
572bbb43 2489 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2490 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1779d84d 2491 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" num(%"NVgf")\n",
1d7c1841 2492 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
097ee67d
JH
2493 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2494 });
572bbb43 2495#endif
79072805
LW
2496 }
2497 else if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2498 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
59d8ce62
NC
2499 if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
2500 return SvNVX(sv);
61604483 2501 }
59d8ce62 2502 if (SvIOKp(sv)) {
9d6ce603 2503 SvNV_set(sv, SvIsUV(sv) ? (NV)SvUVX(sv) : (NV)SvIVX(sv));
28e5dec8 2504#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
a43d94f2
NC
2505 if (SvIOK(sv))
2506 SvNOK_on(sv);
2507 else
2508 SvNOKp_on(sv);
28e5dec8
JH
2509#else
2510 /* Only set the public NV OK flag if this NV preserves the IV */
2511 /* Check it's not 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF */
a43d94f2
NC
2512 if (SvIOK(sv) &&
2513 SvIsUV(sv) ? ((SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX)&&(SvUVX(sv) == U_V(SvNVX(sv))))
28e5dec8
JH
2514 : (SvIVX(sv) == I_V(SvNVX(sv))))
2515 SvNOK_on(sv);
2516 else
2517 SvNOKp_on(sv);
2518#endif
93a17b20 2519 }
748a9306 2520 else if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) {
c2988b20 2521 UV value;
3f7c398e 2522 const int numtype = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
041457d9 2523 if (!SvIOKp(sv) && !numtype && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
a0d0e21e 2524 not_a_number(sv);
28e5dec8 2525#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
c2988b20
NC
2526 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2527 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
5e045b90 2528 /* It's definitely an integer */
9d6ce603 2529 SvNV_set(sv, (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) ? -(NV)value : (NV)value);
c2988b20 2530 } else
3f7c398e 2531 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
a43d94f2
NC
2532 if (numtype)
2533 SvNOK_on(sv);
2534 else
2535 SvNOKp_on(sv);
28e5dec8 2536#else
3f7c398e 2537 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
2538 /* Only set the public NV OK flag if this NV preserves the value in
2539 the PV at least as well as an IV/UV would.
2540 Not sure how to do this 100% reliably. */
2541 /* if that shift count is out of range then Configure's test is
2542 wonky. We shouldn't be in here with NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS ==
2543 UV_BITS */
2544 if (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
c2988b20 2545 U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))) {
28e5dec8 2546 SvNOK_on(sv); /* Definitely small enough to preserve all bits */
c2988b20
NC
2547 } else if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_IN_UV)) {
2548 /* Can't use strtol etc to convert this string, so don't try.
2549 sv_2iv and sv_2uv will use the NV to convert, not the PV. */
2550 SvNOK_on(sv);
2551 } else {
2552 /* value has been set. It may not be precise. */
2553 if ((numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) && (value > (UV)IV_MIN)) {
2554 /* 2s complement assumption for (UV)IV_MIN */
2555 SvNOK_on(sv); /* Integer is too negative. */
2556 } else {
2557 SvNOKp_on(sv);
2558 SvIOKp_on(sv);
6fa402ec 2559
c2988b20 2560 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) {
45977657 2561 SvIV_set(sv, -(IV)value);
c2988b20 2562 } else if (value <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 2563 SvIV_set(sv, (IV)value);
c2988b20 2564 } else {
607fa7f2 2565 SvUV_set(sv, value);
c2988b20
NC
2566 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2567 }
2568
2569 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT) {
2570 /* I believe that even if the original PV had decimals,
2571 they are lost beyond the limit of the FP precision.
2572 However, neither is canonical, so both only get p
2573 flags. NWC, 2000/11/25 */
2574 /* Both already have p flags, so do nothing */
2575 } else {
66a1b24b 2576 const NV nv = SvNVX(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2577 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
2578 if (SvIVX(sv) == I_V(nv)) {
2579 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20 2580 } else {
c2988b20
NC
2581 /* It had no "." so it must be integer. */
2582 }
00b6aa41 2583 SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2584 } else {
2585 /* between IV_MAX and NV(UV_MAX).
2586 Could be slightly > UV_MAX */
6fa402ec 2587
c2988b20
NC
2588 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT) {
2589 /* UV and NV both imprecise. */
2590 } else {
66a1b24b 2591 const UV nv_as_uv = U_V(nv);
c2988b20
NC
2592
2593 if (value == nv_as_uv && SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX) {
2594 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20 2595 }
00b6aa41 2596 SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2597 }
2598 }
2599 }
2600 }
2601 }
a43d94f2
NC
2602 /* It might be more code efficient to go through the entire logic above
2603 and conditionally set with SvNOKp_on() rather than SvNOK(), but it
2604 gets complex and potentially buggy, so more programmer efficient
2605 to do it this way, by turning off the public flags: */
2606 if (!numtype)
2607 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~(SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK);
28e5dec8 2608#endif /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
93a17b20 2609 }
79072805 2610 else {
f7877b28 2611 if (isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
159b6efe 2612 glob_2number(MUTABLE_GV(sv));
180488f8
NC
2613 return 0.0;
2614 }
2615
041457d9 2616 if (!PL_localizing && !(SvFLAGS(sv) & SVs_PADTMP) && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2617 report_uninit(sv);
7e25a7e9
NC
2618 assert (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_NV);
2619 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
2620 /* XXX Ilya implies that this is a bug in callers that assume this
2621 and ideally should be fixed. */
a0d0e21e 2622 return 0.0;
79072805 2623 }
572bbb43 2624#if defined(USE_LONG_DOUBLE)
097ee67d 2625 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2626 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1d7c1841
GS
2627 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2nv(%" PERL_PRIgldbl ")\n",
2628 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
572bbb43
GS
2629 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2630 });
65202027 2631#else
572bbb43 2632 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2633 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1779d84d 2634 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 1nv(%"NVgf")\n",
1d7c1841 2635 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
097ee67d
JH
2636 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2637 });
572bbb43 2638#endif
463ee0b2 2639 return SvNVX(sv);
79072805
LW
2640}
2641
800401ee
JH
2642/*
2643=for apidoc sv_2num
2644
2645Return an SV with the numeric value of the source SV, doing any necessary
a196a5fa
JH
2646reference or overload conversion. You must use the C<SvNUM(sv)> macro to
2647access this function.
800401ee
JH
2648
2649=cut
2650*/
2651
2652SV *
5de3775c 2653Perl_sv_2num(pTHX_ register SV *const sv)
800401ee 2654{
7918f24d
NC
2655 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2NUM;
2656
b9ee0594
RGS
2657 if (!SvROK(sv))
2658 return sv;
800401ee 2659 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
31d632c3 2660 SV * const tmpsv = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
a02ec77a 2661 TAINT_IF(tmpsv && SvTAINTED(tmpsv));
800401ee
JH
2662 if (tmpsv && (!SvROK(tmpsv) || (SvRV(tmpsv) != SvRV(sv))))
2663 return sv_2num(tmpsv);
2664 }
2665 return sv_2mortal(newSVuv(PTR2UV(SvRV(sv))));
2666}
2667
645c22ef
DM
2668/* uiv_2buf(): private routine for use by sv_2pv_flags(): print an IV or
2669 * UV as a string towards the end of buf, and return pointers to start and
2670 * end of it.
2671 *
2672 * We assume that buf is at least TYPE_CHARS(UV) long.
2673 */
2674
864dbfa3 2675static char *
5de3775c 2676S_uiv_2buf(char *const buf, const IV iv, UV uv, const int is_uv, char **const peob)
25da4f38 2677{
25da4f38 2678 char *ptr = buf + TYPE_CHARS(UV);
823a54a3 2679 char * const ebuf = ptr;
25da4f38 2680 int sign;
25da4f38 2681
7918f24d
NC
2682 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UIV_2BUF;
2683
25da4f38
IZ
2684 if (is_uv)
2685 sign = 0;
2686 else if (iv >= 0) {
2687 uv = iv;
2688 sign = 0;
2689 } else {
2690 uv = -iv;
2691 sign = 1;
2692 }
2693 do {
eb160463 2694 *--ptr = '0' + (char)(uv % 10);
25da4f38
IZ
2695 } while (uv /= 10);
2696 if (sign)
2697 *--ptr = '-';
2698 *peob = ebuf;
2699 return ptr;
2700}
2701
645c22ef
DM
2702/*
2703=for apidoc sv_2pv_flags
2704
ff276b08 2705Returns a pointer to the string value of an SV, and sets *lp to its length.
645c22ef
DM
2706If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first. Coerces sv to a string
2707if necessary.
2708Normally invoked via the C<SvPV_flags> macro. C<sv_2pv()> and C<sv_2pv_nomg>
2709usually end up here too.
2710
2711=cut
2712*/
2713
8d6d96c1 2714char *
5de3775c 2715Perl_sv_2pv_flags(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, STRLEN *const lp, const I32 flags)
8d6d96c1 2716{
97aff369 2717 dVAR;
79072805 2718 register char *s;
79072805 2719
463ee0b2 2720 if (!sv) {
cdb061a3
NC
2721 if (lp)
2722 *lp = 0;
73d840c0 2723 return (char *)"";
463ee0b2 2724 }
8990e307 2725 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv)) {
8d6d96c1
HS
2726 if (flags & SV_GMAGIC)
2727 mg_get(sv);
463ee0b2 2728 if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
cdb061a3
NC
2729 if (lp)
2730 *lp = SvCUR(sv);
10516c54
NC
2731 if (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
2732 return SvPVX_mutable(sv);
4d84ee25
NC
2733 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN)
2734 return (char *)SvPVX_const(sv);
463ee0b2
LW
2735 return SvPVX(sv);
2736 }
75dfc8ec
NC
2737 if (SvIOKp(sv) || SvNOKp(sv)) {
2738 char tbuf[64]; /* Must fit sprintf/Gconvert of longest IV/NV */
75dfc8ec
NC
2739 STRLEN len;
2740
2741 if (SvIOKp(sv)) {
e80fed9d 2742 len = SvIsUV(sv)
d9fad198
JH
2743 ? my_snprintf(tbuf, sizeof(tbuf), "%"UVuf, (UV)SvUVX(sv))
2744 : my_snprintf(tbuf, sizeof(tbuf), "%"IVdf, (IV)SvIVX(sv));
29912d93
NC
2745 } else if(SvNVX(sv) == 0.0) {
2746 tbuf[0] = '0';
2747 tbuf[1] = 0;
2748 len = 1;
75dfc8ec 2749 } else {
e8ada2d0
NC
2750 Gconvert(SvNVX(sv), NV_DIG, 0, tbuf);
2751 len = strlen(tbuf);
75dfc8ec 2752 }
b5b886f0
NC
2753 assert(!SvROK(sv));
2754 {
75dfc8ec
NC
2755 dVAR;
2756
75dfc8ec
NC
2757 SvUPGRADE(sv, SVt_PV);
2758 if (lp)
2759 *lp = len;
2760 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, len + 1);
2761 SvCUR_set(sv, len);
2762 SvPOKp_on(sv);
10edeb5d 2763 return (char*)memcpy(s, tbuf, len + 1);
75dfc8ec 2764 }
463ee0b2 2765 }
1c7ff15e
NC
2766 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2767 goto return_rok;
2768 }
2769 assert(SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG);
2770 /* This falls through to the report_uninit near the end of the
2771 function. */
2772 } else if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
ed6116ce 2773 if (SvROK(sv)) {
1c7ff15e 2774 return_rok:
deb46114 2775 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
aee036bb
DM
2776 SV *tmpstr;
2777 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2778 return NULL;
31d632c3 2779 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, string_amg);
a02ec77a 2780 TAINT_IF(tmpstr && SvTAINTED(tmpstr));
deb46114
NC
2781 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2782 /* Unwrap this: */
2783 /* char *pv = lp ? SvPV(tmpstr, *lp) : SvPV_nolen(tmpstr);
2784 */
2785
2786 char *pv;
2787 if ((SvFLAGS(tmpstr) & (SVf_POK)) == SVf_POK) {
2788 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN) {
2789 pv = (char *) SvPVX_const(tmpstr);
2790 } else {
2791 pv = (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
2792 ? SvPVX_mutable(tmpstr) : SvPVX(tmpstr);
2793 }
2794 if (lp)
2795 *lp = SvCUR(tmpstr);
50adf7d2 2796 } else {
deb46114 2797 pv = sv_2pv_flags(tmpstr, lp, flags);
50adf7d2 2798 }
deb46114
NC
2799 if (SvUTF8(tmpstr))
2800 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2801 else
2802 SvUTF8_off(sv);
2803 return pv;
50adf7d2 2804 }
deb46114
NC
2805 }
2806 {
fafee734
NC
2807 STRLEN len;
2808 char *retval;
2809 char *buffer;
d2c6dc5e 2810 SV *const referent = SvRV(sv);
d8eae41e
NC
2811
2812 if (!referent) {
fafee734
NC
2813 len = 7;
2814 retval = buffer = savepvn("NULLREF", len);
5c35adbb 2815 } else if (SvTYPE(referent) == SVt_REGEXP) {
d2c6dc5e 2816 REGEXP * const re = (REGEXP *)MUTABLE_PTR(referent);
67d2d14d
AB
2817 I32 seen_evals = 0;
2818
2819 assert(re);
2820
2821 /* If the regex is UTF-8 we want the containing scalar to
2822 have an UTF-8 flag too */
2823 if (RX_UTF8(re))
2824 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2825 else
2826 SvUTF8_off(sv);
2827
2828 if ((seen_evals = RX_SEEN_EVALS(re)))
2829 PL_reginterp_cnt += seen_evals;
2830
2831 if (lp)
2832 *lp = RX_WRAPLEN(re);
2833
2834 return RX_WRAPPED(re);
d8eae41e
NC
2835 } else {
2836 const char *const typestr = sv_reftype(referent, 0);
fafee734
NC
2837 const STRLEN typelen = strlen(typestr);
2838 UV addr = PTR2UV(referent);
2839 const char *stashname = NULL;
2840 STRLEN stashnamelen = 0; /* hush, gcc */
2841 const char *buffer_end;
d8eae41e 2842
d8eae41e 2843 if (SvOBJECT(referent)) {
fafee734
NC
2844 const HEK *const name = HvNAME_HEK(SvSTASH(referent));
2845
2846 if (name) {
2847 stashname = HEK_KEY(name);
2848 stashnamelen = HEK_LEN(name);
2849
2850 if (HEK_UTF8(name)) {
2851 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2852 } else {
2853 SvUTF8_off(sv);
2854 }
2855 } else {
2856 stashname = "__ANON__";
2857 stashnamelen = 8;
2858 }
2859 len = stashnamelen + 1 /* = */ + typelen + 3 /* (0x */
2860 + 2 * sizeof(UV) + 2 /* )\0 */;
2861 } else {
2862 len = typelen + 3 /* (0x */
2863 + 2 * sizeof(UV) + 2 /* )\0 */;
d8eae41e 2864 }
fafee734
NC
2865
2866 Newx(buffer, len, char);
2867 buffer_end = retval = buffer + len;
2868
2869 /* Working backwards */
2870 *--retval = '\0';
2871 *--retval = ')';
2872 do {
2873 *--retval = PL_hexdigit[addr & 15];
2874 } while (addr >>= 4);
2875 *--retval = 'x';
2876 *--retval = '0';
2877 *--retval = '(';
2878
2879 retval -= typelen;
2880 memcpy(retval, typestr, typelen);
2881
2882 if (stashname) {
2883 *--retval = '=';
2884 retval -= stashnamelen;
2885 memcpy(retval, stashname, stashnamelen);
2886 }
486ec47a 2887 /* retval may not necessarily have reached the start of the
fafee734
NC
2888 buffer here. */
2889 assert (retval >= buffer);
2890
2891 len = buffer_end - retval - 1; /* -1 for that \0 */
c080367d 2892 }
042dae7a 2893 if (lp)
fafee734
NC
2894 *lp = len;
2895 SAVEFREEPV(buffer);
2896 return retval;
463ee0b2 2897 }
79072805 2898 }
0336b60e 2899 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
cdb061a3
NC
2900 if (lp)
2901 *lp = 0;
9f621bb0
NC
2902 if (flags & SV_UNDEF_RETURNS_NULL)
2903 return NULL;
2904 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
2905 report_uninit(sv);
73d840c0 2906 return (char *)"";
79072805 2907 }
79072805 2908 }
28e5dec8
JH
2909 if (SvIOK(sv) || ((SvIOKp(sv) && !SvNOKp(sv)))) {
2910 /* I'm assuming that if both IV and NV are equally valid then
2911 converting the IV is going to be more efficient */
e1ec3a88 2912 const U32 isUIOK = SvIsUV(sv);
28e5dec8
JH
2913 char buf[TYPE_CHARS(UV)];
2914 char *ebuf, *ptr;
97a130b8 2915 STRLEN len;
28e5dec8
JH
2916
2917 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVIV)
2918 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
4ea1d550 2919 ptr = uiv_2buf(buf, SvIVX(sv), SvUVX(sv), isUIOK, &ebuf);
97a130b8 2920 len = ebuf - ptr;
5902b6a9 2921 /* inlined from sv_setpvn */
97a130b8
NC
2922 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, len + 1);
2923 Move(ptr, s, len, char);
2924 s += len;
28e5dec8 2925 *s = '\0';
28e5dec8
JH
2926 }
2927 else if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
79072805
LW
2928 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2929 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
29912d93
NC
2930 if (SvNVX(sv) == 0.0) {
2931 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, 2);
2932 *s++ = '0';
2933 *s = '\0';
2934 } else {
2935 dSAVE_ERRNO;
2936 /* The +20 is pure guesswork. Configure test needed. --jhi */
2937 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, NV_DIG + 20);
2938 /* some Xenix systems wipe out errno here */
2d4389e4 2939 Gconvert(SvNVX(sv), NV_DIG, 0, s);
29912d93
NC
2940 RESTORE_ERRNO;
2941 while (*s) s++;
bbce6d69 2942 }
79072805
LW
2943#ifdef hcx
2944 if (s[-1] == '.')
46fc3d4c 2945 *--s = '\0';
79072805
LW
2946#endif
2947 }
79072805 2948 else {
8d1c3e26
NC
2949 if (isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
2950 GV *const gv = MUTABLE_GV(sv);
2951 const U32 wasfake = SvFLAGS(gv) & SVf_FAKE;
2952 SV *const buffer = sv_newmortal();
2953
2954 /* FAKE globs can get coerced, so need to turn this off temporarily
2955 if it is on. */
2956 SvFAKE_off(gv);
2957 gv_efullname3(buffer, gv, "*");
2958 SvFLAGS(gv) |= wasfake;
2959
1809c940
DM
2960 if (SvPOK(buffer)) {
2961 if (lp) {
2962 *lp = SvCUR(buffer);
2963 }
2964 return SvPVX(buffer);
2965 }
2966 else {
2967 if (lp)
2968 *lp = 0;
2969 return (char *)"";
8d1c3e26 2970 }
8d1c3e26 2971 }
180488f8 2972
cdb061a3 2973 if (lp)
00b6aa41 2974 *lp = 0;
9f621bb0
NC
2975 if (flags & SV_UNDEF_RETURNS_NULL)
2976 return NULL;
2977 if (!PL_localizing && !(SvFLAGS(sv) & SVs_PADTMP) && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
2978 report_uninit(sv);
25da4f38
IZ
2979 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PV)
2980 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
2981 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PV);
73d840c0 2982 return (char *)"";
79072805 2983 }
cdb061a3 2984 {
823a54a3 2985 const STRLEN len = s - SvPVX_const(sv);
cdb061a3
NC
2986 if (lp)
2987 *lp = len;
2988 SvCUR_set(sv, len);
2989 }
79072805 2990 SvPOK_on(sv);
1d7c1841 2991 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2pv(%s)\n",
3f7c398e 2992 PTR2UV(sv),SvPVX_const(sv)));
4d84ee25
NC
2993 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN)
2994 return (char *)SvPVX_const(sv);
10516c54
NC
2995 if (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
2996 return SvPVX_mutable(sv);
463ee0b2
LW
2997 return SvPVX(sv);
2998}
2999
645c22ef 3000/*
6050d10e
JP
3001=for apidoc sv_copypv
3002
3003Copies a stringified representation of the source SV into the
3004destination SV. Automatically performs any necessary mg_get and
54f0641b 3005coercion of numeric values into strings. Guaranteed to preserve
2575c402 3006UTF8 flag even from overloaded objects. Similar in nature to
54f0641b
NIS
3007sv_2pv[_flags] but operates directly on an SV instead of just the
3008string. Mostly uses sv_2pv_flags to do its work, except when that
6050d10e
JP
3009would lose the UTF-8'ness of the PV.
3010
3011=cut
3012*/
3013
3014void
5de3775c 3015Perl_sv_copypv(pTHX_ SV *const dsv, register SV *const ssv)
6050d10e 3016{
446eaa42 3017 STRLEN len;
53c1dcc0 3018 const char * const s = SvPV_const(ssv,len);
7918f24d
NC
3019
3020 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_COPYPV;
3021
cb50f42d 3022 sv_setpvn(dsv,s,len);
446eaa42 3023 if (SvUTF8(ssv))
cb50f42d 3024 SvUTF8_on(dsv);
446eaa42 3025 else
cb50f42d 3026 SvUTF8_off(dsv);
6050d10e
JP
3027}
3028
3029/*
645c22ef
DM
3030=for apidoc sv_2pvbyte
3031
3032Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV, and set *lp
1e54db1a 3033to its length. May cause the SV to be downgraded from UTF-8 as a
645c22ef
DM
3034side-effect.
3035
3036Usually accessed via the C<SvPVbyte> macro.
3037
3038=cut
3039*/
3040
7340a771 3041char *
5de3775c 3042Perl_sv_2pvbyte(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, STRLEN *const lp)
7340a771 3043{
7918f24d
NC
3044 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2PVBYTE;
3045
71eb6d8c 3046 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
0875d2fe 3047 sv_utf8_downgrade(sv,0);
71eb6d8c 3048 return lp ? SvPV_nomg(sv,*lp) : SvPV_nomg_nolen(sv);
7340a771
GS
3049}
3050
645c22ef 3051/*
035cbb0e
RGS
3052=for apidoc sv_2pvutf8
3053
3054Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation of the SV, and set *lp
3055to its length. May cause the SV to be upgraded to UTF-8 as a side-effect.
3056
3057Usually accessed via the C<SvPVutf8> macro.
3058
3059=cut
3060*/
645c22ef 3061
7340a771 3062char *
7bc54cea 3063Perl_sv_2pvutf8(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, STRLEN *const lp)
7340a771 3064{
7918f24d
NC
3065 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2PVUTF8;
3066
035cbb0e
RGS
3067 sv_utf8_upgrade(sv);
3068 return lp ? SvPV(sv,*lp) : SvPV_nolen(sv);
7340a771 3069}
1c846c1f 3070
7ee2227d 3071
645c22ef
DM
3072/*
3073=for apidoc sv_2bool
3074
06c841cf
FC
3075This macro is only used by sv_true() or its macro equivalent, and only if
3076the latter's argument is neither SvPOK, SvIOK nor SvNOK.
3077It calls sv_2bool_flags with the SV_GMAGIC flag.
3078
3079=for apidoc sv_2bool_flags
3080
3081This function is only used by sv_true() and friends, and only if
3082the latter's argument is neither SvPOK, SvIOK nor SvNOK. If the flags
3083contain SV_GMAGIC, then it does an mg_get() first.
3084
645c22ef
DM
3085
3086=cut
3087*/
3088
463ee0b2 3089bool
06c841cf 3090Perl_sv_2bool_flags(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
463ee0b2 3091{
97aff369 3092 dVAR;
7918f24d 3093
06c841cf 3094 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2BOOL_FLAGS;
7918f24d 3095
06c841cf 3096 if(flags & SV_GMAGIC) SvGETMAGIC(sv);
463ee0b2 3097
a0d0e21e
LW
3098 if (!SvOK(sv))
3099 return 0;
3100 if (SvROK(sv)) {
fabdb6c0 3101 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
31d632c3 3102 SV * const tmpsv = AMG_CALLunary(sv, bool__amg);
fabdb6c0 3103 if (tmpsv && (!SvROK(tmpsv) || (SvRV(tmpsv) != SvRV(sv))))
f2338a2e 3104 return cBOOL(SvTRUE(tmpsv));
fabdb6c0
AL
3105 }
3106 return SvRV(sv) != 0;
a0d0e21e 3107 }
463ee0b2 3108 if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
53c1dcc0
AL
3109 register XPV* const Xpvtmp = (XPV*)SvANY(sv);
3110 if (Xpvtmp &&
339049b0 3111 (*sv->sv_u.svu_pv > '0' ||
11343788 3112 Xpvtmp->xpv_cur > 1 ||
339049b0 3113 (Xpvtmp->xpv_cur && *sv->sv_u.svu_pv != '0')))
463ee0b2
LW
3114 return 1;
3115 else
3116 return 0;
3117 }
3118 else {
3119 if (SvIOKp(sv))
3120 return SvIVX(sv) != 0;
3121 else {
3122 if (SvNOKp(sv))
3123 return SvNVX(sv) != 0.0;
180488f8 3124 else {
f7877b28 3125 if (isGV_with_GP(sv))
180488f8
NC
3126 return TRUE;
3127 else
3128 return FALSE;
3129 }
463ee0b2
LW
3130 }
3131 }
79072805
LW
3132}
3133
c461cf8f
JH
3134/*
3135=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade
3136
78ea37eb 3137Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.
645c22ef 3138Forces the SV to string form if it is not already.
2bbc8d55 3139Will C<mg_get> on C<sv> if appropriate.
4411f3b6 3140Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks even
2bbc8d55
SP
3141if the whole string is the same in UTF-8 as not.
3142Returns the number of bytes in the converted string
c461cf8f 3143
13a6c0e0
JH
3144This is not as a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface:
3145use the Encode extension for that.
3146
fe749c9a
KW
3147=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg
3148
3149Like sv_utf8_upgrade, but doesn't do magic on C<sv>
3150
8d6d96c1
HS
3151=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade_flags
3152
78ea37eb 3153Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.
645c22ef 3154Forces the SV to string form if it is not already.
8d6d96c1 3155Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks even
2bbc8d55
SP
3156if all the bytes are invariant in UTF-8. If C<flags> has C<SV_GMAGIC> bit set,
3157will C<mg_get> on C<sv> if appropriate, else not.
3158Returns the number of bytes in the converted string
3159C<sv_utf8_upgrade> and
8d6d96c1
HS
3160C<sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg> are implemented in terms of this function.
3161
13a6c0e0
JH
3162This is not as a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface:
3163use the Encode extension for that.
3164
8d6d96c1 3165=cut
b3ab6785
KW
3166
3167The grow version is currently not externally documented. It adds a parameter,
3168extra, which is the number of unused bytes the string of 'sv' is guaranteed to
3169have free after it upon return. This allows the caller to reserve extra space
3170that it intends to fill, to avoid extra grows.
3171
3172Also externally undocumented for the moment is the flag SV_FORCE_UTF8_UPGRADE,
3173which can be used to tell this function to not first check to see if there are
3174any characters that are different in UTF-8 (variant characters) which would
3175force it to allocate a new string to sv, but to assume there are. Typically
3176this flag is used by a routine that has already parsed the string to find that
3177there are such characters, and passes this information on so that the work
3178doesn't have to be repeated.
3179
3180(One might think that the calling routine could pass in the position of the
3181first such variant, so it wouldn't have to be found again. But that is not the
3182case, because typically when the caller is likely to use this flag, it won't be
3183calling this routine unless it finds something that won't fit into a byte.
3184Otherwise it tries to not upgrade and just use bytes. But some things that
3185do fit into a byte are variants in utf8, and the caller may not have been
3186keeping track of these.)
3187
3188If the routine itself changes the string, it adds a trailing NUL. Such a NUL
3189isn't guaranteed due to having other routines do the work in some input cases,
3190or if the input is already flagged as being in utf8.
3191
3192The speed of this could perhaps be improved for many cases if someone wanted to
3193write a fast function that counts the number of variant characters in a string,
3194especially if it could return the position of the first one.
3195
8d6d96c1
HS
3196*/
3197
3198STRLEN
b3ab6785 3199Perl_sv_utf8_upgrade_flags_grow(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const I32 flags, STRLEN extra)
8d6d96c1 3200{
97aff369 3201 dVAR;
7918f24d 3202
b3ab6785 3203 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_UPGRADE_FLAGS_GROW;
7918f24d 3204
808c356f
RGS
3205 if (sv == &PL_sv_undef)
3206 return 0;
e0e62c2a
NIS
3207 if (!SvPOK(sv)) {
3208 STRLEN len = 0;
d52b7888
NC
3209 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && (SvPOKp(sv) || SvIOKp(sv) || SvNOKp(sv))) {
3210 (void) sv_2pv_flags(sv,&len, flags);
b3ab6785
KW
3211 if (SvUTF8(sv)) {
3212 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
d52b7888 3213 return len;
b3ab6785 3214 }
d52b7888 3215 } else {
33fb6f35 3216 (void) SvPV_force_flags(sv,len,flags & SV_GMAGIC);
d52b7888 3217 }
e0e62c2a 3218 }
4411f3b6 3219
f5cee72b 3220 if (SvUTF8(sv)) {
b3ab6785 3221 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
5fec3b1d 3222 return SvCUR(sv);
f5cee72b 3223 }
5fec3b1d 3224
765f542d
NC
3225 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
3226 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
db42d148
NIS
3227 }
3228
b3ab6785 3229 if (PL_encoding && !(flags & SV_UTF8_NO_ENCODING)) {
799ef3cb 3230 sv_recode_to_utf8(sv, PL_encoding);
b3ab6785
KW
3231 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
3232 return SvCUR(sv);
3233 }
3234
4e93345f
KW
3235 if (SvCUR(sv) == 0) {
3236 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, extra);
3237 } else { /* Assume Latin-1/EBCDIC */
c4e7c712 3238 /* This function could be much more efficient if we
2bbc8d55 3239 * had a FLAG in SVs to signal if there are any variant
c4e7c712 3240 * chars in the PV. Given that there isn't such a flag
b3ab6785
KW
3241 * make the loop as fast as possible (although there are certainly ways
3242 * to speed this up, eg. through vectorization) */
3243 U8 * s = (U8 *) SvPVX_const(sv);
3244 U8 * e = (U8 *) SvEND(sv);
3245 U8 *t = s;
3246 STRLEN two_byte_count = 0;
c4e7c712 3247
b3ab6785
KW
3248 if (flags & SV_FORCE_UTF8_UPGRADE) goto must_be_utf8;
3249
3250 /* See if really will need to convert to utf8. We mustn't rely on our
3251 * incoming SV being well formed and having a trailing '\0', as certain
3252 * code in pp_formline can send us partially built SVs. */
3253
c4e7c712 3254 while (t < e) {
53c1dcc0 3255 const U8 ch = *t++;
b3ab6785
KW
3256 if (NATIVE_IS_INVARIANT(ch)) continue;
3257
3258 t--; /* t already incremented; re-point to first variant */
3259 two_byte_count = 1;
3260 goto must_be_utf8;
c4e7c712 3261 }
b3ab6785
KW
3262
3263 /* utf8 conversion not needed because all are invariants. Mark as
3264 * UTF-8 even if no variant - saves scanning loop */
c4e7c712 3265 SvUTF8_on(sv);
b3ab6785
KW
3266 return SvCUR(sv);
3267
3268must_be_utf8:
3269
3270 /* Here, the string should be converted to utf8, either because of an
3271 * input flag (two_byte_count = 0), or because a character that
3272 * requires 2 bytes was found (two_byte_count = 1). t points either to
3273 * the beginning of the string (if we didn't examine anything), or to
3274 * the first variant. In either case, everything from s to t - 1 will
3275 * occupy only 1 byte each on output.
3276 *
3277 * There are two main ways to convert. One is to create a new string
3278 * and go through the input starting from the beginning, appending each
3279 * converted value onto the new string as we go along. It's probably
3280 * best to allocate enough space in the string for the worst possible
3281 * case rather than possibly running out of space and having to
3282 * reallocate and then copy what we've done so far. Since everything
3283 * from s to t - 1 is invariant, the destination can be initialized
3284 * with these using a fast memory copy
3285 *
3286 * The other way is to figure out exactly how big the string should be
3287 * by parsing the entire input. Then you don't have to make it big
3288 * enough to handle the worst possible case, and more importantly, if
3289 * the string you already have is large enough, you don't have to
3290 * allocate a new string, you can copy the last character in the input
3291 * string to the final position(s) that will be occupied by the
3292 * converted string and go backwards, stopping at t, since everything
3293 * before that is invariant.
3294 *
3295 * There are advantages and disadvantages to each method.
3296 *
3297 * In the first method, we can allocate a new string, do the memory
3298 * copy from the s to t - 1, and then proceed through the rest of the
3299 * string byte-by-byte.
3300 *
3301 * In the second method, we proceed through the rest of the input
3302 * string just calculating how big the converted string will be. Then
3303 * there are two cases:
3304 * 1) if the string has enough extra space to handle the converted
3305 * value. We go backwards through the string, converting until we
3306 * get to the position we are at now, and then stop. If this
3307 * position is far enough along in the string, this method is
3308 * faster than the other method. If the memory copy were the same
3309 * speed as the byte-by-byte loop, that position would be about
3310 * half-way, as at the half-way mark, parsing to the end and back
3311 * is one complete string's parse, the same amount as starting
3312 * over and going all the way through. Actually, it would be
3313 * somewhat less than half-way, as it's faster to just count bytes
3314 * than to also copy, and we don't have the overhead of allocating
3315 * a new string, changing the scalar to use it, and freeing the
3316 * existing one. But if the memory copy is fast, the break-even
3317 * point is somewhere after half way. The counting loop could be
3318 * sped up by vectorization, etc, to move the break-even point
3319 * further towards the beginning.
3320 * 2) if the string doesn't have enough space to handle the converted
3321 * value. A new string will have to be allocated, and one might
3322 * as well, given that, start from the beginning doing the first
3323 * method. We've spent extra time parsing the string and in
3324 * exchange all we've gotten is that we know precisely how big to
3325 * make the new one. Perl is more optimized for time than space,
3326 * so this case is a loser.
3327 * So what I've decided to do is not use the 2nd method unless it is
3328 * guaranteed that a new string won't have to be allocated, assuming
3329 * the worst case. I also decided not to put any more conditions on it
3330 * than this, for now. It seems likely that, since the worst case is
3331 * twice as big as the unknown portion of the string (plus 1), we won't
3332 * be guaranteed enough space, causing us to go to the first method,
3333 * unless the string is short, or the first variant character is near
3334 * the end of it. In either of these cases, it seems best to use the
3335 * 2nd method. The only circumstance I can think of where this would
3336 * be really slower is if the string had once had much more data in it
3337 * than it does now, but there is still a substantial amount in it */
3338
3339 {
3340 STRLEN invariant_head = t - s;
3341 STRLEN size = invariant_head + (e - t) * 2 + 1 + extra;
3342 if (SvLEN(sv) < size) {
3343
3344 /* Here, have decided to allocate a new string */
3345
3346 U8 *dst;
3347 U8 *d;
3348
3349 Newx(dst, size, U8);
3350
3351 /* If no known invariants at the beginning of the input string,
3352 * set so starts from there. Otherwise, can use memory copy to
3353 * get up to where we are now, and then start from here */
3354
3355 if (invariant_head <= 0) {
3356 d = dst;
3357 } else {
3358 Copy(s, dst, invariant_head, char);
3359 d = dst + invariant_head;
3360 }
3361
3362 while (t < e) {
3363 const UV uv = NATIVE8_TO_UNI(*t++);
3364 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv))
3365 *d++ = (U8)UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv);
3366 else {
3367 *d++ = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(uv);
3368 *d++ = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(uv);
3369 }
3370 }
3371 *d = '\0';
3372 SvPV_free(sv); /* No longer using pre-existing string */
3373 SvPV_set(sv, (char*)dst);
3374 SvCUR_set(sv, d - dst);
3375 SvLEN_set(sv, size);
3376 } else {
3377
3378 /* Here, have decided to get the exact size of the string.
3379 * Currently this happens only when we know that there is
3380 * guaranteed enough space to fit the converted string, so
3381 * don't have to worry about growing. If two_byte_count is 0,
3382 * then t points to the first byte of the string which hasn't
3383 * been examined yet. Otherwise two_byte_count is 1, and t
3384 * points to the first byte in the string that will expand to
3385 * two. Depending on this, start examining at t or 1 after t.
3386 * */
3387
3388 U8 *d = t + two_byte_count;
3389
3390
3391 /* Count up the remaining bytes that expand to two */
3392
3393 while (d < e) {
3394 const U8 chr = *d++;
3395 if (! NATIVE_IS_INVARIANT(chr)) two_byte_count++;
3396 }
3397
3398 /* The string will expand by just the number of bytes that
3399 * occupy two positions. But we are one afterwards because of
3400 * the increment just above. This is the place to put the
3401 * trailing NUL, and to set the length before we decrement */
3402
3403 d += two_byte_count;
3404 SvCUR_set(sv, d - s);
3405 *d-- = '\0';
3406
3407
3408 /* Having decremented d, it points to the position to put the
3409 * very last byte of the expanded string. Go backwards through
3410 * the string, copying and expanding as we go, stopping when we
3411 * get to the part that is invariant the rest of the way down */
3412
3413 e--;
3414 while (e >= t) {
3415 const U8 ch = NATIVE8_TO_UNI(*e--);
3416 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(ch)) {
3417 *d-- = UNI_TO_NATIVE(ch);
3418 } else {
3419 *d-- = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(ch);
3420 *d-- = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(ch);
3421 }
3422 }
3423 }
75da9d4c
DM
3424
3425 if (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG && SvMAGIC(sv)) {
3426 /* Update pos. We do it at the end rather than during
3427 * the upgrade, to avoid slowing down the common case
3428 * (upgrade without pos) */
3429 MAGIC * mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
3430 if (mg) {
3431 I32 pos = mg->mg_len;
3432 if (pos > 0 && (U32)pos > invariant_head) {
3433 U8 *d = (U8*) SvPVX(sv) + invariant_head;
3434 STRLEN n = (U32)pos - invariant_head;
3435 while (n > 0) {
3436 if (UTF8_IS_START(*d))
3437 d++;
3438 d++;
3439 n--;
3440 }
3441 mg->mg_len = d - (U8*)SvPVX(sv);
3442 }
3443 }
3444 if ((mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_utf8)))
3445 magic_setutf8(sv,mg); /* clear UTF8 cache */
3446 }
b3ab6785 3447 }
560a288e 3448 }
b3ab6785
KW
3449
3450 /* Mark as UTF-8 even if no variant - saves scanning loop */
3451 SvUTF8_on(sv);
4411f3b6 3452 return SvCUR(sv);
560a288e
GS
3453}
3454
c461cf8f
JH
3455/*
3456=for apidoc sv_utf8_downgrade
3457
78ea37eb 3458Attempts to convert the PV of an SV from characters to bytes.
2bbc8d55
SP
3459If the PV contains a character that cannot fit
3460in a byte, this conversion will fail;
78ea37eb 3461in this case, either returns false or, if C<fail_ok> is not
c461cf8f
JH
3462true, croaks.
3463
13a6c0e0
JH
3464This is not as a general purpose Unicode to byte encoding interface:
3465use the Encode extension for that.
3466
c461cf8f
JH
3467=cut
3468*/
3469
560a288e 3470bool
7bc54cea 3471Perl_sv_utf8_downgrade(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const bool fail_ok)
560a288e 3472{
97aff369 3473 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
3474
3475 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_DOWNGRADE;
3476
78ea37eb 3477 if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvUTF8(sv)) {
fa301091 3478 if (SvCUR(sv)) {
03cfe0ae 3479 U8 *s;
652088fc 3480 STRLEN len;
75da9d4c 3481 int mg_flags = SV_GMAGIC;
fa301091 3482
765f542d
NC
3483 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
3484 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
3485 }
75da9d4c
DM
3486 if (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG && SvMAGIC(sv)) {
3487 /* update pos */
3488 MAGIC * mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
3489 if (mg) {
3490 I32 pos = mg->mg_len;
3491 if (pos > 0) {
3492 sv_pos_b2u(sv, &pos);
3493 mg_flags = 0; /* sv_pos_b2u does get magic */
3494 mg->mg_len = pos;
3495 }
3496 }
3497 if ((mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_utf8)))
3498 magic_setutf8(sv,mg); /* clear UTF8 cache */
3499
3500 }
3501 s = (U8 *) SvPV_flags(sv, len, mg_flags);
3502
03cfe0ae 3503 if (!utf8_to_bytes(s, &len)) {
fa301091
JH
3504 if (fail_ok)
3505 return FALSE;
3506 else {
3507 if (PL_op)
3508 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Wide character in %s",
53e06cf0 3509 OP_DESC(PL_op));
fa301091
JH
3510 else
3511 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Wide character");
3512 }
4b3603a4 3513 }
b162af07 3514 SvCUR_set(sv, len);
67e989fb 3515 }
560a288e 3516 }
ffebcc3e 3517 SvUTF8_off(sv);
560a288e
GS
3518 return TRUE;
3519}
3520
c461cf8f
JH
3521/*
3522=for apidoc sv_utf8_encode
3523
78ea37eb
ST
3524Converts the PV of an SV to UTF-8, but then turns the C<SvUTF8>
3525flag off so that it looks like octets again.
c461cf8f
JH
3526
3527=cut
3528*/
3529
560a288e 3530void
7bc54cea 3531Perl_sv_utf8_encode(pTHX_ register SV *const sv)
560a288e 3532{
7918f24d
NC
3533 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_ENCODE;
3534
4c94c214
NC
3535 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
3536 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
3537 }
3538 if (SvREADONLY(sv)) {
6ad8f254 3539 Perl_croak_no_modify(aTHX);
4c94c214 3540 }
a5f5288a 3541 (void) sv_utf8_upgrade(sv);
560a288e
GS
3542 SvUTF8_off(sv);
3543}
3544
4411f3b6
NIS
3545/*
3546=for apidoc sv_utf8_decode
3547
78ea37eb
ST
3548If the PV of the SV is an octet sequence in UTF-8
3549and contains a multiple-byte character, the C<SvUTF8> flag is turned on
3550so that it looks like a character. If the PV contains only single-byte
694cf0d2 3551characters, the C<SvUTF8> flag stays off.
78ea37eb 3552Scans PV for validity and returns false if the PV is invalid UTF-8.
4411f3b6
NIS
3553
3554=cut
3555*/
3556
560a288e 3557bool
7bc54cea 3558Perl_sv_utf8_decode(pTHX_ register SV *const sv)
560a288e 3559{
7918f24d
NC
3560 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_DECODE;
3561
78ea37eb 3562 if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
75da9d4c 3563 const U8 *start, *c;
93524f2b 3564 const U8 *e;
9cbac4c7 3565
645c22ef
DM
3566 /* The octets may have got themselves encoded - get them back as
3567 * bytes
3568 */
3569 if (!sv_utf8_downgrade(sv, TRUE))
560a288e
GS
3570 return FALSE;
3571
3572 /* it is actually just a matter of turning the utf8 flag on, but
3573 * we want to make sure everything inside is valid utf8 first.
3574 */
75da9d4c 3575 c = start = (const U8 *) SvPVX_const(sv);
63cd0674 3576 if (!is_utf8_string(c, SvCUR(sv)+1))
67e989fb 3577 return FALSE;
93524f2b 3578 e = (const U8 *) SvEND(sv);
511c2ff0 3579 while (c < e) {
b64e5050 3580 const U8 ch = *c++;
c4d5f83a 3581 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(ch)) {
67e989fb
JH
3582 SvUTF8_on(sv);
3583 break;
3584 }
560a288e 3585 }
75da9d4c
DM
3586 if (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG && SvMAGIC(sv)) {
3587 /* adjust pos to the start of a UTF8 char sequence */
3588 MAGIC * mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
3589 if (mg) {
3590 I32 pos = mg->mg_len;
3591 if (pos > 0) {
3592 for (c = start + pos; c > start; c--) {
3593 if (UTF8_IS_START(*c))
3594 break;
3595 }
3596 mg->mg_len = c - start;
3597 }
3598 }
3599 if ((mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_utf8)))
3600 magic_setutf8(sv,mg); /* clear UTF8 cache */
3601 }
560a288e
GS
3602 }
3603 return TRUE;
3604}
3605
954c1994
GS
3606/*
3607=for apidoc sv_setsv
3608
645c22ef
DM
3609Copies the contents of the source SV C<ssv> into the destination SV
3610C<dsv>. The source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal, so don't use this
3611function if the source SV needs to be reused. Does not handle 'set' magic.
3612Loosely speaking, it performs a copy-by-value, obliterating any previous
3613content of the destination.
3614
3615You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers, such as
3616C<SvSetSV>, C<SvSetSV_nosteal>, C<SvSetMagicSV> and
3617C<SvSetMagicSV_nosteal>.
3618
8d6d96c1
HS
3619=for apidoc sv_setsv_flags
3620
645c22ef
DM
3621Copies the contents of the source SV C<ssv> into the destination SV
3622C<dsv>. The source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal, so don't use this
3623function if the source SV needs to be reused. Does not handle 'set' magic.
3624Loosely speaking, it performs a copy-by-value, obliterating any previous
3625content of the destination.
3626If the C<flags> parameter has the C<SV_GMAGIC> bit set, will C<mg_get> on
5fcdf167
NC
3627C<ssv> if appropriate, else not. If the C<flags> parameter has the
3628C<NOSTEAL> bit set then the buffers of temps will not be stolen. <sv_setsv>
3629and C<sv_setsv_nomg> are implemented in terms of this function.
645c22ef
DM
3630
3631You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers, such as
3632C<SvSetSV>, C<SvSetSV_nosteal>, C<SvSetMagicSV> and
3633C<SvSetMagicSV_nosteal>.
3634
3635This is the primary function for copying scalars, and most other
3636copy-ish functions and macros use this underneath.
8d6d96c1
HS
3637
3638=cut
3639*/
3640
5d0301b7 3641static void
7bc54cea 3642S_glob_assign_glob(pTHX_ SV *const dstr, SV *const sstr, const int dtype)
5d0301b7 3643{
c8bbf675 3644 I32 mro_changes = 0; /* 1 = method, 2 = isa, 3 = recursive isa */
3e6edce2 3645 HV *old_stash = NULL;
dd69841b 3646
7918f24d
NC
3647 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_GLOB_ASSIGN_GLOB;
3648
bec4f4b4 3649 if (dtype != SVt_PVGV && !isGV_with_GP(dstr)) {
5d0301b7
NC
3650 const char * const name = GvNAME(sstr);
3651 const STRLEN len = GvNAMELEN(sstr);
0d092c36 3652 {
f7877b28
NC
3653 if (dtype >= SVt_PV) {
3654 SvPV_free(dstr);
3655 SvPV_set(dstr, 0);
3656 SvLEN_set(dstr, 0);
3657 SvCUR_set(dstr, 0);
3658 }
0d092c36 3659 SvUPGRADE(dstr, SVt_PVGV);
dedf8e73 3660 (void)SvOK_off(dstr);
2e5b91de
NC
3661 /* FIXME - why are we doing this, then turning it off and on again
3662 below? */
3663 isGV_with_GP_on(dstr);
f7877b28 3664 }
5d0301b7
NC
3665 GvSTASH(dstr) = GvSTASH(sstr);