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9133bbab 1This document is written in pod format hence there are punctuation
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2characters in odd places. Do not worry, you've apparently got the
3ASCII->EBCDIC translation worked out correctly. You can read more
4about pod in pod/perlpod.pod or the short summary in the INSTALL file.
9d116dd7 5
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6=head1 NAME
7
37a78d01 8README.os390 - building and installing Perl for OS/390 and z/OS
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9
10=head1 SYNOPSIS
11
12This document will help you Configure, build, test and install Perl
37a78d01 13on OS/390 (aka z/OS) Unix System Services.
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14
15=head1 DESCRIPTION
16
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17This is a fully ported Perl for OS/390 Version 2 Release 3, 5, 6, 7,
188, and 9. It may work on other versions or releases, but those are
eae55d03 19the ones we've tested it on.
8fde188e 20
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21You may need to carry out some system configuration tasks before
22running the Configure script for Perl.
8fde188e 23
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24
25=head2 Tools
26
27The z/OS Unix Tools and Toys list may prove helpful and contains links
f110302f 28to ports of much of the software helpful for building Perl.
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29http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html
30
31
a83b6f46 32=head2 Unpacking Perl distribution on OS/390
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33
34Gunzip/gzip for OS/390 is discussed at:
35
37a78d01 36 http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/faq/bpxqp1.html
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37
38to extract an ASCII tar archive on OS/390, try this:
39
40 pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < latest.tar
41
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42If you get errors of the form
43
44 tar: FSUM7171 ...: cannot set uid/gid: EDC5139I Operation not permitted.
45 tar: FSUM7148 cannot create file "...": EDC5111I Permission denied.
46
47you didn't read the above and tried to use tar instead of pax.
48
a83b6f46 49=head2 Setup and utilities for Perl on OS/390
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50
51Be sure that your yacc installation is in place including any necessary
52parser template files. If you have not already done so then be sure to:
53
54 cp /samples/yyparse.c /etc
55
9133bbab 56This may also be a good time to ensure that your /etc/protocol file
8fde188e 57and either your /etc/resolv.conf or /etc/hosts files are in place.
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58The IBM document that described such USS system setup issues was
59SC28-1890-07 "OS/390 UNIX System Services Planning", in particular
60Chapter 6 on customizing the OE shell.
8fde188e 61
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62GNU make for OS/390, which is recommended for the build of perl (as
63well as building CPAN modules and extensions), is available from the
64L</Tools>.
9d116dd7 65
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66Some people have reported encountering "Out of memory!" errors while
67trying to build Perl using GNU make binaries. If you encounter such
68trouble then try to download the source code kit and build GNU make
69from source to eliminate any such trouble. You might also find GNU make
70(as well as Perl and Apache) in the red-piece/book "Open Source Software
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71for OS/390 UNIX", SG24-5944-00 from IBM.
72
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73If instead of the recommended GNU make you would like to use the system
74supplied make program then be sure to install the default rules file
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75properly via the shell command:
76
77 cp /samples/startup.mk /etc
78
79and be sure to also set the environment variable _C89_CCMODE=1 (exporting
80_C89_CCMODE=1 is also a good idea for users of GNU make).
81
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82You might also want to have GNU groff for OS/390 installed before
83running the `make install` step for Perl.
84
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85There is a syntax error in the /usr/include/sys/socket.h header file
86that IBM supplies with USS V2R7, V2R8, and possibly V2R9. The problem with
87the header file is that near the definition of the SO_REUSEPORT constant
88there is a spurious extra '/' character outside of a comment like so:
89
90 #define SO_REUSEPORT 0x0200 /* allow local address & port
91 reuse */ /
92
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93You could edit that header yourself to remove that last '/', or you might
94note that Language Environment (LE) APAR PQ39997 describes the problem
eae55d03 95and PTF's UQ46272 and UQ46271 are the (R8 at least) fixes and apply them.
9133bbab 96If left unattended that syntax error will turn up as an inability for Perl
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97to build its "Socket" extension.
98
9133bbab 99For successful testing you may need to turn on the sticky bit for your
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100world readable /tmp directory if you have not already done so (see man chmod).
101
a83b6f46 102=head2 Configure Perl on OS/390
8fde188e 103
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104Once you've unpacked the distribution, run "sh Configure" (see INSTALL
105for a full discussion of the Configure options). There is a "hints" file
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106for os390 that specifies the correct values for most things. Some things
107to watch out for include:
108
109=over 4
110
111=item *
112
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113A message of the form:
114
115 (I see you are using the Korn shell. Some ksh's blow up on Configure,
116 mainly on older exotic systems. If yours does, try the Bourne shell instead.)
117
118is nothing to worry about at all.
119
120=item *
121
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122Some of the parser default template files in /samples are needed in /etc.
123In particular be sure that you at least copy /samples/yyparse.c to /etc
eae55d03 124before running Perl's Configure. This step ensures successful extraction
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125of EBCDIC versions of parser files such as perly.c, perly.h, and x2p/a2p.c.
126This has to be done before running Configure the first time. If you failed
127to do so then the easiest way to re-Configure Perl is to delete your
128misconfigured build root and re-extract the source from the tar ball.
129Then you must ensure that /etc/yyparse.c is properly in place before
59c9e5d6 130attempting to re-run Configure.
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131
132=item *
133
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134This port will support dynamic loading, but it is not selected by
135default. If you would like to experiment with dynamic loading then
136be sure to specify -Dusedl in the arguments to the Configure script.
137See the comments in hints/os390.sh for more information on dynamic loading.
138If you build with dynamic loading then you will need to add the
139$archlibexp/CORE directory to your LIBPATH environment variable in order
140for perl to work. See the config.sh file for the value of $archlibexp.
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141If in trying to use Perl you see an error message similar to:
142
143 CEE3501S The module libperl.dll was not found.
144 From entry point __dllstaticinit at compile unit offset +00000194 at
145
9133bbab 146then your LIBPATH does not have the location of libperl.x and either
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147libperl.dll or libperl.so in it. Add that directory to your LIBPATH and
148proceed.
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149
150=item *
9d116dd7 151
eae55d03 152Do not turn on the compiler optimization flag "-O". There is
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153a bug in either the optimizer or perl that causes perl to
154not work correctly when the optimizer is on.
9d116dd7 155
8fde188e 156=item *
9d116dd7 157
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158Some of the configuration files in /etc used by the
159networking APIs are either missing or have the wrong
160names. In particular, make sure that there's either
eae55d03 161an /etc/resolv.conf or an /etc/hosts, so that
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162gethostbyname() works, and make sure that the file
163/etc/proto has been renamed to /etc/protocol (NOT
164/etc/protocols, as used by other Unix systems).
59c9e5d6 165You may have to look for things like HOSTNAME and DOMAINORIGIN
9133bbab 166in the "//'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'" PDS member in order to
59c9e5d6 167properly set up your /etc networking files.
9d116dd7 168
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169=back
170
a83b6f46 171=head2 Build, Test, Install Perl on OS/390
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172
173Simply put:
174
175 sh Configure
176 make
177 make test
178
eae55d03 179if everything looks ok (see the next section for test/IVP diagnosis) then:
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180
181 make install
182
183this last step may or may not require UID=0 privileges depending
184on how you answered the questions that Configure asked and whether
185or not you have write access to the directories you specified.
186
a83b6f46 187=head2 Build Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
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188
189"Out of memory!" messages during the build of Perl are most often fixed
190by re building the GNU make utility for OS/390 from a source code kit.
191
192Another memory limiting item to check is your MAXASSIZE parameter in your
193'SYS1.PARMLIB(BPXPRMxx)' data set (note too that as of V2R8 address space
9133bbab 194limits can be set on a per user ID basis in the USS segment of a RACF
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195profile). People have reported successful builds of Perl with MAXASSIZE
196parameters as small as 503316480 (and it may be possible to build Perl
197with a MAXASSIZE smaller than that).
198
9133bbab 199Within USS your /etc/profile or $HOME/.profile may limit your ulimit
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200settings. Check that the following command returns reasonable values:
201
202 ulimit -a
203
204To conserve memory you should have your compiler modules loaded into the
205Link Pack Area (LPA/ELPA) rather than in a link list or step lib.
206
207If the c89 compiler complains of syntax errors during the build of the
208Socket extension then be sure to fix the syntax error in the system
209header /usr/include/sys/socket.h.
210
a83b6f46 211=head2 Testing Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
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212
213The `make test` step runs a Perl Verification Procedure, usually before
214installation. You might encounter STDERR messages even during a successful
215run of `make test`. Here is a guide to some of the more commonly seen
216anomalies:
217
218=over 4
219
220=item *
221
222A message of the form:
223
224 comp/cpp.............ERROR CBC3191 ./.301989890.c:1 The character $ is not a
225 valid C source character.
226 FSUM3065 The COMPILE step ended with return code 12.
227 FSUM3017 Could not compile .301989890.c. Correct the errors and try again.
228 ok
229
230indicates that the t/comp/cpp.t test of Perl's -P command line switch has
231passed but that the particular invocation of c89 -E in the cpp script does
232not suppress the C compiler check of source code validity.
233
234=item *
235
236A message of the form:
237
238 io/openpid...........CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
239 CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
240 CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
241 ok
242
243indicates that the t/io/openpid.t test of Perl has passed but done so
244with extraneous messages on stderr from CEE.
245
246=item *
247
248A message of the form:
249
250 lib/ftmp-security....File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/) is not safe
251 (sticky bit not set when world writable?) at lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
252 File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/) is not safe (sticky bit not
253 set when world writable?) at lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
254 ok
255
256indicates a problem with the permissions on your /tmp directory within the HFS.
257To correct that problem issue the command:
258
259 chmod a+t /tmp
260
261from an account with write access to the directory entry for /tmp.
262
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263=item *
264
265Out of Memory!
266
267Recent perl test suite is quite memory hunrgy. In addition to the comments
268above on memory limitations it is also worth checking for _CEE_RUNOPTS
269in your environment. Perl now has (in miniperlmain.c) a C #pragma
210b36aa 270to set CEE run options, but the environment variable wins.
9133bbab 271
210b36aa 272The C code asks for:
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273
274 #pragma runopts(HEAP(2M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K) STACK(,,ANY,) ALL31(ON))
275
276The important parts of that are the second argument (the increment) to HEAP,
277and allowing the stack to be "Above the (16M) line". If the heap
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278increment is too small then when perl (for example loading unicode/Name.pl) tries
279to create a "big" (400K+) string it cannot fit in a single segment
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280and you get "Out of Memory!" - even if there is still plenty of memory
281available.
282
283A related issue is use with perl's malloc. Perl's malloc uses C<sbrk()>
284to get memory, and C<sbrk()> is limited to the first allocation so in this
285case something like:
286
287 HEAP(8M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K)
288
289is needed to get through the test suite.
290
291
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292=back
293
a83b6f46 294=head2 Installation Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
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295
296The installman script will try to run on OS/390. There will be fewer errors
9133bbab 297if you have a roff utility installed. You can obtain GNU groff from the
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298Redbook SG24-5944-00 ftp site.
299
a83b6f46 300=head2 Usage Hints for Perl on OS/390
64d55c8a 301
9d116dd7 302When using perl on OS/390 please keep in mind that the EBCDIC and ASCII
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303character sets are different. See perlebcdic.pod for more on such character
304set issues. Perl builtin functions that may behave differently under
eae55d03 305EBCDIC are also mentioned in the perlport.pod document.
9d116dd7 306
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307Open Edition (UNIX System Services) from V2R8 onward does support
308#!/path/to/perl script invocation. There is a PTF available from
eae55d03 309IBM for V2R7 that will allow shell/kernel support for #!. USS
9133bbab 310releases prior to V2R7 did not support the #! means of script invocation.
eae55d03 311If you are running V2R6 or earlier then see:
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312
313 head `whence perldoc`
314
315for an example of how to use the "eval exec" trick to ask the shell to
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316have Perl run your scripts on those older releases of Unix System Services.
317
59c9e5d6 318If you are having trouble with square brackets then consider switching your
9133bbab 319rlogin or telnet client. Try to avoid older 3270 emulators and ISHELL for
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320working with Perl on USS.
321
a83b6f46 322=head2 Floating Point Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
35a77668 323
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324There appears to be a bug in the floating point implementation on S/390
325systems such that calling int() on the product of a number and a small
326magnitude number is not the same as calling int() on the quotient of
327that number and a large magnitude number. For example, in the following
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328Perl code:
329
330 my $x = 100000.0;
331 my $y = int($x * 1e-5) * 1e5; # '0'
332 my $z = int($x / 1e+5) * 1e5; # '100000'
333 print "\$y is $y and \$z is $z\n"; # $y is 0 and $z is 100000
334
9133bbab 335Although one would expect the quantities $y and $z to be the same and equal
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336to 100000 they will differ and instead will be 0 and 100000 respectively.
337
338The problem can be further examined in a roughly equivalent C program:
339
340 #include <stdio.h>
341 #include <math.h>
342 main()
343 {
344 double r1,r2;
345 double x = 100000.0;
346 double y = 0.0;
347 double z = 0.0;
348 x = 100000.0 * 1e-5;
349 r1 = modf (x,&y);
350 x = 100000.0 / 1e+5;
351 r2 = modf (x,&z);
352 printf("y is %e and z is %e\n",y*1e5,z*1e5);
353 /* y is 0.000000e+00 and z is 1.000000e+05 (with c89) */
354 }
355
a83b6f46 356=head2 Modules and Extensions for Perl on OS/390
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357
358Pure pure (that is non xs) modules may be installed via the usual:
359
360 perl Makefile.PL
361 make
362 make test
363 make install
364
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365If you built perl with dynamic loading capability then that would also
366be the way to build xs based extensions. However, if you built perl with
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367the default static linking you can still build xs based extensions for OS/390
368but you will need to follow the instructions in ExtUtils::MakeMaker for
369building statically linked perl binaries. In the simplest configurations
59c9e5d6 370building a static perl + xs extension boils down to:
9d116dd7 371
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372 perl Makefile.PL
373 make
374 make perl
375 make test
376 make install
377 make -f Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl
8fde188e 378
9133bbab 379In most cases people have reported better results with GNU make rather
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380than the system's /bin/make program, whether for plain modules or for
381xs based extensions.
8fde188e 382
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383If the make process encounters trouble with either compilation or
384linking then try setting the _C89_CCMODE to 1. Assuming sh is your
385login shell then run:
386
387 export _C89_CCMODE=1
388
389If tcsh is your login shell then use the setenv command.
390
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391=head1 AUTHORS
392
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393David Fiander and Peter Prymmer with thanks to Dennis Longnecker
394and William Raffloer for valuable reports, LPAR and PTF feedback.
395Thanks to Mike MacIsaac and Egon Terwedow for SG24-5944-00.
35a77668 396Thanks to Ignasi Roca for pointing out the floating point problems.
f2766b05 397Thanks to John Goodyear for dynamic loading help.
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398
399=head1 SEE ALSO
400
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401L<INSTALL>, L<perlport>, L<perlebcdic>, L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>.
402
37a78d01 403 http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html
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404
405 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg245944.html
406
1e32511c 407 http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1ty1.html#opensrc
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408
409 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
8fde188e 410
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411 http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/ceea3030/
412
413 http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/CBCUG030/
414
a83b6f46 415=head2 Mailing list for Perl on OS/390
8fde188e 416
9133bbab 417The Perl Institute (http://www.perl.org/) maintains a perl-mvs
8fde188e 418mailing list of interest to all folks building and/or
9133bbab 419using perl on all EBCDIC platforms (not just OS/390).
eae55d03 420To subscribe, send a message of:
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421
422 subscribe perl-mvs
423
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424to majordomo@perl.org. See also:
425
426 http://lists.perl.org/showlist.cgi?name=perl-mvs
427
428There are web archives of the mailing list at:
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429
430 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
35a77668 431 http://archive.develooper.com/perl-mvs@perl.org/
9d116dd7 432
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433=head1 HISTORY
434
435This document was originally written by David Fiander for the 5.005
436release of Perl.
437
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438This document was podified for the 5.005_03 release of Perl 11 March 1999.
439
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440Updated 28 November 2001 for broken URLs.
441
eae55d03 442Updated 12 November 2000 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
8fde188e 443
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444Updated 15 January 2001 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
445
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446Updated 24 January 2001 to mention dynamic loading.
447
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448Updated 12 March 2001 to mention //'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'.
449
8fde188e 450=cut
eae55d03 451