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cygwin update (from Eric Fifer <efifer@sanwaint.com>)
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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
5aabfad6 4
8736538c 5=head1 NAME
5aabfad6 6
f8dbba82 7README.cygwin - Perl for Cygwin
5aabfad6 8
8736538c 9=head1 SYNOPSIS
5aabfad6 10
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11This document will help you configure, make, test and install Perl
12on Cygwin. This document also describes features of Cygwin that will
13affect how Perl behaves at runtime.
5aabfad6 14
f8dbba82 15B<NOTE:> There are pre-built Perl packages available for Cygwin and a
b4bcd662 16version of Perl is provided on the Cygwin CD. If you do not need to
f8dbba82 17customize the configuration, consider using one of these packages:
5aabfad6 18
f8dbba82 19 http://cygutils.netpedia.net/
5aabfad6 20
f8dbba82 21=head1 PREREQUISITES
8736538c 22
f8dbba82 23=head2 Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it)
8736538c 24
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25The Cygwin tools are ports of the popular GNU development tools for Win32
26platforms. They run thanks to the Cygwin library which provides the UNIX
27system calls and environment these programs expect. More information
28about this project can be found at:
8736538c 29
f8dbba82 30 http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/
1cab015a 31
f8dbba82 32A recent net or commercial release of Cygwin is required.
8736538c 33
b4bcd662 34At the time this document was written, Cygwin 1.1.1 was current.
8736538c 35
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36B<NOTE:> At this point, minimal effort has been made to provide
37compatibility with old (beta) Cygwin releases. The focus has been to
38provide a high quality release and not worry about working around old
39Cygwin bugs. If you wish to use Perl with Cygwin B20.1 or earlier,
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40consider using perl5.005_03, which is available in source and binary
41form at C<http://cygutils.netpedia.net/> or on the Cygwin CD. If there
42is significant demand, a patch kit can be developed to port back to
43earlier Cygwin versions.
1cab015a 44
f8dbba82 45=head2 Cygwin Configuration
1cab015a 46
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47While building Perl some changes may be necessary to your Cygwin setup so
48that Perl builds cleanly. These changes are B<not> required for normal
49Perl usage.
1cab015a 50
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51B<NOTE:> The binaries that are built will run on all Win32 versions.
52They do not depend on your host system (Win9x, WinNT) or your Cygwin
53configuration (I<ntea>, I<ntsec>, binary/text mounts). The only
b4bcd662 54dependencies come from hard-coded pathnames like C</usr/local>. However,
f8dbba82 55your host system and Cygwin configuration will affect Perl's runtime
b4bcd662 56behavior (see L</"TEST">).
1cab015a 57
f8dbba82 58=over 4
1cab015a 59
f8dbba82 60=item * C<PATH>
1cab015a 61
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62Set the C<PATH> environment variable so that Configure finds the Cygwin
63versions of programs. Any Windows directories should be removed or
64moved to the end of your C<PATH>.
1cab015a 65
f8dbba82 66=item * I<nroff>
1cab015a 67
f8dbba82 68If you do not have I<nroff> (which is part of the I<groff> package),
b4bcd662 69Configure will B<not> prompt you to install I<man> pages.
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70
71=item * Permissions
72
73On WinNT with either the I<ntea> or I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> settings, directory
74and file permissions may not be set correctly. Since the build process
75creates files and directories, to be safe you may want to run a `C<chmod
76-R +w *>' on the entire Perl source tree.
77
78Also, it is a well known WinNT "feature" that files created by a login
79that is a member of the I<Administrators> group will be owned by the
80I<Administrators> group. Depending on your umask, you may find that you
81can not write to files that you just created (because you are no longer
82the owner). When using the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, this is not an
83issue because it "corrects" the ownership to what you would expect on
84a UNIX system.
1cab015a 85
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86=back
87
f8dbba82 88=head1 CONFIGURE
8736538c 89
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90The default options gathered by Configure with the assistance of
91F<hints/cygwin.sh> will build a Perl that supports dynamic loading
92(which requires a shared F<libperl.dll>).
f89d6eaa 93
f8dbba82 94This will run Configure and keep a record:
8736538c 95
f8dbba82 96 ./Configure 2>&1 | tee log.configure
8736538c 97
b4bcd662 98If you are willing to accept all the defaults run Configure with B<-de>.
f8dbba82 99However, several useful customizations are available.
5aabfad6 100
f8dbba82 101=head2 Strip Binaries
5aabfad6 102
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103It is possible to strip the EXEs and DLLs created by the build process.
104The resulting binaries will be significantly smaller. If you want the
105binaries to be stripped, you can either add a B<-s> option when Configure
106prompts you,
8736538c 107
f8dbba82 108 Any additional ld flags (NOT including libraries)? [none] -s
5db16f6a 109 Any special flags to pass to gcc to use dynamic linking? [none] -s
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110 Any special flags to pass to ld2 to create a dynamically loaded library?
111 [none] -s
8736538c 112
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113or you can edit F<hints/cygwin.sh> and uncomment the relevant variables
114near the end of the file.
8736538c 115
f8dbba82 116=head2 Optional Libraries
8736538c 117
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118Several Perl functions and modules depend on the existence of
119some optional libraries. Configure will find them if they are
120installed in one of the directories listed as being used for library
121searches. Pre-built packages for most of these are available at
122C<http://cygutils.netpedia.net/>.
8736538c 123
f8dbba82 124=over 4
8736538c 125
f8dbba82 126=item * C<-lcrypt>
8736538c 127
f8dbba82 128The crypt libraries in GNU libc have been ported to Cygwin.
1cab015a 129
5db16f6a 130The DES based Ultra Fast Crypt port was done by Alexey Truhan:
1cab015a 131
b4bcd662 132 ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/cw32crypt-dist-0.tgz
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133
134NOTE: There are various export restrictions on DES implementations,
135see the glibc README for more details.
1cab015a 136
f8dbba82 137The MD5 port was done by Andy Piper:
1cab015a 138
b4bcd662 139 ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/libcrypt.tgz
1cab015a 140
f8dbba82 141=item * C<-lgdbm> (C<use GDBM_File>)
1cab015a 142
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143GDBM is available for Cygwin. GDBM's ndbm/dbm compatibility feature
144also makes C<NDBM_File> and C<ODBM_File> possible (although they add
145little extra value).
1cab015a 146
f8dbba82 147=item * C<-ldb> (C<use DB_File>)
1cab015a 148
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149BerkeleyDB is available for Cygwin. Some details can be found in
150F<ext/DB_File/DB_File.pm>.
1cab015a 151
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152=item * C<-lcygipc> (C<use IPC::SysV>)
153
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154A port of SysV IPC is available for Cygwin.
155
156NOTE: This has B<not> been extensively tested. In particular,
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157C<d_semctl_semun> is undefined because it fails a Configure test
158and on Win9x the I<shm*()> functions seem to hang. It also creates
159a compile time dependency because F<perl.h> includes F<<sys/ipc.h>>
160and F<<sys/sem.h>> (which will be required in the future when compiling
161CPAN modules).
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162
163=back
164
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165=head2 Configure-time Options
166
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167The F<INSTALL> document describes several Configure-time options. Some of
168these will work with Cygwin, others are not yet possible. Also, some of
169these are experimental. You can either select an option when Configure
170prompts you or you can define (undefine) symbols on the command line.
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171
172=over 4
173
174=item * C<-Uusedl>
175
0a110db2 176Undefining this symbol forces Perl to be compiled statically.
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177
178=item * C<-Uusemymalloc>
1cab015a 179
f8dbba82 180By default Perl uses the malloc() included with the Perl source. If you
0a110db2 181want to force Perl to build with the system malloc() undefine this symbol.
1cab015a 182
6b49d266 183=item * C<-Dusemultiplicity>
1cab015a 184
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185Multiplicity is required when embedding Perl in a C program and using
186more than one interpreter instance. This works with the Cygwin port.
1cab015a 187
f8dbba82 188=item * C<-Duseperlio>
1cab015a 189
f8dbba82 190The PerlIO abstraction works with the Cygwin port.
1cab015a 191
0a110db2 192=item * C<-Duse64bitint>
1cab015a 193
f8dbba82 194I<gcc> supports 64-bit integers. However, several additional long long
5db16f6a 195functions are necessary to use them within Perl (I<{strtol,strtoul}l>).
f8dbba82 196These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 197
f8dbba82 198=item * C<-Duselongdouble>
1cab015a 199
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200I<gcc> supports long doubles (12 bytes). However, several additional
201long double math functions are necessary to use them within Perl
5db16f6a 202(I<{atan2,cos,exp,floor,fmod,frexp,log,modf,pow,sin,sqrt}l,strtold>).
f8dbba82 203These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 204
f8dbba82 205=item * C<-Dusethreads>
1cab015a 206
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207POSIX threads are B<not> yet implemented in Cygwin.
208
209=item * C<-Duselargefiles>
210
0a110db2 211Although Win32 supports large files, Cygwin currently uses 32-bit integers
5db16f6a 212for internal size and position calculations.
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213
214=back
215
f8dbba82 216=head2 Suspicious Warnings
1cab015a 217
f8dbba82 218You may see some messages during Configure that seem suspicious.
8736538c 219
f8dbba82 220=over 4
8736538c 221
f8dbba82 222=item * Whoa There
8736538c 223
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224Cygwin does not yet implement chroot() functionality, but has a stub
225function that returns C<ENOSYS>. You will see a message when Configure
226detects that its guess conflicts with the hint file.
8736538c 227
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228 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
229 The recommended value for $d_chroot on this machine was "undef"!
230 Keep the recommended value? [y]
8736538c 231
f8dbba82 232You should keep the recommended value.
8736538c 233
b4bcd662 234=item * I<dlsym()>
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235
236I<ld2> is needed to build dynamic libraries, but it does not exist
237when dlsym() checking occurs (it is not created until `C<make>' runs).
238You will see the following message:
239
240 Checking whether your dlsym() needs a leading underscore ...
b4bcd662 241 ld2: not found
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242 I can't compile and run the test program.
243 I'm guessing that dlsym doesn't need a leading underscore.
244
245Since the guess is correct, this is not a problem.
246
b4bcd662 247=item * Win9x and C<d_eofnblk>
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248
249Win9x does not correctly report C<EOF> with a non-blocking read on a
250closed pipe. You will see the following messages:
251
252 But it also returns -1 to signal EOF, so be careful!
253 WARNING: you can't distinguish between EOF and no data!
254
255 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
256 The recommended value for $d_eofnblk on this machine was "define"!
257 Keep the recommended value? [y]
258
259At least for consistency with WinNT, you should keep the recommended
260value.
261
f8dbba82 262=item * Checking how std your stdio is...
5aabfad6 263
f8dbba82 264Configure reports:
5aabfad6 265
f8dbba82 266 Your stdio doesn't appear very std.
5aabfad6 267
f8dbba82 268This is correct.
5aabfad6 269
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270=item * Compiler/Preprocessor defines
271
272The following error occurs because of the Cygwin C<#define> of
273C<_LONG_DOUBLE>:
274
275 Guessing which symbols your C compiler and preprocessor define...
276 try.c:3847: parse error
277
278This failure does not seem to cause any problems.
279
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280=back
281
f8dbba82 282=head1 MAKE
5aabfad6 283
b4bcd662 284Simply run I<make> and wait:
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285
286 make 2>&1 | tee log.make
287
288=head2 Warnings
289
290Warnings like these are normal:
291
292 warning: overriding commands for target <file>
293 warning: ignoring old commands for target <file>
294
295 Warning: no export definition file provided
296 dllwrap will create one, but may not be what you want
297
298=head2 ld2
299
300During `C<make>', I<ld2> will be created and installed in your $installbin
301directory (where you said to put public executables). It does not
302wait until the `C<make install>' process to install the I<ld2> script,
303this is because the remainder of the `C<make>' refers to I<ld2> without
304fully specifying its path and does this from multiple subdirectories.
305The assumption is that $installbin is in your current C<PATH>. If this
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306is not the case `C<make>' will fail at some point. If this happens,
307just manually copy I<ld2> from the source directory to somewhere in
308your C<PATH>.
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309
310=head1 TEST
311
312There are two steps to running the test suite:
313
314 make test 2>&1 | tee log.make-test
315
316 cd t;./perl harness 2>&1 | tee ../log.harness
317
318The same tests are run both times, but more information is provided when
319running as `C<./perl harness>'.
5aabfad6 320
f8dbba82 321Test results vary depending on your host system and your Cygwin
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322configuration. If a test can pass in some Cygwin setup, it is always
323attempted and explainable test failures are documented. It is possible
324that Perl will pass all the tests, but it is more likely that some tests
325will fail for one of these reasons.
1cab015a 326
f8dbba82 327=head2 File Permissions
1cab015a 328
f8dbba82 329UNIX file permissions are based on sets of mode bits for
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330{read,write,execute} for each {user,group,other}. By default Cygwin
331only tracks the Win32 read-only attribute represented as the UNIX file
332user write bit (files are always readable, files are executable if they
333have a F<.{com,bat,exe}> extension or begin with C<#!>, directories are
334always readable and executable). On WinNT with the I<ntea> C<CYGWIN>
335setting, the additional mode bits are stored as extended file attributes.
336On WinNT with the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, permissions use the standard
337WinNT security descriptors and access control lists. Without one of
338these options, these tests will fail:
1cab015a 339
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340 Failed Test List of failed
341 ------------------------------------
342 io/fs.t 5, 7, 9-10
343 lib/anydbm.t 2
344 lib/db-btree.t 20
345 lib/db-hash.t 16
346 lib/db-recno.t 18
347 lib/gdbm.t 2
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348 lib/ndbm.t 2
349 lib/odbm.t 2
350 lib/sdbm.t 2
351 op/stat.t 9, 20 (.tmp not an executable extension)
1cab015a 352
f8dbba82 353=head2 Hard Links
1cab015a 354
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355FAT partitions do not support hard links (whereas NTFS does), in which
356case Cygwin implements link() by copying the file. These tests will fail:
1cab015a 357
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358 Failed Test List of failed
359 ------------------------------------
360 io/fs.t 4
361 op/stat.t 3
1cab015a 362
f8dbba82 363=head2 Filetime Granularity
1cab015a 364
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365On FAT partitions the filetime granularity is 2 seconds. The following
366test will fail:
1cab015a 367
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368 Failed Test List of failed
369 ------------------------------------
370 io/fs.t 18
1cab015a 371
f8dbba82 372=head2 Tainting Checks
1cab015a 373
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374When Perl is running in taint mode, C<$ENV{PATH}> is considered tainted
375and not used, so DLLs not in the default system directories will not
376be found. While the tests are running you will see warnings popup from
377the system with messages like:
1cab015a 378
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379 Win9x
380 Error Starting Program
381 A required .DLL file, CYGWIN1.DLL, was not found
1cab015a 382
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383 WinNT
384 perl.exe or sh.exe - Unable to Locate DLL
385 The dynamic link library cygwin1.dll could not be found in the
386 specified path ...
1cab015a 387
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388Just click OK and ignore them. When running `C<make test>', 2 popups
389occur. During `C<./perl harness>', 4 popups occur. Also, these tests
390will fail:
1cab015a 391
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392 Failed Test List of failed
393 ------------------------------------
394 op/taint.t 1, 3, 31, 37
1cab015a 395
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396Alternatively, you can copy F<cygwin1.dll> into the directory where the
397tests run:
398
399 cp `type -p cygwin1.dll` t
400
401or one of the Windows system directories (although, this is B<not>
402recommended).
1cab015a 403
f8dbba82 404=head2 /etc/group
5aabfad6 405
5db16f6a 406Cygwin does not require F</etc/group>, in which case the F<op/grent.t>
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407test will be skipped. The check performed by F<op/grent.t> expects to
408see entries that use the members field, otherwise this test will fail:
f89d6eaa 409
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410 Failed Test List of failed
411 ------------------------------------
412 op/grent.t 1
1cab015a 413
f8dbba82 414=head2 Script Portability
1cab015a 415
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416Cygwin does an outstanding job of providing UNIX-like semantics on top of
417Win32 systems. However, in addition to the items noted above, there are
418some differences that you should know about. This is a very brief guide
419to portability, more information can be found in the Cygwin documentation.
1cab015a 420
f8dbba82 421=over 4
1cab015a 422
f8dbba82 423=item * Pathnames
1cab015a 424
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425Cygwin pathnames can be separated by forward (F</>) or backward (F<\>)
426slashes. They may also begin with drive letters (F<C:>) or Universal
427Naming Codes (F<//UNC>). DOS device names (F<aux>, F<con>, F<prn>,
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428F<com*>, F<lpt?>, F<nul>) are invalid as base filenames. However, they
429can be used in extensions (e.g., F<hello.aux>). Names may contain all
430printable characters except these:
1cab015a 431
f8dbba82 432 : * ? " < > |
1cab015a 433
b4bcd662 434File names are case insensitive, but case preserving.
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435
436=item * Text/Binary
437
438When a file is opened it is in either text or binary mode. In text mode
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439a file is subject to CR/LF/Ctrl-Z translations. With Cygwin, the default
440mode for an open() is determined by the mode of the mount that underlies
441the file. Perl provides a binmode() function to set binary mode on files
442that otherwise would be treated as text. sysopen() with the C<O_TEXT>
443flag sets text mode on files that otherwise would be treated as binary:
444
445 sysopen(FOO, "bar", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_TEXT)
f8dbba82 446
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447lseek(), tell() and sysseek() only work with files opened in binary mode.
448
449The text/binary issue is covered at length in the Cygwin documentation.
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450
451=item * F<.exe>
452
453The Cygwin stat() makes the F<.exe> extension transparent by looking for
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454F<foo.exe> when you ask for F<foo> (unless a F<foo> also exists). Cygwin
455does not require a F<.exe> extension, but I<gcc> adds it automatically
456when building a program. However, when accessing an executable as a
457normal file (e.g., I<cp> in a makefile) the F<.exe> is not transparent.
458The I<install> included with Cygwin automatically appends a F<.exe>
459when necessary.
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460
461=item * chown()
462
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463On WinNT chown() can change a file's user and group IDs. On Win9x chown()
464is a no-op, although this is appropriate since there is no security model.
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465
466=item * Miscellaneous
467
468File locking using the C<F_GETLK> command to fcntl() is a stub that
469returns C<ENOSYS>.
470
f8dbba82 471Win9x can not rename() an open file (although WinNT can).
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472
473=back
474
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475=head1 INSTALL
476
b4bcd662 477This will install Perl, including I<man> pages.
f8dbba82 478
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479 make install | tee log.make-install
480
481NOTE: If C<STDERR> is redirected `C<make install>' will B<not> prompt
482you to install I<perl> into F</usr/bin>.
1cab015a 483
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484You may need to be I<Administrator> to run `C<make install>'. If you
485are not, you must have write access to the directories in question.
1cab015a 486
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487Information on installing the Perl documentation in HTML format can be
488found in the F<INSTALL> document.
1cab015a 489
f8dbba82 490=head1 MANIFEST
1cab015a 491
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492These are the files in the Perl release that contain references to Cygwin.
493These very brief notes attempt to explain the reason for all conditional
494code. Hopefully, keeping this up to date will allow the Cygwin port to
495be kept as clean as possible.
1cab015a 496
f8dbba82 497=over 4
1cab015a 498
f8dbba82 499=item Documentation
1cab015a 500
6b49d266 501 INSTALL README.cygwin
f8dbba82 502 Changes Changes5.005 Changes5.004
6b49d266 503 AUTHORS MAINTAIN MANIFEST README.win32
f8dbba82 504 pod/perl.pod pod/perlfaq3.pod pod/perlhist.pod pod/perlmodlib.pod
b4bcd662 505 pod/perlport.pod pod/perltoc.pod pod/perldelta.pod pod/perl5004delta.pod
1cab015a 506
f8dbba82 507=item Build, Configure, Make, Install
1cab015a 508
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509 cygwin/Makefile.SHs
510 cygwin/ld2.in
511 cygwin/perlld.in
512 ext/IPC/SysV/hints/cygwin.pl
513 ext/NDBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
514 ext/ODBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
515 hints/cygwin.sh
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516 Configure - help finding hints from uname,
517 shared libperl required for dynamic loading
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518 Makefile.SH - linklibperl
519 Porting/patchls - cygwin in port list
f8dbba82 520 installman - man pages with :: translated to .
5db16f6a 521 installperl - install dll/ld2/perlld, install to pods
6b49d266 522 makedepend.SH - uwinfix
1cab015a 523
f8dbba82 524=item Tests
1cab015a 525
f8dbba82 526 t/io/tell.t - binmode
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527 t/lib/glob-basic.t - Win32 directory list access differs from read mode
528 t/op/magic.t - $^X/symlink WORKAROUND, s/.exe//
529 t/op/stat.t - no /dev, skip Win32 ftCreationTime quirk
530 (cache manager sometimes preserves ctime of file
531 previously created and deleted), no -u (setuid)
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532
533=item Compiled Perl Source
534
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535 EXTERN.h - __declspec(dllimport)
536 XSUB.h - __declspec(dllexport)
b4bcd662 537 cygwin/cygwin.c - os_extras (getcwd, spawn)
6b49d266 538 perl.c - os_extras
f8dbba82 539 perl.h - binmode
6b49d266 540 doio.c - win9x can not rename a file when it is open
b4bcd662 541 pp_sys.c - do not define h_errno, pp_system with spawn
f8dbba82 542 mg.c - environ WORKAROUND
f8dbba82 543 unixish.h - environ WORKAROUND
6b49d266 544 util.c - environ WORKAROUND
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545
546=item Compiled Module Source
547
548 ext/POSIX/POSIX.xs - tzname defined externally
549 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/pair.c
550 - EXTCONST needs to be redefined from EXTERN.h
551 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/sdbm.c
552 - binary open
553
554=item Perl Modules/Scripts
555
6b49d266 556 lib/Cwd.pm - hook to internal Cwd::cwd
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557 lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm
558 - require MM_Cygwin.pm
559 lib/ExtUtils/MM_Cygwin.pm
560 - canonpath, cflags, manifypods, perl_archive
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561 lib/File/Spec/Unix.pm - preserve //unc
562 lib/perl5db.pl - use stdin not /dev/tty
563 utils/perlcc.PL - DynaLoader.a in compile, -DUSEIMPORTLIB
564 utils/perldoc.PL - version comment
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565
566=back
f89d6eaa 567
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568=head1 BUGS
569
b4bcd662 570When I<make> starts, it warns about overriding commands for F<perlmain.o>.
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571
572`C<make clean>' does not remove library F<.def> and F<.exe.stackdump>
573files.
574
575The I<ld2> script contains references to the source directory. You should
b4bcd662 576change these to $installbin after `C<make install>'.
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577
578=head1 AUTHORS
579
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580Charles Wilson <cwilson@ece.gatech.edu>,
581Eric Fifer <efifer@sanwaint.com>,
582alexander smishlajev <als@turnhere.com>,
583Steven Morlock <newspost@morlock.net>,
584Sebastien Barre <Sebastien.Barre@utc.fr>,
585Teun Burgers <burgers@ecn.nl>.
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586
587=head1 HISTORY
588
b4bcd662 589Last updated: 5 May 2000