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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
5aabfad6 4
8736538c 5=head1 NAME
5aabfad6 6
f8dbba82 7README.cygwin - Perl for Cygwin
5aabfad6 8
8736538c 9=head1 SYNOPSIS
5aabfad6 10
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11This document will help you configure, make, test and install Perl
12on Cygwin. This document also describes features of Cygwin that will
13affect how Perl behaves at runtime.
5aabfad6 14
f8dbba82 15B<NOTE:> There are pre-built Perl packages available for Cygwin and a
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16version of Perl is provided in the normal Cygwin install. If you do
17not need to customize the configuration, consider using one of those
18packages.
5aabfad6 19
5aabfad6 20
a83b6f46 21=head1 PREREQUISITES FOR COMPILING PERL ON CYGWIN
8736538c 22
f8dbba82 23=head2 Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it)
8736538c 24
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25The Cygwin tools are ports of the popular GNU development tools for Win32
26platforms. They run thanks to the Cygwin library which provides the UNIX
27system calls and environment these programs expect. More information
28about this project can be found at:
8736538c 29
47dafe4d 30 http://www.cygwin.com/
1cab015a 31
f8dbba82 32A recent net or commercial release of Cygwin is required.
8736538c 33
6a01534f 34At the time this document was last updated, Cygwin 1.3.12 was current.
8736538c 35
1cab015a 36
f8dbba82 37=head2 Cygwin Configuration
1cab015a 38
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39While building Perl some changes may be necessary to your Cygwin setup so
40that Perl builds cleanly. These changes are B<not> required for normal
41Perl usage.
1cab015a 42
f8dbba82 43B<NOTE:> The binaries that are built will run on all Win32 versions.
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44They do not depend on your host system (Win9x/WinME, WinNT/Win2K)
45or your Cygwin configuration (I<ntea>, I<ntsec>, binary/text mounts).
46The only dependencies come from hard-coded pathnames like C</usr/local>.
47However, your host system and Cygwin configuration will affect Perl's
48runtime behavior (see L</"TEST">).
1cab015a 49
f8dbba82 50=over 4
1cab015a 51
f8dbba82 52=item * C<PATH>
1cab015a 53
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54Set the C<PATH> environment variable so that Configure finds the Cygwin
55versions of programs. Any Windows directories should be removed or
56moved to the end of your C<PATH>.
1cab015a 57
f8dbba82 58=item * I<nroff>
1cab015a 59
f8dbba82 60If you do not have I<nroff> (which is part of the I<groff> package),
b4bcd662 61Configure will B<not> prompt you to install I<man> pages.
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62
63=item * Permissions
64
65On WinNT with either the I<ntea> or I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> settings, directory
66and file permissions may not be set correctly. Since the build process
125a13ce 67creates directories and files, to be safe you may want to run a `C<chmod
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68-R +w *>' on the entire Perl source tree.
69
70Also, it is a well known WinNT "feature" that files created by a login
71that is a member of the I<Administrators> group will be owned by the
72I<Administrators> group. Depending on your umask, you may find that you
73can not write to files that you just created (because you are no longer
74the owner). When using the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, this is not an
75issue because it "corrects" the ownership to what you would expect on
76a UNIX system.
1cab015a 77
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78=back
79
a83b6f46 80=head1 CONFIGURE PERL ON CYGWIN
8736538c 81
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82The default options gathered by Configure with the assistance of
83F<hints/cygwin.sh> will build a Perl that supports dynamic loading
84(which requires a shared F<libperl.dll>).
f89d6eaa 85
f8dbba82 86This will run Configure and keep a record:
8736538c 87
f8dbba82 88 ./Configure 2>&1 | tee log.configure
8736538c 89
b4bcd662 90If you are willing to accept all the defaults run Configure with B<-de>.
f8dbba82 91However, several useful customizations are available.
5aabfad6 92
a83b6f46 93=head2 Stripping Perl Binaries on Cygwin
5aabfad6 94
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95It is possible to strip the EXEs and DLLs created by the build process.
96The resulting binaries will be significantly smaller. If you want the
97binaries to be stripped, you can either add a B<-s> option when Configure
98prompts you,
8736538c 99
f8dbba82 100 Any additional ld flags (NOT including libraries)? [none] -s
5db16f6a 101 Any special flags to pass to gcc to use dynamic linking? [none] -s
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102 Any special flags to pass to ld2 to create a dynamically loaded library?
103 [none] -s
8736538c 104
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105or you can edit F<hints/cygwin.sh> and uncomment the relevant variables
106near the end of the file.
8736538c 107
a83b6f46 108=head2 Optional Libraries for Perl on Cygwin
8736538c 109
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110Several Perl functions and modules depend on the existence of
111some optional libraries. Configure will find them if they are
112installed in one of the directories listed as being used for library
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113searches. Pre-built packages for most of these are available from
114the Cygwin installer.
8736538c 115
f8dbba82 116=over 4
8736538c 117
f8dbba82 118=item * C<-lcrypt>
8736538c 119
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120The crypt package distributed with Cygwin is a Linux compatible 56-bit
121DES crypt port by Corinna Vinschen.
122
123Alternatively, the crypt libraries in GNU libc have been ported to Cygwin.
1cab015a 124
5db16f6a 125The DES based Ultra Fast Crypt port was done by Alexey Truhan:
1cab015a 126
2ca463cb 127 ftp://ftp.uni-erlangen.de/pub/pc/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/cw32crypt-dist-0.tgz
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128
129NOTE: There are various export restrictions on DES implementations,
130see the glibc README for more details.
1cab015a 131
f8dbba82 132The MD5 port was done by Andy Piper:
1cab015a 133
2ca463cb 134 ftp://ftp.uni-erlangen.de/pub/pc/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/libcrypt.tgz
1cab015a 135
f8dbba82 136=item * C<-lgdbm> (C<use GDBM_File>)
1cab015a 137
a0457be1 138GDBM is available for Cygwin.
125a13ce 139
f8dbba82 140=item * C<-ldb> (C<use DB_File>)
1cab015a 141
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142BerkeleyDB is available for Cygwin. Some details can be found in
143F<ext/DB_File/DB_File.pm>.
1cab015a 144
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145NOTE: The BerkeleyDB library only completely works on NTFS partitions.
146
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147=item * C<-lcygipc> (C<use IPC::SysV>)
148
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149A port of SysV IPC is available for Cygwin.
150
151NOTE: This has B<not> been extensively tested. In particular,
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152C<d_semctl_semun> is undefined because it fails a Configure test
153and on Win9x the I<shm*()> functions seem to hang. It also creates
154a compile time dependency because F<perl.h> includes F<<sys/ipc.h>>
155and F<<sys/sem.h>> (which will be required in the future when compiling
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156CPAN modules). NO LONGER SUPPORTED!
157
158=item * C<-lutil>
159
160Included with the standard Cygwin netrelease is the inetutils package
161which includes libutil.a.
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162
163=back
164
a83b6f46 165=head2 Configure-time Options for Perl on Cygwin
f8dbba82 166
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167The F<INSTALL> document describes several Configure-time options. Some of
168these will work with Cygwin, others are not yet possible. Also, some of
169these are experimental. You can either select an option when Configure
170prompts you or you can define (undefine) symbols on the command line.
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171
172=over 4
173
174=item * C<-Uusedl>
175
0a110db2 176Undefining this symbol forces Perl to be compiled statically.
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177
178=item * C<-Uusemymalloc>
1cab015a 179
f8dbba82 180By default Perl uses the malloc() included with the Perl source. If you
0a110db2 181want to force Perl to build with the system malloc() undefine this symbol.
1cab015a 182
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183=item * C<-Uuseperlio>
184
185Undefining this symbol disables the PerlIO abstraction, which is now the
186default.
187
6b49d266 188=item * C<-Dusemultiplicity>
1cab015a 189
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190Multiplicity is required when embedding Perl in a C program and using
191more than one interpreter instance. This works with the Cygwin port.
1cab015a 192
0a110db2 193=item * C<-Duse64bitint>
1cab015a 194
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195By default Perl uses 32 bit integers. If you want to use larger 64
196bit integers, define this symbol. If there is trouble, check that
197your Cygwin installation is up to date.
1cab015a 198
f8dbba82 199=item * C<-Duselongdouble>
1cab015a 200
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201I<gcc> supports long doubles (12 bytes). However, several additional
202long double math functions are necessary to use them within Perl
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203(I<{atan2, cos, exp, floor, fmod, frexp, isnan, log, modf, pow, sin, sqrt}l,
204strtold>).
f8dbba82 205These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 206
f8dbba82 207=item * C<-Dusethreads>
1cab015a 208
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209POSIX threads are implemented in Cygwin, define this symbol if you want
210a threaded perl. If there is trouble, check that your Cygwin installation
211is up to date.
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212
213=item * C<-Duselargefiles>
214
0a110db2 215Although Win32 supports large files, Cygwin currently uses 32-bit integers
5db16f6a 216for internal size and position calculations.
1cab015a 217
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218=item * C<-Dmksymlinks>
219
220Use this to build perl outside of the source tree. This works with Cygwin.
221Details can be found in the F<INSTALL> document.
222
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223=back
224
a83b6f46 225=head2 Suspicious Warnings on Cygwin
1cab015a 226
f8dbba82 227You may see some messages during Configure that seem suspicious.
8736538c 228
f8dbba82 229=over 4
8736538c 230
b4bcd662 231=item * I<dlsym()>
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232
233I<ld2> is needed to build dynamic libraries, but it does not exist
234when dlsym() checking occurs (it is not created until `C<make>' runs).
235You will see the following message:
236
237 Checking whether your dlsym() needs a leading underscore ...
b4bcd662 238 ld2: not found
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239 I can't compile and run the test program.
240 I'm guessing that dlsym doesn't need a leading underscore.
241
242Since the guess is correct, this is not a problem.
243
b4bcd662 244=item * Win9x and C<d_eofnblk>
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245
246Win9x does not correctly report C<EOF> with a non-blocking read on a
247closed pipe. You will see the following messages:
248
249 But it also returns -1 to signal EOF, so be careful!
250 WARNING: you can't distinguish between EOF and no data!
251
252 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
253 The recommended value for $d_eofnblk on this machine was "define"!
254 Keep the recommended value? [y]
255
256At least for consistency with WinNT, you should keep the recommended
257value.
258
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259=item * Compiler/Preprocessor defines
260
261The following error occurs because of the Cygwin C<#define> of
262C<_LONG_DOUBLE>:
263
264 Guessing which symbols your C compiler and preprocessor define...
fb652349 265 try.c:<line#>: missing binary operator
0a110db2 266
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267This failure does not seem to cause any problems. With older gcc
268versions, "parse error" is reported instead of "missing binary
269operator".
0a110db2 270
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271=back
272
a83b6f46 273=head1 MAKE ON CYGWIN
5aabfad6 274
b4bcd662 275Simply run I<make> and wait:
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276
277 make 2>&1 | tee log.make
278
a83b6f46 279=head2 Warnings on Cygwin
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280
281Warnings like these are normal:
282
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283 perl.c: In function `S_parse_body':
284 perl.c:1468: warning: implicit declaration of function `init_os_extras'
285 ...
286 pp_sys.c:289: warning: `S_emulate_eaccess' defined but not used
287 ...
288 perlio.c: In function `perlsio_binmode':
289 perlio.c:98: warning: implicit declaration of function `setmode'
290 perlio.c:98: warning: passing arg 1 of `Perl_PerlIO_fileno' from incompatible pointer type
291 ...
292 make: [extra.pods] Error 1 (ignored)
293 ...
294 make: [extras.make] Error 1 (ignored)
f8dbba82 295
a83b6f46 296=head2 ld2 on Cygwin
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297
298During `C<make>', I<ld2> will be created and installed in your $installbin
299directory (where you said to put public executables). It does not
300wait until the `C<make install>' process to install the I<ld2> script,
301this is because the remainder of the `C<make>' refers to I<ld2> without
302fully specifying its path and does this from multiple subdirectories.
303The assumption is that $installbin is in your current C<PATH>. If this
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304is not the case `C<make>' will fail at some point. If this happens,
305just manually copy I<ld2> from the source directory to somewhere in
306your C<PATH>.
f8dbba82 307
a83b6f46 308=head1 TEST ON CYGWIN
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309
310There are two steps to running the test suite:
311
312 make test 2>&1 | tee log.make-test
313
314 cd t;./perl harness 2>&1 | tee ../log.harness
315
316The same tests are run both times, but more information is provided when
317running as `C<./perl harness>'.
5aabfad6 318
f8dbba82 319Test results vary depending on your host system and your Cygwin
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320configuration. If a test can pass in some Cygwin setup, it is always
321attempted and explainable test failures are documented. It is possible
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322for Perl to pass all the tests, but it is more likely that some tests
323will fail for one of the reasons listed below.
1cab015a 324
a83b6f46 325=head2 File Permissions on Cygwin
1cab015a 326
f8dbba82 327UNIX file permissions are based on sets of mode bits for
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328{read,write,execute} for each {user,group,other}. By default Cygwin
329only tracks the Win32 read-only attribute represented as the UNIX file
330user write bit (files are always readable, files are executable if they
331have a F<.{com,bat,exe}> extension or begin with C<#!>, directories are
332always readable and executable). On WinNT with the I<ntea> C<CYGWIN>
333setting, the additional mode bits are stored as extended file attributes.
334On WinNT with the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, permissions use the standard
335WinNT security descriptors and access control lists. Without one of
47f4f673 336these options, these tests will fail (listing not updated yet):
1cab015a 337
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338 Failed Test List of failed
339 ------------------------------------
340 io/fs.t 5, 7, 9-10
341 lib/anydbm.t 2
342 lib/db-btree.t 20
343 lib/db-hash.t 16
344 lib/db-recno.t 18
345 lib/gdbm.t 2
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346 lib/ndbm.t 2
347 lib/odbm.t 2
348 lib/sdbm.t 2
349 op/stat.t 9, 20 (.tmp not an executable extension)
1cab015a 350
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351=head2 NDBM_File and ODBM_File do not work on FAT filesystems
352
353Do not use NDBM_File or ODBM_File on FAT filesystem. They can be
354built on a FAT filesystem, but many tests will fail:
355
356 ../ext/NDBM_File/ndbm.t 13 3328 71 59 83.10% 1-2 4 16-71
357 ../ext/ODBM_File/odbm.t 255 65280 ?? ?? % ??
358 ../lib/AnyDBM_File.t 2 512 12 2 16.67% 1 4
359 ../lib/Memoize/t/errors.t 0 139 11 5 45.45% 7-11
360 ../lib/Memoize/t/tie_ndbm.t 13 3328 4 4 100.00% 1-4
361 run/fresh_perl.t 97 1 1.03% 91
362
363If you intend to run only on FAT (or if using AnyDBM_File on FAT),
364run Configure with the -Ui_ndbm and -Ui_dbm options to prevent
365NDBM_File and ODBM_File being built.
366
367With NTFS (and CYGWIN=ntsec), there should be no problems even if
368perl was built on FAT.
369
370=head2 fork() failures in io_* tests
0be9fa5d 371
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372A fork() failure may result in the following tests failing:
373
374 ext/IO/lib/IO/t/io_multihomed.t
375 ext/IO/lib/IO/t/io_sock.t
376 ext/IO/lib/IO/t/io_unix.t
377
378See comment on fork in L<Miscellaneous> below.
0be9fa5d 379
a83b6f46 380=head2 Script Portability on Cygwin
1cab015a 381
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382Cygwin does an outstanding job of providing UNIX-like semantics on top of
383Win32 systems. However, in addition to the items noted above, there are
384some differences that you should know about. This is a very brief guide
385to portability, more information can be found in the Cygwin documentation.
1cab015a 386
f8dbba82 387=over 4
1cab015a 388
f8dbba82 389=item * Pathnames
1cab015a 390
a0457be1 391Cygwin pathnames can be separated by forward (F</>) or backward (F<\\>)
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392slashes. They may also begin with drive letters (F<C:>) or Universal
393Naming Codes (F<//UNC>). DOS device names (F<aux>, F<con>, F<prn>,
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394F<com*>, F<lpt?>, F<nul>) are invalid as base filenames. However, they
395can be used in extensions (e.g., F<hello.aux>). Names may contain all
396printable characters except these:
1cab015a 397
f8dbba82 398 : * ? " < > |
1cab015a 399
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400File names are case insensitive, but case preserving. A pathname that
401contains a backslash or drive letter is a Win32 pathname (and not subject
402to the translations applied to POSIX style pathnames).
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403
404=item * Text/Binary
405
406When a file is opened it is in either text or binary mode. In text mode
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407a file is subject to CR/LF/Ctrl-Z translations. With Cygwin, the default
408mode for an open() is determined by the mode of the mount that underlies
409the file. Perl provides a binmode() function to set binary mode on files
410that otherwise would be treated as text. sysopen() with the C<O_TEXT>
411flag sets text mode on files that otherwise would be treated as binary:
412
413 sysopen(FOO, "bar", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_TEXT)
f8dbba82 414
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415lseek(), tell() and sysseek() only work with files opened in binary mode.
416
417The text/binary issue is covered at length in the Cygwin documentation.
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418
419=item * F<.exe>
420
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421The Cygwin stat(), lstat() and readlink() functions make the F<.exe>
422extension transparent by looking for F<foo.exe> when you ask for F<foo>
423(unless a F<foo> also exists). Cygwin does not require a F<.exe>
424extension, but I<gcc> adds it automatically when building a program.
425However, when accessing an executable as a normal file (e.g., I<cp>
426in a makefile) the F<.exe> is not transparent. The I<install> included
427with Cygwin automatically appends a F<.exe> when necessary.
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428
429=item * chown()
430
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431On WinNT chown() can change a file's user and group IDs. On Win9x chown()
432is a no-op, although this is appropriate since there is no security model.
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433
434=item * Miscellaneous
435
436File locking using the C<F_GETLK> command to fcntl() is a stub that
437returns C<ENOSYS>.
438
f8dbba82 439Win9x can not rename() an open file (although WinNT can).
1cab015a 440
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441The Cygwin chroot() implementation has holes (it can not restrict file
442access by native Win32 programs).
443
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444Inplace editing C<perl -i> of files doesn't work without doing a backup
445of the file being edited C<perl -i.bak> because of windowish restrictions,
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446therefore Perl adds the C<.bak> automatically if you use C<perl -i>
447without specifying a backup extension.
818c4caa 448
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449Using fork() after loading multiple dlls may fail with an internal cygwin
450error like the following:
451
452 C:\CYGWIN\BIN\PERL.EXE: *** couldn't allocate memory 0x10000(4128768) for 'C:\CYGWIN\LIB\PERL5\5.6.1\CYGWIN-MULTI\AUTO\SOCKET\SOCKET.DLL' alignment, Win32 error 8
453
454 200 [main] perl 377147 sync_with_child: child -395691(0xB8) died before initialization with status code 0x1
455 1370 [main] perl 377147 sync_with_child: *** child state child loading dlls
456
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457Use the rebase utility to resolve the conflicting dll addresses. The
458rebase package is included in the Cygwin netrelease. Use setup.exe from
459F<http://www.cygwin.com/setup.exe> to install it.
fb652349 460
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461=back
462
a83b6f46 463=head1 INSTALL PERL ON CYGWIN
f8dbba82 464
b4bcd662 465This will install Perl, including I<man> pages.
f8dbba82 466
a0457be1 467 make install 2>&1 | tee log.make-install
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468
469NOTE: If C<STDERR> is redirected `C<make install>' will B<not> prompt
470you to install I<perl> into F</usr/bin>.
1cab015a 471
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472You may need to be I<Administrator> to run `C<make install>'. If you
473are not, you must have write access to the directories in question.
1cab015a 474
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475Information on installing the Perl documentation in HTML format can be
476found in the F<INSTALL> document.
1cab015a 477
a83b6f46 478=head1 MANIFEST ON CYGWIN
1cab015a 479
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480These are the files in the Perl release that contain references to Cygwin.
481These very brief notes attempt to explain the reason for all conditional
482code. Hopefully, keeping this up to date will allow the Cygwin port to
47f4f673 483be kept as clean as possible (listing not updated yet).
1cab015a 484
f8dbba82 485=over 4
1cab015a 486
f8dbba82 487=item Documentation
1cab015a 488
47dafe4d 489 INSTALL README.cygwin README.win32 MANIFEST
5d129265 490 Changes Changes5.005 Changes5.004 Changes5.6
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491 pod/perl.pod pod/perlport.pod pod/perlfaq3.pod
492 pod/perldelta.pod pod/perl5004delta.pod pod/perl56delta.pod
493 pod/perlhist.pod pod/perlmodlib.pod pod/buildtoc.PL pod/perltoc.pod
1cab015a 494
f8dbba82 495=item Build, Configure, Make, Install
1cab015a 496
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497 cygwin/Makefile.SHs
498 cygwin/ld2.in
499 cygwin/perlld.in
500 ext/IPC/SysV/hints/cygwin.pl
501 ext/NDBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
502 ext/ODBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
503 hints/cygwin.sh
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504 Configure - help finding hints from uname,
505 shared libperl required for dynamic loading
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506 Makefile.SH - linklibperl
507 Porting/patchls - cygwin in port list
f8dbba82 508 installman - man pages with :: translated to .
5db16f6a 509 installperl - install dll/ld2/perlld, install to pods
6b49d266 510 makedepend.SH - uwinfix
1cab015a 511
f8dbba82 512=item Tests
1cab015a 513
f8dbba82 514 t/io/tell.t - binmode
5d129265 515 t/lib/b.t - ignore Cwd from os_extras
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516 t/lib/glob-basic.t - Win32 directory list access differs from read mode
517 t/op/magic.t - $^X/symlink WORKAROUND, s/.exe//
518 t/op/stat.t - no /dev, skip Win32 ftCreationTime quirk
519 (cache manager sometimes preserves ctime of file
520 previously created and deleted), no -u (setuid)
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521
522=item Compiled Perl Source
523
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524 EXTERN.h - __declspec(dllimport)
525 XSUB.h - __declspec(dllexport)
b4bcd662 526 cygwin/cygwin.c - os_extras (getcwd, spawn)
6b49d266 527 perl.c - os_extras
f8dbba82 528 perl.h - binmode
6b49d266 529 doio.c - win9x can not rename a file when it is open
b4bcd662 530 pp_sys.c - do not define h_errno, pp_system with spawn
47dafe4d 531 util.c - use setenv
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532
533=item Compiled Module Source
534
535 ext/POSIX/POSIX.xs - tzname defined externally
536 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/pair.c
537 - EXTCONST needs to be redefined from EXTERN.h
538 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/sdbm.c
539 - binary open
540
541=item Perl Modules/Scripts
542
6b49d266 543 lib/Cwd.pm - hook to internal Cwd::cwd
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544 lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm
545 - require MM_Cygwin.pm
546 lib/ExtUtils/MM_Cygwin.pm
547 - canonpath, cflags, manifypods, perl_archive
497711e7 548 lib/File/Find.pm - on remote drives stat() always sets st_nlink to 1
6b49d266 549 lib/File/Spec/Unix.pm - preserve //unc
5d129265 550 lib/File/Temp.pm - no directory sticky bit
6b49d266 551 lib/perl5db.pl - use stdin not /dev/tty
6b49d266 552 utils/perldoc.PL - version comment
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553
554=back
f89d6eaa 555
a83b6f46 556=head1 BUGS ON CYGWIN
f8dbba82 557
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558Support for swapping real and effective user and group IDs is incomplete.
559On WinNT Cygwin provides setuid(), seteuid(), setgid() and setegid().
560However, additional Cygwin calls for manipulating WinNT access tokens
561and security contexts are required.
562
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563=head1 AUTHORS
564
b4bcd662 565Charles Wilson <cwilson@ece.gatech.edu>,
47dafe4d 566Eric Fifer <egf7@columbia.edu>,
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567alexander smishlajev <als@turnhere.com>,
568Steven Morlock <newspost@morlock.net>,
569Sebastien Barre <Sebastien.Barre@utc.fr>,
a0457be1 570Teun Burgers <burgers@ecn.nl>,
27008580 571Gerrit P. Haase <gp@familiehaase.de>.
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572
573=head1 HISTORY
574
27008580 575Last updated: 2003-03-20