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[perl5.git] / pod / perlmodlib.pod
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1=for maintainers
2Generated by perlmodlib.PL -- DO NOT EDIT!
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4=head1 NAME
5
6perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones
7
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8=head1 THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY
9
7ef5744c 10Many modules are included in the Perl distribution. These are described
19799a22 11below, and all end in F<.pm>. You may discover compiled library
7ef5744c 12files (usually ending in F<.so>) or small pieces of modules to be
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13autoloaded (ending in F<.al>); these were automatically generated
14by the installation process. You may also discover files in the
15library directory that end in either F<.pl> or F<.ph>. These are
16old libraries supplied so that old programs that use them still
17run. The F<.pl> files will all eventually be converted into standard
18modules, and the F<.ph> files made by B<h2ph> will probably end up
19as extension modules made by B<h2xs>. (Some F<.ph> values may
20already be available through the POSIX, Errno, or Fcntl modules.)
21The B<pl2pm> file in the distribution may help in your conversion,
22but it's just a mechanical process and therefore far from bulletproof.
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23
24=head2 Pragmatic Modules
25
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26They work somewhat like compiler directives (pragmata) in that they
27tend to affect the compilation of your program, and thus will usually
28work well only when used within a C<use>, or C<no>. Most of these
29are lexically scoped, so an inner BLOCK may countermand them
30by saying:
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31
32 no integer;
33 no strict 'refs';
4438c4b7 34 no warnings;
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35
36which lasts until the end of that BLOCK.
37
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38Some pragmas are lexically scoped--typically those that affect the
39C<$^H> hints variable. Others affect the current package instead,
77ca0c92 40like C<use vars> and C<use subs>, which allow you to predeclare a
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41variables or subroutines within a particular I<file> rather than
42just a block. Such declarations are effective for the entire file
43for which they were declared. You cannot rescind them with C<no
44vars> or C<no subs>.
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45
46The following pragmas are defined (and have their own documentation).
47
48=over 12
49
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50=item assertions
51
5c5c2539 52Select assertions in blocks of code
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53
54=item assertions::activate
55
5c5c2539 56Activate assertions
a4373870 57
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58=item attributes
59
9e107c59 60Get/set subroutine or variable attributes
09bef843 61
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62=item attrs
63
64Set/get attributes of a subroutine (deprecated)
65
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66=item autouse
67
9e107c59 68Postpone load of modules until a function is used
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69
70=item base
71
72Establish IS-A relationship with base class at compile time
f102b883 73
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74=item bigint
75
7ef5744c 76Transparent BigInteger support for Perl
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77
78=item bignum
79
80Transparent BigNumber support for Perl
81
82=item bigrat
83
7ef5744c 84Transparent BigNumber/BigRationale support for Perl
fa1c7b03 85
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86=item blib
87
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88Use MakeMaker's uninstalled version of a package
89
2e1d04bc 90=item bytes
9e107c59 91
2e1d04bc 92Force byte semantics rather than character semantics
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93
94=item charnames
95
ec90690f 96Define character names for C<\N{named}> string literal escapes
9e107c59 97
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98=item constant
99
9e107c59 100Declare constants
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101
102=item diagnostics
103
2e1d04bc 104Perl compiler pragma to force verbose warning diagnostics
19799a22 105
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106=item encoding
107
ec90690f 108Allows you to write your script in non-ascii or non-utf8
1bb908c3 109
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110=item fields
111
2e1d04bc 112Compile-time class fields
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113
114=item filetest
115
2e1d04bc 116Control the filetest permission operators
f102b883 117
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118=item if
119
120C<use> a Perl module if a condition holds
121
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122=item integer
123
4e860d0a 124Use integer arithmetic instead of floating point
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125
126=item less
127
2e1d04bc 128Request less of something from the compiler
f102b883 129
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130=item lib
131
132Manipulate @INC at compile time
133
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134=item locale
135
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136Use and avoid POSIX locales for built-in operations
137
138=item open
139
cb9c8b59 140Set default PerlIO layers for input and output
f102b883 141
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142=item ops
143
144Restrict unsafe operations when compiling
145
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146=item overload
147
2e1d04bc 148Package for overloading perl operations
f102b883 149
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150=item re
151
152Alter regular expression behaviour
153
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154=item sigtrap
155
9e107c59 156Enable simple signal handling
f102b883 157
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158=item sort
159
160Control sort() behaviour
161
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162=item strict
163
9e107c59 164Restrict unsafe constructs
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165
166=item subs
167
2e1d04bc 168Predeclare sub names
f102b883 169
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170=item threads
171
172Perl extension allowing use of interpreter based threads from perl
173
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174=item threads::shared
175
176Perl extension for sharing data structures between threads
177
19799a22 178=item utf8
f102b883 179
1fa7ca25 180Enable/disable UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) in source code
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181
182=item vars
183
2e1d04bc 184Predeclare global variable names (obsolete)
f102b883 185
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186=item version
187
188Perl extension for Version Objects
189
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190=item vmsish
191
192Control VMS-specific language features
193
4438c4b7 194=item warnings
0453d815 195
9e107c59 196Control optional warnings
19799a22 197
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198=item warnings::register
199
200Warnings import function
201
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202=back
203
204=head2 Standard Modules
205
206Standard, bundled modules are all expected to behave in a well-defined
207manner with respect to namespace pollution because they use the
208Exporter module. See their own documentation for details.
209
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210It's possible that not all modules listed below are installed on your
211system. For example, the GDBM_File module will not be installed if you
212don't have the gdbm library.
213
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214=over 12
215
216=item AnyDBM_File
217
2e1d04bc 218Provide framework for multiple DBMs
f102b883 219
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220=item Attribute::Handlers
221
222Simpler definition of attribute handlers
223
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224=item AutoLoader
225
9e107c59 226Load subroutines only on demand
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227
228=item AutoSplit
229
9e107c59 230Split a package for autoloading
f102b883 231
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232=item B
233
234The Perl Compiler
235
236=item B::Asmdata
237
238Autogenerated data about Perl ops, used to generate bytecode
239
240=item B::Assembler
241
242Assemble Perl bytecode
243
244=item B::Bblock
245
246Walk basic blocks
247
248=item B::Bytecode
249
250Perl compiler's bytecode backend
251
252=item B::C
253
254Perl compiler's C backend
255
256=item B::CC
257
258Perl compiler's optimized C translation backend
259
260=item B::Concise
261
262Walk Perl syntax tree, printing concise info about ops
263
264=item B::Debug
265
266Walk Perl syntax tree, printing debug info about ops
267
268=item B::Deparse
269
270Perl compiler backend to produce perl code
271
272=item B::Disassembler
273
274Disassemble Perl bytecode
275
276=item B::Lint
277
278Perl lint
279
280=item B::Showlex
281
282Show lexical variables used in functions or files
283
284=item B::Stackobj
285
286Helper module for CC backend
287
288=item B::Stash
289
290Show what stashes are loaded
291
292=item B::Terse
293
294Walk Perl syntax tree, printing terse info about ops
295
296=item B::Xref
297
298Generates cross reference reports for Perl programs
299
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300=item Benchmark
301
2e1d04bc 302Benchmark running times of Perl code
9e107c59 303
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304=item ByteLoader
305
306Load byte compiled perl code
307
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308=item CGI
309
2e1d04bc 310Simple Common Gateway Interface Class
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311
312=item CGI::Apache
313
2e1d04bc 314Backward compatibility module for CGI.pm
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315
316=item CGI::Carp
317
318CGI routines for writing to the HTTPD (or other) error log
319
320=item CGI::Cookie
321
322Interface to Netscape Cookies
323
324=item CGI::Fast
325
326CGI Interface for Fast CGI
327
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328=item CGI::Pretty
329
330Module to produce nicely formatted HTML code
331
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332=item CGI::Push
333
334Simple Interface to Server Push
335
336=item CGI::Switch
337
2e1d04bc 338Backward compatibility module for defunct CGI::Switch
19799a22 339
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340=item CGI::Util
341
342Internal utilities used by CGI module
343
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344=item CPAN
345
2e1d04bc 346Query, download and build perl modules from CPAN sites
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347
348=item CPAN::FirstTime
349
2e1d04bc 350Utility for CPAN::Config file Initialization
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351
352=item CPAN::Nox
353
19799a22 354Wrapper around CPAN.pm without using any XS module
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355
356=item Carp
357
2e1d04bc 358Warn of errors (from perspective of caller)
9e107c59 359
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360=item Carp::Heavy
361
362No user serviceable parts inside
363
364=item Class::ISA
365
366Report the search path for a class's ISA tree
367
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368=item Class::Struct
369
9e107c59 370Declare struct-like datatypes as Perl classes
f102b883 371
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372=item Config
373
374Access Perl configuration information
375
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376=item Cwd
377
9e107c59 378Get pathname of current working directory
f102b883 379
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380=item DB
381
2e1d04bc 382Programmatic interface to the Perl debugging API (draft, subject to
19799a22 383
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384=item DB_File
385
386Perl5 access to Berkeley DB version 1.x
387
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388=item Data::Dumper
389
390Stringified perl data structures, suitable for both printing and C<eval>
391
392=item Devel::DProf
393
394A Perl code profiler
395
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396=item Devel::PPPort
397
398Perl/Pollution/Portability
399
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400=item Devel::Peek
401
402A data debugging tool for the XS programmer
403
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404=item Devel::SelfStubber
405
9e107c59 406Generate stubs for a SelfLoading module
f102b883 407
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408=item Digest
409
410Modules that calculate message digests
411
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412=item Digest::MD5
413
414Perl interface to the MD5 Algorithm
415
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416=item DirHandle
417
9e107c59 418Supply object methods for directory handles
f102b883 419
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420=item Dumpvalue
421
2e1d04bc 422Provides screen dump of Perl data.
f102b883 423
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424=item DynaLoader
425
426Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code
427
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428=item Encode
429
430Character encodings
431
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432=item Encode::Alias
433
434Alias definitions to encodings
435
436=item Encode::Byte
437
438Single Byte Encodings
439
440=item Encode::CJKConstants
441
442Internally used by Encode::??::ISO_2022_*
443
444=item Encode::CN
445
446China-based Chinese Encodings
447
448=item Encode::CN::HZ
449
450Internally used by Encode::CN
451
452=item Encode::Config
453
454Internally used by Encode
455
456=item Encode::EBCDIC
457
458EBCDIC Encodings
459
460=item Encode::Encoder
461
462Object Oriented Encoder
463
464=item Encode::Encoding
465
466Encode Implementation Base Class
467
468=item Encode::Guess
469
470Guesses encoding from data
471
472=item Encode::JP
473
474Japanese Encodings
475
476=item Encode::JP::H2Z
477
478Internally used by Encode::JP::2022_JP*
479
480=item Encode::JP::JIS7
481
482Internally used by Encode::JP
483
484=item Encode::KR
485
486Korean Encodings
487
488=item Encode::KR::2022_KR
489
490Internally used by Encode::KR
491
492=item Encode::MIME::Header
493
494MIME 'B' and 'Q' header encoding
495
496=item Encode::PerlIO
497
498A detailed document on Encode and PerlIO
499
500=item Encode::Supported
501
502Encodings supported by Encode
503
504=item Encode::Symbol
505
506Symbol Encodings
507
508=item Encode::TW
509
510Taiwan-based Chinese Encodings
511
512=item Encode::Unicode
513
514Various Unicode Transformation Formats
515
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516=item Encode::Unicode::UTF7
517
518UTF-7 encoding
519
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520=item English
521
2e1d04bc 522Use nice English (or awk) names for ugly punctuation variables
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523
524=item Env
525
2e1d04bc 526Perl module that imports environment variables as scalars or arrays
f102b883 527
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528=item Errno
529
530System errno constants
531
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532=item Exporter
533
2e1d04bc 534Implements default import method for modules
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535
536=item Exporter::Heavy
537
538Exporter guts
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539
540=item ExtUtils::Command
541
2e1d04bc 542Utilities to replace common UNIX commands in Makefiles etc.
f102b883 543
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544=item ExtUtils::Command::MM
545
546Commands for the MM's to use in Makefiles
547
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548=item ExtUtils::Constant
549
550Generate XS code to import C header constants
551
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552=item ExtUtils::Embed
553
2e1d04bc 554Utilities for embedding Perl in C/C++ applications
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555
556=item ExtUtils::Install
557
9e107c59 558Install files from here to there
f102b883 559
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560=item ExtUtils::Installed
561
562Inventory management of installed modules
563
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564=item ExtUtils::Liblist
565
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566Determine libraries to use and how to use them
567
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568=item ExtUtils::MM
569
570OS adjusted ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass
571
572=item ExtUtils::MM_Any
573
574Platform agnostic MM methods
575
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576=item ExtUtils::MM_BeOS
577
578Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
579
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580=item ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin
581
2e1d04bc 582Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
f102b883 583
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584=item ExtUtils::MM_DOS
585
586DOS specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix
587
588=item ExtUtils::MM_MacOS
589
590Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
591
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592=item ExtUtils::MM_NW5
593
594Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
595
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596=item ExtUtils::MM_OS2
597
2e1d04bc 598Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
f102b883 599
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600=item ExtUtils::MM_UWIN
601
602U/WIN specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix
603
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604=item ExtUtils::MM_Unix
605
9e107c59 606Methods used by ExtUtils::MakeMaker
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607
608=item ExtUtils::MM_VMS
609
2e1d04bc 610Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
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611
612=item ExtUtils::MM_Win32
613
2e1d04bc 614Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
f102b883 615
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616=item ExtUtils::MM_Win95
617
618Method to customize MakeMaker for Win9X
619
620=item ExtUtils::MY
621
622ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass for customization
623
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624=item ExtUtils::MakeMaker
625
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626Create a module Makefile
627
628=item ExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ
629
630Frequently Asked Questions About MakeMaker
631
632=item ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Tutorial
633
634Writing a module with MakeMaker
635
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636=item ExtUtils::MakeMaker::bytes
637
638Version agnostic bytes.pm
639
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640=item ExtUtils::MakeMaker::vmsish
641
642Platform agnostic vmsish.pm
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643
644=item ExtUtils::Manifest
645
9e107c59 646Utilities to write and check a MANIFEST file
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647
648=item ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap
649
9e107c59 650Make a bootstrap file for use by DynaLoader
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651
652=item ExtUtils::Mksymlists
653
9e107c59 654Write linker options files for dynamic extension
f102b883 655
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656=item ExtUtils::Packlist
657
9e107c59 658Manage .packlist files
19799a22 659
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660=item ExtUtils::testlib
661
9e107c59 662Add blib/* directories to @INC
f102b883 663
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664=item Fatal
665
9e107c59 666Replace functions with equivalents which succeed or die
b6c543e3 667
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668=item Fcntl
669
670Load the C Fcntl.h defines
671
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672=item File::Basename
673
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674Split a pathname into pieces
675
676=item File::CheckTree
677
678Run many filetest checks on a tree
f102b883 679
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680=item File::Compare
681
19799a22 682Compare files or filehandles
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683
684=item File::Copy
685
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686Copy files or filehandles
687
688=item File::DosGlob
689
2e1d04bc 690DOS like globbing and then some
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691
692=item File::Find
693
d63e6bb6 694Traverse a directory tree.
f102b883 695
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696=item File::Glob
697
698Perl extension for BSD glob routine
699
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700=item File::Path
701
2e1d04bc 702Create or remove directory trees
f102b883 703
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704=item File::Spec
705
9e107c59 706Portably perform operations on file names
f505c983 707
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708=item File::Spec::Cygwin
709
710Methods for Cygwin file specs
711
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712=item File::Spec::Epoc
713
714Methods for Epoc file specs
715
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716=item File::Spec::Functions
717
9e107c59 718Portably perform operations on file names
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719
720=item File::Spec::Mac
721
1bb908c3 722File::Spec for Mac OS (Classic)
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723
724=item File::Spec::OS2
725
9e107c59 726Methods for OS/2 file specs
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727
728=item File::Spec::Unix
729
e61ecf27 730File::Spec for Unix, base for other File::Spec modules
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731
732=item File::Spec::VMS
733
9e107c59 734Methods for VMS file specs
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735
736=item File::Spec::Win32
737
9e107c59 738Methods for Win32 file specs
f505c983 739
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740=item File::Temp
741
742Return name and handle of a temporary file safely
743
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744=item File::stat
745
9e107c59 746By-name interface to Perl's built-in stat() functions
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747
748=item FileCache
749
9e107c59 750Keep more files open than the system permits
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751
752=item FileHandle
753
9e107c59 754Supply object methods for filehandles
f102b883 755
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756=item Filter::Simple
757
758Simplified source filtering
759
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760=item Filter::Util::Call
761
762Perl Source Filter Utility Module
763
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764=item FindBin
765
2e1d04bc 766Locate directory of original perl script
f102b883 767
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768=item GDBM_File
769
770Perl5 access to the gdbm library.
771
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772=item Getopt::Long
773
9e107c59 774Extended processing of command line options
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775
776=item Getopt::Std
777
19799a22 778Process single-character switches with switch clustering
f102b883 779
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780=item Hash::Util
781
782A selection of general-utility hash subroutines
783
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784=item I18N::Collate
785
2e1d04bc 786Compare 8-bit scalar data according to the current locale
f102b883 787
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788=item I18N::LangTags
789
790Functions for dealing with RFC3066-style language tags
791
792=item I18N::LangTags::List
793
4f233aa4 794Tags and names for human languages
422a9aca 795
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796=item I18N::Langinfo
797
798Query locale information
799
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800=item IO
801
802Load various IO modules
803
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804=item IO::Dir
805
806Supply object methods for directory handles
807
808=item IO::File
809
810Supply object methods for filehandles
811
812=item IO::Handle
813
814Supply object methods for I/O handles
815
816=item IO::Pipe
817
818Supply object methods for pipes
819
820=item IO::Poll
821
822Object interface to system poll call
823
824=item IO::Seekable
825
826Supply seek based methods for I/O objects
827
828=item IO::Select
829
830OO interface to the select system call
831
832=item IO::Socket
833
834Object interface to socket communications
835
836=item IO::Socket::INET
837
838Object interface for AF_INET domain sockets
839
840=item IO::Socket::UNIX
841
842Object interface for AF_UNIX domain sockets
843
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844=item IPC::Open2
845
9e107c59 846Open a process for both reading and writing
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847
848=item IPC::Open3
849
9e107c59 850Open a process for reading, writing, and error handling
f102b883 851
7ef5744c
RGS
852=item IPC::SysV
853
854SysV IPC constants
855
856=item IPC::SysV::Msg
857
858SysV Msg IPC object class
859
860=item IPC::SysV::Semaphore
861
862SysV Semaphore IPC object class
863
864=item List::Util
865
866A selection of general-utility list subroutines
867
4e860d0a
JH
868=item Locale::Constants
869
870Constants for Locale codes
871
872=item Locale::Country
873
874ISO codes for country identification (ISO 3166)
875
876=item Locale::Currency
877
878ISO three letter codes for currency identification (ISO 4217)
879
880=item Locale::Language
881
882ISO two letter codes for language identification (ISO 639)
883
422a9aca
JH
884=item Locale::Maketext
885
886Framework for localization
887
888=item Locale::Maketext::TPJ13
889
890Article about software localization
891
d63e6bb6
JH
892=item Locale::Script
893
894ISO codes for script identification (ISO 15924)
895
7ef5744c
RGS
896=item MIME::Base64
897
898Encoding and decoding of base64 strings
899
900=item MIME::Base64::QuotedPrint
901
902Encoding and decoding of quoted-printable strings
903
f102b883
TC
904=item Math::BigFloat
905
5d80033a 906Arbitrary size floating point math package
f102b883
TC
907
908=item Math::BigInt
909
19799a22 910Arbitrary size integer math package
f102b883 911
d0363f02
JH
912=item Math::BigInt::Calc
913
914Pure Perl module to support Math::BigInt
915
7ef5744c
RGS
916=item Math::BigInt::Scalar
917
918Pure Perl module to test Math::BigInt with scalars
919
fa1c7b03
JH
920=item Math::BigRat
921
7ef5744c 922Arbitrarily big rationales
fa1c7b03 923
f102b883
TC
924=item Math::Complex
925
9e107c59 926Complex numbers and associated mathematical functions
f102b883 927
404b15a1
CS
928=item Math::Trig
929
9e107c59 930Trigonometric functions
f102b883 931
5d80033a
JH
932=item Memoize
933
ec90690f 934Make functions faster by trading space for time
5d80033a
JH
935
936=item Memoize::AnyDBM_File
937
938Glue to provide EXISTS for AnyDBM_File for Storable use
939
940=item Memoize::Expire
941
942Plug-in module for automatic expiration of memoized values
943
944=item Memoize::ExpireFile
945
946Test for Memoize expiration semantics
947
948=item Memoize::ExpireTest
949
950Test for Memoize expiration semantics
951
952=item Memoize::NDBM_File
953
954Glue to provide EXISTS for NDBM_File for Storable use
955
956=item Memoize::SDBM_File
957
958Glue to provide EXISTS for SDBM_File for Storable use
959
5d80033a
JH
960=item Memoize::Storable
961
962Store Memoized data in Storable database
963
ec90690f
ST
964=item NDBM_File
965
966Tied access to ndbm files
967
1fa7ca25
JH
968=item NEXT
969
970Provide a pseudo-class NEXT that allows method redispatch
971
5d80033a
JH
972=item Net::Cmd
973
974Network Command class (as used by FTP, SMTP etc)
975
976=item Net::Config
977
978Local configuration data for libnet
979
980=item Net::Domain
981
982Attempt to evaluate the current host's internet name and domain
983
5d80033a
JH
984=item Net::FTP
985
986FTP Client class
987
988=item Net::NNTP
989
990NNTP Client class
991
992=item Net::Netrc
993
994OO interface to users netrc file
995
5d80033a
JH
996=item Net::POP3
997
d63e6bb6 998Post Office Protocol 3 Client class (RFC1939)
5d80033a 999
f102b883
TC
1000=item Net::Ping
1001
9e107c59 1002Check a remote host for reachability
f102b883 1003
5d80033a
JH
1004=item Net::SMTP
1005
1006Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Client
1007
5d80033a
JH
1008=item Net::Time
1009
1010Time and daytime network client interface
1011
f102b883
TC
1012=item Net::hostent
1013
9e107c59 1014By-name interface to Perl's built-in gethost*() functions
f102b883 1015
5d80033a
JH
1016=item Net::libnetFAQ
1017
1018Libnet Frequently Asked Questions
1019
f102b883
TC
1020=item Net::netent
1021
9e107c59 1022By-name interface to Perl's built-in getnet*() functions
f102b883
TC
1023
1024=item Net::protoent
1025
9e107c59 1026By-name interface to Perl's built-in getproto*() functions
f102b883
TC
1027
1028=item Net::servent
1029
9e107c59 1030By-name interface to Perl's built-in getserv*() functions
f102b883 1031
ec90690f
ST
1032=item O
1033
1034Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends
1035
1036=item ODBM_File
1037
1038Tied access to odbm files
1039
1040=item Opcode
1041
1042Disable named opcodes when compiling perl code
1043
1044=item POSIX
1045
1046Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1
1047
4e860d0a
JH
1048=item PerlIO
1049
1050On demand loader for PerlIO layers and root of PerlIO::* name space
1051
7ef5744c
RGS
1052=item PerlIO::encoding
1053
1054Encoding layer
1055
1056=item PerlIO::scalar
1057
1058Support module for in-memory IO.
1059
1060=item PerlIO::via
1061
1062Helper class for PerlIO layers implemented in perl
1063
c40f6c4a
JH
1064=item PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint
1065
1066PerlIO layer for quoted-printable strings
1067
9e107c59
GS
1068=item Pod::Checker
1069
1070Check pod documents for syntax errors
1071
2e1d04bc
JH
1072=item Pod::Find
1073
1074Find POD documents in directory trees
1075
06a5f41f
JH
1076=item Pod::Functions
1077
1078Group Perl's functions a la perlfunc.pod
1079
19799a22
GS
1080=item Pod::Html
1081
9e107c59
GS
1082Module to convert pod files to HTML
1083
1084=item Pod::InputObjects
1085
2e1d04bc 1086Objects representing POD input paragraphs, commands, etc.
9e107c59 1087
13a2d996
SP
1088=item Pod::LaTeX
1089
1090Convert Pod data to formatted Latex
1091
9e107c59
GS
1092=item Pod::Man
1093
1094Convert POD data to formatted *roff input
1095
1bb908c3
JH
1096=item Pod::ParseLink
1097
248e172a 1098Parse an LE<lt>E<gt> formatting code in POD text
1bb908c3 1099
2e1d04bc
JH
1100=item Pod::ParseUtils
1101
1102Helpers for POD parsing and conversion
1103
9e107c59
GS
1104=item Pod::Parser
1105
1106Base class for creating POD filters and translators
1107
a4373870
CW
1108=item Pod::Perldoc::ToChecker
1109
1110Let Perldoc check Pod for errors
1111
1112=item Pod::Perldoc::ToMan
1113
1114Let Perldoc render Pod as man pages
1115
1116=item Pod::Perldoc::ToNroff
1117
1118Let Perldoc convert Pod to nroff
1119
1120=item Pod::Perldoc::ToPod
1121
1122Let Perldoc render Pod as ... Pod!
1123
1124=item Pod::Perldoc::ToRtf
1125
1126Let Perldoc render Pod as RTF
1127
1128=item Pod::Perldoc::ToText
1129
1130Let Perldoc render Pod as plaintext
1131
1132=item Pod::Perldoc::ToTk
1133
1134Let Perldoc use Tk::Pod to render Pod
1135
1136=item Pod::Perldoc::ToXml
1137
1138Let Perldoc render Pod as XML
1139
1140=item Pod::PlainText
1141
1142Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text
1143
2e1d04bc
JH
1144=item Pod::Plainer
1145
1146Perl extension for converting Pod to old style Pod.
1147
9e107c59
GS
1148=item Pod::Select
1149
1150Extract selected sections of POD from input
19799a22
GS
1151
1152=item Pod::Text
1153
9e107c59
GS
1154Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text
1155
1156=item Pod::Text::Color
1157
1158Convert POD data to formatted color ASCII text
1159
4e860d0a
JH
1160=item Pod::Text::Overstrike
1161
1162Convert POD data to formatted overstrike text
1163
2e1d04bc
JH
1164=item Pod::Text::Termcap
1165
1166Convert POD data to ASCII text with format escapes
1167
9e107c59
GS
1168=item Pod::Usage
1169
1170Print a usage message from embedded pod documentation
f102b883 1171
ec90690f
ST
1172=item SDBM_File
1173
1174Tied access to sdbm files
1175
1176=item Safe
1177
1178Compile and execute code in restricted compartments
1179
7ef5744c
RGS
1180=item Scalar::Util
1181
1182A selection of general-utility scalar subroutines
1183
f102b883
TC
1184=item Search::Dict
1185
9e107c59 1186Search for key in dictionary file
f102b883
TC
1187
1188=item SelectSaver
1189
9e107c59 1190Save and restore selected file handle
f102b883
TC
1191
1192=item SelfLoader
1193
9e107c59 1194Load functions only on demand
f102b883
TC
1195
1196=item Shell
1197
2e1d04bc 1198Run shell commands transparently within perl
f102b883 1199
ec90690f
ST
1200=item Socket
1201
1202Load the C socket.h defines and structure manipulators
1203
1204=item Storable
1205
1206Persistence for Perl data structures
1207
4e860d0a
JH
1208=item Switch
1209
1210A switch statement for Perl
1211
f102b883
TC
1212=item Symbol
1213
9e107c59 1214Manipulate Perl symbols and their names
f102b883 1215
7ef5744c
RGS
1216=item Sys::Hostname
1217
1218Try every conceivable way to get hostname
1219
1220=item Sys::Syslog
1221
1222Perl interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls
1223
2e1d04bc 1224=item Term::ANSIColor
f102b883 1225
2e1d04bc 1226Color screen output using ANSI escape sequences
f102b883
TC
1227
1228=item Term::Cap
1229
2e1d04bc 1230Perl termcap interface
f102b883
TC
1231
1232=item Term::Complete
1233
2e1d04bc 1234Perl word completion module
f102b883
TC
1235
1236=item Term::ReadLine
1237
7ef5744c 1238Perl interface to various C<readline> packages.
19799a22
GS
1239
1240=item Test
1241
9e107c59 1242Provides a simple framework for writing test scripts
f102b883 1243
1bb908c3
JH
1244=item Test::Builder
1245
1246Backend for building test libraries
1247
f102b883
TC
1248=item Test::Harness
1249
2e1d04bc 1250Run perl standard test scripts with statistics
f102b883 1251
d63e6bb6
JH
1252=item Test::Harness::Assert
1253
1254Simple assert
1255
1256=item Test::Harness::Iterator
1257
1258Internal Test::Harness Iterator
1259
1260=item Test::Harness::Straps
1261
1262Detailed analysis of test results
1263
7a49b635
JH
1264=item Test::More
1265
1266Yet another framework for writing test scripts
1267
1268=item Test::Simple
1269
1270Basic utilities for writing tests.
1271
e61ecf27
JH
1272=item Test::Tutorial
1273
1274A tutorial about writing really basic tests
1275
f102b883
TC
1276=item Text::Abbrev
1277
9e107c59 1278Create an abbreviation table from a list
f102b883 1279
4e860d0a
JH
1280=item Text::Balanced
1281
1282Extract delimited text sequences from strings.
1283
f102b883
TC
1284=item Text::ParseWords
1285
2e1d04bc 1286Parse text into an array of tokens or array of arrays
f102b883
TC
1287
1288=item Text::Soundex
1289
2e1d04bc 1290Implementation of the Soundex Algorithm as Described by Knuth
f102b883 1291
4e860d0a
JH
1292=item Text::Tabs
1293
1294Expand and unexpand tabs per the unix expand(1) and unexpand(1)
1295
f102b883
TC
1296=item Text::Wrap
1297
9e107c59 1298Line wrapping to form simple paragraphs
19799a22 1299
1bb908c3
JH
1300=item Thread
1301
416e7255 1302Manipulate threads in Perl (for old code only)
1bb908c3 1303
ec90690f
ST
1304=item Thread::Queue
1305
83272a45 1306Thread-safe queues
ec90690f
ST
1307
1308=item Thread::Semaphore
1309
83272a45 1310Thread-safe semaphores
ec90690f 1311
7ef5744c
RGS
1312=item Thread::Signal
1313
1314Start a thread which runs signal handlers reliably (for old code)
1315
1316=item Thread::Specific
1317
1318Thread-specific keys
1319
19799a22
GS
1320=item Tie::Array
1321
9e107c59 1322Base class for tied arrays
19799a22 1323
d63e6bb6
JH
1324=item Tie::File
1325
1326Access the lines of a disk file via a Perl array
1327
19799a22
GS
1328=item Tie::Handle
1329
9e107c59 1330Base class definitions for tied handles
19799a22 1331
9e107c59 1332=item Tie::Hash
f102b883 1333
9e107c59 1334Base class definitions for tied hashes
f102b883 1335
d63e6bb6
JH
1336=item Tie::Memoize
1337
1338Add data to hash when needed
1339
f102b883
TC
1340=item Tie::RefHash
1341
9e107c59 1342Use references as hash keys
f102b883 1343
9e107c59 1344=item Tie::Scalar
f102b883 1345
9e107c59 1346Base class definitions for tied scalars
f102b883
TC
1347
1348=item Tie::SubstrHash
1349
19799a22 1350Fixed-table-size, fixed-key-length hashing
f102b883 1351
7ef5744c
RGS
1352=item Time::HiRes
1353
1354High resolution alarm, sleep, gettimeofday, interval timers
1355
f102b883
TC
1356=item Time::Local
1357
9e107c59 1358Efficiently compute time from local and GMT time
f102b883
TC
1359
1360=item Time::gmtime
1361
9e107c59 1362By-name interface to Perl's built-in gmtime() function
f102b883
TC
1363
1364=item Time::localtime
1365
9e107c59 1366By-name interface to Perl's built-in localtime() function
f102b883
TC
1367
1368=item Time::tm
1369
9e107c59 1370Internal object used by Time::gmtime and Time::localtime
f102b883
TC
1371
1372=item UNIVERSAL
1373
9e107c59 1374Base class for ALL classes (blessed references)
f102b883 1375
e61ecf27
JH
1376=item Unicode::Collate
1377
ec90690f 1378Unicode Collation Algorithm
e61ecf27 1379
7ef5744c
RGS
1380=item Unicode::Normalize
1381
1382Unicode Normalization Forms
1383
e61ecf27 1384=item Unicode::UCD
fbe3d936
JH
1385
1386Unicode character database
1387
f102b883
TC
1388=item User::grent
1389
9e107c59 1390By-name interface to Perl's built-in getgr*() functions
f102b883
TC
1391
1392=item User::pwent
1393
9e107c59 1394By-name interface to Perl's built-in getpw*() functions
f102b883 1395
4e860d0a
JH
1396=item Win32
1397
1398Interfaces to some Win32 API Functions
1399
7ef5744c
RGS
1400=item XS::APItest
1401
1402Test the perl C API
1403
1404=item XS::Typemap
1405
1406Module to test the XS typemaps distributed with perl
1407
1408=item XSLoader
1409
1410Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code
1411
f102b883
TC
1412=back
1413
19799a22 1414To find out I<all> modules installed on your system, including
2e1d04bc 1415those without documentation or outside the standard release,
a4373870
CW
1416just use the following command (under the default win32 shell,
1417double quotes should be used instead of single quotes).
f102b883 1418
a4373870
CW
1419 % perl -MFile::Find=find -MFile::Spec::Functions -Tlwe \
1420 'find { wanted => sub { print canonpath $_ if /\.pm\z/ },
1421 no_chdir => 1 }, @INC'
f102b883 1422
8518420c 1423(The -T is here to prevent '.' from being listed in @INC.)
2e1d04bc
JH
1424They should all have their own documentation installed and accessible
1425via your system man(1) command. If you do not have a B<find>
19799a22
GS
1426program, you can use the Perl B<find2perl> program instead, which
1427generates Perl code as output you can run through perl. If you
1428have a B<man> program but it doesn't find your modules, you'll have
2e1d04bc
JH
1429to fix your manpath. See L<perl> for details. If you have no
1430system B<man> command, you might try the B<perldoc> program.
f102b883 1431
8518420c
RGS
1432Note also that the command C<perldoc perllocal> gives you a (possibly
1433incomplete) list of the modules that have been further installed on
1434your system. (The perllocal.pod file is updated by the standard MakeMaker
1435install process.)
1436
f102b883
TC
1437=head2 Extension Modules
1438
19799a22
GS
1439Extension modules are written in C (or a mix of Perl and C). They
1440are usually dynamically loaded into Perl if and when you need them,
d1be9408 1441but may also be linked in statically. Supported extension modules
19799a22 1442include Socket, Fcntl, and POSIX.
f102b883
TC
1443
1444Many popular C extension modules do not come bundled (at least, not
19799a22
GS
1445completely) due to their sizes, volatility, or simply lack of time
1446for adequate testing and configuration across the multitude of
1447platforms on which Perl was beta-tested. You are encouraged to
1448look for them on CPAN (described below), or using web search engines
7ef5744c 1449like Alta Vista or Google.
f102b883
TC
1450
1451=head1 CPAN
1452
19799a22
GS
1453CPAN stands for Comprehensive Perl Archive Network; it's a globally
1454replicated trove of Perl materials, including documentation, style
2e1d04bc 1455guides, tricks and traps, alternate ports to non-Unix systems and
19799a22 1456occasional binary distributions for these. Search engines for
1577cd80 1457CPAN can be found at http://www.cpan.org/
19799a22
GS
1458
1459Most importantly, CPAN includes around a thousand unbundled modules,
1460some of which require a C compiler to build. Major categories of
1461modules are:
f102b883 1462
4e860d0a 1463=over
f102b883
TC
1464
1465=item *
551e1d92 1466
f102b883
TC
1467Language Extensions and Documentation Tools
1468
1469=item *
551e1d92 1470
f102b883
TC
1471Development Support
1472
1473=item *
551e1d92 1474
f102b883
TC
1475Operating System Interfaces
1476
1477=item *
551e1d92 1478
f102b883
TC
1479Networking, Device Control (modems) and InterProcess Communication
1480
1481=item *
551e1d92 1482
f102b883
TC
1483Data Types and Data Type Utilities
1484
1485=item *
551e1d92 1486
f102b883
TC
1487Database Interfaces
1488
1489=item *
551e1d92 1490
f102b883
TC
1491User Interfaces
1492
1493=item *
551e1d92 1494
f102b883
TC
1495Interfaces to / Emulations of Other Programming Languages
1496
1497=item *
551e1d92 1498
f102b883
TC
1499File Names, File Systems and File Locking (see also File Handles)
1500
1501=item *
551e1d92 1502
f102b883
TC
1503String Processing, Language Text Processing, Parsing, and Searching
1504
1505=item *
551e1d92 1506
f102b883
TC
1507Option, Argument, Parameter, and Configuration File Processing
1508
1509=item *
551e1d92 1510
f102b883
TC
1511Internationalization and Locale
1512
1513=item *
551e1d92 1514
f102b883
TC
1515Authentication, Security, and Encryption
1516
1517=item *
551e1d92 1518
f102b883
TC
1519World Wide Web, HTML, HTTP, CGI, MIME
1520
1521=item *
551e1d92 1522
f102b883
TC
1523Server and Daemon Utilities
1524
1525=item *
551e1d92 1526
f102b883
TC
1527Archiving and Compression
1528
1529=item *
551e1d92 1530
f102b883
TC
1531Images, Pixmap and Bitmap Manipulation, Drawing, and Graphing
1532
1533=item *
551e1d92 1534
f102b883
TC
1535Mail and Usenet News
1536
1537=item *
551e1d92 1538
f102b883
TC
1539Control Flow Utilities (callbacks and exceptions etc)
1540
1541=item *
551e1d92 1542
f102b883
TC
1543File Handle and Input/Output Stream Utilities
1544
1545=item *
551e1d92 1546
f102b883
TC
1547Miscellaneous Modules
1548
1549=back
1550
5df44211
JH
1551The list of the registered CPAN sites as of this writing follows.
1552Please note that the sorting order is alphabetical on fields:
1553
1554Continent
1555 |
1556 |-->Country
1557 |
1558 |-->[state/province]
1559 |
1560 |-->ftp
1561 |
1562 |-->[http]
1563
1564and thus the North American servers happen to be listed between the
1565European and the South American sites.
1566
1567You should try to choose one close to you.
f102b883 1568
4e860d0a
JH
1569=head2 Africa
1570
cea6626f 1571=over 4
f102b883 1572
5df44211 1573=item South Africa
4e860d0a 1574
5c5c2539
JH
1575 http://ftp.rucus.ru.ac.za/pub/perl/CPAN/
1576 ftp://ftp.rucus.ru.ac.za/pub/perl/CPAN/
5df44211 1577 ftp://ftp.is.co.za/programming/perl/CPAN/
5df44211
JH
1578 ftp://ftp.saix.net/pub/CPAN/
1579 ftp://ftp.sun.ac.za/CPAN/CPAN/
4e860d0a
JH
1580
1581=back
1582
1583=head2 Asia
1584
1585=over 4
1586
5df44211 1587=item China
4e860d0a 1588
5c5c2539 1589 http://cpan.linuxforum.net/
5df44211
JH
1590 http://cpan.shellhung.org/
1591 ftp://ftp.shellhung.org/pub/CPAN
5c5c2539 1592 ftp://mirrors.hknet.com/CPAN
37a78d01 1593
5df44211 1594=item Indonesia
37a78d01 1595
5c5c2539 1596 http://mirrors.tf.itb.ac.id/cpan/
5df44211
JH
1597 http://cpan.cbn.net.id/
1598 ftp://ftp.cbn.net.id/mirror/CPAN
37a78d01 1599
5df44211 1600=item Israel
37a78d01 1601
5df44211
JH
1602 ftp://ftp.iglu.org.il/pub/CPAN/
1603 http://cpan.lerner.co.il/
1604 http://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/pub/software/perl/CPAN/
1605 ftp://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/pub/software/perl/CPAN/
37a78d01 1606
5df44211 1607=item Japan
37a78d01 1608
5df44211
JH
1609 ftp://ftp.u-aizu.ac.jp/pub/CPAN
1610 ftp://ftp.kddlabs.co.jp/CPAN/
1611 http://mirror.nucba.ac.jp/mirror/Perl/
1612 ftp://mirror.nucba.ac.jp/mirror/Perl/
5df44211
JH
1613 ftp://ftp.ayamura.org/pub/CPAN/
1614 ftp://ftp.jaist.ac.jp/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
1615 ftp://ftp.dti.ad.jp/pub/lang/CPAN/
1616 ftp://ftp.ring.gr.jp/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
37a78d01 1617
5c5c2539 1618=item Malaysia
37a78d01 1619
5c5c2539
JH
1620 http://cpan.MyBSD.org.my
1621 http://mirror.leafbug.org/pub/CPAN
1622 http://ossig.mncc.com.my/mirror/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 1623
5df44211 1624=item Russian Federation
4e860d0a 1625
5df44211
JH
1626 http://cpan.tomsk.ru
1627 ftp://cpan.tomsk.ru/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 1628
5df44211 1629=item Saudi Arabia
4e860d0a 1630
5df44211 1631 ftp://ftp.isu.net.sa/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1632
5df44211 1633=item Singapore
4e860d0a 1634
5c5c2539
JH
1635 http://CPAN.en.com.sg/
1636 ftp://cpan.en.com.sg/
5df44211
JH
1637 http://mirror.averse.net/pub/CPAN
1638 ftp://mirror.averse.net/pub/CPAN
5c5c2539
JH
1639 http://cpan.oss.eznetsols.org
1640 ftp://ftp.oss.eznetsols.org/cpan
4e860d0a 1641
5df44211 1642=item South Korea
4e860d0a 1643
5df44211
JH
1644 http://CPAN.bora.net/
1645 ftp://ftp.bora.net/pub/CPAN/
5c5c2539
JH
1646 http://mirror.kr.FreeBSD.org/CPAN
1647 ftp://ftp.kr.FreeBSD.org/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 1648
5df44211 1649=item Taiwan
4e860d0a 1650
5df44211 1651 ftp://ftp.nctu.edu.tw/UNIX/perl/CPAN
5c5c2539
JH
1652 http://cpan.cdpa.nsysu.edu.tw/
1653 ftp://cpan.cdpa.nsysu.edu.tw/pub/CPAN
1654 http://ftp.isu.edu.tw/pub/CPAN
1655 ftp://ftp.isu.edu.tw/pub/CPAN
5df44211
JH
1656 ftp://ftp1.sinica.edu.tw/pub1/perl/CPAN/
1657 http://ftp.tku.edu.tw/pub/CPAN/
1658 ftp://ftp.tku.edu.tw/pub/CPAN/
5df44211 1659=item Thailand
4e860d0a 1660
5df44211
JH
1661 ftp://ftp.loxinfo.co.th/pub/cpan/
1662 ftp://ftp.cs.riubon.ac.th/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
4e860d0a
JH
1663
1664=back
1665
1666=head2 Central America
1667
1668=over 4
1669
5df44211 1670=item Costa Rica
4e860d0a 1671
5df44211
JH
1672 http://ftp.ucr.ac.cr/Unix/CPAN/
1673 ftp://ftp.ucr.ac.cr/pub/Unix/CPAN/
4e860d0a
JH
1674
1675=back
1676
1677=head2 Europe
1678
1679=over 4
1680
5df44211 1681=item Austria
4e860d0a 1682
5df44211 1683 ftp://ftp.tuwien.ac.at/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1684
5df44211 1685=item Belgium
4e860d0a 1686
5df44211
JH
1687 http://ftp.easynet.be/pub/CPAN/
1688 ftp://ftp.easynet.be/pub/CPAN/
1689 http://cpan.skynet.be
5c5c2539 1690 ftp://ftp.cpan.skynet.be/pub/CPAN
5df44211 1691 ftp://ftp.kulnet.kuleuven.ac.be/pub/mirror/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1692
5df44211 1693=item Bulgaria
4e860d0a 1694
5c5c2539
JH
1695 http://cpan.online.bg
1696 ftp://cpan.online.bg/cpan
1697 http://cpan.zadnik.org
1698 ftp://ftp.zadnik.org/mirrors/CPAN/
5df44211
JH
1699 http://cpan.lirex.net/
1700 ftp://ftp.lirex.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN
4e860d0a 1701
5df44211 1702=item Croatia
4e860d0a 1703
5df44211
JH
1704 http://ftp.linux.hr/pub/CPAN/
1705 ftp://ftp.linux.hr/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1706
5df44211 1707=item Czech Republic
4e860d0a 1708
5df44211
JH
1709 http://ftp.fi.muni.cz/pub/CPAN/
1710 ftp://ftp.fi.muni.cz/pub/CPAN/
1711 ftp://sunsite.mff.cuni.cz/MIRRORS/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1712
5df44211 1713=item Denmark
4e860d0a 1714
5df44211
JH
1715 http://mirrors.sunsite.dk/cpan/
1716 ftp://sunsite.dk/mirrors/cpan/
1717 http://cpan.cybercity.dk
1718 http://www.cpan.dk/CPAN/
1719 ftp://www.cpan.dk/ftp.cpan.org/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1720
5df44211 1721=item Estonia
4e860d0a 1722
5df44211 1723 ftp://ftp.ut.ee/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1724
5df44211 1725=item Finland
4e860d0a 1726
5df44211 1727 ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
5c5c2539 1728 http://mirror.eunet.fi/CPAN
4e860d0a 1729
5df44211 1730=item France
37a78d01 1731
5c5c2539 1732 http://www.enstimac.fr/Perl/CPAN
5df44211
JH
1733 http://ftp.u-paris10.fr/perl/CPAN
1734 ftp://ftp.u-paris10.fr/perl/CPAN
1735 http://cpan.mirrors.easynet.fr/
1736 ftp://cpan.mirrors.easynet.fr/pub/ftp.cpan.org/
1737 ftp://ftp.club-internet.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/
1738 http://fr.cpan.org/
1739 ftp://ftp.lip6.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/
1740 ftp://ftp.oleane.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
1741 ftp://ftp.pasteur.fr/pub/computing/CPAN/
1742 http://mir2.ovh.net/ftp.cpan.org
1743 ftp://mir1.ovh.net/ftp.cpan.org
5c5c2539
JH
1744 http://ftp.crihan.fr/mirrors/ftp.cpan.org/
1745 ftp://ftp.crihan.fr/mirrors/ftp.cpan.org/
5df44211
JH
1746 http://ftp.u-strasbg.fr/CPAN
1747 ftp://ftp.u-strasbg.fr/CPAN
1748 http://cpan.cict.fr/
1749 ftp://cpan.cict.fr/pub/CPAN/
1750 ftp://ftp.uvsq.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/
37a78d01 1751
5df44211 1752=item Germany
37a78d01 1753
5c5c2539 1754 ftp://ftp.rub.de/pub/CPAN/
5df44211
JH
1755 ftp://ftp.freenet.de/pub/ftp.cpan.org/pub/CPAN/
1756 ftp://ftp.uni-erlangen.de/pub/source/CPAN/
1757 ftp://ftp-stud.fht-esslingen.de/pub/Mirrors/CPAN
1758 http://pandemonium.tiscali.de/pub/CPAN/
1759 ftp://pandemonium.tiscali.de/pub/CPAN/
1760 http://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
1761 ftp://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
1762 ftp://ftp.uni-hamburg.de/pub/soft/lang/perl/CPAN/
1763 ftp://ftp.leo.org/pub/CPAN/
1764 http://cpan.noris.de/
1765 ftp://cpan.noris.de/pub/CPAN/
1766 ftp://ftp.mpi-sb.mpg.de/pub/perl/CPAN/
1767 ftp://ftp.gmd.de/mirrors/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1768
5df44211 1769=item Greece
4e860d0a 1770
5c5c2539 1771 ftp://ftp.acn.gr/pub/lang/perl
5df44211
JH
1772 ftp://ftp.forthnet.gr/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
1773 ftp://ftp.ntua.gr/pub/lang/perl/
4e860d0a 1774
5df44211 1775=item Hungary
4e860d0a 1776
5df44211
JH
1777 http://ftp.kfki.hu/packages/perl/CPAN/
1778 ftp://ftp.kfki.hu/pub/packages/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1779
5df44211 1780=item Iceland
4e860d0a 1781
5df44211
JH
1782 http://ftp.rhnet.is/pub/CPAN/
1783 ftp://ftp.rhnet.is/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1784
5df44211 1785=item Ireland
4e860d0a 1786
5df44211
JH
1787 http://cpan.indigo.ie/
1788 ftp://cpan.indigo.ie/pub/CPAN/
5c5c2539
JH
1789 http://ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN
1790 ftp://ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN
5df44211
JH
1791 http://sunsite.compapp.dcu.ie/pub/perl/
1792 ftp://sunsite.compapp.dcu.ie/pub/perl/
4e860d0a 1793
5df44211 1794=item Italy
4e860d0a 1795
5df44211
JH
1796 http://cpan.nettuno.it/
1797 http://gusp.dyndns.org/CPAN/
1798 ftp://gusp.dyndns.org/pub/CPAN
1799 http://softcity.iol.it/cpan
1800 ftp://softcity.iol.it/pub/cpan
1801 ftp://ftp.unina.it/pub/Other/CPAN/CPAN/
1802 ftp://ftp.unipi.it/pub/mirror/perl/CPAN/
1803 ftp://cis.uniRoma2.it/CPAN/
1804 ftp://ftp.edisontel.it/pub/CPAN_Mirror/
5c5c2539 1805 http://cpan.flashnet.it/
5df44211 1806 ftp://ftp.flashnet.it/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1807
5df44211 1808=item Latvia
4e860d0a 1809
5df44211 1810 http://kvin.lv/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1811
5df44211 1812=item Lithuania
4e860d0a 1813
5df44211 1814 ftp://ftp.unix.lt/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1815
5df44211 1816=item Netherlands
4e860d0a 1817
5df44211
JH
1818 ftp://download.xs4all.nl/pub/mirror/CPAN/
1819 ftp://ftp.nl.uu.net/pub/CPAN/
1820 ftp://ftp.nluug.nl/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
1821 http://cpan.cybercomm.nl/
1822 ftp://mirror.cybercomm.nl/pub/CPAN
5c5c2539 1823 ftp://mirror.vuurwerk.nl/pub/CPAN/
5df44211
JH
1824 ftp://ftp.cpan.nl/pub/CPAN/
1825 http://ftp.easynet.nl/mirror/CPAN
1826 ftp://ftp.easynet.nl/mirror/CPAN
1827 http://archive.cs.uu.nl/mirror/CPAN/
1828 ftp://ftp.cs.uu.nl/mirror/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1829
5df44211
JH
1830=item Norway
1831
1832 ftp://ftp.uninett.no/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
1833 ftp://ftp.uit.no/pub/languages/perl/cpan/
1834
1835=item Poland
1836
5df44211
JH
1837 ftp://ftp.man.torun.pl/pub/doc/CPAN/
1838 ftp://sunsite.icm.edu.pl/pub/CPAN/
1839
1840=item Portugal
1841
1842 ftp://ftp.ua.pt/pub/CPAN/
1843 ftp://perl.di.uminho.pt/pub/CPAN/
1844 http://cpan.dei.uc.pt/
1845 ftp://ftp.dei.uc.pt/pub/CPAN
5c5c2539
JH
1846 ftp://ftp.nfsi.pt/pub/CPAN
1847 http://ftp.linux.pt/pub/mirrors/CPAN
1848 ftp://ftp.linux.pt/pub/mirrors/CPAN
5df44211
JH
1849 http://cpan.ip.pt/
1850 ftp://cpan.ip.pt/pub/cpan/
5c5c2539
JH
1851 http://cpan.telepac.pt/
1852 ftp://ftp.telepac.pt/pub/cpan/
4e860d0a 1853
5df44211 1854=item Romania
4e860d0a 1855
5c5c2539 1856 ftp://ftp.bio-net.ro/pub/CPAN
5df44211 1857 ftp://ftp.kappa.ro/pub/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN/
5c5c2539 1858 ftp://ftp.roedu.net/pub/CPAN/
5df44211 1859 ftp://ftp.dntis.ro/pub/cpan/
5c5c2539
JH
1860 ftp://ftp.iasi.roedu.net/pub/mirrors/ftp.cpan.org/
1861 http://cpan.ambra.ro/
1862 ftp://ftp.ambra.ro/pub/CPAN
5df44211
JH
1863 ftp://ftp.dnttm.ro/pub/CPAN/
1864 ftp://ftp.lasting.ro/pub/CPAN
1865 ftp://ftp.timisoara.roedu.net/mirrors/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1866
5df44211 1867=item Russia
4e860d0a 1868
5df44211
JH
1869 ftp://ftp.chg.ru/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
1870 http://cpan.rinet.ru/
1871 ftp://cpan.rinet.ru/pub/mirror/CPAN/
1872 ftp://ftp.aha.ru/pub/CPAN/
1873 http://cpan.sai.msu.ru/
1874 ftp://ftp.sai.msu.su/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1875
5df44211 1876=item Slovakia
4e860d0a 1877
5df44211 1878 ftp://ftp.cvt.stuba.sk/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1879
5df44211 1880=item Slovenia
4e860d0a 1881
5df44211 1882 ftp://ftp.arnes.si/software/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1883
5df44211 1884=item Spain
4e860d0a 1885
5df44211
JH
1886 http://cpan.imasd.elmundo.es/
1887 ftp://ftp.rediris.es/mirror/CPAN/
5c5c2539 1888 ftp.ri.telefonica-data.net
5df44211 1889 ftp://ftp.etse.urv.es/pub/perl/
4e860d0a 1890
5df44211 1891=item Sweden
4e860d0a 1892
5df44211
JH
1893 http://ftp.du.se/CPAN/
1894 ftp://ftp.du.se/pub/CPAN/
5c5c2539 1895 http://mirror.dataphone.se/CPAN
5df44211
JH
1896 ftp://mirror.dataphone.se/pub/CPAN
1897 ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1898
5df44211 1899=item Switzerland
4e860d0a 1900
5df44211
JH
1901 ftp://ftp.danyk.ch/CPAN/
1902 ftp://sunsite.cnlab-switch.ch/mirror/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1903
5df44211 1904=item Turkey
4e860d0a 1905
5df44211
JH
1906 http://ftp.ulak.net.tr/perl/CPAN/
1907 ftp://ftp.ulak.net.tr/perl/CPAN
1908 ftp://sunsite.bilkent.edu.tr/pub/languages/CPAN/
37a78d01 1909
5df44211 1910=item Ukraine
37a78d01 1911
5df44211
JH
1912 http://cpan.org.ua/
1913 ftp://cpan.org.ua/
1914 ftp://ftp.perl.org.ua/pub/CPAN/
5c5c2539
JH
1915 http://no-more.kiev.ua/CPAN/
1916 ftp://no-more.kiev.ua/pub/CPAN/
37a78d01 1917
5df44211 1918=item United Kingdom
556e28cf 1919
5df44211
JH
1920 http://www.mirror.ac.uk/sites/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
1921 ftp://ftp.mirror.ac.uk/sites/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
1922 http://cpan.teleglobe.net/
1923 ftp://cpan.teleglobe.net/pub/CPAN
5c5c2539
JH
1924 http://cpan.mirror.anlx.net/
1925 ftp://ftp.mirror.anlx.net/CPAN/
5df44211
JH
1926 ftp://ftp.demon.co.uk/pub/CPAN/
1927 http://cpan.m.flirble.org/
1928 ftp://ftp.flirble.org/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
1929 ftp://ftp.plig.org/pub/CPAN/
5c5c2539 1930 http://cpan.hambule.co.uk/
5df44211
JH
1931 http://cpan.mirrors.clockerz.net/
1932 ftp://ftp.clockerz.net/pub/CPAN/
1933 ftp://usit.shef.ac.uk/pub/packages/CPAN/
556e28cf 1934
4e860d0a
JH
1935=back
1936
1937=head2 North America
1938
1939=over 4
1940
5c5c2539
JH
1941=item Canada
1942
1943=over 4
1944
5df44211 1945=item Alberta
4e860d0a 1946
5c5c2539
JH
1947 http://cpan.sunsite.ualberta.ca/
1948 ftp://cpan.sunsite.ualberta.ca/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1949
5df44211 1950=item Manitoba
4e860d0a 1951
5df44211
JH
1952 http://theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca/pub/CPAN/
1953 ftp://theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1954
5df44211 1955=item Nova Scotia
4e860d0a 1956
5df44211 1957 ftp://cpan.chebucto.ns.ca/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1958
5df44211 1959=item Ontario
4e860d0a 1960
5c5c2539 1961 ftp://ftp.nrc.ca/pub/CPAN/
37a78d01 1962
5df44211 1963=item Mexico
37a78d01 1964
5df44211
JH
1965 http://cpan.azc.uam.mx
1966 ftp://cpan.azc.uam.mx/mirrors/CPAN
1967 http://cpan.unam.mx/
1968 ftp://cpan.unam.mx/pub/CPAN
1969 http://www.msg.com.mx/CPAN/
1970 ftp://ftp.msg.com.mx/pub/CPAN/
37a78d01
JH
1971
1972=back
4e860d0a 1973
5c5c2539 1974=item United States
556e28cf 1975
5df44211 1976=over 4
4e860d0a 1977
5df44211 1978=item Alabama
4e860d0a 1979
5df44211
JH
1980 http://mirror.hiwaay.net/CPAN/
1981 ftp://mirror.hiwaay.net/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1982
5df44211 1983=item California
4e860d0a 1984
5df44211
JH
1985 http://cpan.develooper.com/
1986 http://www.cpan.org/
1987 ftp://cpan.valueclick.com/pub/CPAN/
1988 http://mirrors.gossamer-threads.com/CPAN
1989 ftp://cpan.nas.nasa.gov/pub/perl/CPAN/
1990 http://mirrors.kernel.org/cpan/
1991 ftp://mirrors.kernel.org/pub/CPAN
1992 http://cpan.digisle.net/
1993 ftp://cpan.digisle.net/pub/CPAN
1994 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1995
5df44211 1996=item Colorado
4e860d0a 1997
5df44211 1998 ftp://ftp.cs.colorado.edu/pub/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1999
5df44211 2000=item Delaware
4e860d0a 2001
5df44211
JH
2002 http://ftp.lug.udel.edu/pub/CPAN
2003 ftp://ftp.lug.udel.edu/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 2004
5df44211 2005=item District of Columbia
4e860d0a 2006
5df44211 2007 ftp://ftp.dc.aleron.net/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2008
5df44211 2009=item Florida
37a78d01 2010
5df44211
JH
2011 ftp://ftp.cise.ufl.edu/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
2012 http://mirror.csit.fsu.edu/pub/CPAN/
2013 ftp://mirror.csit.fsu.edu/pub/CPAN/
2014 http://cpan.mirrors.nks.net/
37a78d01 2015
5df44211 2016=item Illinois
4e860d0a 2017
5df44211
JH
2018 http://uiarchive.uiuc.edu/mirrors/ftp/cpan.cse.msu.edu/
2019 ftp://uiarchive.uiuc.edu/mirrors/ftp/cpan.cse.msu.edu/
4e860d0a 2020
5df44211 2021=item Indiana
4e860d0a 2022
5df44211
JH
2023 ftp://ftp.uwsg.iu.edu/pub/perl/CPAN/
2024 http://cpan.netnitco.net/
2025 ftp://cpan.netnitco.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
2026 http://archive.progeny.com/CPAN/
2027 ftp://archive.progeny.com/CPAN/
5c5c2539
JH
2028 http://fx.saintjoe.edu/pub/CPAN
2029 ftp://ftp.saintjoe.edu/pub/CPAN
5df44211
JH
2030 http://csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu/pub/CPAN
2031 ftp://csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 2032
5df44211 2033=item Kentucky
4e860d0a 2034
5df44211
JH
2035 http://cpan.uky.edu/
2036 ftp://cpan.uky.edu/pub/CPAN/
5c5c2539
JH
2037 http://slugsite.louisville.edu/cpan
2038 ftp://slugsite.louisville.edu/CPAN
4e860d0a 2039
5df44211 2040=item Massachusetts
4e860d0a 2041
5c5c2539
JH
2042 http://mirrors.towardex.com/CPAN
2043 ftp://mirrors.towardex.com/pub/CPAN
5df44211 2044 ftp://ftp.ccs.neu.edu/net/mirrors/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2045
5df44211 2046=item Michigan
4e860d0a 2047
5df44211 2048 ftp://cpan.cse.msu.edu/
4e860d0a 2049
5c5c2539
JH
2050=item Nevada
2051
2052 http://www.oss.redundant.com/pub/CPAN
2053 ftp://www.oss.redundant.com/pub/CPAN
2054
5df44211 2055=item New Jersey
4e860d0a 2056
5c5c2539 2057 http://ftp.cpanel.net/pub/CPAN/
5df44211
JH
2058 ftp://ftp.cpanel.net/pub/CPAN/
2059 http://cpan.teleglobe.net/
2060 ftp://cpan.teleglobe.net/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 2061
5df44211 2062=item New York
4e860d0a 2063
5df44211 2064 http://cpan.belfry.net/
5c5c2539
JH
2065 http://cpan.erlbaum.net/
2066 ftp://cpan.erlbaum.net/
5df44211
JH
2067 http://cpan.thepirtgroup.com/
2068 ftp://cpan.thepirtgroup.com/
2069 ftp://ftp.stealth.net/pub/CPAN/
2070 http://www.rge.com/pub/languages/perl/
2071 ftp://ftp.rge.com/pub/languages/perl/
4e860d0a 2072
5df44211 2073=item North Carolina
4e860d0a 2074
5df44211 2075 ftp://ftp.duke.edu/pub/perl/
5c5c2539 2076 ftp://ftp.ncsu.edu/pub/mirror/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2077
5df44211 2078=item Oklahoma
4e860d0a 2079
5df44211 2080 ftp://ftp.ou.edu/mirrors/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2081
5df44211 2082=item Oregon
4e860d0a 2083
5df44211 2084 ftp://ftp.orst.edu/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 2085
5df44211 2086=item Pennsylvania
4e860d0a 2087
5df44211
JH
2088 http://ftp.epix.net/CPAN/
2089 ftp://ftp.epix.net/pub/languages/perl/
2090 http://mirrors.phenominet.com/pub/CPAN/
2091 ftp://mirrors.phenominet.com/pub/CPAN/
2092 http://cpan.pair.com/
2093 ftp://cpan.pair.com/pub/CPAN/
2094 ftp://carroll.cac.psu.edu/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2095
5df44211 2096=item Tennessee
4e860d0a 2097
5df44211 2098 ftp://ftp.sunsite.utk.edu/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2099
5df44211 2100=item Texas
4e860d0a 2101
5df44211 2102 http://ftp.sedl.org/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
5c5c2539 2103 http://www.binarycode.org/cpan
5df44211 2104 ftp://mirror.telentente.com/pub/CPAN
5c5c2539 2105 http://mirrors.theonlinerecordstore.com/CPAN
4e860d0a 2106
5df44211 2107=item Utah
4e860d0a 2108
5df44211 2109 ftp://mirror.xmission.com/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2110
5df44211 2111=item Virginia
4e860d0a 2112
5df44211
JH
2113 http://mirrors.rcn.net/pub/lang/CPAN/
2114 ftp://mirrors.rcn.net/pub/lang/CPAN/
2115 http://perl.secsup.org/
2116 ftp://perl.secsup.org/pub/perl/
5c5c2539 2117 http://noc.cvaix.com/mirrors/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2118
5c5c2539 2119=item Washington
4e860d0a 2120
5df44211
JH
2121 http://cpan.llarian.net/
2122 ftp://cpan.llarian.net/pub/CPAN/
2123 http://cpan.mirrorcentral.com/
2124 ftp://ftp.mirrorcentral.com/pub/CPAN/
2125 ftp://ftp-mirror.internap.com/pub/CPAN/
556e28cf 2126
5df44211 2127=item Wisconsin
556e28cf 2128
5df44211
JH
2129 http://mirror.sit.wisc.edu/pub/CPAN/
2130 ftp://mirror.sit.wisc.edu/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a
JH
2131
2132=back
2133
5c5c2539
JH
2134=back
2135
4e860d0a
JH
2136=head2 Oceania
2137
2138=over 4
2139
5df44211 2140=item Australia
4e860d0a 2141
5df44211
JH
2142 http://ftp.planetmirror.com/pub/CPAN/
2143 ftp://ftp.planetmirror.com/pub/CPAN/
2144 ftp://mirror.aarnet.edu.au/pub/perl/CPAN/
2145 ftp://cpan.topend.com.au/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2146
5df44211 2147=item New Zealand
556e28cf 2148
5df44211 2149 ftp://ftp.auckland.ac.nz/pub/perl/CPAN/
5c5c2539
JH
2150
2151=item United States
2152
2153 http://aniani.ifa.hawaii.edu/CPAN/
2154 ftp://aniani.ifa.hawaii.edu/CPAN/
4e860d0a
JH
2155
2156=back
2157
2158=head2 South America
2159
2160=over 4
2161
5df44211 2162=item Argentina
4e860d0a 2163
5df44211 2164 ftp://mirrors.bannerlandia.com.ar/mirrors/CPAN/
5c5c2539
JH
2165 http://www.linux.org.ar/mirrors/cpan
2166 ftp://ftp.linux.org.ar/mirrors/cpan
4e860d0a 2167
5df44211 2168=item Brazil
4e860d0a 2169
5df44211
JH
2170 ftp://cpan.pop-mg.com.br/pub/CPAN/
2171 ftp://ftp.matrix.com.br/pub/perl/CPAN/
5c5c2539
JH
2172 http://cpan.hostsul.com.br/
2173 ftp://cpan.hostsul.com.br/
4e860d0a 2174
5df44211 2175=item Chile
4e860d0a 2176
5df44211
JH
2177 http://cpan.netglobalis.net/
2178 ftp://cpan.netglobalis.net/pub/CPAN/
f102b883
TC
2179
2180=back
2181
5df44211
JH
2182=head2 RSYNC Mirrors
2183
5c5c2539
JH
2184 ftp.shellhung.org::CPAN
2185 ftp.cbn.net.id::CPAN
2186 ftp.iglu.org.il::CPAN
2187 ftp.kddlabs.co.jp::cpan
2188 ftp.ayamura.org::pub/CPAN/
2189 mirror.leafbug.org::CPAN
2190 rsync.en.com.sg::CPAN
2191 mirror.averse.net::cpan
2192 rsync.oss.eznetsols.org
2193 ftp.kr.FreeBSD.org::CPAN
2194 cpan.cdpa.nsysu.edu.tw::CPAN
2195 rsync.nic.funet.fi::CPAN
2196 ftp.u-paris10.fr::CPAN
2197 mir1.ovh.net::CPAN
2198 ftp.crihan.fr::CPAN
2199 ftp.gwdg.de::FTP/languages/perl/CPAN/
2200 ftp.leo.org::CPAN
2201 ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN
2202 gusp.dyndns.org::cpan
2203 cpan.teleglobe.net::CPAN
2204 rsync://rsync.mirror.anlx.net::CPAN
2205 theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca::CPAN
2206 ftp.sedl.org::cpan
2207 archive.progeny.com::CPAN
2208 slugsite.louisville.edu::CPAN
2209 cpan.teleglobe.net::CPAN
2210 ftp.lug.udel.edu::cpan
2211 mirrors.kernel.org::mirrors/CPAN
2212 mirrors.phenominet.com::CPAN
2213 mirror.csit.fsu.edu::CPAN
2214 csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu::CPAN
2215 aniani.ifa.hawaii.edu::CPAN
2216 www.linux.org.ar::cpan
5df44211 2217
f102b883 2218For an up-to-date listing of CPAN sites,
4e860d0a 2219see http://www.cpan.org/SITES or ftp://www.cpan.org/SITES .
f102b883
TC
2220
2221=head1 Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse
2222
2223(The following section is borrowed directly from Tim Bunce's modules
2224file, available at your nearest CPAN site.)
2225
2226Perl implements a class using a package, but the presence of a
2227package doesn't imply the presence of a class. A package is just a
2228namespace. A class is a package that provides subroutines that can be
2229used as methods. A method is just a subroutine that expects, as its
2230first argument, either the name of a package (for "static" methods),
2231or a reference to something (for "virtual" methods).
2232
2233A module is a file that (by convention) provides a class of the same
2234name (sans the .pm), plus an import method in that class that can be
2235called to fetch exported symbols. This module may implement some of
2236its methods by loading dynamic C or C++ objects, but that should be
2237totally transparent to the user of the module. Likewise, the module
2238might set up an AUTOLOAD function to slurp in subroutine definitions on
2239demand, but this is also transparent. Only the F<.pm> file is required to
2e1d04bc 2240exist. See L<perlsub>, L<perltoot>, and L<AutoLoader> for details about
f102b883
TC
2241the AUTOLOAD mechanism.
2242
2243=head2 Guidelines for Module Creation
2244
2245=over 4
2246
4e860d0a
JH
2247=item *
2248
2249Do similar modules already exist in some form?
f102b883
TC
2250
2251If so, please try to reuse the existing modules either in whole or
2252by inheriting useful features into a new class. If this is not
2253practical try to get together with the module authors to work on
2254extending or enhancing the functionality of the existing modules.
2255A perfect example is the plethora of packages in perl4 for dealing
2256with command line options.
2257
2258If you are writing a module to expand an already existing set of
2259modules, please coordinate with the author of the package. It
2260helps if you follow the same naming scheme and module interaction
2261scheme as the original author.
2262
4e860d0a
JH
2263=item *
2264
2265Try to design the new module to be easy to extend and reuse.
f102b883 2266
9f1b1f2d
GS
2267Try to C<use warnings;> (or C<use warnings qw(...);>).
2268Remember that you can add C<no warnings qw(...);> to individual blocks
2e1d04bc 2269of code that need less warnings.
19799a22 2270
f102b883
TC
2271Use blessed references. Use the two argument form of bless to bless
2272into the class name given as the first parameter of the constructor,
2273e.g.,:
2274
2275 sub new {
2e1d04bc
JH
2276 my $class = shift;
2277 return bless {}, $class;
f102b883
TC
2278 }
2279
2280or even this if you'd like it to be used as either a static
2281or a virtual method.
2282
2283 sub new {
2e1d04bc
JH
2284 my $self = shift;
2285 my $class = ref($self) || $self;
2286 return bless {}, $class;
f102b883
TC
2287 }
2288
2289Pass arrays as references so more parameters can be added later
2290(it's also faster). Convert functions into methods where
2291appropriate. Split large methods into smaller more flexible ones.
2292Inherit methods from other modules if appropriate.
2293
2294Avoid class name tests like: C<die "Invalid" unless ref $ref eq 'FOO'>.
19799a22 2295Generally you can delete the C<eq 'FOO'> part with no harm at all.
f102b883
TC
2296Let the objects look after themselves! Generally, avoid hard-wired
2297class names as far as possible.
2298
c47ff5f1
GS
2299Avoid C<< $r->Class::func() >> where using C<@ISA=qw(... Class ...)> and
2300C<< $r->func() >> would work (see L<perlbot> for more details).
f102b883
TC
2301
2302Use autosplit so little used or newly added functions won't be a
5a964f20 2303burden to programs that don't use them. Add test functions to
f102b883
TC
2304the module after __END__ either using AutoSplit or by saying:
2305
2306 eval join('',<main::DATA>) || die $@ unless caller();
2307
2308Does your module pass the 'empty subclass' test? If you say
19799a22 2309C<@SUBCLASS::ISA = qw(YOURCLASS);> your applications should be able
f102b883
TC
2310to use SUBCLASS in exactly the same way as YOURCLASS. For example,
2311does your application still work if you change: C<$obj = new YOURCLASS;>
2312into: C<$obj = new SUBCLASS;> ?
2313
2314Avoid keeping any state information in your packages. It makes it
2315difficult for multiple other packages to use yours. Keep state
2316information in objects.
2317
2e1d04bc 2318Always use B<-w>.
19799a22
GS
2319
2320Try to C<use strict;> (or C<use strict qw(...);>).
f102b883 2321Remember that you can add C<no strict qw(...);> to individual blocks
2e1d04bc 2322of code that need less strictness.
19799a22 2323
2e1d04bc 2324Always use B<-w>.
19799a22 2325
f102b883
TC
2326Follow the guidelines in the perlstyle(1) manual.
2327
19799a22
GS
2328Always use B<-w>.
2329
4e860d0a
JH
2330=item *
2331
2332Some simple style guidelines
f102b883 2333
5a964f20 2334The perlstyle manual supplied with Perl has many helpful points.
f102b883
TC
2335
2336Coding style is a matter of personal taste. Many people evolve their
2337style over several years as they learn what helps them write and
2338maintain good code. Here's one set of assorted suggestions that
2339seem to be widely used by experienced developers:
2340
2341Use underscores to separate words. It is generally easier to read
2342$var_names_like_this than $VarNamesLikeThis, especially for
2343non-native speakers of English. It's also a simple rule that works
2344consistently with VAR_NAMES_LIKE_THIS.
2345
2346Package/Module names are an exception to this rule. Perl informally
2347reserves lowercase module names for 'pragma' modules like integer
2348and strict. Other modules normally begin with a capital letter and
2349use mixed case with no underscores (need to be short and portable).
2350
2351You may find it helpful to use letter case to indicate the scope
2352or nature of a variable. For example:
2353
5a964f20 2354 $ALL_CAPS_HERE constants only (beware clashes with Perl vars)
f102b883
TC
2355 $Some_Caps_Here package-wide global/static
2356 $no_caps_here function scope my() or local() variables
2357
2358Function and method names seem to work best as all lowercase.
c47ff5f1 2359e.g., C<< $obj->as_string() >>.
f102b883
TC
2360
2361You can use a leading underscore to indicate that a variable or
2362function should not be used outside the package that defined it.
2363
4e860d0a
JH
2364=item *
2365
2366Select what to export.
f102b883
TC
2367
2368Do NOT export method names!
2369
2370Do NOT export anything else by default without a good reason!
2371
2372Exports pollute the namespace of the module user. If you must
2373export try to use @EXPORT_OK in preference to @EXPORT and avoid
2374short or common names to reduce the risk of name clashes.
2375
2376Generally anything not exported is still accessible from outside the
c47ff5f1 2377module using the ModuleName::item_name (or C<< $blessed_ref->method >>)
f102b883
TC
2378syntax. By convention you can use a leading underscore on names to
2379indicate informally that they are 'internal' and not for public use.
2380
2381(It is actually possible to get private functions by saying:
2382C<my $subref = sub { ... }; &$subref;>. But there's no way to call that
2383directly as a method, because a method must have a name in the symbol
2384table.)
2385
2386As a general rule, if the module is trying to be object oriented
2387then export nothing. If it's just a collection of functions then
2388@EXPORT_OK anything but use @EXPORT with caution.
2389
4e860d0a
JH
2390=item *
2391
2392Select a name for the module.
f102b883
TC
2393
2394This name should be as descriptive, accurate, and complete as
2395possible. Avoid any risk of ambiguity. Always try to use two or
2396more whole words. Generally the name should reflect what is special
2397about what the module does rather than how it does it. Please use
2398nested module names to group informally or categorize a module.
2399There should be a very good reason for a module not to have a nested name.
2400Module names should begin with a capital letter.
2401
2402Having 57 modules all called Sort will not make life easy for anyone
2403(though having 23 called Sort::Quick is only marginally better :-).
2404Imagine someone trying to install your module alongside many others.
2405If in any doubt ask for suggestions in comp.lang.perl.misc.
2406
2407If you are developing a suite of related modules/classes it's good
2408practice to use nested classes with a common prefix as this will
2409avoid namespace clashes. For example: Xyz::Control, Xyz::View,
2410Xyz::Model etc. Use the modules in this list as a naming guide.
2411
2412If adding a new module to a set, follow the original author's
2413standards for naming modules and the interface to methods in
2414those modules.
2415
165c0277
JH
2416If developing modules for private internal or project specific use,
2417that will never be released to the public, then you should ensure
2418that their names will not clash with any future public module. You
2419can do this either by using the reserved Local::* category or by
2420using a category name that includes an underscore like Foo_Corp::*.
2421
f102b883
TC
2422To be portable each component of a module name should be limited to
242311 characters. If it might be used on MS-DOS then try to ensure each is
2424unique in the first 8 characters. Nested modules make this easier.
2425
4e860d0a
JH
2426=item *
2427
2428Have you got it right?
f102b883
TC
2429
2430How do you know that you've made the right decisions? Have you
2431picked an interface design that will cause problems later? Have
2432you picked the most appropriate name? Do you have any questions?
2433
2434The best way to know for sure, and pick up many helpful suggestions,
2435is to ask someone who knows. Comp.lang.perl.misc is read by just about
2436all the people who develop modules and it's the best place to ask.
2437
2438All you need to do is post a short summary of the module, its
2439purpose and interfaces. A few lines on each of the main methods is
2440probably enough. (If you post the whole module it might be ignored
2441by busy people - generally the very people you want to read it!)
2442
2443Don't worry about posting if you can't say when the module will be
2444ready - just say so in the message. It might be worth inviting
2445others to help you, they may be able to complete it for you!
2446
4e860d0a
JH
2447=item *
2448
2449README and other Additional Files.
f102b883
TC
2450
2451It's well known that software developers usually fully document the
2452software they write. If, however, the world is in urgent need of
2453your software and there is not enough time to write the full
2454documentation please at least provide a README file containing:
2455
2456=over 10
2457
2458=item *
4e860d0a 2459
f102b883
TC
2460A description of the module/package/extension etc.
2461
2462=item *
4e860d0a 2463
f102b883
TC
2464A copyright notice - see below.
2465
2466=item *
4e860d0a 2467
f102b883
TC
2468Prerequisites - what else you may need to have.
2469
2470=item *
4e860d0a 2471
f102b883
TC
2472How to build it - possible changes to Makefile.PL etc.
2473
2474=item *
4e860d0a 2475
f102b883
TC
2476How to install it.
2477
2478=item *
4e860d0a 2479
f102b883
TC
2480Recent changes in this release, especially incompatibilities
2481
2482=item *
4e860d0a 2483
f102b883
TC
2484Changes / enhancements you plan to make in the future.
2485
2486=back
2487
2488If the README file seems to be getting too large you may wish to
2489split out some of the sections into separate files: INSTALL,
2490Copying, ToDo etc.
2491
2492=over 4
2493
37a78d01 2494=item *
f102b883 2495
37a78d01 2496Adding a Copyright Notice.
4e860d0a 2497
f102b883
TC
2498How you choose to license your work is a personal decision.
2499The general mechanism is to assert your Copyright and then make
2500a declaration of how others may copy/use/modify your work.
2501
2a551100
JH
2502Perl, for example, is supplied with two types of licence: The GNU GPL
2503and The Artistic Licence (see the files README, Copying, and Artistic,
2504or L<perlgpl> and L<perlartistic>). Larry has good reasons for NOT
2505just using the GNU GPL.
f102b883
TC
2506
2507My personal recommendation, out of respect for Larry, Perl, and the
5a964f20 2508Perl community at large is to state something simply like:
f102b883
TC
2509
2510 Copyright (c) 1995 Your Name. All rights reserved.
2511 This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
2512 modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
2513
2514This statement should at least appear in the README file. You may
2515also wish to include it in a Copying file and your source files.
2516Remember to include the other words in addition to the Copyright.
2517
4e860d0a
JH
2518=item *
2519
2520Give the module a version/issue/release number.
f102b883
TC
2521
2522To be fully compatible with the Exporter and MakeMaker modules you
2523should store your module's version number in a non-my package
2524variable called $VERSION. This should be a floating point
2525number with at least two digits after the decimal (i.e., hundredths,
2526e.g, C<$VERSION = "0.01">). Don't use a "1.3.2" style version.
19799a22 2527See L<Exporter> for details.
f102b883
TC
2528
2529It may be handy to add a function or method to retrieve the number.
2530Use the number in announcements and archive file names when
2531releasing the module (ModuleName-1.02.tar.Z).
2532See perldoc ExtUtils::MakeMaker.pm for details.
2533
4e860d0a
JH
2534=item *
2535
2536How to release and distribute a module.
f102b883
TC
2537
2538It's good idea to post an announcement of the availability of your
2539module (or the module itself if small) to the comp.lang.perl.announce
2540Usenet newsgroup. This will at least ensure very wide once-off
2541distribution.
2542
2e1d04bc 2543If possible, register the module with CPAN. You should
f102b883
TC
2544include details of its location in your announcement.
2545
2546Some notes about ftp archives: Please use a long descriptive file
5a964f20 2547name that includes the version number. Most incoming directories
f102b883
TC
2548will not be readable/listable, i.e., you won't be able to see your
2549file after uploading it. Remember to send your email notification
2550message as soon as possible after uploading else your file may get
2551deleted automatically. Allow time for the file to be processed
2552and/or check the file has been processed before announcing its
2553location.
2554
2555FTP Archives for Perl Modules:
2556
6cecdcac 2557Follow the instructions and links on:
f102b883 2558
4e860d0a
JH
2559 http://www.cpan.org/modules/00modlist.long.html
2560 http://www.cpan.org/modules/04pause.html
f102b883
TC
2561
2562or upload to one of these sites:
2563
6cecdcac
GS
2564 https://pause.kbx.de/pause/
2565 http://pause.perl.org/pause/
f102b883 2566
6cecdcac 2567and notify <modules@perl.org>.
f102b883
TC
2568
2569By using the WWW interface you can ask the Upload Server to mirror
2570your modules from your ftp or WWW site into your own directory on
2571CPAN!
2572
2573Please remember to send me an updated entry for the Module list!
2574
4e860d0a
JH
2575=item *
2576
2577Take care when changing a released module.
f102b883 2578
7b8d334a
GS
2579Always strive to remain compatible with previous released versions.
2580Otherwise try to add a mechanism to revert to the
19799a22 2581old behavior if people rely on it. Document incompatible changes.
f102b883
TC
2582
2583=back
2584
2585=back
2586
2587=head2 Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules
2588
2589=over 4
2590
4e860d0a
JH
2591=item *
2592
2593There is no requirement to convert anything.
f102b883
TC
2594
2595If it ain't broke, don't fix it! Perl 4 library scripts should
2596continue to work with no problems. You may need to make some minor
2597changes (like escaping non-array @'s in double quoted strings) but
2598there is no need to convert a .pl file into a Module for just that.
2599
4e860d0a
JH
2600=item *
2601
2602Consider the implications.
f102b883 2603
5a964f20 2604All Perl applications that make use of the script will need to
f102b883
TC
2605be changed (slightly) if the script is converted into a module. Is
2606it worth it unless you plan to make other changes at the same time?
2607
4e860d0a
JH
2608=item *
2609
2610Make the most of the opportunity.
f102b883
TC
2611
2612If you are going to convert the script to a module you can use the
19799a22
GS
2613opportunity to redesign the interface. The guidelines for module
2614creation above include many of the issues you should consider.
f102b883 2615
4e860d0a
JH
2616=item *
2617
2618The pl2pm utility will get you started.
f102b883
TC
2619
2620This utility will read *.pl files (given as parameters) and write
2621corresponding *.pm files. The pl2pm utilities does the following:
2622
2623=over 10
2624
2625=item *
4e860d0a 2626
f102b883
TC
2627Adds the standard Module prologue lines
2628
2629=item *
4e860d0a 2630
f102b883
TC
2631Converts package specifiers from ' to ::
2632
2633=item *
4e860d0a 2634
f102b883
TC
2635Converts die(...) to croak(...)
2636
2637=item *
4e860d0a 2638
f102b883
TC
2639Several other minor changes
2640
2641=back
2642
2643Being a mechanical process pl2pm is not bullet proof. The converted
2644code will need careful checking, especially any package statements.
2645Don't delete the original .pl file till the new .pm one works!
2646
2647=back
2648
2649=head2 Guidelines for Reusing Application Code
2650
2651=over 4
2652
4e860d0a 2653=item *
551e1d92
RB
2654
2655Complete applications rarely belong in the Perl Module Library.
f102b883 2656
4e860d0a 2657=item *
551e1d92
RB
2658
2659Many applications contain some Perl code that could be reused.
f102b883
TC
2660
2661Help save the world! Share your code in a form that makes it easy
2662to reuse.
2663
4e860d0a 2664=item *
551e1d92
RB
2665
2666Break-out the reusable code into one or more separate module files.
f102b883 2667
4e860d0a 2668=item *
551e1d92
RB
2669
2670Take the opportunity to reconsider and redesign the interfaces.
2671
4e860d0a 2672=item *
f102b883 2673
551e1d92 2674In some cases the 'application' can then be reduced to a small
f102b883
TC
2675
2676fragment of code built on top of the reusable modules. In these cases
2677the application could invoked as:
2678
5a964f20 2679 % perl -e 'use Module::Name; method(@ARGV)' ...
f102b883 2680or
5a964f20 2681 % perl -mModule::Name ... (in perl5.002 or higher)
f102b883
TC
2682
2683=back
2684
2685=head1 NOTE
2686
2687Perl does not enforce private and public parts of its modules as you may
2688have been used to in other languages like C++, Ada, or Modula-17. Perl
2689doesn't have an infatuation with enforced privacy. It would prefer
2690that you stayed out of its living room because you weren't invited, not
2691because it has a shotgun.
2692
2693The module and its user have a contract, part of which is common law,
2694and part of which is "written". Part of the common law contract is
2695that a module doesn't pollute any namespace it wasn't asked to. The
2696written contract for the module (A.K.A. documentation) may make other
2697provisions. But then you know when you C<use RedefineTheWorld> that
2698you're redefining the world and willing to take the consequences.