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1=head1 NAME
2
3Install - Build and Installation guide for perl5.
4
5=head1 SYNOPSIS
6
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7First, make sure you are installing an up-to-date version of Perl. If
8you didn't get your Perl source from CPAN, check the latest version at
16dc217a 9<URL:http://www.cpan.org/src/>.
3ce0d271 10
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11The basic steps to build and install perl5 on a Unix system
12with all the defaults are:
8e07c86e 13
dc45a647 14 rm -f config.sh Policy.sh
491517e0 15 sh Configure -de
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16 make
17 make test
18 make install
36477c24 19
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20 # You may also wish to add these:
21 (cd /usr/include && h2ph *.h sys/*.h)
3e3baf6d 22 (installhtml --help)
aa689395 23 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
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24
25Each of these is explained in further detail below.
26
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27B<NOTE>: starting from the release 5.6.0 Perl will use a version
28scheme where even-numbered subreleases (like 5.6) are stable
29maintenance releases and odd-numbered subreleases (like 5.7) are
30unstable development releases. Development releases should not be
31used in production environments. Fixes and new features are first
32carefully tested in development releases and only if they prove
33themselves to be worthy will they be migrated to the maintenance
34releases.
35
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36The above commands will install Perl to /usr/local or /opt, depending
37on the platform. If that's not okay with you, use
38
39 rm -f config.sh Policy.sh
40 sh Configure
41 make
42 make test
43 make install
44
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45For information on non-Unix systems, see the section on
46L<"Porting information"> below.
7f678428 47
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48If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
49L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
50
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51For information on what's new in this release, see the
52pod/perldelta.pod file. For more detailed information about specific
53changes, see the Changes file.
c3edaffb 54
1ec51d55 55=head1 DESCRIPTION
edb1cbcb 56
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57This document is written in pod format as an easy way to indicate its
58structure. The pod format is described in pod/perlpod.pod, but you can
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59read it as is with any pager or editor. Headings and items are marked
60by lines beginning with '='. The other mark-up used is
61
62 B<text> embolden text, used for switches, programs or commands
63 C<code> literal code
64 L<name> A link (cross reference) to name
65
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66Although most of the defaults are probably fine for most users,
67you should probably at least skim through this entire document before
1ec51d55 68proceeding.
c3edaffb 69
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70If you're building Perl on a non-Unix system, you should also read
71the README file specific to your operating system, since this may
72provide additional or different instructions for building Perl.
73
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74If there is a hint file for your system (in the hints/ directory) you
75should also read that hint file for specific information for your
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76system. (Unixware users should use the svr4.sh hint file.) If
77there is a README file for your platform, then you should read
78that too. Additional information is in the Porting/ directory.
203c3eec 79
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80=head1 WARNING: This version requires an extra step to build old extensions.
81
825.005_53 and later releases do not export unadorned
83global symbols anymore. This means you may need to build older
84extensions that have not been updated for the new naming convention
85with:
86
87 perl Makefile.PL POLLUTE=1
88
89Alternatively, you can enable CPP symbol pollution wholesale by
90building perl itself with:
91
92 sh Configure -Accflags=-DPERL_POLLUTE
93
94pod/perldelta.pod contains more details about this.
95
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96=head1 WARNING: This version may not be binary compatible with Perl 5.005.
97
98Using the default Configure options for building perl should get you
99a perl that will be binary compatible with the 5.005 release.
693762b4 100
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101However, if you run Configure with any custom options, such as
102-Dusethreads, -Dusemultiplicity, -Dusemymalloc, -Ubincompat5005 etc.,
103the resulting perl will not be binary compatible. Under these
104circumstances, if you have dynamically loaded extensions that were
105built under perl 5.005, you will need to rebuild and reinstall all
106those extensions to use them with 5.6.
107
108Pure perl modules without XS or C code should continue to work fine
109without reinstallation. See the discussions below on
110L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> and
111L<"Upgrading from 5.005 to 5.6"> for more details.
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112
113The standard extensions supplied with Perl will be handled automatically.
114
1b1c1ae2 115On a related issue, old modules may possibly be affected by the
693762b4 116changes in the Perl language in the current release. Please see
e02fdbd2 117pod/perldelta.pod (and pod/perl500Xdelta.pod) for a description of
c42e3e15 118what's changed. See your installed copy of the perllocal.pod
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119file for a (possibly incomplete) list of locally installed modules.
120Also see CPAN::autobundle for one way to make a "bundle" of your
121currently installed modules.
693762b4 122
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123=head1 WARNING: This version requires a compiler that supports ANSI C.
124
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125Most C compilers are now ANSI-compliant. However, a few current
126computers are delivered with an older C compiler expressly for
127rebuilding the system kernel, or for some other historical reason.
128Alternatively, you may have an old machine which was shipped before
129ANSI compliance became widespread. Such compilers are not suitable
130for building Perl.
131
132If you find that your default C compiler is not ANSI-capable, but you
133know that an ANSI-capable compiler is installed on your system, you
134can tell F<Configure> to use the correct compiler by means of the
135C<-Dcc=> command-line option -- see L<"gcc">.
136
137If do not have an ANSI-capable compiler there are several avenues open
138to you:
139
140=over 4
141
142=item *
143
144You may try obtaining GCC, available from GNU mirrors worldwide,
145listed at <URL:http://www.gnu.org/order/ftp.html>. If, rather than
146building gcc from source code, you locate a binary version configured
147for your platform, be sure that it is compiled for the version of the
148operating system that you are using.
149
150=item *
151
152You may purchase a commercial ANSI C compiler from your system
153supplier or elsewhere. (Or your organization may already have
154licensed such software -- ask your colleagues to find out how to
155access it.) If there is a README file for your system in the Perl
156distribution (for example, F<README.hpux>), it may contain advice on
157suitable compilers.
158
159=item *
160
d6baa268 161Another alternative may be to use a tool like ansi2knr to convert the
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162sources back to K&R style, but there is no guarantee this route will get
163you anywhere, since the prototypes are not the only ANSI features used
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164in the Perl sources. ansi2knr is usually found as part of the freely
165available Ghostscript distribution. Another similar tool is
166unprotoize, distributed with GCC. Since unprotoize requires GCC to
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167run, you may have to run it on a platform where GCC is available, and move
168the sources back to the platform without GCC.
169
170If you succeed in automatically converting the sources to a K&R compatible
7f2de2d2 171form, be sure to email perlbug@perl.org to let us know the steps you
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172followed. This will enable us to officially support this option.
173
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174=back
175
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176Although Perl can be compiled using a C++ compiler, the Configure script
177does not work with some C++ compilers.
178
aa689395 179=head1 Space Requirements
eed2e782 180
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181The complete perl5 source tree takes up about 20 MB of disk space.
182After completing make, it takes up roughly 30 MB, though the actual
d6baa268 183total is likely to be quite system-dependent. The installation
c42e3e15 184directories need something on the order of 20 MB, though again that
1ec51d55 185value is system-dependent.
8e07c86e 186
aa689395 187=head1 Start with a Fresh Distribution
8e07c86e 188
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189If you have built perl before, you should clean out the build directory
190with the command
191
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192 make distclean
193
194or
195
edb1cbcb 196 make realclean
c3edaffb 197
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198The only difference between the two is that make distclean also removes
199your old config.sh and Policy.sh files.
200
201The results of a Configure run are stored in the config.sh and Policy.sh
202files. If you are upgrading from a previous version of perl, or if you
203change systems or compilers or make other significant changes, or if
204you are experiencing difficulties building perl, you should probably
d6baa268 205not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it
8e07c86e 206
d6baa268 207 rm -f config.sh
4633a7c4 208
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209If you wish to use your old config.sh, be especially attentive to the
210version and architecture-specific questions and answers. For example,
211the default directory for architecture-dependent library modules
212includes the version name. By default, Configure will reuse your old
213name (e.g. /opt/perl/lib/i86pc-solaris/5.003) even if you're running
214Configure for a different version, e.g. 5.004. Yes, Configure should
215probably check and correct for this, but it doesn't, presently.
216Similarly, if you used a shared libperl.so (see below) with version
217numbers, you will probably want to adjust them as well.
218
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219Also, be careful to check your architecture name. For example, some
220Linux distributions use i386, while others may use i486. If you build
221it yourself, Configure uses the output of the arch command, which
222might be i586 or i686 instead. If you pick up a precompiled binary, or
223compile extensions on different systems, they might not all agree on
224the architecture name.
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225
226In short, if you wish to use your old config.sh, I recommend running
227Configure interactively rather than blindly accepting the defaults.
8e07c86e 228
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229If your reason to reuse your old config.sh is to save your particular
230installation choices, then you can probably achieve the same effect by
231using the Policy.sh file. See the section on L<"Site-wide Policy
232settings"> below. If you wish to start with a fresh distribution, you
233also need to remove any old Policy.sh files you may have with
234
235 rm -f Policy.sh
dc45a647 236
aa689395 237=head1 Run Configure
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238
239Configure will figure out various things about your system. Some
240things Configure will figure out for itself, other things it will ask
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241you about. To accept the default, just press RETURN. The default is
242almost always okay. It is normal for some things to be "NOT found",
243since Configure often searches for many different ways of performing
244the same function.
245
246At any Configure prompt, you can type &-d and Configure will use the
247defaults from then on.
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248
249After it runs, Configure will perform variable substitution on all the
1ec51d55 250*.SH files and offer to run make depend.
8e07c86e 251
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252=head2 Altering config.sh variables for C compiler switches etc.
253
254For most users, all of the Configure defaults are fine. Configure
255also has several convenient options which are all described below.
256However, if Configure doesn't have an option to do what you want,
257you can change Configure variables after the platform hints have been
258run, by using Configure's -A switch. For example, here's how to add
259a couple of extra flags to C compiler invocations:
260
261 sh Configure -Accflags="-DPERL_Y2KWARN -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC"
262
263For more help on Configure switches, run:
264
265 sh Configure -h
266
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267=head2 Common Configure options
268
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269Configure supports a number of useful options. Run B<Configure -h> to
270get a listing. See the Porting/Glossary file for a complete list of
271Configure variables you can set and their definitions.
272
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273=over 4
274
275=item gcc
276
277To compile with gcc you should run
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278
279 sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
280
281This is the preferred way to specify gcc (or another alternative
282compiler) so that the hints files can set appropriate defaults.
283
d6baa268 284=item Installation prefix
4633a7c4 285
8e07c86e 286By default, for most systems, perl will be installed in
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287/usr/local/{bin, lib, man}. (See L<"Installation Directories">
288and L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below for
289further details.)
290
291You can specify a different 'prefix' for the default installation
292directory, when Configure prompts you or by using the Configure command
293line option -Dprefix='/some/directory', e.g.
8e07c86e 294
25f94b33 295 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl
4633a7c4 296
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297If your prefix contains the string "perl", then the suggested
298directory structure is simplified. For example, if you use
299prefix=/opt/perl, then Configure will suggest /opt/perl/lib instead of
300/opt/perl/lib/perl5/. Again, see L<"Installation Directories"> below
301for more details.
8e07c86e 302
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303NOTE: You must not specify an installation directory that is the same
304as or below your perl source directory. If you do, installperl will
305attempt infinite recursion.
84902520 306
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307=item /usr/bin/perl
308
309It may seem obvious, but Perl is useful only when users can easily
310find it. It's often a good idea to have both /usr/bin/perl and
dd64f1c3 311/usr/local/bin/perl be symlinks to the actual binary. Be especially
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312careful, however, not to overwrite a version of perl supplied by your
313vendor unless you are sure you know what you are doing.
314
315By default, Configure will arrange for /usr/bin/perl to be linked to
316the current version of perl. You can turn off that behavior by running
317
318 Configure -Uinstallusrbinperl
319
320or by answering 'no' to the appropriate Configure prompt.
321
322In any case, system administrators are strongly encouraged to
dd64f1c3 323put (symlinks to) perl and its accompanying utilities, such as perldoc,
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324into a directory typically found along a user's PATH, or in another
325obvious and convenient place.
326
d6baa268 327=item Overriding an old config.sh
04d420f9 328
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329If you want to use your old config.sh but override some of the items
330with command line options, you need to use B<Configure -O>.
331
332=back
8e07c86e 333
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334If you are willing to accept all the defaults, and you want terse
335output, you can run
336
337 sh Configure -des
338
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339Note: for development releases (odd subreleases, like 5.7, as opposed
340to maintenance releases which have even subreleases, like 5.6)
341if you want to use Configure -d, you will also need to supply -Dusedevel
342to Configure, because the default answer to the question "do you really
343want to Configure a development version?" is "no". The -Dusedevel
344skips that sanity check.
345
346For example for my Solaris system, I usually use
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347
348 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -Doptimize='-xpentium -xO4' -des
349
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350=head2 GNU-style configure
351
1ec51d55 352If you prefer the GNU-style configure command line interface, you can
dc45a647 353use the supplied configure.gnu command, e.g.
46bb10fb 354
693762b4 355 CC=gcc ./configure.gnu
46bb10fb 356
dc45a647 357The configure.gnu script emulates a few of the more common configure
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358options. Try
359
693762b4 360 ./configure.gnu --help
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361
362for a listing.
363
d6baa268 364Cross compiling and compiling in a different directory are not supported.
46bb10fb 365
dc45a647 366(The file is called configure.gnu to avoid problems on systems
693762b4 367that would not distinguish the files "Configure" and "configure".)
46bb10fb 368
aa689395 369=head2 Installation Directories
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370
371The installation directories can all be changed by answering the
372appropriate questions in Configure. For convenience, all the
373installation questions are near the beginning of Configure.
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374Further, there are a number of additions to the installation
375directories since 5.005, so reusing your old config.sh may not
376be sufficient to put everything where you want it.
4633a7c4 377
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378I highly recommend running Configure interactively to be sure it puts
379everything where you want it. At any point during the Configure
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380process, you can answer a question with &-d and Configure will use
381the defaults from then on.
382
383The defaults are intended to be reasonable and sensible for most
384people building from sources. Those who build and distribute binary
385distributions or who export perl to a range of systems will probably
386need to alter them. If you are content to just accept the defaults,
387you can safely skip the next section.
388
389The directories set up by Configure fall into three broad categories.
390
391=over 4
392
393=item Directories for the perl distribution
394
c42e3e15 395By default, Configure will use the following directories for 5.6.0.
d6baa268 396$version is the full perl version number, including subversion, e.g.
0a08c020 3975.6.0 or 5.6.1, and $archname is a string like sun4-sunos,
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398determined by Configure. The full definitions of all Configure
399variables are in the file Porting/Glossary.
400
401 Configure variable Default value
402 $prefix /usr/local
403 $bin $prefix/bin
404 $scriptdir $prefix/bin
405 $privlib $prefix/lib/perl5/$version
406 $archlib $prefix/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
407 $man1dir $prefix/man/man1
408 $man3dir $prefix/man/man3
409 $html1dir (none)
410 $html3dir (none)
411
412Actually, Configure recognizes the SVR3-style
413/usr/local/man/l_man/man1 directories, if present, and uses those
414instead. Also, if $prefix contains the string "perl", the library
415directories are simplified as described below. For simplicity, only
416the common style is shown here.
417
418=item Directories for site-specific add-on files
419
420After perl is installed, you may later wish to add modules (e.g. from
421CPAN) or scripts. Configure will set up the following directories to
c42e3e15 422be used for installing those add-on modules and scripts.
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423
424 Configure variable Default value
425 $siteprefix $prefix
426 $sitebin $siteprefix/bin
49c10eea 427 $sitescript $siteprefix/bin
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428 $sitelib $siteprefix/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version
429 $sitearch $siteprefix/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version/$archname
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430 $siteman1 $siteprefix/man/man1
431 $siteman3 $siteprefix/man/man3
432 $sitehtml1 (none)
433 $sitehtml3 (none)
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434
435By default, ExtUtils::MakeMaker will install architecture-independent
273cf8d1 436modules into $sitelib and architecture-dependent modules into $sitearch.
d6baa268 437
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438NOTE: As of 5.6.0, ExtUtils::MakeMaker will use $sitelib and $sitearch,
439but will not use the other site-specific directories. Volunteers to
440fix this are needed.
441
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442=item Directories for vendor-supplied add-on files
443
444Lastly, if you are building a binary distribution of perl for
445distribution, Configure can optionally set up the following directories
446for you to use to distribute add-on modules.
447
448 Configure variable Default value
449 $vendorprefix (none)
450 (The next ones are set only if vendorprefix is set.)
451 $vendorbin $vendorprefix/bin
49c10eea 452 $vendorscript $vendorprefix/bin
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453 $vendorlib $vendorprefix/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version
454 $vendorarch $vendorprefix/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version/$archname
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455 $vendorman1 $vendorprefix/man/man1
456 $vendorman3 $vendorprefix/man/man3
457 $vendorhtml1 (none)
458 $vendorhtml3 (none)
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459
460These are normally empty, but may be set as needed. For example,
461a vendor might choose the following settings:
462
463 $prefix /usr/bin
464 $siteprefix /usr/local/bin
465 $vendorprefix /usr/bin
466
467This would have the effect of setting the following:
468
469 $bin /usr/bin
470 $scriptdir /usr/bin
471 $privlib /usr/lib/perl5/$version
472 $archlib /usr/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
473 $man1dir /usr/man/man1
474 $man3dir /usr/man/man3
475
476 $sitebin /usr/local/bin
49c10eea 477 $sitescript /usr/local/bin
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478 $sitelib /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version
479 $sitearch /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version/$archname
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480 $siteman1 /usr/local/man/man1
481 $siteman3 /usr/local/man/man3
d6baa268 482
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483 $vendorbin /usr/bin
484 $vendorscript /usr/bin
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485 $vendorlib /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version
486 $vendorarch /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version/$archname
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487 $vendorman1 /usr/man/man1
488 $vendorman3 /usr/man/man3
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489
490Note how in this example, the vendor-supplied directories are in the
491/usr hierarchy, while the directories reserved for the end-user are in
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492the /usr/local hierarchy.
493
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494NOTE: As of 5.6.0, ExtUtils::MakeMaker does not use these directories.
495Volunteers to fix this are needed.
496
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497The entire installed library hierarchy is installed in locations with
498version numbers, keeping the installations of different versions distinct.
499However, later installations of Perl can still be configured to search the
500installed libraries corresponding to compatible earlier versions.
501See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below for more details
502on how Perl can be made to search older version directories.
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503
504Of course you may use these directories however you see fit. For
505example, you may wish to use $siteprefix for site-specific files that
506are stored locally on your own disk and use $vendorprefix for
507site-specific files that are stored elsewhere on your organization's
508network. One way to do that would be something like
509
510 sh Configure -Dsiteprefix=/usr/local -Dvendorprefix=/usr/share/perl
511
512=item otherlibdirs
513
514As a final catch-all, Configure also offers an $otherlibdirs
515variable. This variable contains a colon-separated list of additional
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516directories to add to @INC. By default, it will be empty.
517Perl will search these directories (including architecture and
518version-specific subdirectories) for add-on modules and extensions.
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519
520=item Man Pages
1ec51d55 521
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522In versions 5.005_57 and earlier, the default was to store module man
523pages in a version-specific directory, such as
524/usr/local/lib/perl5/$version/man/man3. The default for 5.005_58 and
525after is /usr/local/man/man3 so that most users can find the man pages
526without resetting MANPATH.
4633a7c4 527
d6baa268 528You can continue to use the old default from the command line with
4633a7c4 529
0a08c020 530 sh Configure -Dman3dir=/usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6.0/man/man3
8d74ce1c 531
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532Some users also prefer to use a .3pm suffix. You can do that with
533
534 sh Configure -Dman3ext=3pm
535
536Again, these are just the defaults, and can be changed as you run
537Configure.
538
539=item HTML pages
540
541As of perl5.005_57, the standard perl installation does not do
542anything with HTML documentation, but that may change in the future.
543Further, some add-on modules may wish to install HTML documents. The
544html Configure variables listed above are provided if you wish to
545specify where such documents should be placed. The default is "none",
546but will likely eventually change to something useful based on user
547feedback.
8d74ce1c 548
d6baa268 549=back
8d74ce1c 550
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551Some users prefer to append a "/share" to $privlib and $sitelib
552to emphasize that those directories can be shared among different
553architectures.
4633a7c4 554
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555Note that these are just the defaults. You can actually structure the
556directories any way you like. They don't even have to be on the same
557filesystem.
558
559Further details about the installation directories, maintenance and
560development subversions, and about supporting multiple versions are
561discussed in L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below.
562
563If you specify a prefix that contains the string "perl", then the
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564library directory structure is slightly simplified. Instead of
565suggesting $prefix/lib/perl5/, Configure will suggest $prefix/lib.
8d74ce1c 566
d6baa268 567Thus, for example, if you Configure with
0a08c020 568-Dprefix=/opt/perl, then the default library directories for 5.6.0 are
3a6175e1 569
d6baa268 570 Configure variable Default value
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571 $privlib /opt/perl/lib/5.6.0
572 $archlib /opt/perl/lib/5.6.0/$archname
573 $sitelib /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.6.0
574 $sitearch /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.6.0/$archname
4633a7c4 575
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576=head2 Changing the installation directory
577
578Configure distinguishes between the directory in which perl (and its
579associated files) should be installed and the directory in which it
580will eventually reside. For most sites, these two are the same; for
581sites that use AFS, this distinction is handled automatically.
1ec51d55 582However, sites that use software such as depot to manage software
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583packages, or users building binary packages for distribution may also
584wish to install perl into a different directory and use that
585management software to move perl to its final destination. This
586section describes how to do that.
aa689395 587
0dcb58f4 588Suppose you want to install perl under the /tmp/perl5 directory. You
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589could edit config.sh and change all the install* variables to point to
590/tmp/perl5 instead of /usr/local, or you could simply use the
591following command line:
592
593 sh Configure -Dinstallprefix=/tmp/perl5
594
595(replace /tmp/perl5 by a directory of your choice).
aa689395 596
693762b4 597Beware, though, that if you go to try to install new add-on
d6baa268 598modules, they too will get installed in under '/tmp/perl5' if you
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599follow this example. The next section shows one way of dealing with
600that problem.
601
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602=head2 Creating an installable tar archive
603
604If you need to install perl on many identical systems, it is
605convenient to compile it once and create an archive that can be
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606installed on multiple systems. Suppose, for example, that you want to
607create an archive that can be installed in /opt/perl.
608Here's one way to do that:
aa689395 609
d6baa268 610 # Set up to install perl into a different directory,
aa689395 611 # e.g. /tmp/perl5 (see previous part).
d6baa268 612 sh Configure -Dinstallprefix=/tmp/perl5 -Dprefix=/opt/perl -des
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613 make
614 make test
d6c1b5d3 615 make install # This will install everything into /tmp/perl5.
aa689395 616 cd /tmp/perl5
d6c1b5d3 617 # Edit $archlib/Config.pm and $archlib/.packlist to change all the
fb73857a 618 # install* variables back to reflect where everything will
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619 # really be installed. (That is, change /tmp/perl5 to /opt/perl
620 # everywhere in those files.)
621 # Check the scripts in $scriptdir to make sure they have the correct
bfb7748a 622 # #!/wherever/perl line.
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623 tar cvf ../perl5-archive.tar .
624 # Then, on each machine where you want to install perl,
d6c1b5d3 625 cd /opt/perl # Or wherever you specified as $prefix
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626 tar xvf perl5-archive.tar
627
dc45a647 628=head2 Site-wide Policy settings
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629
630After Configure runs, it stores a number of common site-wide "policy"
631answers (such as installation directories and the local perl contact
632person) in the Policy.sh file. If you want to build perl on another
633system using the same policy defaults, simply copy the Policy.sh file
634to the new system and Configure will use it along with the appropriate
635hint file for your system.
636
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637Alternatively, if you wish to change some or all of those policy
638answers, you should
639
640 rm -f Policy.sh
641
642to ensure that Configure doesn't re-use them.
643
644Further information is in the Policy_sh.SH file itself.
645
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646If the generated Policy.sh file is unsuitable, you may freely edit it
647to contain any valid shell commands. It will be run just after the
648platform-specific hints files.
649
c42e3e15 650Note: Since the directory hierarchy for 5.6.0 contains a number of
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651new vendor* and site* entries, your Policy.sh file will probably not
652set them to your desired values. I encourage you to run Configure
653interactively to be sure it puts things where you want them.
654
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655=head2 Configure-time Options
656
657There are several different ways to Configure and build perl for your
658system. For most users, the defaults are sensible and will work.
659Some users, however, may wish to further customize perl. Here are
660some of the main things you can change.
661
693762b4 662=head2 Threads
aa689395 663
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664On some platforms, perl5.005 and later can be compiled with
665experimental support for threads. To enable this, read the file
666README.threads, and then try:
f7542a9d 667
693762b4 668 sh Configure -Dusethreads
aa689395 669
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670Currently, you need to specify -Dusethreads on the Configure command
671line so that the hint files can make appropriate adjustments.
672
673The default is to compile without thread support.
3fe9a6f1 674
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675As of v5.5.64, perl has two different internal threads implementations.
676The 5.005 version (5005threads) and an interpreter-based implementation
677(ithreads) with one interpreter per thread. By default, Configure selects
678ithreads if -Dusethreads is specified. However, you can select the old
6795005threads behavior instead by either
680
681 sh Configure -Dusethreads -Duse5005threads
682
683or by
684 sh Configure -Dusethreads -Uuseithreads
685
686Eventually (by perl v5.6.0) this internal confusion ought to disappear,
687and these options may disappear as well.
688
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689=head2 64 bit support.
690
691If your platform does not have 64 bits natively, but can simulate them with
692compiler flags and/or C<long long> or C<int64_t>, you can build a perl that
693uses 64 bits.
694
695There are actually two modes of 64-bitness: the first one is achieved
696using Configure -Duse64bitint and the second one using Configure
697-Duse64bitall. The difference is that the first one is minimal and
698the second one maximal. The first works in more places than the second.
699
700The C<use64bitint> does only as much as is required to get 64-bit
701integers into Perl (this may mean, for example, using "long longs")
702while your memory may still be limited to 2 gigabytes (because your
703pointers could still be 32-bit). Note that the name C<64bitint> does
704not imply that your C compiler will be using 64-bit C<int>s (it might,
705but it doesn't have to): the C<use64bitint> means that you will be
706able to have 64 bits wide scalar values.
707
708The C<use64bitall> goes all the way by attempting to switch also
709integers (if it can), longs (and pointers) to being 64-bit. This may
710create an even more binary incompatible Perl than -Duse64bitint: the
711resulting executable may not run at all in a 32-bit box, or you may
712have to reboot/reconfigure/rebuild your operating system to be 64-bit
713aware.
714
715Natively 64-bit systems like Alpha and Cray need neither -Duse64bitint
716nor -Duse64bitall.
717
718 NOTE: 64-bit support is still experimental on most platforms.
719 Existing support only covers the LP64 data model. In particular, the
720 LLP64 data model is not yet supported. 64-bit libraries and system
721 APIs on many platforms have not stabilized--your mileage may vary.
722
723=head2 Long doubles
724
725In some systems you may be able to use long doubles to enhance the
726range and precision of your double precision floating point numbers
727(that is, Perl's numbers). Use Configure -Duselongdouble to enable
728this support (if it is available).
729
730=head2 "more bits"
731
732You can "Configure -Dusemorebits" to turn on both the 64-bit support
733and the long double support.
734
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735=head2 Selecting File IO mechanisms
736
737Previous versions of perl used the standard IO mechanisms as defined in
1ec51d55 738stdio.h. Versions 5.003_02 and later of perl allow alternate IO
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739mechanisms via a "PerlIO" abstraction, but the stdio mechanism is still
740the default and is the only supported mechanism.
741
742This PerlIO abstraction can be enabled either on the Configure command
743line with
744
745 sh Configure -Duseperlio
746
747or interactively at the appropriate Configure prompt.
748
749If you choose to use the PerlIO abstraction layer, there are two
750(experimental) possibilities for the underlying IO calls. These have been
751tested to some extent on some platforms, but are not guaranteed to work
752everywhere.
753
754=over 4
755
756=item 1.
757
1ec51d55 758AT&T's "sfio". This has superior performance to stdio.h in many
aa689395 759cases, and is extensible by the use of "discipline" modules. Sfio
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760currently only builds on a subset of the UNIX platforms perl supports.
761Because the data structures are completely different from stdio, perl
762extension modules or external libraries may not work. This
763configuration exists to allow these issues to be worked on.
764
765This option requires the 'sfio' package to have been built and installed.
1b9c9cf5 766The latest sfio is available from http://www.research.att.com/sw/tools/sfio/
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767
768You select this option by
769
770 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Dusesfio
771
772If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure detects
773that you have sfio, then sfio will be the default suggested by
774Configure.
775
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776Note: On some systems, sfio's iffe configuration script fails to
777detect that you have an atexit function (or equivalent). Apparently,
778this is a problem at least for some versions of Linux and SunOS 4.
779Configure should detect this problem and warn you about problems with
780_exit vs. exit. If you have this problem, the fix is to go back to
781your sfio sources and correct iffe's guess about atexit.
33e6ee5f 782
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783=item 2.
784
785Normal stdio IO, but with all IO going through calls to the PerlIO
786abstraction layer. This configuration can be used to check that perl and
787extension modules have been correctly converted to use the PerlIO
788abstraction.
789
790This configuration should work on all platforms (but might not).
791
aa689395 792You select this option via:
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793
794 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Uusesfio
795
796If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure does not
797detect sfio, then this will be the default suggested by Configure.
798
799=back
800
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801=head2 SOCKS
802
803Perl can be configured to be 'socksified', that is, to use the SOCKS
804TCP/IP proxy protocol library. SOCKS is used to give applications
805access to transport layer network proxies. Perl supports only SOCKS
806Version 5. You can find more about SOCKS from http://www.socks.nec.com/
807
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808=head2 Dynamic Loading
809
810By default, Configure will compile perl to use dynamic loading if
811your system supports it. If you want to force perl to be compiled
812statically, you can either choose this when Configure prompts you or
813you can use the Configure command line option -Uusedl.
814
aa689395 815=head2 Building a shared libperl.so Perl library
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816
817Currently, for most systems, the main perl executable is built by
818linking the "perl library" libperl.a with perlmain.o, your static
819extensions (usually just DynaLoader.a) and various extra libraries,
820such as -lm.
821
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822On some systems that support dynamic loading, it may be possible to
823replace libperl.a with a shared libperl.so. If you anticipate building
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824several different perl binaries (e.g. by embedding libperl into
825different programs, or by using the optional compiler extension), then
9d67150a 826you might wish to build a shared libperl.so so that all your binaries
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827can share the same library.
828
829The disadvantages are that there may be a significant performance
9d67150a 830penalty associated with the shared libperl.so, and that the overall
aa689395 831mechanism is still rather fragile with respect to different versions
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832and upgrades.
833
834In terms of performance, on my test system (Solaris 2.5_x86) the perl
9d67150a 835test suite took roughly 15% longer to run with the shared libperl.so.
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836Your system and typical applications may well give quite different
837results.
838
839The default name for the shared library is typically something like
a6006777 840libperl.so.3.2 (for Perl 5.003_02) or libperl.so.302 or simply
9d67150a 841libperl.so. Configure tries to guess a sensible naming convention
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842based on your C library name. Since the library gets installed in a
843version-specific architecture-dependent directory, the exact name
844isn't very important anyway, as long as your linker is happy.
845
846For some systems (mostly SVR4), building a shared libperl is required
847for dynamic loading to work, and hence is already the default.
848
849You can elect to build a shared libperl by
850
851 sh Configure -Duseshrplib
852
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853To build a shared libperl, the environment variable controlling shared
854library search (LD_LIBRARY_PATH in most systems, DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH for
f556e5b9 855NeXTSTEP/OPENSTEP/Darwin, LIBRARY_PATH for BeOS, SHLIB_PATH for
4fabb596 856HP-UX, LIBPATH for AIX, PATH for Cygwin) must be set up to include
2bf2710f 857the Perl build directory because that's where the shared libperl will
d6baa268 858be created. Configure arranges makefile to have the correct shared
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859library search settings.
860
861However, there are some special cases where manually setting the
862shared library path might be required. For example, if you want to run
863something like the following with the newly-built but not-yet-installed
864./perl:
865
866 cd t; ./perl misc/failing_test.t
867or
868 ./perl -Ilib ~/my_mission_critical_test
869
870then you need to set up the shared library path explicitly.
871You can do this with
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872
873 LD_LIBRARY_PATH=`pwd`:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
874
875for Bourne-style shells, or
876
877 setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH `pwd`
878
2bf2710f 879for Csh-style shells. (This procedure may also be needed if for some
d6baa268 880unexpected reason Configure fails to set up makefile correctly.)
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881
882You can often recognize failures to build/use a shared libperl from error
883messages complaining about a missing libperl.so (or libperl.sl in HP-UX),
884for example:
88518126:./miniperl: /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
c3edaffb 886
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887There is also an potential problem with the shared perl library if you
888want to have more than one "flavor" of the same version of perl (e.g.
889with and without -DDEBUGGING). For example, suppose you build and
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890install a standard Perl 5.004 with a shared library. Then, suppose you
891try to build Perl 5.004 with -DDEBUGGING enabled, but everything else
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892the same, including all the installation directories. How can you
893ensure that your newly built perl will link with your newly built
7f678428 894libperl.so.4 rather with the installed libperl.so.4? The answer is
9d67150a 895that you might not be able to. The installation directory is encoded
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896in the perl binary with the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable (or
897equivalent ld command-line option). On Solaris, you can override that
7beaa944 898with LD_LIBRARY_PATH; on Linux you can't. On Digital Unix, you can
0dcb58f4 899override LD_LIBRARY_PATH by setting the _RLD_ROOT environment variable
7beaa944 900to point to the perl build directory.
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901
902The only reliable answer is that you should specify a different
903directory for the architecture-dependent library for your -DDEBUGGING
fb73857a 904version of perl. You can do this by changing all the *archlib*
d6baa268 905variables in config.sh to point to your new architecture-dependent library.
9d67150a 906
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907=head2 Malloc Issues
908
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909Perl relies heavily on malloc(3) to grow data structures as needed,
910so perl's performance can be noticeably affected by the performance of
911the malloc function on your system. The perl source is shipped with a
912version of malloc that has been optimized for the typical requests from
913perl, so there's a chance that it may be both faster and use less memory
914than your system malloc.
55479bb6 915
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916However, if your system already has an excellent malloc, or if you are
917experiencing difficulties with extensions that use third-party libraries
918that call malloc, then you should probably use your system's malloc.
919(Or, you might wish to explore the malloc flags discussed below.)
c3edaffb 920
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921=over 4
922
d6baa268 923=item Using the system malloc
2ae324a7 924
d6baa268 925To build without perl's malloc, you can use the Configure command
aa689395 926
d6baa268 927 sh Configure -Uusemymalloc
aa689395 928
d6baa268 929or you can answer 'n' at the appropriate interactive Configure prompt.
aa689395 930
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931=item -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC
932
b2a6d19e
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933NOTE: This flag is enabled automatically on some platforms if you
934asked for binary compatibility with version 5.005, or if you just
935run Configure to accept all the defaults on those platforms. You
936can refuse the automatic binary compatibility flags wholesale by
937running:
938
939 sh Configure -Ubincompat5005
940
941or by answering 'n' at the appropriate prompt.
942
d6baa268 943Perl's malloc family of functions are called Perl_malloc(),
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944Perl_realloc(), Perl_calloc() and Perl_mfree(). When this flag is
945not enabled, the names do not clash with the system versions of
946these functions.
d6baa268 947
b2a6d19e 948If enabled, Perl's malloc family of functions will have the same
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949names as the system versions. This may be sometimes required when you
950have libraries that like to free() data that may have been allocated
951by Perl_malloc() and vice versa.
86058a2d 952
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953Note that enabling this option may sometimes lead to duplicate symbols
954from the linker for malloc et al. In such cases, the system probably
955does not allow its malloc functions to be fully replaced with custom
956versions.
86058a2d 957
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958=back
959
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960=head2 Building a debugging perl
961
962You can run perl scripts under the perl debugger at any time with
3fe9a6f1 963B<perl -d your_script>. If, however, you want to debug perl itself,
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964you probably want to do
965
966 sh Configure -Doptimize='-g'
967
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968This will do two independent things: First, it will force compilation
969to use cc -g so that you can use your system's debugger on the
970executable. (Note: Your system may actually require something like
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971cc -g2. Check your man pages for cc(1) and also any hint file for
972your system.) Second, it will add -DDEBUGGING to your ccflags
973variable in config.sh so that you can use B<perl -D> to access perl's
974internal state. (Note: Configure will only add -DDEBUGGING by default
975if you are not reusing your old config.sh. If you want to reuse your
976old config.sh, then you can just edit it and change the optimize and
977ccflags variables by hand and then propagate your changes as shown in
978L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below.)
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979
980You can actually specify -g and -DDEBUGGING independently, but usually
981it's convenient to have both.
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982
983If you are using a shared libperl, see the warnings about multiple
984versions of perl under L<Building a shared libperl.so Perl library>.
985
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986=head2 Extensions
987
988By default, Configure will offer to build every extension which appears
989to be supported. For example, Configure will offer to build GDBM_File
990only if it is able to find the gdbm library. (See examples below.)
991B, DynaLoader, Fcntl, IO, and attrs are always built by default.
992Configure does not contain code to test for POSIX compliance, so POSIX
993is always built by default as well. If you wish to skip POSIX, you can
994set the Configure variable useposix=false either in a hint file or from
995the Configure command line. Similarly, the Opcode extension is always
996built by default, but you can skip it by setting the Configure variable
997useopcode=false either in a hint file for from the command line.
998
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999If you unpack any additional extensions in the ext/ directory before
1000running Configure, then Configure will offer to build those additional
1001extensions as well. Most users probably shouldn't have to do this --
1002it is usually easier to build additional extensions later after perl
1003has been installed. However, if you wish to have those additional
1004extensions statically linked into the perl binary, then this offers a
1005convenient way to do that in one step. (It is not necessary, however;
1006you can build and install extensions just fine even if you don't have
1007dynamic loading. See lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm for more details.)
1008
1009You can learn more about each of the supplied extensions by consulting the
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1010documentation in the individual .pm modules, located under the
1011ext/ subdirectory.
1012
1013Even if you do not have dynamic loading, you must still build the
1014DynaLoader extension; you should just build the stub dl_none.xs
1015version. (Configure will suggest this as the default.)
1016
1017In summary, here are the Configure command-line variables you can set
1018to turn off each extension:
1019
1020 B (Always included by default)
1021 DB_File i_db
1022 DynaLoader (Must always be included as a static extension)
1023 Fcntl (Always included by default)
1024 GDBM_File i_gdbm
1025 IO (Always included by default)
1026 NDBM_File i_ndbm
1027 ODBM_File i_dbm
1028 POSIX useposix
1029 SDBM_File (Always included by default)
1030 Opcode useopcode
1031 Socket d_socket
a2dab6bc 1032 Threads use5005threads
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1033 attrs (Always included by default)
1034
1035Thus to skip the NDBM_File extension, you can use
1036
1037 sh Configure -Ui_ndbm
1038
1039Again, this is taken care of automatically if you don't have the ndbm
1040library.
1041
1042Of course, you may always run Configure interactively and select only
1043the extensions you want.
1044
1045Note: The DB_File module will only work with version 1.x of Berkeley
1046DB or newer releases of version 2. Configure will automatically detect
1047this for you and refuse to try to build DB_File with earlier
1048releases of version 2.
1049
1050If you re-use your old config.sh but change your system (e.g. by
1051adding libgdbm) Configure will still offer your old choices of extensions
1052for the default answer, but it will also point out the discrepancy to
1053you.
1054
1055Finally, if you have dynamic loading (most modern Unix systems do)
1056remember that these extensions do not increase the size of your perl
1057executable, nor do they impact start-up time, so you probably might as
1058well build all the ones that will work on your system.
1059
1060=head2 Including locally-installed libraries
1061
1062Perl5 comes with interfaces to number of database extensions, including
1063dbm, ndbm, gdbm, and Berkeley db. For each extension, if
1064Configure can find the appropriate header files and libraries, it will
1065automatically include that extension. The gdbm and db libraries
1066are not included with perl. See the library documentation for
1067how to obtain the libraries.
1068
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1069If your database header (.h) files are not in a directory normally
1070searched by your C compiler, then you will need to include the
1071appropriate -I/your/directory option when prompted by Configure. If
1072your database library (.a) files are not in a directory normally
1073searched by your C compiler and linker, then you will need to include
1074the appropriate -L/your/directory option when prompted by Configure.
1075See the examples below.
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1076
1077=head2 Examples
1078
1079=over 4
1080
1081=item gdbm in /usr/local
1082
1083Suppose you have gdbm and want Configure to find it and build the
d6baa268 1084GDBM_File extension. This example assumes you have gdbm.h
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1085installed in /usr/local/include/gdbm.h and libgdbm.a installed in
1086/usr/local/lib/libgdbm.a. Configure should figure all the
1087necessary steps out automatically.
1088
1089Specifically, when Configure prompts you for flags for
1090your C compiler, you should include -I/usr/local/include.
1091
1092When Configure prompts you for linker flags, you should include
1093-L/usr/local/lib.
1094
1095If you are using dynamic loading, then when Configure prompts you for
1096linker flags for dynamic loading, you should again include
1097-L/usr/local/lib.
1098
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1099Again, this should all happen automatically. This should also work if
1100you have gdbm installed in any of (/usr/local, /opt/local, /usr/gnu,
1101/opt/gnu, /usr/GNU, or /opt/GNU).
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1102
1103=item gdbm in /usr/you
1104
1105Suppose you have gdbm installed in some place other than /usr/local/,
1106but you still want Configure to find it. To be specific, assume you
1107have /usr/you/include/gdbm.h and /usr/you/lib/libgdbm.a. You
1108still have to add -I/usr/you/include to cc flags, but you have to take
1109an extra step to help Configure find libgdbm.a. Specifically, when
1110Configure prompts you for library directories, you have to add
1111/usr/you/lib to the list.
1112
1113It is possible to specify this from the command line too (all on one
1114line):
1115
d6baa268 1116 sh Configure -de \
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1117 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include" \
1118 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib"
1119
1120locincpth is a space-separated list of include directories to search.
1121Configure will automatically add the appropriate -I directives.
1122
1123loclibpth is a space-separated list of library directories to search.
1124Configure will automatically add the appropriate -L directives. If
1125you have some libraries under /usr/local/ and others under
1126/usr/you, then you have to include both, namely
1127
d6baa268 1128 sh Configure -de \
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1129 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include /usr/local/include" \
1130 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib /usr/local/lib"
1131
1132=back
1133
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1134=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1135
8d74ce1c
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1136If you run into problems, try some of the following ideas.
1137If none of them help, then see L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
1138
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1139=over 4
1140
25f94b33
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1141=item Running Configure Interactively
1142
1143If Configure runs into trouble, remember that you can always run
1144Configure interactively so that you can check (and correct) its
1145guesses.
1146
1147All the installation questions have been moved to the top, so you don't
aa689395 1148have to wait for them. Once you've handled them (and your C compiler and
1ec51d55 1149flags) you can type &-d at the next Configure prompt and Configure
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1150will use the defaults from then on.
1151
1152If you find yourself trying obscure command line incantations and
1153config.over tricks, I recommend you run Configure interactively
1154instead. You'll probably save yourself time in the long run.
1155
aa689395 1156=item Hint files
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1157
1158The perl distribution includes a number of system-specific hints files
1159in the hints/ directory. If one of them matches your system, Configure
1160will offer to use that hint file.
1161
1162Several of the hint files contain additional important information.
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1163If you have any problems, it is a good idea to read the relevant hint file
1164for further information. See hints/solaris_2.sh for an extensive example.
1165More information about writing good hints is in the hints/README.hints
1166file.
8e07c86e 1167
edb1cbcb
PP
1168=item *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1169
1170Occasionally, Configure makes a wrong guess. For example, on SunOS
11714.1.3, Configure incorrectly concludes that tzname[] is in the
1172standard C library. The hint file is set up to correct for this. You
1173will see a message:
1174
1175 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1176 The recommended value for $d_tzname on this machine was "undef"!
1177 Keep the recommended value? [y]
1178
1179You should always keep the recommended value unless, after reading the
1180relevant section of the hint file, you are sure you want to try
1181overriding it.
1182
1183If you are re-using an old config.sh, the word "previous" will be
1184used instead of "recommended". Again, you will almost always want
1185to keep the previous value, unless you have changed something on your
1186system.
1187
1188For example, suppose you have added libgdbm.a to your system
1189and you decide to reconfigure perl to use GDBM_File. When you run
1190Configure again, you will need to add -lgdbm to the list of libraries.
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1191Now, Configure will find your gdbm include file and library and will
1192issue a message:
edb1cbcb
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1193
1194 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1195 The previous value for $i_gdbm on this machine was "undef"!
1196 Keep the previous value? [y]
1197
1ec51d55 1198In this case, you do not want to keep the previous value, so you
c3edaffb 1199should answer 'n'. (You'll also have to manually add GDBM_File to
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PP
1200the list of dynamic extensions to build.)
1201
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1202=item Changing Compilers
1203
1204If you change compilers or make other significant changes, you should
1ec51d55 1205probably not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or
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1206rename it, e.g. mv config.sh config.sh.old. Then rerun Configure
1207with the options you want to use.
1208
1ec51d55
CS
1209This is a common source of problems. If you change from cc to
1210gcc, you should almost always remove your old config.sh.
8e07c86e 1211
c3edaffb 1212=item Propagating your changes to config.sh
8e07c86e 1213
1ec51d55
CS
1214If you make any changes to config.sh, you should propagate
1215them to all the .SH files by running
1216
1217 sh Configure -S
1218
1219You will then have to rebuild by running
9d67150a
PP
1220
1221 make depend
1222 make
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1223
1224=item config.over
1225
1226You can also supply a shell script config.over to over-ride Configure's
1227guesses. It will get loaded up at the very end, just before config.sh
1228is created. You have to be careful with this, however, as Configure
d6baa268 1229does no checking that your changes make sense.
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1230
1231=item config.h
1232
1ec51d55
CS
1233Many of the system dependencies are contained in config.h.
1234Configure builds config.h by running the config_h.SH script.
1235The values for the variables are taken from config.sh.
8e07c86e 1236
1ec51d55
CS
1237If there are any problems, you can edit config.h directly. Beware,
1238though, that the next time you run Configure, your changes will be
8e07c86e
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1239lost.
1240
1241=item cflags
1242
1243If you have any additional changes to make to the C compiler command
1ec51d55
CS
1244line, they can be made in cflags.SH. For instance, to turn off the
1245optimizer on toke.c, find the line in the switch structure for
1246toke.c and put the command optimize='-g' before the ;; . You
1247can also edit cflags directly, but beware that your changes will be
1248lost the next time you run Configure.
8e07c86e 1249
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1250To explore various ways of changing ccflags from within a hint file,
1251see the file hints/README.hints.
1252
1253To change the C flags for all the files, edit config.sh and change either
1254$ccflags or $optimize, and then re-run
1ec51d55
CS
1255
1256 sh Configure -S
1257 make depend
8e07c86e 1258
aa689395 1259=item No sh
8e07c86e 1260
c42e3e15
GS
1261If you don't have sh, you'll have to copy the sample file
1262Porting/config.sh to config.sh and edit your config.sh to reflect your
1263system's peculiarities. See Porting/pumpkin.pod for more information.
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1264You'll probably also have to extensively modify the extension building
1265mechanism.
1266
d6baa268
JH
1267=item Environment variable clashes
1268
1269Configure uses a CONFIG variable that is reported to cause trouble on
1270ReliantUnix 5.44. If your system sets this variable, you can try
1271unsetting it before you run Configure. Configure should eventually
1272be fixed to avoid polluting the namespace of the environment.
1273
1274=item Digital UNIX/Tru64 UNIX and BIN_SH
1275
1276In Digital UNIX/Tru64 UNIX, Configure might abort with
1277
1278Build a threading Perl? [n]
1279Configure[2437]: Syntax error at line 1 : `config.sh' is not expected.
1280
1281This indicates that Configure is being run with a broken Korn shell
1282(even though you think you are using a Bourne shell by using
1283"sh Configure" or "./Configure"). The Korn shell bug has been reported
1284to Compaq as of February 1999 but in the meanwhile, the reason ksh is
1285being used is that you have the environment variable BIN_SH set to
1286'xpg4'. This causes /bin/sh to delegate its duties to /bin/posix/sh
1287(a ksh). Unset the environment variable and rerun Configure.
1288
1289=item HP-UX 11, pthreads, and libgdbm
1290
1291If you are running Configure with -Dusethreads in HP-UX 11, be warned
1292that POSIX threads and libgdbm (the GNU dbm library) compiled before
1293HP-UX 11 do not mix. This will cause a basic test run by Configure to
1294fail
1295
1296Pthread internal error: message: __libc_reinit() failed, file: ../pthreads/pthread.c, line: 1096
1297Return Pointer is 0xc082bf33
1298sh: 5345 Quit(coredump)
1299
1300and Configure will give up. The cure is to recompile and install
1301libgdbm under HP-UX 11.
1302
c3edaffb
PP
1303=item Porting information
1304
2ae324a7 1305Specific information for the OS/2, Plan9, VMS and Win32 ports is in the
1ec51d55
CS
1306corresponding README files and subdirectories. Additional information,
1307including a glossary of all those config.sh variables, is in the Porting
c42e3e15 1308subdirectory. Especially Porting/Glossary should come in handy.
c3edaffb 1309
7f678428 1310Ports for other systems may also be available. You should check out
1ec51d55 1311http://www.perl.com/CPAN/ports for current information on ports to
7f678428
PP
1312various other operating systems.
1313
491517e0
JA
1314If you plan to port Perl to a new architecture study carefully the
1315section titled "Philosophical Issues in Patching and Porting Perl"
1316in the file Porting/pumpkin.pod and the file Porting/patching.pod.
1317Study also how other non-UNIX ports have solved problems.
1318
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1319=back
1320
1321=head1 make depend
1322
bfb7748a
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1323This will look for all the includes. The output is stored in makefile.
1324The only difference between Makefile and makefile is the dependencies at
1325the bottom of makefile. If you have to make any changes, you should edit
1326makefile, not Makefile since the Unix make command reads makefile first.
1327(On non-Unix systems, the output may be stored in a different file.
1328Check the value of $firstmakefile in your config.sh if in doubt.)
8e07c86e
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1329
1330Configure will offer to do this step for you, so it isn't listed
1331explicitly above.
1332
1333=head1 make
1334
1335This will attempt to make perl in the current directory.
1336
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1337=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1338
8e07c86e 1339If you can't compile successfully, try some of the following ideas.
7f678428 1340If none of them help, and careful reading of the error message and
8d74ce1c
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1341the relevant manual pages on your system doesn't help,
1342then see L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
8e07c86e
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1343
1344=over 4
1345
1ec51d55 1346=item hints
8e07c86e
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1347
1348If you used a hint file, try reading the comments in the hint file
1349for further tips and information.
1350
1ec51d55 1351=item extensions
8e07c86e 1352
1ec51d55 1353If you can successfully build miniperl, but the process crashes
c3edaffb
PP
1354during the building of extensions, you should run
1355
3a6175e1 1356 make minitest
c3edaffb
PP
1357
1358to test your version of miniperl.
1359
e57fd563
PP
1360=item locale
1361
bfb7748a
AD
1362If you have any locale-related environment variables set, try unsetting
1363them. I have some reports that some versions of IRIX hang while
1364running B<./miniperl configpm> with locales other than the C locale.
1365See the discussion under L<"make test"> below about locales and the
1366whole L<"Locale problems"> section in the file pod/perllocale.pod.
3e6e419a
JH
1367The latter is especially useful if you see something like this
1368
1369 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
1370 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
1371 LC_ALL = "En_US",
1372 LANG = (unset)
1373 are supported and installed on your system.
1374 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
1375
1376at Perl startup.
e57fd563 1377
7f678428 1378=item varargs
c3edaffb
PP
1379
1380If you get varargs problems with gcc, be sure that gcc is installed
bfb7748a
AD
1381correctly and that you are not passing -I/usr/include to gcc. When using
1382gcc, you should probably have i_stdarg='define' and i_varargs='undef'
1383in config.sh. The problem is usually solved by running fixincludes
1384correctly. If you do change config.sh, don't forget to propagate
1385your changes (see L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below).
7f678428 1386See also the L<"vsprintf"> item below.
c3edaffb 1387
bfb7748a 1388=item util.c
c3edaffb
PP
1389
1390If you get error messages such as the following (the exact line
bfb7748a 1391numbers and function name may vary in different versions of perl):
c3edaffb 1392
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AD
1393 util.c: In function `Perl_form':
1394 util.c:1107: number of arguments doesn't match prototype
1395 proto.h:125: prototype declaration
c3edaffb
PP
1396
1397it might well be a symptom of the gcc "varargs problem". See the
7f678428 1398previous L<"varargs"> item.
c3edaffb 1399
9d67150a 1400=item Solaris and SunOS dynamic loading
c3edaffb
PP
1401
1402If you have problems with dynamic loading using gcc on SunOS or
1403Solaris, and you are using GNU as and GNU ld, you may need to add
1ec51d55 1404-B/bin/ (for SunOS) or -B/usr/ccs/bin/ (for Solaris) to your
c3edaffb 1405$ccflags, $ldflags, and $lddlflags so that the system's versions of as
6877a1cf
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1406and ld are used. Note that the trailing '/' is required.
1407Alternatively, you can use the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX
c3edaffb 1408environment variable to ensure that Sun's as and ld are used. Consult
1ec51d55 1409your gcc documentation for further information on the -B option and
c3edaffb
PP
1410the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX variable.
1411
7beaa944
AD
1412One convenient way to ensure you are not using GNU as and ld is to
1413invoke Configure with
1414
1415 sh Configure -Dcc='gcc -B/usr/ccs/bin/'
1416
1417for Solaris systems. For a SunOS system, you must use -B/bin/
1418instead.
1419
84902520
TB
1420Alternatively, recent versions of GNU ld reportedly work if you
1421include C<-Wl,-export-dynamic> in the ccdlflags variable in
1422config.sh.
1423
9d67150a
PP
1424=item ld.so.1: ./perl: fatal: relocation error:
1425
1426If you get this message on SunOS or Solaris, and you're using gcc,
7f678428
PP
1427it's probably the GNU as or GNU ld problem in the previous item
1428L<"Solaris and SunOS dynamic loading">.
9d67150a 1429
1ec51d55 1430=item LD_LIBRARY_PATH
c3edaffb
PP
1431
1432If you run into dynamic loading problems, check your setting of
aa689395
PP
1433the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable. If you're creating a static
1434Perl library (libperl.a rather than libperl.so) it should build
c3edaffb
PP
1435fine with LD_LIBRARY_PATH unset, though that may depend on details
1436of your local set-up.
1437
1438=item dlopen: stub interception failed
1439
1440The primary cause of the 'dlopen: stub interception failed' message is
1441that the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable includes a directory
1442which is a symlink to /usr/lib (such as /lib).
1443
aa689395 1444The reason this causes a problem is quite subtle. The file libdl.so.1.0
c3edaffb
PP
1445actually *only* contains functions which generate 'stub interception
1446failed' errors! The runtime linker intercepts links to
1447"/usr/lib/libdl.so.1.0" and links in internal implementation of those
1448functions instead. [Thanks to Tim Bunce for this explanation.]
1449
aa689395 1450=item nm extraction
c3edaffb
PP
1451
1452If Configure seems to be having trouble finding library functions,
1453try not using nm extraction. You can do this from the command line
1454with
1455
1456 sh Configure -Uusenm
1457
1458or by answering the nm extraction question interactively.
1ec51d55 1459If you have previously run Configure, you should not reuse your old
c3edaffb
PP
1460config.sh.
1461
bfb7748a
AD
1462=item umask not found
1463
1464If the build processes encounters errors relating to umask(), the problem
1465is probably that Configure couldn't find your umask() system call.
1466Check your config.sh. You should have d_umask='define'. If you don't,
1467this is probably the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above. Also,
1468try reading the hints file for your system for further information.
1469
7f678428 1470=item vsprintf
c3edaffb
PP
1471
1472If you run into problems with vsprintf in compiling util.c, the
1473problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
1474version of vsprintf(). Check whether your system has vprintf().
1475(Virtually all modern Unix systems do.) Then, check the variable
1476d_vprintf in config.sh. If your system has vprintf, it should be:
1477
1478 d_vprintf='define'
1479
1480If Configure guessed wrong, it is likely that Configure guessed wrong
bfb7748a
AD
1481on a number of other common functions too. This is probably
1482the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
c3edaffb 1483
3fe9a6f1
PP
1484=item do_aspawn
1485
1486If you run into problems relating to do_aspawn or do_spawn, the
1487problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
bfb7748a
AD
1488fork() function. Follow the procedure in the previous item
1489on L<"nm extraction">.
3fe9a6f1 1490
84902520
TB
1491=item __inet_* errors
1492
1493If you receive unresolved symbol errors during Perl build and/or test
1494referring to __inet_* symbols, check to see whether BIND 8.1 is
1495installed. It installs a /usr/local/include/arpa/inet.h that refers to
1496these symbols. Versions of BIND later than 8.1 do not install inet.h
1497in that location and avoid the errors. You should probably update to a
1498newer version of BIND. If you can't, you can either link with the
1499updated resolver library provided with BIND 8.1 or rename
1500/usr/local/bin/arpa/inet.h during the Perl build and test process to
1501avoid the problem.
1502
d6baa268
JH
1503=item #error "No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified"
1504
1505This is a common error when trying to build perl on Solaris 2.6 with a
1506gcc installation from Solaris 2.5 or 2.5.1. The Solaris header files
1507changed, so you need to update your gcc installation. You can either
1508rerun the fixincludes script from gcc or take the opportunity to
1509update your gcc installation.
1510
aa689395 1511=item Optimizer
c3edaffb 1512
9d67150a 1513If you can't compile successfully, try turning off your compiler's
aa689395 1514optimizer. Edit config.sh and change the line
9d67150a
PP
1515
1516 optimize='-O'
1517
bfb7748a 1518to
9d67150a
PP
1519
1520 optimize=' '
1521
1522then propagate your changes with B<sh Configure -S> and rebuild
1523with B<make depend; make>.
1524
1ec51d55 1525=item CRIPPLED_CC
9d67150a 1526
1b1c1ae2
GS
1527If you still can't compile successfully, try:
1528
1529 sh Configure -Accflags=-DCRIPPLED_CC
1530
1531This flag simplifies some complicated expressions for compilers that get
1532indigestion easily. (Just because you get no errors doesn't mean it
1533compiled right!)
9d67150a
PP
1534
1535=item Missing functions
1536
1537If you have missing routines, you probably need to add some library or
1538other, or you need to undefine some feature that Configure thought was
1539there but is defective or incomplete. Look through config.h for
bfb7748a
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1540likely suspects. If Configure guessed wrong on a number of functions,
1541you might have the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
8e07c86e 1542
1ec51d55 1543=item toke.c
8e07c86e 1544
1ec51d55
CS
1545Some compilers will not compile or optimize the larger files (such as
1546toke.c) without some extra switches to use larger jump offsets or
1547allocate larger internal tables. You can customize the switches for
1548each file in cflags. It's okay to insert rules for specific files into
1549makefile since a default rule only takes effect in the absence of a
8e07c86e
AD
1550specific rule.
1551
7f678428 1552=item Missing dbmclose
8e07c86e 1553
c3edaffb
PP
1554SCO prior to 3.2.4 may be missing dbmclose(). An upgrade to 3.2.4
1555that includes libdbm.nfs (which includes dbmclose()) may be available.
8e07c86e 1556
f3d9a6ba 1557=item Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lsomething
7f678428
PP
1558
1559If you see such a message during the building of an extension, but
1560the extension passes its tests anyway (see L<"make test"> below),
1561then don't worry about the warning message. The extension
1562Makefile.PL goes looking for various libraries needed on various
aa689395 1563systems; few systems will need all the possible libraries listed.
7f678428
PP
1564For example, a system may have -lcposix or -lposix, but it's
1565unlikely to have both, so most users will see warnings for the one
f3d9a6ba
CS
1566they don't have. The phrase 'probably harmless' is intended to
1567reassure you that nothing unusual is happening, and the build
1568process is continuing.
7f678428
PP
1569
1570On the other hand, if you are building GDBM_File and you get the
1571message
1572
f3d9a6ba 1573 Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lgdbm
7f678428
PP
1574
1575then it's likely you're going to run into trouble somewhere along
1576the line, since it's hard to see how you can use the GDBM_File
1577extension without the -lgdbm library.
1578
1579It is true that, in principle, Configure could have figured all of
1580this out, but Configure and the extension building process are not
1581quite that tightly coordinated.
1582
aa689395
PP
1583=item sh: ar: not found
1584
1585This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar'
1586was not found. You need to check your PATH environment variable to
1587make sure that it includes the directory with the 'ar' command. This
1ec51d55 1588is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the /usr/ccs/bin
aa689395
PP
1589directory.
1590
1591=item db-recno failure on tests 51, 53 and 55
1592
1593Old versions of the DB library (including the DB library which comes
1594with FreeBSD 2.1) had broken handling of recno databases with modified
1595bval settings. Upgrade your DB library or OS.
1596
6087ac44
JH
1597=item Bad arg length for semctl, is XX, should be ZZZ
1598
1599If you get this error message from the lib/ipc_sysv test, your System
1600V IPC may be broken. The XX typically is 20, and that is what ZZZ
1601also should be. Consider upgrading your OS, or reconfiguring your OS
1602to include the System V semaphores.
1603
220f3621
GS
1604=item lib/ipc_sysv........semget: No space left on device
1605
1606Either your account or the whole system has run out of semaphores. Or
1607both. Either list the semaphores with "ipcs" and remove the unneeded
1608ones (which ones these are depends on your system and applications)
1609with "ipcrm -s SEMAPHORE_ID_HERE" or configure more semaphores to your
1610system.
1611
d6baa268
JH
1612=item GNU binutils
1613
1614If you mix GNU binutils (nm, ld, ar) with equivalent vendor-supplied
1615tools you may be in for some trouble. For example creating archives
1616with an old GNU 'ar' and then using a new current vendor-supplied 'ld'
1617may lead into linking problems. Either recompile your GNU binutils
1618under your current operating system release, or modify your PATH not
1619to include the GNU utils before running Configure, or specify the
1620vendor-supplied utilities explicitly to Configure, for example by
1621Configure -Dar=/bin/ar.
1622
16dc217a
GS
1623=item THIS PACKAGE SEEMS TO BE INCOMPLETE
1624
1625The F<Configure> program has not been able to find all the files which
1626make up the complete Perl distribution. You may have a damaged source
1627archive file (in which case you may also have seen messages such as
1628C<gzip: stdin: unexpected end of file> and C<tar: Unexpected EOF on
1629archive file>), or you may have obtained a structurally-sound but
1630incomplete archive. In either case, try downloading again from the
1631official site named at the start of this document. If you do find
1632that any site is carrying a corrupted or incomplete source code
1633archive, please report it to the site's maintainer.
1634
1635This message can also be a symptom of using (say) a GNU tar compiled
1636for SunOS4 on Solaris. When you run SunOS4 binaries on Solaris the
1637run-time system magically alters pathnames matching m#lib/locale# - so
1638when tar tries to create lib/locale.pm a differently-named file gets
1639created instead.
1640
1641You may find the file under its assumed name and be able to rename it
1642back. Or use Sun's tar to do the extract.
1643
1644=item invalid token: ##
1645
1646You are using a non-ANSI-compliant C compiler. See L<WARNING: This
1647version requires a compiler that supports ANSI C>.
1648
1649=item lib/locale.pm: No such file or directory
1650
1651See L<THIS PACKAGE SEEMS TO BE INCOMPLETE>.
1652
1ec51d55 1653=item Miscellaneous
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1654
1655Some additional things that have been reported for either perl4 or perl5:
1656
1657Genix may need to use libc rather than libc_s, or #undef VARARGS.
1658
1659NCR Tower 32 (OS 2.01.01) may need -W2,-Sl,2000 and #undef MKDIR.
1660
1ec51d55 1661UTS may need one or more of -DCRIPPLED_CC, -K or -g, and undef LSTAT.
8e07c86e 1662
220f3621
GS
1663FreeBSD can fail the lib/ipc_sysv.t test if SysV IPC has not been
1664configured to the kernel. Perl tries to detect this, though, and
1665you will get a message telling what to do.
6087ac44 1666
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1667If you get syntax errors on '(', try -DCRIPPLED_CC.
1668
1669Machines with half-implemented dbm routines will need to #undef I_ODBM
1670
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1671HP-UX 11 Y2K patch "Y2K-1100 B.11.00.B0125 HP-UX Core OS Year 2000
1672Patch Bundle" has been reported to break the io/fs test #18 which
1673tests whether utime() can change timestamps. The Y2K patch seems to
1674break utime() so that over NFS the timestamps do not get changed
1675(on local filesystems utime() still works).
1676
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1677=back
1678
1679=head1 make test
1680
d6baa268
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1681This will run the regression tests on the perl you just made. If
1682'make test' doesn't say "All tests successful" then something went
1683wrong. See the file t/README in the t subdirectory.
84902520 1684
84902520 1685Note that you can't run the tests in background if this disables
fb73857a
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1686opening of /dev/tty. You can use 'make test-notty' in that case but
1687a few tty tests will be skipped.
c3edaffb 1688
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1689=head2 What if make test doesn't work?
1690
1ec51d55
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1691If make test bombs out, just cd to the t directory and run ./TEST
1692by hand to see if it makes any difference. If individual tests
c3edaffb 1693bomb, you can run them by hand, e.g.,
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1694
1695 ./perl op/groups.t
1696
aa689395 1697Another way to get more detailed information about failed tests and
1ec51d55 1698individual subtests is to cd to the t directory and run
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1699
1700 ./perl harness
1701
fb73857a 1702(this assumes that most basic tests succeed, since harness uses
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1703complicated constructs).
1704
fb73857a 1705You should also read the individual tests to see if there are any helpful
c3edaffb
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1706comments that apply to your system.
1707
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1708=over 4
1709
1710=item locale
1711
1ec51d55 1712Note: One possible reason for errors is that some external programs
c07a80fd 1713may be broken due to the combination of your environment and the way
3fe9a6f1 1714B<make test> exercises them. For example, this may happen if you have
1ec51d55
CS
1715one or more of these environment variables set: LC_ALL LC_CTYPE
1716LC_COLLATE LANG. In some versions of UNIX, the non-English locales
e57fd563
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1717are known to cause programs to exhibit mysterious errors.
1718
1719If you have any of the above environment variables set, please try
aa689395
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1720
1721 setenv LC_ALL C
1722
1723(for C shell) or
1724
1725 LC_ALL=C;export LC_ALL
1726
1ec51d55
CS
1727for Bourne or Korn shell) from the command line and then retry
1728make test. If the tests then succeed, you may have a broken program that
aa689395 1729is confusing the testing. Please run the troublesome test by hand as
e57fd563 1730shown above and see whether you can locate the program. Look for
1ec51d55
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1731things like: exec, `backquoted command`, system, open("|...") or
1732open("...|"). All these mean that Perl is trying to run some
e57fd563 1733external program.
eed2e782 1734
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1735=item Out of memory
1736
1737On some systems, particularly those with smaller amounts of RAM, some
1738of the tests in t/op/pat.t may fail with an "Out of memory" message.
7970f296
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1739For example, on my SparcStation IPC with 12 MB of RAM, in perl5.5.670,
1740test 85 will fail if run under either t/TEST or t/harness.
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1741
1742Try stopping other jobs on the system and then running the test by itself:
1743
1744 cd t; ./perl op/pat.t
1745
1746to see if you have any better luck. If your perl still fails this
1747test, it does not necessarily mean you have a broken perl. This test
1748tries to exercise the regular expression subsystem quite thoroughly,
1749and may well be far more demanding than your normal usage.
1750
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1751=back
1752
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1753=head1 make install
1754
1755This will put perl into the public directory you specified to
1ec51d55 1756Configure; by default this is /usr/local/bin. It will also try
8e07c86e 1757to put the man pages in a reasonable place. It will not nroff the man
aa689395 1758pages, however. You may need to be root to run B<make install>. If you
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1759are not root, you must own the directories in question and you should
1760ignore any messages about chown not working.
1761
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1762=head2 Installing perl under different names
1763
1764If you want to install perl under a name other than "perl" (for example,
1765when installing perl with special features enabled, such as debugging),
1766indicate the alternate name on the "make install" line, such as:
1767
1768 make install PERLNAME=myperl
1769
beb13193
RS
1770You can separately change the base used for versioned names (like
1771"perl5.005") by setting PERLNAME_VERBASE, like
1772
1773 make install PERLNAME=perl5 PERLNAME_VERBASE=perl
1774
1775This can be useful if you have to install perl as "perl5" (due to an
1776ancient version in /usr/bin supplied by your vendor, eg). Without this
1777the versioned binary would be called "perl55.005".
1778
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1779=head2 Installed files
1780
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1781If you want to see exactly what will happen without installing
1782anything, you can run
4633a7c4 1783
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1784 ./perl installperl -n
1785 ./perl installman -n
1786
1ec51d55 1787make install will install the following:
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1788
1789 perl,
1790 perl5.nnn where nnn is the current release number. This
1791 will be a link to perl.
1792 suidperl,
1793 sperl5.nnn If you requested setuid emulation.
1794 a2p awk-to-perl translator
1795 cppstdin This is used by perl -P, if your cc -E can't
1796 read from stdin.
1797 c2ph, pstruct Scripts for handling C structures in header files.
1798 s2p sed-to-perl translator
1799 find2perl find-to-perl translator
aa689395 1800 h2ph Extract constants and simple macros from C headers
8e07c86e 1801 h2xs Converts C .h header files to Perl extensions.
24b3df7f 1802 perlbug Tool to report bugs in Perl.
8e07c86e 1803 perldoc Tool to read perl's pod documentation.
aa689395 1804 pl2pm Convert Perl 4 .pl files to Perl 5 .pm modules
8e07c86e 1805 pod2html, Converters from perl's pod documentation format
aa689395
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1806 pod2latex, to other useful formats.
1807 pod2man, and
1808 pod2text
1809 splain Describe Perl warnings and errors
95667ae4 1810 dprofpp Perl code profile post-processor
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1811
1812 library files in $privlib and $archlib specified to
1813 Configure, usually under /usr/local/lib/perl5/.
d6baa268
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1814 man pages in $man1dir, usually /usr/local/man/man1.
1815 module man
1816 pages in $man3dir, usually /usr/local/man/man3.
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1817 pod/*.pod in $privlib/pod/.
1818
d6baa268
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1819Installperl will also create the directories listed above
1820in L<"Installation Directories">.
4633a7c4 1821
56c6f531 1822Perl's *.h header files and the libperl.a library are also installed
d6baa268 1823under $archlib so that any user may later build new modules, run the
56c6f531
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1824optional Perl compiler, or embed the perl interpreter into another
1825program even if the Perl source is no longer available.
8e07c86e 1826
aa689395 1827=head1 Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5
4633a7c4 1828
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1829In general, you can usually safely upgrade from one version of Perl (e.g.
18305.004_04) to another similar version (e.g. 5.004_05) without re-compiling
1831all of your add-on extensions. You can also safely leave the old version
1832around in case the new version causes you problems for some reason.
1833For example, if you want to be sure that your script continues to run
dc45a647 1834with 5.004_04, simply replace the '#!/usr/local/bin/perl' line at the
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1835top of the script with the particular version you want to run, e.g.
1836#!/usr/local/bin/perl5.00404.
1837
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1838Most extensions will probably not need to be recompiled to use
1839with a newer version of perl. Here is how it is supposed to work.
1840(These examples assume you accept all the Configure defaults.)
1841
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1842Suppose you already have version 5.005_03 installed. The directories
1843searched by 5.005_03 are
1844
1845 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.00503/$archname
1846 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.00503
1847 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/$archname
1848 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
1849
0a08c020
GS
1850Beginning with 5.6.0 the version number in the site libraries are
1851fully versioned. Now, suppose you install version 5.6.0. The directories
1852searched by version 5.6.0 will be
d6baa268 1853
0a08c020
GS
1854 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6.0/$archname
1855 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6.0
1856 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0/$archname
1857 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0
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1858
1859 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/$archname
1860 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
c42e3e15 1861 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
bfb7748a 1862
c42e3e15 1863Notice the last three entries -- Perl understands the default structure
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1864of the $sitelib directories and will look back in older, compatible
1865directories. This way, modules installed under 5.005_03 will continue
0a08c020 1866to be usable by 5.005_03 but will also accessible to 5.6.0. Further,
d6baa268 1867suppose that you upgrade a module to one which requires features
0a08c020
GS
1868present only in 5.6.0. That new module will get installed into
1869/usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0 and will be available to 5.6.0,
d6baa268 1870but will not interfere with the 5.005_03 version.
bfb7748a 1871
c42e3e15
GS
1872The last entry, /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/, is there so that
18735.6.0 will look for 5.004-era pure perl modules.
d6baa268 1874
0a08c020
GS
1875Lastly, suppose you now install version 5.6.1, which we'll assume is
1876binary compatible with 5.6.0 and 5.005. The directories searched
1877by 5.6.1 (if you don't change the Configure defaults) will be:
d6baa268 1878
265f5c4a
GS
1879 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6.1/$archname
1880 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6.1
0a08c020
GS
1881 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.1/$archname
1882 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.1
1883
1884 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0/$archname
1885 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0
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1886
1887 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/$archname
1888 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
1889 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
bfb7748a 1890
0a08c020
GS
1891Assuming the users in your site are still actively using perl 5.6.0 and
18925.005 after you installed 5.6.1, you can continue to install add-on
1893extensions using any of perl 5.6.1, 5.6.0, or 5.005. The installations
1894of these different versions remain distinct, but remember that the newer
1895versions of perl are automatically set up to search the site libraries of
1896the older ones. This means that installing a new extension with 5.005
1897will make it visible to all three versions. Later, if you install the
1898same extension using, say, perl 5.6.1, it will override the 5.005-installed
1899version, but only for perl 5.6.1.
1900
1901This way, you can choose to share compatible extensions, but also upgrade
1902to a newer version of an extension that may be incompatible with earlier
1903versions, without breaking the earlier versions' installations.
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1904
1905=head2 Maintaining completely separate versions
4633a7c4 1906
1ec51d55 1907Many users prefer to keep all versions of perl in completely
d6baa268 1908separate directories. This guarantees that an update to one version
0a08c020
GS
1909won't interfere with another version. (The defaults guarantee this for
1910libraries after 5.6.0, but not for executables. TODO?) One convenient
1911way to do this is by using a separate prefix for each version, such as
d52d4e46 1912
46bb10fb 1913 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl5.004
d52d4e46 1914
46bb10fb 1915and adding /opt/perl5.004/bin to the shell PATH variable. Such users
d52d4e46
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1916may also wish to add a symbolic link /usr/local/bin/perl so that
1917scripts can still start with #!/usr/local/bin/perl.
1918
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1919Others might share a common directory for maintenance sub-versions
1920(e.g. 5.004 for all 5.004_0x versions), but change directory with
1921each major version.
1922
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1923If you are installing a development subversion, you probably ought to
1924seriously consider using a separate directory, since development
1925subversions may not have all the compatibility wrinkles ironed out
1926yet.
1927
0a08c020 1928=head2 Upgrading from 5.005 to 5.6.0
693762b4 1929
c42e3e15
GS
1930Most extensions built and installed with versions of perl
1931prior to 5.005_50 will not need to be recompiled to be used with
19325.6.0. If you find you do need to rebuild an extension with 5.6.0,
1933you may safely do so without disturbing the 5.005 installation.
1934(See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> above.)
1935
1936See your installed copy of the perllocal.pod file for a (possibly
1937incomplete) list of locally installed modules. Note that you want
1938perllocal.pod not perllocale.pod for installed module information.
693762b4 1939
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1940=head1 Coexistence with perl4
1941
1942You can safely install perl5 even if you want to keep perl4 around.
1943
1ec51d55
CS
1944By default, the perl5 libraries go into /usr/local/lib/perl5/, so
1945they don't override the perl4 libraries in /usr/local/lib/perl/.
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1946
1947In your /usr/local/bin directory, you should have a binary named
1ec51d55 1948perl4.036. That will not be touched by the perl5 installation
8e07c86e
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1949process. Most perl4 scripts should run just fine under perl5.
1950However, if you have any scripts that require perl4, you can replace
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1951the #! line at the top of them by #!/usr/local/bin/perl4.036 (or
1952whatever the appropriate pathname is). See pod/perltrap.pod for
1953possible problems running perl4 scripts under perl5.
8e07c86e 1954
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1955=head1 cd /usr/include; h2ph *.h sys/*.h
1956
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1957Some perl scripts need to be able to obtain information from the
1958system header files. This command will convert the most commonly used
1ec51d55 1959header files in /usr/include into files that can be easily interpreted
d6baa268
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1960by perl. These files will be placed in the architecture-dependent
1961library ($archlib) directory you specified to Configure.
aa689395 1962
d6baa268
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1963Note: Due to differences in the C and perl languages, the conversion
1964of the header files is not perfect. You will probably have to
1965hand-edit some of the converted files to get them to parse correctly.
1966For example, h2ph breaks spectacularly on type casting and certain
1967structures.
aa689395 1968
fb73857a 1969=head1 installhtml --help
aa689395 1970
3e3baf6d
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1971Some sites may wish to make perl documentation available in HTML
1972format. The installhtml utility can be used to convert pod
fb73857a 1973documentation into linked HTML files and install them.
aa689395 1974
d6baa268
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1975Currently, the supplied ./installhtml script does not make use of the
1976html Configure variables. This should be fixed in a future release.
1977
fb73857a 1978The following command-line is an example of one used to convert
3e3baf6d 1979perl documentation:
aa689395 1980
3e3baf6d
TB
1981 ./installhtml \
1982 --podroot=. \
1983 --podpath=lib:ext:pod:vms \
1984 --recurse \
1985 --htmldir=/perl/nmanual \
1986 --htmlroot=/perl/nmanual \
1987 --splithead=pod/perlipc \
1988 --splititem=pod/perlfunc \
1989 --libpods=perlfunc:perlguts:perlvar:perlrun:perlop \
1990 --verbose
1991
1992See the documentation in installhtml for more details. It can take
1993many minutes to execute a large installation and you should expect to
1994see warnings like "no title", "unexpected directive" and "cannot
1995resolve" as the files are processed. We are aware of these problems
1996(and would welcome patches for them).
aa689395 1997
fb73857a
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1998You may find it helpful to run installhtml twice. That should reduce
1999the number of "cannot resolve" warnings.
2000
aa689395
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2001=head1 cd pod && make tex && (process the latex files)
2002
2003Some sites may also wish to make the documentation in the pod/ directory
2004available in TeX format. Type
2005
2006 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
2007
2008=head1 Reporting Problems
2009
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2010If you have difficulty building perl, and none of the advice in this file
2011helps, and careful reading of the error message and the relevant manual
2012pages on your system doesn't help either, then you should send a message
7f2de2d2 2013to either the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup or to perlbug@perl.org with
bfb7748a 2014an accurate description of your problem.
aa689395 2015
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2016Please include the output of the ./myconfig shell script that comes with
2017the distribution. Alternatively, you can use the perlbug program that
2018comes with the perl distribution, but you need to have perl compiled
2019before you can use it. (If you have not installed it yet, you need to
f5b3b617 2020run C<./perl -Ilib utils/perlbug> instead of a plain C<perlbug>.)
aa689395 2021
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2022Please try to make your message brief but clear. Trim out unnecessary
2023information. Do not include large files (such as config.sh or a complete
2024Configure or make log) unless absolutely necessary. Do not include a
2025complete transcript of your build session. Just include the failing
d6baa268 2026commands, the relevant error messages, and whatever preceding commands
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2027are necessary to give the appropriate context. Plain text should
2028usually be sufficient--fancy attachments or encodings may actually
2029reduce the number of people who read your message. Your message
2030will get relayed to over 400 subscribers around the world so please
2031try to keep it brief but clear.
aa689395 2032
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2033=head1 DOCUMENTATION
2034
bfb7748a
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2035Read the manual entries before running perl. The main documentation
2036is in the pod/ subdirectory and should have been installed during the
8e07c86e 2037build process. Type B<man perl> to get started. Alternatively, you
bfb7748a
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2038can type B<perldoc perl> to use the supplied perldoc script. This is
2039sometimes useful for finding things in the library modules.
8e07c86e 2040
1ec51d55 2041Under UNIX, you can produce a documentation book in postscript form,
bfb7748a
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2042along with its table of contents, by going to the pod/ subdirectory and
2043running (either):
34a2a22e
RM
2044
2045 ./roffitall -groff # If you have GNU groff installed
aa689395 2046 ./roffitall -psroff # If you have psroff
34a2a22e
RM
2047
2048This will leave you with two postscript files ready to be printed.
aa689395
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2049(You may need to fix the roffitall command to use your local troff
2050set-up.)
34a2a22e 2051
bfb7748a
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2052Note that you must have performed the installation already before running
2053the above, since the script collects the installed files to generate
2054the documentation.
34a2a22e 2055
8e07c86e
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2056=head1 AUTHOR
2057
bfb7748a
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2058Original author: Andy Dougherty doughera@lafayette.edu , borrowing very
2059heavily from the original README by Larry Wall, with lots of helpful
2060feedback and additions from the perl5-porters@perl.org folks.
fb73857a 2061
f5b3b617
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2062If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
2063L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
2064
2065=head1 REDISTRIBUTION
2066
2067This document is part of the Perl package and may be distributed under
d6baa268 2068the same terms as perl itself, with the following additional request:
f5b3b617 2069If you are distributing a modified version of perl (perhaps as part of
d6baa268
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2070a larger package) please B<do> modify these installation instructions
2071and the contact information to match your distribution.
8e07c86e 2072
a5f75d66 2073=head1 LAST MODIFIED
24b3df7f 2074
d6baa268 2075$Id: INSTALL,v 1.58 1999/07/23 14:43:00 doughera Exp $