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1=head1 NAME
2
3Install - Build and Installation guide for perl5.
4
5=head1 SYNOPSIS
6
7f678428 7The basic steps to build and install perl5 on a Unix system are:
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dc45a647 9 rm -f config.sh Policy.sh
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10 sh Configure
11 make
12 make test
13 make install
36477c24 14
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15 # You may also wish to add these:
16 (cd /usr/include && h2ph *.h sys/*.h)
3e3baf6d 17 (installhtml --help)
aa689395 18 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
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19
20Each of these is explained in further detail below.
21
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22For information on non-Unix systems, see the section on
23L<"Porting information"> below.
7f678428 24
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25For information on what's new in this release, see the
26pod/perldelta.pod file. For more detailed information about specific
27changes, see the Changes file.
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29IMPORTANT NOTE: 5.005_53 and later releases do not export unadorned
30global symbols anymore. This means most CPAN modules probably won't
31build under this release without adding '-DPERL_POLLUTE' to ccflags
32in config.sh. This is not the default because we want the modules
33to get fixed *before* the 5.006 release. pod/perldelta.pod contains
34additional notes about this.
35
1ec51d55 36=head1 DESCRIPTION
edb1cbcb 37
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38This document is written in pod format as an easy way to indicate its
39structure. The pod format is described in pod/perlpod.pod, but you can
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40read it as is with any pager or editor. Headings and items are marked
41by lines beginning with '='. The other mark-up used is
42
43 B<text> embolden text, used for switches, programs or commands
44 C<code> literal code
45 L<name> A link (cross reference) to name
46
47You should probably at least skim through this entire document before
48proceeding.
c3edaffb 49
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50If you're building Perl on a non-Unix system, you should also read
51the README file specific to your operating system, since this may
52provide additional or different instructions for building Perl.
53
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54If there is a hint file for your system (in the hints/ directory) you
55should also read that hint file for specific information for your
56system. (Unixware users should use the svr4.sh hint file.)
57
bfb7748a 58=head1 WARNING: This version is not binary compatible with Perl 5.004.
693762b4 59
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60Starting with Perl 5.004_50 there were many deep and far-reaching changes
61to the language internals. If you have dynamically loaded extensions
62that you built under perl 5.003 or 5.004, you can continue to use them
63with 5.004, but you will need to rebuild and reinstall those extensions
64to use them 5.005. See the discussions below on
65L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> and
66L<"Upgrading from 5.004 to 5.005"> for more details.
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67
68The standard extensions supplied with Perl will be handled automatically.
69
70In a related issue, old extensions may possibly be affected by the
71changes in the Perl language in the current release. Please see
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72pod/perldelta.pod (and pod/perl500Xdelta.pod) for a description of
73what's changed.
693762b4 74
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75=head1 WARNING: This version requires a compiler that supports ANSI C.
76
77If you find that your C compiler is not ANSI-capable, try obtaining
78GCC, available from GNU mirrors worldwide (e.g. ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu).
79Another alternative may be to use a tool like C<ansi2knr> to convert the
80sources back to K&R style, but there is no guarantee this route will get
81you anywhere, since the prototypes are not the only ANSI features used
82in the Perl sources. C<ansi2knr> is usually found as part of the freely
83available C<Ghostscript> distribution. Another similar tool is
84C<unprotoize>, distributed with GCC. Since C<unprotoize> requires GCC to
85run, you may have to run it on a platform where GCC is available, and move
86the sources back to the platform without GCC.
87
88If you succeed in automatically converting the sources to a K&R compatible
89form, be sure to email perlbug@perl.com to let us know the steps you
90followed. This will enable us to officially support this option.
91
aa689395 92=head1 Space Requirements
eed2e782 93
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94The complete perl5 source tree takes up about 10 MB of disk space. The
95complete tree after completing make takes roughly 20 MB, though the
1ec51d55 96actual total is likely to be quite system-dependent. The installation
dc45a647 97directories need something on the order of 10 MB, though again that
1ec51d55 98value is system-dependent.
8e07c86e 99
aa689395 100=head1 Start with a Fresh Distribution
8e07c86e 101
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102If you have built perl before, you should clean out the build directory
103with the command
104
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105 make distclean
106
107or
108
edb1cbcb 109 make realclean
c3edaffb 110
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111The only difference between the two is that make distclean also removes
112your old config.sh and Policy.sh files.
113
114The results of a Configure run are stored in the config.sh and Policy.sh
115files. If you are upgrading from a previous version of perl, or if you
116change systems or compilers or make other significant changes, or if
117you are experiencing difficulties building perl, you should probably
118not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or rename it, e.g.
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119
120 mv config.sh config.sh.old
4633a7c4 121
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122If you wish to use your old config.sh, be especially attentive to the
123version and architecture-specific questions and answers. For example,
124the default directory for architecture-dependent library modules
125includes the version name. By default, Configure will reuse your old
126name (e.g. /opt/perl/lib/i86pc-solaris/5.003) even if you're running
127Configure for a different version, e.g. 5.004. Yes, Configure should
128probably check and correct for this, but it doesn't, presently.
129Similarly, if you used a shared libperl.so (see below) with version
130numbers, you will probably want to adjust them as well.
131
132Also, be careful to check your architecture name. Some Linux systems
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133(such as Debian) use i386, while others may use i486, i586, or i686.
134If you pick up a precompiled binary, it might not use the same name.
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135
136In short, if you wish to use your old config.sh, I recommend running
137Configure interactively rather than blindly accepting the defaults.
8e07c86e 138
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139If your reason to reuse your old config.sh is to save your
140particular installation choices, then you can probably achieve the
141same effect by using the new Policy.sh file. See the section on
142L<"Site-wide Policy settings"> below.
143
aa689395 144=head1 Run Configure
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145
146Configure will figure out various things about your system. Some
147things Configure will figure out for itself, other things it will ask
1ec51d55 148you about. To accept the default, just press RETURN. The default
a3cb178b 149is almost always okay. At any Configure prompt, you can type &-d
203c3eec 150and Configure will use the defaults from then on.
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151
152After it runs, Configure will perform variable substitution on all the
1ec51d55 153*.SH files and offer to run make depend.
8e07c86e 154
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155Configure supports a number of useful options. Run B<Configure -h> to
156get a listing. See the Porting/Glossary file for a complete list of
157Configure variables you can set and their definitions.
158
159To compile with gcc, for example, you should run
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160
161 sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
162
163This is the preferred way to specify gcc (or another alternative
164compiler) so that the hints files can set appropriate defaults.
165
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166If you want to use your old config.sh but override some of the items
167with command line options, you need to use B<Configure -O>.
168
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169By default, for most systems, perl will be installed in
170/usr/local/{bin, lib, man}. You can specify a different 'prefix' for
171the default installation directory, when Configure prompts you or by
172using the Configure command line option -Dprefix='/some/directory',
173e.g.
174
25f94b33 175 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl
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176
177If your prefix contains the string "perl", then the directories
178are simplified. For example, if you use prefix=/opt/perl,
179then Configure will suggest /opt/perl/lib instead of
4fdae800 180/opt/perl/lib/perl5/.
8e07c86e 181
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182NOTE: You must not specify an installation directory that is below
183your perl source directory. If you do, installperl will attempt
184infinite recursion.
185
a3cb178b 186It may seem obvious to say, but Perl is useful only when users can
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187easily find it. It's often a good idea to have both /usr/bin/perl and
188/usr/local/bin/perl be symlinks to the actual binary. Be especially
189careful, however, of overwriting a version of perl supplied by your
190vendor. In any case, system administrators are strongly encouraged to
191put (symlinks to) perl and its accompanying utilities, such as perldoc,
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192into a directory typically found along a user's PATH, or in another
193obvious and convenient place.
194
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195You can use "Configure -Uinstallusrbinperl" which causes installperl
196to skip installing perl also as /usr/bin/perl.
197
aa689395 198By default, Configure will compile perl to use dynamic loading if
8e07c86e 199your system supports it. If you want to force perl to be compiled
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200statically, you can either choose this when Configure prompts you or
201you can use the Configure command line option -Uusedl.
8e07c86e 202
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203If you are willing to accept all the defaults, and you want terse
204output, you can run
205
206 sh Configure -des
207
208For my Solaris system, I usually use
209
210 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -Doptimize='-xpentium -xO4' -des
211
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212=head2 GNU-style configure
213
1ec51d55 214If you prefer the GNU-style configure command line interface, you can
dc45a647 215use the supplied configure.gnu command, e.g.
46bb10fb 216
693762b4 217 CC=gcc ./configure.gnu
46bb10fb 218
dc45a647 219The configure.gnu script emulates a few of the more common configure
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220options. Try
221
693762b4 222 ./configure.gnu --help
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223
224for a listing.
225
aa689395 226Cross compiling is not supported.
46bb10fb 227
dc45a647 228(The file is called configure.gnu to avoid problems on systems
693762b4 229that would not distinguish the files "Configure" and "configure".)
46bb10fb 230
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231=head2 Extensions
232
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233By default, Configure will offer to build every extension which appears
234to be supported. For example, Configure will offer to build GDBM_File
235only if it is able to find the gdbm library. (See examples below.)
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236B, DynaLoader, Fcntl, IO, and attrs are always built by default.
237Configure does not contain code to test for POSIX compliance, so POSIX
238is always built by default as well. If you wish to skip POSIX, you can
239set the Configure variable useposix=false either in a hint file or from
240the Configure command line. Similarly, the Opcode extension is always
241built by default, but you can skip it by setting the Configure variable
c3edaffb 242useopcode=false either in a hint file for from the command line.
24b3df7f 243
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244You can learn more about each of these extensions by consulting the
245documentation in the individual .pm modules, located under the
246ext/ subdirectory.
247
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248Even if you do not have dynamic loading, you must still build the
249DynaLoader extension; you should just build the stub dl_none.xs
250version. (Configure will suggest this as the default.)
251
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252In summary, here are the Configure command-line variables you can set
253to turn off each extension:
254
693762b4 255 B (Always included by default)
24b3df7f 256 DB_File i_db
56c6f531 257 DynaLoader (Must always be included as a static extension)
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258 Fcntl (Always included by default)
259 GDBM_File i_gdbm
9d67150a 260 IO (Always included by default)
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261 NDBM_File i_ndbm
262 ODBM_File i_dbm
263 POSIX useposix
264 SDBM_File (Always included by default)
c3edaffb 265 Opcode useopcode
24b3df7f 266 Socket d_socket
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267 Threads usethreads
268 attrs (Always included by default)
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269
270Thus to skip the NDBM_File extension, you can use
271
272 sh Configure -Ui_ndbm
273
274Again, this is taken care of automatically if you don't have the ndbm
275library.
276
277Of course, you may always run Configure interactively and select only
aa689395 278the extensions you want.
24b3df7f 279
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280Note: The DB_File module will only work with version 1.x of Berkeley
281DB or newer releases of version 2. Configure will automatically detect
282this for you and refuse to try to build DB_File with version 2.
1ec51d55 283
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284If you re-use your old config.sh but change your system (e.g. by
285adding libgdbm) Configure will still offer your old choices of extensions
286for the default answer, but it will also point out the discrepancy to
287you.
288
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289Finally, if you have dynamic loading (most modern Unix systems do)
290remember that these extensions do not increase the size of your perl
291executable, nor do they impact start-up time, so you probably might as
292well build all the ones that will work on your system.
293
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294=head2 Including locally-installed libraries
295
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296Perl5 comes with interfaces to number of database extensions, including
297dbm, ndbm, gdbm, and Berkeley db. For each extension, if
298Configure can find the appropriate header files and libraries, it will
299automatically include that extension. The gdbm and db libraries
1ec51d55 300are not included with perl. See the library documentation for
4633a7c4 301how to obtain the libraries.
8e07c86e 302
1ec51d55 303Note: If your database header (.h) files are not in a
8e07c86e 304directory normally searched by your C compiler, then you will need to
1ec51d55 305include the appropriate -I/your/directory option when prompted by
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306Configure. If your database library (.a) files are not in a directory
307normally searched by your C compiler and linker, then you will need to
1ec51d55 308include the appropriate -L/your/directory option when prompted by
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309Configure. See the examples below.
310
311=head2 Examples
312
313=over 4
314
aa689395 315=item gdbm in /usr/local
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316
317Suppose you have gdbm and want Configure to find it and build the
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318GDBM_File extension. This examples assumes you have gdbm.h
319installed in /usr/local/include/gdbm.h and libgdbm.a installed in
320/usr/local/lib/libgdbm.a. Configure should figure all the
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321necessary steps out automatically.
322
323Specifically, when Configure prompts you for flags for
1ec51d55 324your C compiler, you should include -I/usr/local/include.
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325
326When Configure prompts you for linker flags, you should include
1ec51d55 327-L/usr/local/lib.
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328
329If you are using dynamic loading, then when Configure prompts you for
330linker flags for dynamic loading, you should again include
1ec51d55 331-L/usr/local/lib.
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332
333Again, this should all happen automatically. If you want to accept the
334defaults for all the questions and have Configure print out only terse
335messages, then you can just run
336
337 sh Configure -des
338
339and Configure should include the GDBM_File extension automatically.
340
341This should actually work if you have gdbm installed in any of
342(/usr/local, /opt/local, /usr/gnu, /opt/gnu, /usr/GNU, or /opt/GNU).
343
344=item gdbm in /usr/you
345
346Suppose you have gdbm installed in some place other than /usr/local/,
3a6175e1 347but you still want Configure to find it. To be specific, assume you
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348have /usr/you/include/gdbm.h and /usr/you/lib/libgdbm.a. You
349still have to add -I/usr/you/include to cc flags, but you have to take
350an extra step to help Configure find libgdbm.a. Specifically, when
8e07c86e 351Configure prompts you for library directories, you have to add
1ec51d55 352/usr/you/lib to the list.
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353
354It is possible to specify this from the command line too (all on one
355line):
356
357 sh Configure -des \
358 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include" \
359 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib"
360
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361locincpth is a space-separated list of include directories to search.
362Configure will automatically add the appropriate -I directives.
8e07c86e 363
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364loclibpth is a space-separated list of library directories to search.
365Configure will automatically add the appropriate -L directives. If
366you have some libraries under /usr/local/ and others under
367/usr/you, then you have to include both, namely
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368
369 sh Configure -des \
370 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include /usr/local/include" \
371 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib /usr/local/lib"
372
373=back
374
aa689395 375=head2 Installation Directories
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376
377The installation directories can all be changed by answering the
378appropriate questions in Configure. For convenience, all the
379installation questions are near the beginning of Configure.
380
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381I highly recommend running Configure interactively to be sure it puts
382everything where you want it. At any point during the Configure
383process, you can answer a question with &-d and Configure
384will use the defaults from then on.
1ec51d55 385
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386By default, Configure will use the following directories for library files
387for 5.005 (archname is a string like sun4-sunos, determined by Configure).
4633a7c4 388
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389 Configure variable Default value
390 $archlib /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.005/archname
391 $privlib /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.005
392 $sitearch /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/archname
393 $sitelib /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
4633a7c4 394
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395Some users prefer to append a "/share" to $privlib and $sitelib
396to emphasize that those directories can be shared among different
397architectures.
4633a7c4 398
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399By default, Configure will use the following directories for manual pages:
400
401 Configure variable Default value
402 $man1dir /usr/local/man/man1
403 $man3dir /usr/local/lib/perl5/man/man3
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404
405(Actually, Configure recognizes the SVR3-style
406/usr/local/man/l_man/man1 directories, if present, and uses those
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407instead.)
408
409The module man pages are stuck in that strange spot so that
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410they don't collide with other man pages stored in /usr/local/man/man3,
411and so that Perl's man pages don't hide system man pages. On some
412systems, B<man less> would end up calling up Perl's less.pm module man
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413page, rather than the less program. (This default location will likely
414change to /usr/local/man/man3 in a future release of perl.)
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415
416Note: Many users prefer to store the module man pages in
417/usr/local/man/man3. You can do this from the command line with
418
419 sh Configure -Dman3dir=/usr/local/man/man3
420
421Some users also prefer to use a .3pm suffix. You can do that with
422
423 sh Configure -Dman3ext=3pm
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424
425If you specify a prefix that contains the string "perl", then the
aa689395 426directory structure is simplified. For example, if you Configure with
bfb7748a 427-Dprefix=/opt/perl, then the defaults for 5.005 are
4633a7c4 428
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429 Configure variable Default value
430 $archlib /opt/perl/lib/5.005/archname
431 $privlib /opt/perl/lib/5.005
432 $sitearch /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.005/archname
433 $sitelib /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.005
4633a7c4 434
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435 $man1dir /opt/perl/man/man1
436 $man3dir /opt/perl/man/man3
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437
438The perl executable will search the libraries in the order given
439above.
440
3a6175e1 441The directories under site_perl are empty, but are intended to be used
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442for installing local or site-wide extensions. Perl will automatically
443look in these directories.
4633a7c4 444
bfb7748a 445In order to support using things like #!/usr/local/bin/perl5.005 after
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446a later version is released, architecture-dependent libraries are
447stored in a version-specific directory, such as
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448/usr/local/lib/perl5/archname/5.005/.
449
450Further details about the installation directories, maintenance and
451development subversions, and about supporting multiple versions are
452discussed in L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below.
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453
454Again, these are just the defaults, and can be changed as you run
455Configure.
456
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457=head2 Changing the installation directory
458
459Configure distinguishes between the directory in which perl (and its
460associated files) should be installed and the directory in which it
461will eventually reside. For most sites, these two are the same; for
462sites that use AFS, this distinction is handled automatically.
1ec51d55 463However, sites that use software such as depot to manage software
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464packages may also wish to install perl into a different directory and
465use that management software to move perl to its final destination.
466This section describes how to do this. Someday, Configure may support
467an option -Dinstallprefix=/foo to simplify this.
468
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469Suppose you want to install perl under the /tmp/perl5 directory. You
470can edit config.sh and change all the install* variables to point to
471/tmp/perl5 instead of /usr/local/wherever. Or, you can automate this
472process by placing the following lines in a file config.over before you
473run Configure (replace /tmp/perl5 by a directory of your choice):
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474
475 installprefix=/tmp/perl5
476 test -d $installprefix || mkdir $installprefix
477 test -d $installprefix/bin || mkdir $installprefix/bin
478 installarchlib=`echo $installarchlib | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
479 installbin=`echo $installbin | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
480 installman1dir=`echo $installman1dir | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
481 installman3dir=`echo $installman3dir | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
482 installprivlib=`echo $installprivlib | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
483 installscript=`echo $installscript | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
484 installsitelib=`echo $installsitelib | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
485 installsitearch=`echo $installsitearch | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
486
487Then, you can Configure and install in the usual way:
488
489 sh Configure -des
490 make
491 make test
492 make install
493
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494Beware, though, that if you go to try to install new add-on
495extensions, they too will get installed in under '/tmp/perl5' if you
496follow this example. The next section shows one way of dealing with
497that problem.
498
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499=head2 Creating an installable tar archive
500
501If you need to install perl on many identical systems, it is
502convenient to compile it once and create an archive that can be
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503installed on multiple systems. Suppose, for example, that you want to
504create an archive that can be installed in /opt/perl.
505Here's one way to do that:
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506
507 # Set up config.over to install perl into a different directory,
508 # e.g. /tmp/perl5 (see previous part).
d6c1b5d3 509 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -des
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510 make
511 make test
d6c1b5d3 512 make install # This will install everything into /tmp/perl5.
aa689395 513 cd /tmp/perl5
d6c1b5d3 514 # Edit $archlib/Config.pm and $archlib/.packlist to change all the
fb73857a 515 # install* variables back to reflect where everything will
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516 # really be installed. (That is, change /tmp/perl5 to /opt/perl
517 # everywhere in those files.)
518 # Check the scripts in $scriptdir to make sure they have the correct
bfb7748a 519 # #!/wherever/perl line.
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520 tar cvf ../perl5-archive.tar .
521 # Then, on each machine where you want to install perl,
d6c1b5d3 522 cd /opt/perl # Or wherever you specified as $prefix
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523 tar xvf perl5-archive.tar
524
dc45a647 525=head2 Site-wide Policy settings
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526
527After Configure runs, it stores a number of common site-wide "policy"
528answers (such as installation directories and the local perl contact
529person) in the Policy.sh file. If you want to build perl on another
530system using the same policy defaults, simply copy the Policy.sh file
531to the new system and Configure will use it along with the appropriate
532hint file for your system.
533
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534Alternatively, if you wish to change some or all of those policy
535answers, you should
536
537 rm -f Policy.sh
538
539to ensure that Configure doesn't re-use them.
540
541Further information is in the Policy_sh.SH file itself.
542
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543=head2 Configure-time Options
544
545There are several different ways to Configure and build perl for your
546system. For most users, the defaults are sensible and will work.
547Some users, however, may wish to further customize perl. Here are
548some of the main things you can change.
549
693762b4 550=head2 Threads
aa689395 551
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552On some platforms, perl5.005 can be compiled with experimental support
553for threads. To enable this, read the file README.threads, and then
554try:
f7542a9d 555
693762b4 556 sh Configure -Dusethreads
aa689395 557
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558Currently, you need to specify -Dusethreads on the Configure command
559line so that the hint files can make appropriate adjustments.
560
561The default is to compile without thread support.
3fe9a6f1 562
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563=head2 Selecting File IO mechanisms
564
565Previous versions of perl used the standard IO mechanisms as defined in
1ec51d55 566stdio.h. Versions 5.003_02 and later of perl allow alternate IO
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567mechanisms via a "PerlIO" abstraction, but the stdio mechanism is still
568the default and is the only supported mechanism.
569
570This PerlIO abstraction can be enabled either on the Configure command
571line with
572
573 sh Configure -Duseperlio
574
575or interactively at the appropriate Configure prompt.
576
577If you choose to use the PerlIO abstraction layer, there are two
578(experimental) possibilities for the underlying IO calls. These have been
579tested to some extent on some platforms, but are not guaranteed to work
580everywhere.
581
582=over 4
583
584=item 1.
585
1ec51d55 586AT&T's "sfio". This has superior performance to stdio.h in many
aa689395 587cases, and is extensible by the use of "discipline" modules. Sfio
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588currently only builds on a subset of the UNIX platforms perl supports.
589Because the data structures are completely different from stdio, perl
590extension modules or external libraries may not work. This
591configuration exists to allow these issues to be worked on.
592
593This option requires the 'sfio' package to have been built and installed.
bfb7748a 594A (fairly old) version of sfio is in CPAN.
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595
596You select this option by
597
598 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Dusesfio
599
600If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure detects
601that you have sfio, then sfio will be the default suggested by
602Configure.
603
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604Note: On some systems, sfio's iffe configuration script fails
605to detect that you have an atexit function (or equivalent).
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606Apparently, this is a problem at least for some versions of Linux
607and SunOS 4.
608
609You can test if you have this problem by trying the following shell
610script. (You may have to add some extra cflags and libraries. A
611portable version of this may eventually make its way into Configure.)
612
613 #!/bin/sh
614 cat > try.c <<'EOCP'
615 #include <stdio.h>
616 main() { printf("42\n"); }
617 EOCP
618 cc -o try try.c -lsfio
619 val=`./try`
620 if test X$val = X42; then
621 echo "Your sfio looks ok"
622 else
623 echo "Your sfio has the exit problem."
624 fi
625
626If you have this problem, the fix is to go back to your sfio sources
bfb7748a 627and correct iffe's guess about atexit.
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628
629There also might be a more recent release of Sfio that fixes your
630problem.
631
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632=item 2.
633
634Normal stdio IO, but with all IO going through calls to the PerlIO
635abstraction layer. This configuration can be used to check that perl and
636extension modules have been correctly converted to use the PerlIO
637abstraction.
638
639This configuration should work on all platforms (but might not).
640
aa689395 641You select this option via:
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642
643 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Uusesfio
644
645If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure does not
646detect sfio, then this will be the default suggested by Configure.
647
648=back
649
aa689395 650=head2 Building a shared libperl.so Perl library
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651
652Currently, for most systems, the main perl executable is built by
653linking the "perl library" libperl.a with perlmain.o, your static
654extensions (usually just DynaLoader.a) and various extra libraries,
655such as -lm.
656
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657On some systems that support dynamic loading, it may be possible to
658replace libperl.a with a shared libperl.so. If you anticipate building
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659several different perl binaries (e.g. by embedding libperl into
660different programs, or by using the optional compiler extension), then
9d67150a 661you might wish to build a shared libperl.so so that all your binaries
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662can share the same library.
663
664The disadvantages are that there may be a significant performance
9d67150a 665penalty associated with the shared libperl.so, and that the overall
aa689395 666mechanism is still rather fragile with respect to different versions
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667and upgrades.
668
669In terms of performance, on my test system (Solaris 2.5_x86) the perl
9d67150a 670test suite took roughly 15% longer to run with the shared libperl.so.
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671Your system and typical applications may well give quite different
672results.
673
674The default name for the shared library is typically something like
a6006777 675libperl.so.3.2 (for Perl 5.003_02) or libperl.so.302 or simply
9d67150a 676libperl.so. Configure tries to guess a sensible naming convention
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677based on your C library name. Since the library gets installed in a
678version-specific architecture-dependent directory, the exact name
679isn't very important anyway, as long as your linker is happy.
680
681For some systems (mostly SVR4), building a shared libperl is required
682for dynamic loading to work, and hence is already the default.
683
684You can elect to build a shared libperl by
685
686 sh Configure -Duseshrplib
687
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688To build a shared libperl, the environment variable controlling shared
689library search (LD_LIBRARY_PATH in most systems, DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH for
690NeXTSTEP/OPENSTEP, LIBRARY_PATH for BeOS) must be set up to include
691the Perl build directory because that's where the shared libperl will
692be created. Configure arranges Makefile to have the correct shared
693library search settings.
694
695However, there are some special cases where manually setting the
696shared library path might be required. For example, if you want to run
697something like the following with the newly-built but not-yet-installed
698./perl:
699
700 cd t; ./perl misc/failing_test.t
701or
702 ./perl -Ilib ~/my_mission_critical_test
703
704then you need to set up the shared library path explicitly.
705You can do this with
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706
707 LD_LIBRARY_PATH=`pwd`:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
708
709for Bourne-style shells, or
710
711 setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH `pwd`
712
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713for Csh-style shells. (This procedure may also be needed if for some
714unexpected reason Configure fails to set up Makefile correctly.)
715
716You can often recognize failures to build/use a shared libperl from error
717messages complaining about a missing libperl.so (or libperl.sl in HP-UX),
718for example:
71918126:./miniperl: /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
c3edaffb 720
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721There is also an potential problem with the shared perl library if you
722want to have more than one "flavor" of the same version of perl (e.g.
723with and without -DDEBUGGING). For example, suppose you build and
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724install a standard Perl 5.004 with a shared library. Then, suppose you
725try to build Perl 5.004 with -DDEBUGGING enabled, but everything else
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726the same, including all the installation directories. How can you
727ensure that your newly built perl will link with your newly built
7f678428 728libperl.so.4 rather with the installed libperl.so.4? The answer is
9d67150a 729that you might not be able to. The installation directory is encoded
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730in the perl binary with the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable (or
731equivalent ld command-line option). On Solaris, you can override that
7beaa944 732with LD_LIBRARY_PATH; on Linux you can't. On Digital Unix, you can
0dcb58f4 733override LD_LIBRARY_PATH by setting the _RLD_ROOT environment variable
7beaa944 734to point to the perl build directory.
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735
736The only reliable answer is that you should specify a different
737directory for the architecture-dependent library for your -DDEBUGGING
fb73857a 738version of perl. You can do this by changing all the *archlib*
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739variables in config.sh, namely archlib, archlib_exp, and
740installarchlib, to point to your new architecture-dependent library.
741
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742=head2 Malloc Issues
743
744Perl relies heavily on malloc(3) to grow data structures as needed, so
745perl's performance can be noticeably affected by the performance of
746the malloc function on your system.
747
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748The perl source is shipped with a version of malloc that is very fast but
749somewhat wasteful of space. On the other hand, your system's malloc
750function may be a bit slower but also a bit more frugal. However,
751as of 5.004_68, perl's malloc has been optimized for the typical
752requests from perl, so there's a chance that it may be both faster and
753use less memory.
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754
755For many uses, speed is probably the most important consideration, so
756the default behavior (for most systems) is to use the malloc supplied
757with perl. However, if you will be running very large applications
758(e.g. Tk or PDL) or if your system already has an excellent malloc, or
759if you are experiencing difficulties with extensions that use
760third-party libraries that call malloc, then you might wish to use
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761your system's malloc. (Or, you might wish to explore the malloc flags
762discussed below.)
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763
764To build without perl's malloc, you can use the Configure command
765
766 sh Configure -Uusemymalloc
767
768or you can answer 'n' at the appropriate interactive Configure prompt.
769
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770Note that Perl's malloc family of functions are called Perl_malloc(),
771Perl_realloc(), Perl_calloc() and Perl_mfree(). The names do not clash
772with the system versions of these functions. See -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC
773below if you want to do that for some reason.
774
aa689395 775=head2 Malloc Performance Flags
c3edaffb 776
87c6202a 777If you are using Perl's malloc, you may add one or more of the following
808270a4 778items to your ccflags config.sh variable to change its behavior. You can
87c6202a 779find out more about these and other flags by reading the commentary near
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780the top of the malloc.c source. The defaults should be fine for
781nearly everyone.
c3edaffb 782
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783=over 4
784
87c6202a 785=item -DNO_FANCY_MALLOC
2ae324a7 786
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787Undefined by default. Defining it returns malloc to the version used
788in Perl 5.004.
aa689395 789
87c6202a 790=item -DPLAIN_MALLOC
aa689395 791
87c6202a 792Undefined by default. Defining it in addition to NO_FANCY_MALLOC returns
bfb7748a 793malloc to the version used in Perl version 5.000.
aa689395 794
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795=item -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC
796
797Undefined by default. This is used to force Perl's malloc family of functions
798to have the same names as the system versions. This is normally only required
799when you have a need to replace the system versions of these functions.
800This may be sometimes required when you have libraries that like to free()
801data that may have been allocated by Perl_malloc() and vice versa.
802
803Note that enabling this option may sometimes lead to duplicate symbols from
804the linker for malloc et al. In such cases, the system probably does not
805allow its malloc functions to be fully replaced with custom versions.
806
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807=back
808
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809=head2 Building a debugging perl
810
811You can run perl scripts under the perl debugger at any time with
3fe9a6f1 812B<perl -d your_script>. If, however, you want to debug perl itself,
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813you probably want to do
814
815 sh Configure -Doptimize='-g'
816
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817This will do two independent things: First, it will force compilation
818to use cc -g so that you can use your system's debugger on the
819executable. (Note: Your system may actually require something like
a3cb178b 820cc -g2. Check your man pages for cc(1) and also any hint file for your
203c3eec 821system.) Second, it will add -DDEBUGGING to your ccflags variable in
1ec51d55 822config.sh so that you can use B<perl -D> to access perl's internal
203c3eec 823state. (Note: Configure will only add -DDEBUGGING by
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824default if you are not reusing your old config.sh. If you want to
825reuse your old config.sh, then you can just edit it and change the
3fe9a6f1 826optimize and ccflags variables by hand and then propagate your changes
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827as shown in L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below.)
828
829You can actually specify -g and -DDEBUGGING independently, but usually
830it's convenient to have both.
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831
832If you are using a shared libperl, see the warnings about multiple
833versions of perl under L<Building a shared libperl.so Perl library>.
834
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835=head2 Other Compiler Flags
836
837For most users, all of the Configure defaults are fine. However,
838you can change a number of factors in the way perl is built
1ec51d55 839by adding appropriate -D directives to your ccflags variable in
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840config.sh.
841
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842Starting from Perl 5.005_53 you no more need to replace the rand() and
843srand() functions in the perl source by any other random number
844generator because Configure chooses the widest one available
845(drand48(), srandom(), or rand()).
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846
847You should also run Configure interactively to verify that a hint file
848doesn't inadvertently override your ccflags setting. (Hints files
849shouldn't do that, but some might.)
c3edaffb 850
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851=head2 What if it doesn't work?
852
853=over 4
854
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855=item Environment variable clashes
856
857Configure uses a CONFIG variable that is reported to cause trouble on
858ReliantUnix 5.44. If your system sets this variable, you can try
859unsetting it before you run Configure. Configure should eventually
860be fixed to avoid polluting the namespace of the environment.
861
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862=item Running Configure Interactively
863
864If Configure runs into trouble, remember that you can always run
865Configure interactively so that you can check (and correct) its
866guesses.
867
868All the installation questions have been moved to the top, so you don't
aa689395 869have to wait for them. Once you've handled them (and your C compiler and
1ec51d55 870flags) you can type &-d at the next Configure prompt and Configure
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871will use the defaults from then on.
872
873If you find yourself trying obscure command line incantations and
874config.over tricks, I recommend you run Configure interactively
875instead. You'll probably save yourself time in the long run.
876
aa689395 877=item Hint files
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878
879The perl distribution includes a number of system-specific hints files
880in the hints/ directory. If one of them matches your system, Configure
881will offer to use that hint file.
882
883Several of the hint files contain additional important information.
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884If you have any problems, it is a good idea to read the relevant hint file
885for further information. See hints/solaris_2.sh for an extensive example.
886More information about writing good hints is in the hints/README.hints
887file.
8e07c86e 888
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889=item *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
890
891Occasionally, Configure makes a wrong guess. For example, on SunOS
8924.1.3, Configure incorrectly concludes that tzname[] is in the
893standard C library. The hint file is set up to correct for this. You
894will see a message:
895
896 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
897 The recommended value for $d_tzname on this machine was "undef"!
898 Keep the recommended value? [y]
899
900You should always keep the recommended value unless, after reading the
901relevant section of the hint file, you are sure you want to try
902overriding it.
903
904If you are re-using an old config.sh, the word "previous" will be
905used instead of "recommended". Again, you will almost always want
906to keep the previous value, unless you have changed something on your
907system.
908
909For example, suppose you have added libgdbm.a to your system
910and you decide to reconfigure perl to use GDBM_File. When you run
911Configure again, you will need to add -lgdbm to the list of libraries.
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912Now, Configure will find your gdbm include file and library and will
913issue a message:
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914
915 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
916 The previous value for $i_gdbm on this machine was "undef"!
917 Keep the previous value? [y]
918
1ec51d55 919In this case, you do not want to keep the previous value, so you
c3edaffb 920should answer 'n'. (You'll also have to manually add GDBM_File to
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921the list of dynamic extensions to build.)
922
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923=item Changing Compilers
924
925If you change compilers or make other significant changes, you should
1ec51d55 926probably not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or
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927rename it, e.g. mv config.sh config.sh.old. Then rerun Configure
928with the options you want to use.
929
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930This is a common source of problems. If you change from cc to
931gcc, you should almost always remove your old config.sh.
8e07c86e 932
c3edaffb 933=item Propagating your changes to config.sh
8e07c86e 934
1ec51d55
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935If you make any changes to config.sh, you should propagate
936them to all the .SH files by running
937
938 sh Configure -S
939
940You will then have to rebuild by running
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941
942 make depend
943 make
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944
945=item config.over
946
947You can also supply a shell script config.over to over-ride Configure's
948guesses. It will get loaded up at the very end, just before config.sh
949is created. You have to be careful with this, however, as Configure
d52d4e46 950does no checking that your changes make sense. See the section on
7f678428 951L<"Changing the installation directory"> for an example.
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952
953=item config.h
954
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955Many of the system dependencies are contained in config.h.
956Configure builds config.h by running the config_h.SH script.
957The values for the variables are taken from config.sh.
8e07c86e 958
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959If there are any problems, you can edit config.h directly. Beware,
960though, that the next time you run Configure, your changes will be
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961lost.
962
963=item cflags
964
965If you have any additional changes to make to the C compiler command
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966line, they can be made in cflags.SH. For instance, to turn off the
967optimizer on toke.c, find the line in the switch structure for
968toke.c and put the command optimize='-g' before the ;; . You
969can also edit cflags directly, but beware that your changes will be
970lost the next time you run Configure.
8e07c86e 971
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972To explore various ways of changing ccflags from within a hint file,
973see the file hints/README.hints.
974
975To change the C flags for all the files, edit config.sh and change either
976$ccflags or $optimize, and then re-run
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977
978 sh Configure -S
979 make depend
8e07c86e 980
aa689395 981=item No sh
8e07c86e 982
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983If you don't have sh, you'll have to copy the sample file Porting/config_H
984to config.h and edit the config.h to reflect your system's peculiarities.
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985You'll probably also have to extensively modify the extension building
986mechanism.
987
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988=item Porting information
989
2ae324a7 990Specific information for the OS/2, Plan9, VMS and Win32 ports is in the
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991corresponding README files and subdirectories. Additional information,
992including a glossary of all those config.sh variables, is in the Porting
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993subdirectory.
994
7f678428 995Ports for other systems may also be available. You should check out
1ec51d55 996http://www.perl.com/CPAN/ports for current information on ports to
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997various other operating systems.
998
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999=back
1000
1001=head1 make depend
1002
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1003This will look for all the includes. The output is stored in makefile.
1004The only difference between Makefile and makefile is the dependencies at
1005the bottom of makefile. If you have to make any changes, you should edit
1006makefile, not Makefile since the Unix make command reads makefile first.
1007(On non-Unix systems, the output may be stored in a different file.
1008Check the value of $firstmakefile in your config.sh if in doubt.)
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1009
1010Configure will offer to do this step for you, so it isn't listed
1011explicitly above.
1012
1013=head1 make
1014
1015This will attempt to make perl in the current directory.
1016
1017If you can't compile successfully, try some of the following ideas.
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1018If none of them help, and careful reading of the error message and
1019the relevant manual pages on your system doesn't help, you can
1020send a message to either the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup or to
1021perlbug@perl.com with an accurate description of your problem.
aa689395 1022See L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
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1023
1024=over 4
1025
1ec51d55 1026=item hints
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1027
1028If you used a hint file, try reading the comments in the hint file
1029for further tips and information.
1030
1ec51d55 1031=item extensions
8e07c86e 1032
1ec51d55 1033If you can successfully build miniperl, but the process crashes
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1034during the building of extensions, you should run
1035
3a6175e1 1036 make minitest
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1037
1038to test your version of miniperl.
1039
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1040=item locale
1041
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1042If you have any locale-related environment variables set, try unsetting
1043them. I have some reports that some versions of IRIX hang while
1044running B<./miniperl configpm> with locales other than the C locale.
1045See the discussion under L<"make test"> below about locales and the
1046whole L<"Locale problems"> section in the file pod/perllocale.pod.
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1047The latter is especially useful if you see something like this
1048
1049 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
1050 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
1051 LC_ALL = "En_US",
1052 LANG = (unset)
1053 are supported and installed on your system.
1054 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
1055
1056at Perl startup.
e57fd563 1057
7f678428 1058=item varargs
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1059
1060If you get varargs problems with gcc, be sure that gcc is installed
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1061correctly and that you are not passing -I/usr/include to gcc. When using
1062gcc, you should probably have i_stdarg='define' and i_varargs='undef'
1063in config.sh. The problem is usually solved by running fixincludes
1064correctly. If you do change config.sh, don't forget to propagate
1065your changes (see L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below).
7f678428 1066See also the L<"vsprintf"> item below.
c3edaffb 1067
bfb7748a 1068=item util.c
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1069
1070If you get error messages such as the following (the exact line
bfb7748a 1071numbers and function name may vary in different versions of perl):
c3edaffb 1072
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1073 util.c: In function `Perl_form':
1074 util.c:1107: number of arguments doesn't match prototype
1075 proto.h:125: prototype declaration
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1076
1077it might well be a symptom of the gcc "varargs problem". See the
7f678428 1078previous L<"varargs"> item.
c3edaffb 1079
9d67150a 1080=item Solaris and SunOS dynamic loading
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1081
1082If you have problems with dynamic loading using gcc on SunOS or
1083Solaris, and you are using GNU as and GNU ld, you may need to add
1ec51d55 1084-B/bin/ (for SunOS) or -B/usr/ccs/bin/ (for Solaris) to your
c3edaffb 1085$ccflags, $ldflags, and $lddlflags so that the system's versions of as
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1086and ld are used. Note that the trailing '/' is required.
1087Alternatively, you can use the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX
c3edaffb 1088environment variable to ensure that Sun's as and ld are used. Consult
1ec51d55 1089your gcc documentation for further information on the -B option and
c3edaffb
PP
1090the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX variable.
1091
7beaa944
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1092One convenient way to ensure you are not using GNU as and ld is to
1093invoke Configure with
1094
1095 sh Configure -Dcc='gcc -B/usr/ccs/bin/'
1096
1097for Solaris systems. For a SunOS system, you must use -B/bin/
1098instead.
1099
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1100Alternatively, recent versions of GNU ld reportedly work if you
1101include C<-Wl,-export-dynamic> in the ccdlflags variable in
1102config.sh.
1103
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1104=item ld.so.1: ./perl: fatal: relocation error:
1105
1106If you get this message on SunOS or Solaris, and you're using gcc,
7f678428
PP
1107it's probably the GNU as or GNU ld problem in the previous item
1108L<"Solaris and SunOS dynamic loading">.
9d67150a 1109
1ec51d55 1110=item LD_LIBRARY_PATH
c3edaffb
PP
1111
1112If you run into dynamic loading problems, check your setting of
aa689395
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1113the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable. If you're creating a static
1114Perl library (libperl.a rather than libperl.so) it should build
c3edaffb
PP
1115fine with LD_LIBRARY_PATH unset, though that may depend on details
1116of your local set-up.
1117
1118=item dlopen: stub interception failed
1119
1120The primary cause of the 'dlopen: stub interception failed' message is
1121that the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable includes a directory
1122which is a symlink to /usr/lib (such as /lib).
1123
aa689395 1124The reason this causes a problem is quite subtle. The file libdl.so.1.0
c3edaffb
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1125actually *only* contains functions which generate 'stub interception
1126failed' errors! The runtime linker intercepts links to
1127"/usr/lib/libdl.so.1.0" and links in internal implementation of those
1128functions instead. [Thanks to Tim Bunce for this explanation.]
1129
aa689395 1130=item nm extraction
c3edaffb
PP
1131
1132If Configure seems to be having trouble finding library functions,
1133try not using nm extraction. You can do this from the command line
1134with
1135
1136 sh Configure -Uusenm
1137
1138or by answering the nm extraction question interactively.
1ec51d55 1139If you have previously run Configure, you should not reuse your old
c3edaffb
PP
1140config.sh.
1141
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1142=item umask not found
1143
1144If the build processes encounters errors relating to umask(), the problem
1145is probably that Configure couldn't find your umask() system call.
1146Check your config.sh. You should have d_umask='define'. If you don't,
1147this is probably the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above. Also,
1148try reading the hints file for your system for further information.
1149
7f678428 1150=item vsprintf
c3edaffb
PP
1151
1152If you run into problems with vsprintf in compiling util.c, the
1153problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
1154version of vsprintf(). Check whether your system has vprintf().
1155(Virtually all modern Unix systems do.) Then, check the variable
1156d_vprintf in config.sh. If your system has vprintf, it should be:
1157
1158 d_vprintf='define'
1159
1160If Configure guessed wrong, it is likely that Configure guessed wrong
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1161on a number of other common functions too. This is probably
1162the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
c3edaffb 1163
3fe9a6f1
PP
1164=item do_aspawn
1165
1166If you run into problems relating to do_aspawn or do_spawn, the
1167problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
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1168fork() function. Follow the procedure in the previous item
1169on L<"nm extraction">.
3fe9a6f1 1170
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1171=item __inet_* errors
1172
1173If you receive unresolved symbol errors during Perl build and/or test
1174referring to __inet_* symbols, check to see whether BIND 8.1 is
1175installed. It installs a /usr/local/include/arpa/inet.h that refers to
1176these symbols. Versions of BIND later than 8.1 do not install inet.h
1177in that location and avoid the errors. You should probably update to a
1178newer version of BIND. If you can't, you can either link with the
1179updated resolver library provided with BIND 8.1 or rename
1180/usr/local/bin/arpa/inet.h during the Perl build and test process to
1181avoid the problem.
1182
aa689395 1183=item Optimizer
c3edaffb 1184
9d67150a 1185If you can't compile successfully, try turning off your compiler's
aa689395 1186optimizer. Edit config.sh and change the line
9d67150a
PP
1187
1188 optimize='-O'
1189
bfb7748a 1190to
9d67150a
PP
1191
1192 optimize=' '
1193
1194then propagate your changes with B<sh Configure -S> and rebuild
1195with B<make depend; make>.
1196
1ec51d55 1197=item CRIPPLED_CC
9d67150a 1198
1ec51d55 1199If you still can't compile successfully, try adding a -DCRIPPLED_CC
56c6f531
JH
1200flag. (Just because you get no errors doesn't mean it compiled right!)
1201This simplifies some complicated expressions for compilers that get
1202indigestion easily.
9d67150a
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1203
1204=item Missing functions
1205
1206If you have missing routines, you probably need to add some library or
1207other, or you need to undefine some feature that Configure thought was
1208there but is defective or incomplete. Look through config.h for
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1209likely suspects. If Configure guessed wrong on a number of functions,
1210you might have the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
8e07c86e 1211
1ec51d55 1212=item toke.c
8e07c86e 1213
1ec51d55
CS
1214Some compilers will not compile or optimize the larger files (such as
1215toke.c) without some extra switches to use larger jump offsets or
1216allocate larger internal tables. You can customize the switches for
1217each file in cflags. It's okay to insert rules for specific files into
1218makefile since a default rule only takes effect in the absence of a
8e07c86e
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1219specific rule.
1220
7f678428 1221=item Missing dbmclose
8e07c86e 1222
c3edaffb
PP
1223SCO prior to 3.2.4 may be missing dbmclose(). An upgrade to 3.2.4
1224that includes libdbm.nfs (which includes dbmclose()) may be available.
8e07c86e 1225
f3d9a6ba 1226=item Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lsomething
7f678428
PP
1227
1228If you see such a message during the building of an extension, but
1229the extension passes its tests anyway (see L<"make test"> below),
1230then don't worry about the warning message. The extension
1231Makefile.PL goes looking for various libraries needed on various
aa689395 1232systems; few systems will need all the possible libraries listed.
7f678428
PP
1233For example, a system may have -lcposix or -lposix, but it's
1234unlikely to have both, so most users will see warnings for the one
f3d9a6ba
CS
1235they don't have. The phrase 'probably harmless' is intended to
1236reassure you that nothing unusual is happening, and the build
1237process is continuing.
7f678428
PP
1238
1239On the other hand, if you are building GDBM_File and you get the
1240message
1241
f3d9a6ba 1242 Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lgdbm
7f678428
PP
1243
1244then it's likely you're going to run into trouble somewhere along
1245the line, since it's hard to see how you can use the GDBM_File
1246extension without the -lgdbm library.
1247
1248It is true that, in principle, Configure could have figured all of
1249this out, but Configure and the extension building process are not
1250quite that tightly coordinated.
1251
aa689395
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1252=item sh: ar: not found
1253
1254This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar'
1255was not found. You need to check your PATH environment variable to
1256make sure that it includes the directory with the 'ar' command. This
1ec51d55 1257is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the /usr/ccs/bin
aa689395
PP
1258directory.
1259
1260=item db-recno failure on tests 51, 53 and 55
1261
1262Old versions of the DB library (including the DB library which comes
1263with FreeBSD 2.1) had broken handling of recno databases with modified
1264bval settings. Upgrade your DB library or OS.
1265
6087ac44
JH
1266=item Bad arg length for semctl, is XX, should be ZZZ
1267
1268If you get this error message from the lib/ipc_sysv test, your System
1269V IPC may be broken. The XX typically is 20, and that is what ZZZ
1270also should be. Consider upgrading your OS, or reconfiguring your OS
1271to include the System V semaphores.
1272
220f3621
GS
1273=item lib/ipc_sysv........semget: No space left on device
1274
1275Either your account or the whole system has run out of semaphores. Or
1276both. Either list the semaphores with "ipcs" and remove the unneeded
1277ones (which ones these are depends on your system and applications)
1278with "ipcrm -s SEMAPHORE_ID_HERE" or configure more semaphores to your
1279system.
1280
1ec51d55 1281=item Miscellaneous
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1282
1283Some additional things that have been reported for either perl4 or perl5:
1284
1285Genix may need to use libc rather than libc_s, or #undef VARARGS.
1286
1287NCR Tower 32 (OS 2.01.01) may need -W2,-Sl,2000 and #undef MKDIR.
1288
1ec51d55 1289UTS may need one or more of -DCRIPPLED_CC, -K or -g, and undef LSTAT.
8e07c86e 1290
220f3621
GS
1291FreeBSD can fail the lib/ipc_sysv.t test if SysV IPC has not been
1292configured to the kernel. Perl tries to detect this, though, and
1293you will get a message telling what to do.
6087ac44 1294
8e07c86e
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1295If you get syntax errors on '(', try -DCRIPPLED_CC.
1296
1297Machines with half-implemented dbm routines will need to #undef I_ODBM
1298
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1299=back
1300
1301=head1 make test
1302
84902520
TB
1303This will run the regression tests on the perl you just made (you
1304should run plain 'make' before 'make test' otherwise you won't have a
1305complete build). If 'make test' doesn't say "All tests successful"
1306then something went wrong. See the file t/README in the t subdirectory.
1307
84902520 1308Note that you can't run the tests in background if this disables
fb73857a
PP
1309opening of /dev/tty. You can use 'make test-notty' in that case but
1310a few tty tests will be skipped.
c3edaffb 1311
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1312=head2 What if make test doesn't work?
1313
1ec51d55
CS
1314If make test bombs out, just cd to the t directory and run ./TEST
1315by hand to see if it makes any difference. If individual tests
c3edaffb 1316bomb, you can run them by hand, e.g.,
8e07c86e
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1317
1318 ./perl op/groups.t
1319
aa689395 1320Another way to get more detailed information about failed tests and
1ec51d55 1321individual subtests is to cd to the t directory and run
aa689395
PP
1322
1323 ./perl harness
1324
fb73857a 1325(this assumes that most basic tests succeed, since harness uses
aa689395
PP
1326complicated constructs).
1327
fb73857a 1328You should also read the individual tests to see if there are any helpful
c3edaffb
PP
1329comments that apply to your system.
1330
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1331=over 4
1332
1333=item locale
1334
1ec51d55 1335Note: One possible reason for errors is that some external programs
c07a80fd 1336may be broken due to the combination of your environment and the way
3fe9a6f1 1337B<make test> exercises them. For example, this may happen if you have
1ec51d55
CS
1338one or more of these environment variables set: LC_ALL LC_CTYPE
1339LC_COLLATE LANG. In some versions of UNIX, the non-English locales
e57fd563
PP
1340are known to cause programs to exhibit mysterious errors.
1341
1342If you have any of the above environment variables set, please try
aa689395
PP
1343
1344 setenv LC_ALL C
1345
1346(for C shell) or
1347
1348 LC_ALL=C;export LC_ALL
1349
1ec51d55
CS
1350for Bourne or Korn shell) from the command line and then retry
1351make test. If the tests then succeed, you may have a broken program that
aa689395 1352is confusing the testing. Please run the troublesome test by hand as
e57fd563 1353shown above and see whether you can locate the program. Look for
1ec51d55
CS
1354things like: exec, `backquoted command`, system, open("|...") or
1355open("...|"). All these mean that Perl is trying to run some
e57fd563 1356external program.
eed2e782 1357
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1358=item Out of memory
1359
1360On some systems, particularly those with smaller amounts of RAM, some
1361of the tests in t/op/pat.t may fail with an "Out of memory" message.
1362Specifically, in perl5.004_64, tests 74 and 78 have been reported to
1363fail on some systems. On my SparcStation IPC with 8 MB of RAM, test 78
1364will fail if the system is running any other significant tasks at the
1365same time.
1366
1367Try stopping other jobs on the system and then running the test by itself:
1368
1369 cd t; ./perl op/pat.t
1370
1371to see if you have any better luck. If your perl still fails this
1372test, it does not necessarily mean you have a broken perl. This test
1373tries to exercise the regular expression subsystem quite thoroughly,
1374and may well be far more demanding than your normal usage.
1375
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1376=back
1377
8e07c86e
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1378=head1 make install
1379
1380This will put perl into the public directory you specified to
1ec51d55 1381Configure; by default this is /usr/local/bin. It will also try
8e07c86e 1382to put the man pages in a reasonable place. It will not nroff the man
aa689395 1383pages, however. You may need to be root to run B<make install>. If you
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1384are not root, you must own the directories in question and you should
1385ignore any messages about chown not working.
1386
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1387=head2 Installing perl under different names
1388
1389If you want to install perl under a name other than "perl" (for example,
1390when installing perl with special features enabled, such as debugging),
1391indicate the alternate name on the "make install" line, such as:
1392
1393 make install PERLNAME=myperl
1394
1395=head2 Installed files
1396
8e07c86e
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1397If you want to see exactly what will happen without installing
1398anything, you can run
4633a7c4 1399
8e07c86e
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1400 ./perl installperl -n
1401 ./perl installman -n
1402
1ec51d55 1403make install will install the following:
8e07c86e
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1404
1405 perl,
1406 perl5.nnn where nnn is the current release number. This
1407 will be a link to perl.
1408 suidperl,
1409 sperl5.nnn If you requested setuid emulation.
1410 a2p awk-to-perl translator
1411 cppstdin This is used by perl -P, if your cc -E can't
1412 read from stdin.
1413 c2ph, pstruct Scripts for handling C structures in header files.
1414 s2p sed-to-perl translator
1415 find2perl find-to-perl translator
aa689395 1416 h2ph Extract constants and simple macros from C headers
8e07c86e 1417 h2xs Converts C .h header files to Perl extensions.
24b3df7f 1418 perlbug Tool to report bugs in Perl.
8e07c86e 1419 perldoc Tool to read perl's pod documentation.
aa689395 1420 pl2pm Convert Perl 4 .pl files to Perl 5 .pm modules
8e07c86e 1421 pod2html, Converters from perl's pod documentation format
aa689395
PP
1422 pod2latex, to other useful formats.
1423 pod2man, and
1424 pod2text
1425 splain Describe Perl warnings and errors
8e07c86e
AD
1426
1427 library files in $privlib and $archlib specified to
1428 Configure, usually under /usr/local/lib/perl5/.
1429 man pages in the location specified to Configure, usually
1430 something like /usr/local/man/man1.
1431 module in the location specified to Configure, usually
1432 man pages under /usr/local/lib/perl5/man/man3.
1433 pod/*.pod in $privlib/pod/.
1434
4633a7c4
LW
1435Installperl will also create the library directories $siteperl and
1436$sitearch listed in config.sh. Usually, these are something like
bfb7748a 1437
3a6175e1 1438 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
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1439 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/archname
1440
1441where archname is something like sun4-sunos. These directories
4633a7c4
LW
1442will be used for installing extensions.
1443
56c6f531
JH
1444Perl's *.h header files and the libperl.a library are also installed
1445under $archlib so that any user may later build new extensions, run the
1446optional Perl compiler, or embed the perl interpreter into another
1447program even if the Perl source is no longer available.
8e07c86e 1448
aa689395 1449=head1 Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5
4633a7c4 1450
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1451WARNING: The upgrade from 5.004_0x to 5.005 is going to be a bit
1452tricky. See L<"Upgrading from 5.004 to 5.005"> below.
1453
1454In general, you can usually safely upgrade from one version of Perl (e.g.
14555.004_04) to another similar version (e.g. 5.004_05) without re-compiling
1456all of your add-on extensions. You can also safely leave the old version
1457around in case the new version causes you problems for some reason.
1458For example, if you want to be sure that your script continues to run
dc45a647 1459with 5.004_04, simply replace the '#!/usr/local/bin/perl' line at the
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1460top of the script with the particular version you want to run, e.g.
1461#!/usr/local/bin/perl5.00404.
1462
693762b4
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1463Most extensions will probably not need to be recompiled to use
1464with a newer version of perl. Here is how it is supposed to work.
1465(These examples assume you accept all the Configure defaults.)
1466
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1467The directories searched by version 5.005 will be
1468
1469 Configure variable Default value
1470 $archlib /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.005/archname
3a6175e1 1471 $privlib /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.005
bfb7748a 1472 $sitearch /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/archname
3a6175e1 1473 $sitelib /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
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1474
1475while the directories searched by version 5.005_01 will be
1476
1477 $archlib /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.00501/archname
3a6175e1 1478 $privlib /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.00501
bfb7748a 1479 $sitearch /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/archname
3a6175e1 1480 $sitelib /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
bfb7748a
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1481
1482When you install an add-on extension, it gets installed into $sitelib (or
1483$sitearch if it is architecture-specific). This directory deliberately
1484does NOT include the sub-version number (01) so that both 5.005 and
14855.005_01 can use the extension. Only when a perl version changes to
1486break backwards compatibility will the default suggestions for the
1487$sitearch and $sitelib version numbers be increased.
1488
1489However, if you do run into problems, and you want to continue to use the
1490old version of perl along with your extension, move those extension files
1491to the appropriate version directory, such as $privlib (or $archlib).
1492(The extension's .packlist file lists the files installed with that
1493extension. For the Tk extension, for example, the list of files installed
1494is in $sitearch/auto/Tk/.packlist.) Then use your newer version of perl
1495to rebuild and re-install the extension into $sitelib. This way, Perl
14965.005 will find your files in the 5.005 directory, and newer versions
1497of perl will find your newer extension in the $sitelib directory.
1498(This is also why perl searches the site-specific libraries last.)
1499
1500Alternatively, if you are willing to reinstall all your extensions
1501every time you upgrade perl, then you can include the subversion
1502number in $sitearch and $sitelib when you run Configure.
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1503
1504=head2 Maintaining completely separate versions
4633a7c4 1505
1ec51d55 1506Many users prefer to keep all versions of perl in completely
d52d4e46
PP
1507separate directories. One convenient way to do this is by
1508using a separate prefix for each version, such as
1509
46bb10fb 1510 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl5.004
d52d4e46 1511
46bb10fb 1512and adding /opt/perl5.004/bin to the shell PATH variable. Such users
d52d4e46
PP
1513may also wish to add a symbolic link /usr/local/bin/perl so that
1514scripts can still start with #!/usr/local/bin/perl.
1515
693762b4
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1516Others might share a common directory for maintenance sub-versions
1517(e.g. 5.004 for all 5.004_0x versions), but change directory with
1518each major version.
1519
6877a1cf
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1520If you are installing a development subversion, you probably ought to
1521seriously consider using a separate directory, since development
1522subversions may not have all the compatibility wrinkles ironed out
1523yet.
1524
693762b4
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1525=head2 Upgrading from 5.004 to 5.005
1526
bfb7748a
AD
1527Extensions built and installed with versions of perl prior to 5.004_50
1528will need to be recompiled to be used with 5.004_50 and later. You will,
1529however, be able to continue using 5.004 even after you install 5.005.
1530The 5.004 binary will still be able to find the extensions built under
15315.004; the 5.005 binary will look in the new $sitearch and $sitelib
1532directories, and will not find them.
693762b4 1533
8e07c86e
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1534=head1 Coexistence with perl4
1535
1536You can safely install perl5 even if you want to keep perl4 around.
1537
1ec51d55
CS
1538By default, the perl5 libraries go into /usr/local/lib/perl5/, so
1539they don't override the perl4 libraries in /usr/local/lib/perl/.
8e07c86e
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1540
1541In your /usr/local/bin directory, you should have a binary named
1ec51d55 1542perl4.036. That will not be touched by the perl5 installation
8e07c86e
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1543process. Most perl4 scripts should run just fine under perl5.
1544However, if you have any scripts that require perl4, you can replace
1ec51d55 1545the #! line at the top of them by #!/usr/local/bin/perl4.036
edb1cbcb
PP
1546(or whatever the appropriate pathname is). See pod/perltrap.pod
1547for possible problems running perl4 scripts under perl5.
8e07c86e 1548
aa689395
PP
1549=head1 cd /usr/include; h2ph *.h sys/*.h
1550
1551Some perl scripts need to be able to obtain information from
1552the system header files. This command will convert the most commonly used
1ec51d55 1553header files in /usr/include into files that can be easily interpreted
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1554by perl. These files will be placed in the architecture-dependent library
1555($archlib) directory you specified to Configure.
aa689395 1556
1ec51d55 1557Note: Due to differences in the C and perl languages, the
aa689395
PP
1558conversion of the header files is not perfect. You will probably have
1559to hand-edit some of the converted files to get them to parse
1560correctly. For example, h2ph breaks spectacularly on type casting and
1561certain structures.
1562
fb73857a 1563=head1 installhtml --help
aa689395 1564
3e3baf6d
TB
1565Some sites may wish to make perl documentation available in HTML
1566format. The installhtml utility can be used to convert pod
fb73857a 1567documentation into linked HTML files and install them.
aa689395 1568
fb73857a 1569The following command-line is an example of one used to convert
3e3baf6d 1570perl documentation:
aa689395 1571
3e3baf6d
TB
1572 ./installhtml \
1573 --podroot=. \
1574 --podpath=lib:ext:pod:vms \
1575 --recurse \
1576 --htmldir=/perl/nmanual \
1577 --htmlroot=/perl/nmanual \
1578 --splithead=pod/perlipc \
1579 --splititem=pod/perlfunc \
1580 --libpods=perlfunc:perlguts:perlvar:perlrun:perlop \
1581 --verbose
1582
1583See the documentation in installhtml for more details. It can take
1584many minutes to execute a large installation and you should expect to
1585see warnings like "no title", "unexpected directive" and "cannot
1586resolve" as the files are processed. We are aware of these problems
1587(and would welcome patches for them).
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1589You may find it helpful to run installhtml twice. That should reduce
1590the number of "cannot resolve" warnings.
1591
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1592=head1 cd pod && make tex && (process the latex files)
1593
1594Some sites may also wish to make the documentation in the pod/ directory
1595available in TeX format. Type
1596
1597 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
1598
1599=head1 Reporting Problems
1600
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1601If you have difficulty building perl, and none of the advice in this file
1602helps, and careful reading of the error message and the relevant manual
1603pages on your system doesn't help either, then you should send a message
1604to either the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup or to perlbug@perl.com with
1605an accurate description of your problem.
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1607Please include the output of the ./myconfig shell script that comes with
1608the distribution. Alternatively, you can use the perlbug program that
1609comes with the perl distribution, but you need to have perl compiled
1610before you can use it. (If you have not installed it yet, you need to
f5b3b617 1611run C<./perl -Ilib utils/perlbug> instead of a plain C<perlbug>.)
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1613You might also find helpful information in the Porting directory of the
1614perl distribution.
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1616=head1 DOCUMENTATION
1617
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1618Read the manual entries before running perl. The main documentation
1619is in the pod/ subdirectory and should have been installed during the
8e07c86e 1620build process. Type B<man perl> to get started. Alternatively, you
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1621can type B<perldoc perl> to use the supplied perldoc script. This is
1622sometimes useful for finding things in the library modules.
8e07c86e 1623
1ec51d55 1624Under UNIX, you can produce a documentation book in postscript form,
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1625along with its table of contents, by going to the pod/ subdirectory and
1626running (either):
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RM
1627
1628 ./roffitall -groff # If you have GNU groff installed
aa689395 1629 ./roffitall -psroff # If you have psroff
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RM
1630
1631This will leave you with two postscript files ready to be printed.
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1632(You may need to fix the roffitall command to use your local troff
1633set-up.)
34a2a22e 1634
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1635Note that you must have performed the installation already before running
1636the above, since the script collects the installed files to generate
1637the documentation.
34a2a22e 1638
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1639=head1 AUTHOR
1640
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1641Original author: Andy Dougherty doughera@lafayette.edu , borrowing very
1642heavily from the original README by Larry Wall, with lots of helpful
1643feedback and additions from the perl5-porters@perl.org folks.
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1645If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
1646L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
1647
1648=head1 REDISTRIBUTION
1649
1650This document is part of the Perl package and may be distributed under
1651the same terms as perl itself.
1652
1653If you are distributing a modified version of perl (perhaps as part of
1654a larger package) please do modify these installation instructions and
1655the contact information to match your distribution.
8e07c86e 1656
a5f75d66 1657=head1 LAST MODIFIED
24b3df7f 1658
56cb0a1c 1659$Id: INSTALL,v 1.42 1998/07/15 18:04:44 doughera Released $