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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
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4
5=head1 NAME
6
d66be8f9 7README.hpux - Perl version 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX) systems
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8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
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11This document describes various features of HP's Unix operating system
12(HP-UX) that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl) is
13compiled and/or runs.
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15=head2 Using perl as shipped with HP-UX
16
17As of application release September 2001, HP-UX 11.00 is shipped with
18perl-5.6.1 in /opt/perl. The first occurrance is on CD 5012-7954 and
19can be installed using
20
21 swinstall -s /cdrom perl
22
23assuming you have mounted that CD on /cdrom. In this version the
24following modules are installed:
25
26 ActivePerl::DocTools-0.04 HTML::Parser-3.19 XML::DOM-1.25
27 Archive::Tar-0.072 HTML::Tagset-3.03 XML::Parser-2.27
28 Compress::Zlib-1.08 MIME::Base64-2.11 XML::Simple-1.05
29 Convert::ASN1-0.10 Net-1.07 XML::XPath-1.09
30 Digest::MD5-2.11 PPM-2.1.5 XML::XSLT-0.32
31 File::CounterFile-0.12 SOAP::Lite-0.46 libwww-perl-5.51
32 Font::AFM-1.18 Storable-1.011 libxml-perl-0.07
33 HTML-Tree-3.11 URI-1.11 perl-ldap-0.23
34
35The build is a portable hppa-1.1 multithread build that supports large
36files compiled with gcc-2.9-hppa-991112
37
38If you perform a new installation, then Perl will be installed
39automatically.
40
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41=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on HP-UX
42
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43When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. The C compiler
44that ships with all HP-UX systems is a K&R compiler that should only be
45used to build new kernels.
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46
47Perl can be compiled with either HP's ANSI C compiler or with gcc. The
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48former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
49difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
50require the use of HP compiler-specific command-line flags.
f2a260d6 51
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52If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
53complete, and be sure to read the Perl README file for more gcc-specific
54details.
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55
56=head2 PA-RISC
57
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58HP's current Unix systems run on its own Precision Architecture
59(PA-RISC) chip. HP-UX used to run on the Motorola MC68000 family of
60chips, but any machine with this chip in it is quite obsolete and this
61document will not attempt to address issues for compiling Perl on the
62Motorola chipset.
f2a260d6 63
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64The most recent version of PA-RISC at the time of this document's last
65update is 2.0.
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66
67=head2 PA-RISC 1.0
68
69The original version of PA-RISC, HP no longer sells any system with this chip.
70
13e84f2c 71The following systems contained PA-RISC 1.0 chips:
f2a260d6 72
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73 600, 635, 645, 808, 815, 822, 825, 832, 834, 835, 840, 842, 845, 850, 852,
74 855, 860, 865, 870, 890
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75
76=head2 PA-RISC 1.1
77
78An upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it shipped for many years in many different
79system.
80
81The following systems contain with PA-RISC 1.1 chips:
82
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83 705, 710, 712, 715, 720, 722, 725, 728, 730, 735, 742, 743, 744, 745, 747,
84 750, 755, 770, 777, 778, 779, 800, 801, 803, 806, 807, 809, 811, 813, 816,
85 817, 819, 821, 826, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 847, 849, 851, 856, 857,
86 859, 867, 869, 877, 887, 891, 892, 897, A180, A180C, B115, B120, B132L,
87 B132L+, B160L, B180L, C100, C110, C115, C120, C160L, D200, D210, D220,
88 D230, D250, D260, D310, D320, D330, D350, D360, D410, DX0, DX5, DXO, E25,
89 E35, E45, E55, F10, F20, F30, G30, G40, G50, G60, G70, H20, H30, H40, H50,
90 H60, H70, I30, I40, I50, I60, I70, J200, J210, J210XC, K100, K200, K210,
91 K220, K230, K400, K410, K420, S700i, S715, S744, S760, T500, T520
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92
93=head2 PA-RISC 2.0
94
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95The most recent upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it added support for
9664-bit integer data.
f2a260d6 97
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98As of the date of this document's last update, the following systems
99contain PA-RISC 2.0 chips (this is very likely to be out of date):
f2a260d6 100
60ed1d8c 101 700, 780, 781, 782, 783, 785, 802, 804, 810, 820, 861, 871, 879, 889, 893,
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102 895, 896, 898, 899, A400, A500, B1000, B2000, C130, C140, C160, C180,
103 C180+, C180-XP, C200+, C400+, C3000, C360, C3600, CB260, D270, D280, D370,
104 D380, D390, D650, J220, J2240, J280, J282, J400, J410, J5000, J5500XM,
105 J5600, J7000, J7600, K250, K260, K260-EG, K270, K360, K370, K380, K450,
106 K460, K460-EG, K460-XP, K470, K570, K580, L1000, L2000, L3000, N4000,
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107 R380, R390, RP8400, SD16000, SD32000, SD64000, T540, T600, V2000, V2200,
108 V2250, V2500, V2600
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109
110=head2 Itanium
111
112HP also ships servers with the 128-bit Itanium processor(s). As of the
113date of this document's last update, the following systems contain
114Itanium chips (this is very likely to be out of date):
115
2925712a 116 RX4610, RX9610
f2a260d6 117
d66be8f9 118A complete list of models at the time the OS was built is in the file
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119/opt/langtools/lib/sched.models. The first column corresponds to the
120output of the "uname -m" command (without the leading "9000/"). The
121second column is the PA-RISC version and the third column is the exact
42be3f00 122chip type used. (Start browsing at the bottom to prevent confusion ;-)
d66be8f9 123
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124=head2 Portability Between PA-RISC Versions
125
126An executable compiled on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform will not execute on a
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127PA-RISC 1.1 platform, even if they are running the same version of
128HP-UX. If you are building Perl on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform and want that
129Perl to to also run on a PA-RISC 1.1, the compiler flags +DAportable and
130+DS32 should be used.
f2a260d6 131
60ed1d8c 132It is no longer possible to compile PA-RISC 1.0 executables on either
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133the PA-RISC 1.1 or 2.0 platforms. The command-line flags are accepted,
134but the resulting executable will not run when transferred to a PA-RISC
1351.0 system.
136
a83b6f46 137=head2 Itanium Processor Family and HP-UX
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138
139HP-UX also runs on the new Itanium processor. This requires the use
140of a different version of HP-UX (currently 11.20), and with the exception
141of a few differences detailed below and in later sections, Perl should
142compile with no problems.
143
144Although PA-RISC binaries can run on Itanium systems, you should not
145attempt to use a PA-RISC version of Perl on an Itanium system. This is
146because shared libraries created on an Itanium system cannot be loaded
147while running a PA-RISC executable.
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148
149=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on HP-UX
150
151HP-UX supports dynamically loadable libraries (shared libraries).
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152Shared libraries end with the suffix .sl. On Itanium systems,
153they end with the suffix .so.
f2a260d6 154
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155Shared libraries created on a platform using a particular PA-RISC
156version are not usable on platforms using an earlier PA-RISC version by
157default. However, this backwards compatibility may be enabled using the
158same +DAportable compiler flag (with the same PA-RISC 1.0 caveat
159mentioned above).
f2a260d6 160
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161Shared libraries created on an Itanium platform cannot be loaded on
162a PA-RISC platform. Shared libraries created on a PA-RISC platform
163can only be loaded on an Itanium platform if it is a PA-RISC executable
164that is attempting to load the PA-RISC library. A PA-RISC shared
165library cannot be loaded into an Itanium executable nor vice-versa.
166
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167To create a shared library, the following steps must be performed:
168
169 1. Compile source modules with +z or +Z flag to create a .o module
170 which contains Position-Independent Code (PIC). The linker will
171 tell you in the next step if +Z was needed.
172
173 2. Link the shared library using the -b flag. If the code calls
174 any functions in other system libraries (e.g., libm), it must
175 be included on this line.
176
177(Note that these steps are usually handled automatically by the extension's
178Makefile).
179
180If these dependent libraries are not listed at shared library creation
181time, you will get fatal "Unresolved symbol" errors at run time when the
182library is loaded.
183
a75f7dba 184You may create a shared library that refers to another library, which
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185may be either an archive library or a shared library. If this second
186library is a shared library, this is called a "dependent library". The
187dependent library's name is recorded in the main shared library, but it
188is not linked into the shared library. Instead, it is loaded when the
189main shared library is loaded. This can cause problems if you build an
190extension on one system and move it to another system where the
191libraries may not be located in the same place as on the first system.
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192
193If the referred library is an archive library, then it is treated as a
194simple collection of .o modules (all of which must contain PIC). These
195modules are then linked into the shared library.
196
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197Note that it is okay to create a library which contains a dependent
198library that is already linked into perl.
f2a260d6 199
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200Some extensions, like DB_File and Compress::Zlib use/require prebuilt
201libraries for the perl extensions/modules to work. If these libraries
202are built using the default configuration, it might happen that you run
203into an error like "invalid loader fixup" during load phase. HP is aware
204of this problem and address it at
205 http://devresource.hp.com/devresource/Docs/TechTips/cxxTips.html#tip13
206
207A more general approach is to intervene manually, as with an example for
208the DB_File module, which requires SleepyCat's libdb.sl:
209
210 # cd .../db-3.2.9/build_unix
211 # vi Makefile
212 ... add +Z to all cflags to create shared objects
213 CFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
214 -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
215 CXXFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
216 -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
217
218 # make clean
219 # make
220 # mkdir tmp
221 # cd tmp
222 # ar x ../libdb.a
223 # ld -b -o libdb-3.2.sl *.o
224 # mv libdb-3.2.sl /usr/local/lib
225 # rm *.o
226 # cd /usr/local/lib
227 # rm -f libdb.sl
228 # ln -s libdb-3.2.sl libdb.sl
229
230 # cd .../DB_File-1.76
231 # make distclean
232 # perl Makefile.PL
233 # make
234 # make test
235 # make install
236
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237It is no longer possible to link PA-RISC 1.0 shared libraries (even
238though the command-line flags are still present).
239
240PA-RISC and Itanium object files are not interchangeable. Although
241you may be able to use ar to create an archive library of PA-RISC
242object files on an Itanium system, you cannot link against it using
243an Itanium link editor.
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244
245=head2 The HP ANSI C Compiler
246
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247When using this compiler to build Perl, you should make sure that the
248flag -Aa is added to the cpprun and cppstdin variables in the config.sh
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249file (though see the section on 64-bit perl below). If you are using a
250recent version of the Perl distribution, these flags are set automatically.
f2a260d6 251
a83b6f46 252=head2 Using Large Files with Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 253
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254Beginning with HP-UX version 10.20, files larger than 2GB (2^31 bytes)
255may be created and manipulated. Three separate methods of doing this
256are available. Of these methods, the best method for Perl is to compile
257using the -Duselargefiles flag to Configure. This causes Perl to be
258compiled using structures and functions in which these are 64 bits wide,
259rather than 32 bits wide. (Note that this will only work with HP's ANSI
260C compiler. If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get
261a version of the compiler that support 64-bit operations.)
262
263There are some drawbacks to this approach. One is that any extension
264which calls any file-manipulating C function will need to be recompiled
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265(just follow the usual "perl Makefile.PL; make; make test; make install"
266procedure).
60ed1d8c 267
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268The list of functions that will need to recompiled is:
269creat, fgetpos, fopen,
270freopen, fsetpos, fstat,
271fstatvfs, fstatvfsdev, ftruncate,
272ftw, lockf, lseek,
273lstat, mmap, nftw,
274open, prealloc, stat,
275statvfs, statvfsdev, tmpfile,
276truncate, getrlimit, setrlimit
f2a260d6 277
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278Another drawback is only valid for Perl versions before 5.6.0. This
279drawback is that the seek and tell functions (both the builtin version
280and POSIX module version) will not perform correctly.
281
282It is strongly recommended that you use this flag when you run
283Configure. If you do not do this, but later answer the question about
284large files when Configure asks you, you may get a configuration that
285cannot be compiled, or that does not function as expected.
286
a83b6f46 287=head2 Threaded Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 288
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289It is possible to compile a version of threaded Perl on any version of
290HP-UX before 10.30, but it is strongly suggested that you be running on
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291HP-UX 11.00 at least.
292
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293To compile Perl with threads, add -Dusethreads to the arguments of
294Configure. Verify that the -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L compiler flag is
295automatically added to the list of flags. Also make sure that -lpthread
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296is listed before -lc in the list of libraries to link Perl with. The
297hints provided for HP-UX during Configure will try very hard to get
298this right for you.
f2a260d6 299
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300HP-UX versions before 10.30 require a seperate installation of a POSIX
301threads library package. Two examples are the HP DCE package, available
302on "HP-UX Hardware Extensions 3.0, Install and Core OS, Release 10.20,
303April 1999 (B3920-13941)" or the Freely available PTH package, available
304though worldwide HP-UX mirrors of precompiled packages
305(e.g. http://hpux.tn.tudelft.nl/hppd/hpux/alpha.html)
306
a83b6f46 307=head2 64-bit Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 308
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309Beginning with HP-UX 11.00, programs compiled under HP-UX can take
310advantage of the LP64 programming environment (LP64 means Longs and
311Pointers are 64 bits wide).
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313Work is being performed on Perl to make it 64-bit compliant on all
314versions of Unix. Once this is complete, scalar variables will be able
315to hold numbers larger than 2^32 with complete precision.
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316
317As of the date of this document, Perl is not 64-bit compliant on HP-UX.
318
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319Should a user wish to experiment with compiling Perl in the LP64
320environment, use the -Duse64bitall flag to Configure. This will force
321Perl to be compiled in a pure LP64 environment (via the +DD64 flag).
f74a9bd3 322
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323You can also use the -Duse64bitint flag to Configure. Although there
324are some minor differences between compiling Perl with this flag versus
325the -Duse64bitall flag, they should not be noticeable from a Perl user's
326perspective.
f74a9bd3 327
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328In both cases, it is strongly recommended that you use these flags when
329you run Configure. If you do not use do this, but later answer the
330questions about 64-bit numbers when Configure asks you, you may get a
331configuration that cannot be compiled, or that does not function as
332expected.
f74a9bd3 333
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334(Note that these Configure flags will only work with HP's ANSI C
335compiler. If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get a
336version of the compiler that support 64-bit operations.)
f2a260d6 337
a83b6f46 338=head2 GDBM and Threads on HP-UX
d66be8f9 339
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340If you attempt to compile Perl with threads on an 11.X system and also
341link in the GDBM library, then Perl will immediately core dump when it
342starts up. The only workaround at this point is to relink the GDBM
343library under 11.X, then relink it into Perl.
d66be8f9 344
a83b6f46 345=head2 NFS filesystems and utime(2) on HP-UX
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346
347If you are compiling Perl on a remotely-mounted NFS filesystem, the test
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348io/fs.t may fail on test #18. This appears to be a bug in HP-UX and no
349fix is currently available.
d66be8f9 350
a83b6f46 351=head2 perl -P and // and HP-UX
183968aa 352
efdf3af0 353In HP-UX Perl is compiled with flags that will cause problems if the
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354-P flag of Perl (preprocess Perl code with the C preprocessor before
355perl sees it) is used. The problem is that C<//>, being a C++-style
356until-end-of-line comment, will disappear along with the remainder
357of the line. This means that common Perl constructs like
358
efdf3af0 359 s/foo//;
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360
361will turn into illegal code
362
efdf3af0 363 s/foo
183968aa 364
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365The workaround is to use some other quoting separator than C<"/">,
366like for example C<"!">:
183968aa 367
efdf3af0 368 s!foo!!;
183968aa 369
a83b6f46 370=head2 HP-UX Kernel Parameters (maxdsiz) for Compiling Perl
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371
372By default, HP-UX comes configured with a maximum data segment size of
37364MB. This is too small to correctly compile Perl with the maximum
374optimization levels. You can increase the size of the maxdsiz kernel
375parameter through the use of SAM.
376
377When using the GUI version of SAM, click on the Kernel Configuration
378icon, then the Configurable Parameters icon. Scroll down and select
379the maxdsiz line. From the Actions menu, select the Modify Configurable
380Parameter item. Insert the new formula into the Formula/Value box.
381Then follow the instructions to rebuild your kernel and reboot your
382system.
383
384In general, a value of 256MB (or "256*1024*1024") is sufficient for
385Perl to compile at maximum optimization.
386
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387=head1 nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
388
389You may get a bus error core dump from the op/pwent or op/grent
390tests. If compiled with -g you will see a stack trace much like
391the following:
392
393 #0 0xc004216c in () from /usr/lib/libc.2
394 #1 0xc00d7550 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
395 #2 0xc00d7768 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
396 #3 0xc00d78a8 in nss_delete () from /usr/lib/libc.2
397 #4 0xc01126d8 in endpwent () from /usr/lib/libc.2
398 #5 0xd1950 in Perl_pp_epwent () from ./perl
399 #6 0x94d3c in Perl_runops_standard () from ./perl
400 #7 0x23728 in S_run_body () from ./perl
401 #8 0x23428 in perl_run () from ./perl
402 #9 0x2005c in main () from ./perl
403
404The key here is the C<nss_delete> call. One workaround for this
405bug seems to be to create add to the file F</etc/nsswitch.conf>
406(at least) the following lines
407
408 group: files
409 passwd: files
410
411Whether you are using NIS does not matter. Amazingly enough,
412the same bug affects also Solaris.
413
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414=head1 AUTHOR
415
416Jeff Okamoto <okamoto@corp.hp.com>
417
418With much assistance regarding shared libraries from Marc Sabatella.
419
420=head1 DATE
421
1a4e8251 422Version 0.6.4: 2001-10-09
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423
424=cut