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a0d0e21e 1=head1 NAME
d74e8afc 2X<function>
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3
4perlfunc - Perl builtin functions
5
6=head1 DESCRIPTION
7
8The functions in this section can serve as terms in an expression.
9They fall into two major categories: list operators and named unary
10operators. These differ in their precedence relationship with a
11following comma. (See the precedence table in L<perlop>.) List
12operators take more than one argument, while unary operators can never
13take more than one argument. Thus, a comma terminates the argument of
14a unary operator, but merely separates the arguments of a list
15operator. A unary operator generally provides a scalar context to its
2b5ab1e7 16argument, while a list operator may provide either scalar or list
3b10bc60 17contexts for its arguments. If it does both, scalar arguments
18come first and list argument follow, and there can only ever
19be one such list argument. For instance, splice() has three scalar
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20arguments followed by a list, whereas gethostbyname() has four scalar
21arguments.
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22
23In the syntax descriptions that follow, list operators that expect a
3b10bc60 24list (and provide list context for elements of the list) are shown
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25with LIST as an argument. Such a list may consist of any combination
26of scalar arguments or list values; the list values will be included
27in the list as if each individual element were interpolated at that
28point in the list, forming a longer single-dimensional list value.
8bdbc703 29Commas should separate literal elements of the LIST.
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30
31Any function in the list below may be used either with or without
32parentheses around its arguments. (The syntax descriptions omit the
3b10bc60 33parentheses.) If you use parentheses, the simple but occasionally
34surprising rule is this: It I<looks> like a function, therefore it I<is> a
a0d0e21e 35function, and precedence doesn't matter. Otherwise it's a list
3b10bc60 36operator or unary operator, and precedence does matter. Whitespace
37between the function and left parenthesis doesn't count, so sometimes
38you need to be careful:
a0d0e21e 39
5ed4f2ec 40 print 1+2+4; # Prints 7.
41 print(1+2) + 4; # Prints 3.
42 print (1+2)+4; # Also prints 3!
43 print +(1+2)+4; # Prints 7.
44 print ((1+2)+4); # Prints 7.
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45
46If you run Perl with the B<-w> switch it can warn you about this. For
47example, the third line above produces:
48
49 print (...) interpreted as function at - line 1.
50 Useless use of integer addition in void context at - line 1.
51
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52A few functions take no arguments at all, and therefore work as neither
53unary nor list operators. These include such functions as C<time>
54and C<endpwent>. For example, C<time+86_400> always means
55C<time() + 86_400>.
56
a0d0e21e 57For functions that can be used in either a scalar or list context,
54310121 58nonabortive failure is generally indicated in a scalar context by
a0d0e21e 59returning the undefined value, and in a list context by returning the
3b10bc60 60empty list.
a0d0e21e 61
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62Remember the following important rule: There is B<no rule> that relates
63the behavior of an expression in list context to its behavior in scalar
64context, or vice versa. It might do two totally different things.
80d38338 65Each operator and function decides which sort of value would be most
2b5ab1e7 66appropriate to return in scalar context. Some operators return the
5a964f20 67length of the list that would have been returned in list context. Some
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68operators return the first value in the list. Some operators return the
69last value in the list. Some operators return a count of successful
70operations. In general, they do what you want, unless you want
71consistency.
d74e8afc 72X<context>
a0d0e21e 73
d1be9408 74A named array in scalar context is quite different from what would at
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75first glance appear to be a list in scalar context. You can't get a list
76like C<(1,2,3)> into being in scalar context, because the compiler knows
77the context at compile time. It would generate the scalar comma operator
78there, not the list construction version of the comma. That means it
79was never a list to start with.
80
3b10bc60 81In general, functions in Perl that serve as wrappers for system calls ("syscalls")
f86cebdf 82of the same name (like chown(2), fork(2), closedir(2), etc.) all return
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83true when they succeed and C<undef> otherwise, as is usually mentioned
84in the descriptions below. This is different from the C interfaces,
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85which return C<-1> on failure. Exceptions to this rule are C<wait>,
86C<waitpid>, and C<syscall>. System calls also set the special C<$!>
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87variable on failure. Other functions do not, except accidentally.
88
88e1f1a2
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89Extension modules can also hook into the Perl parser to define new
90kinds of keyword-headed expression. These may look like functions, but
91may also look completely different. The syntax following the keyword
92is defined entirely by the extension. If you are an implementor, see
93L<perlapi/PL_keyword_plugin> for the mechanism. If you are using such
94a module, see the module's documentation for details of the syntax that
95it defines.
96
cb1a09d0 97=head2 Perl Functions by Category
d74e8afc 98X<function>
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99
100Here are Perl's functions (including things that look like
5a964f20 101functions, like some keywords and named operators)
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102arranged by category. Some functions appear in more
103than one place.
104
13a2d996 105=over 4
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106
107=item Functions for SCALARs or strings
d74e8afc 108X<scalar> X<string> X<character>
cb1a09d0 109
22fae026 110C<chomp>, C<chop>, C<chr>, C<crypt>, C<hex>, C<index>, C<lc>, C<lcfirst>,
1dc8ecb8 111C<length>, C<oct>, C<ord>, C<pack>, C<q//>, C<qq//>, C<reverse>,
945c54fd 112C<rindex>, C<sprintf>, C<substr>, C<tr///>, C<uc>, C<ucfirst>, C<y///>
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113
114=item Regular expressions and pattern matching
d74e8afc 115X<regular expression> X<regex> X<regexp>
cb1a09d0 116
ab4f32c2 117C<m//>, C<pos>, C<quotemeta>, C<s///>, C<split>, C<study>, C<qr//>
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118
119=item Numeric functions
d74e8afc 120X<numeric> X<number> X<trigonometric> X<trigonometry>
cb1a09d0 121
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122C<abs>, C<atan2>, C<cos>, C<exp>, C<hex>, C<int>, C<log>, C<oct>, C<rand>,
123C<sin>, C<sqrt>, C<srand>
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124
125=item Functions for real @ARRAYs
d74e8afc 126X<array>
cb1a09d0 127
22fae026 128C<pop>, C<push>, C<shift>, C<splice>, C<unshift>
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129
130=item Functions for list data
d74e8afc 131X<list>
cb1a09d0 132
1dc8ecb8 133C<grep>, C<join>, C<map>, C<qw//>, C<reverse>, C<sort>, C<unpack>
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134
135=item Functions for real %HASHes
d74e8afc 136X<hash>
cb1a09d0 137
22fae026 138C<delete>, C<each>, C<exists>, C<keys>, C<values>
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139
140=item Input and output functions
d74e8afc 141X<I/O> X<input> X<output> X<dbm>
cb1a09d0 142
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143C<binmode>, C<close>, C<closedir>, C<dbmclose>, C<dbmopen>, C<die>, C<eof>,
144C<fileno>, C<flock>, C<format>, C<getc>, C<print>, C<printf>, C<read>,
0d863452 145C<readdir>, C<rewinddir>, C<say>, C<seek>, C<seekdir>, C<select>, C<syscall>,
22fae026
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146C<sysread>, C<sysseek>, C<syswrite>, C<tell>, C<telldir>, C<truncate>,
147C<warn>, C<write>
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148
149=item Functions for fixed length data or records
150
22fae026 151C<pack>, C<read>, C<syscall>, C<sysread>, C<syswrite>, C<unpack>, C<vec>
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152
153=item Functions for filehandles, files, or directories
d74e8afc 154X<file> X<filehandle> X<directory> X<pipe> X<link> X<symlink>
cb1a09d0 155
22fae026 156C<-I<X>>, C<chdir>, C<chmod>, C<chown>, C<chroot>, C<fcntl>, C<glob>,
5ff3f7a4 157C<ioctl>, C<link>, C<lstat>, C<mkdir>, C<open>, C<opendir>,
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158C<readlink>, C<rename>, C<rmdir>, C<stat>, C<symlink>, C<sysopen>,
159C<umask>, C<unlink>, C<utime>
cb1a09d0 160
cf264981 161=item Keywords related to the control flow of your Perl program
d74e8afc 162X<control flow>
cb1a09d0 163
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164C<caller>, C<continue>, C<die>, C<do>, C<dump>, C<eval>, C<exit>,
165C<goto>, C<last>, C<next>, C<redo>, C<return>, C<sub>, C<wantarray>
cb1a09d0 166
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167=item Keywords related to switch
168
36fb85f3 169C<break>, C<continue>, C<given>, C<when>, C<default>
0d863452 170
3b10bc60 171(These are available only if you enable the C<"switch"> feature.
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172See L<feature> and L<perlsyn/"Switch statements">.)
173
54310121 174=item Keywords related to scoping
cb1a09d0 175
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176C<caller>, C<import>, C<local>, C<my>, C<our>, C<state>, C<package>,
177C<use>
178
3b10bc60 179(C<state> is available only if the C<"state"> feature is enabled. See
36fb85f3 180L<feature>.)
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181
182=item Miscellaneous functions
183
36fb85f3 184C<defined>, C<dump>, C<eval>, C<formline>, C<local>, C<my>, C<our>,
834df1c5 185C<reset>, C<scalar>, C<state>, C<undef>, C<wantarray>
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186
187=item Functions for processes and process groups
d74e8afc 188X<process> X<pid> X<process id>
cb1a09d0 189
22fae026 190C<alarm>, C<exec>, C<fork>, C<getpgrp>, C<getppid>, C<getpriority>, C<kill>,
1dc8ecb8 191C<pipe>, C<qx//>, C<setpgrp>, C<setpriority>, C<sleep>, C<system>,
22fae026 192C<times>, C<wait>, C<waitpid>
cb1a09d0 193
3b10bc60 194=item Keywords related to Perl modules
d74e8afc 195X<module>
cb1a09d0 196
22fae026 197C<do>, C<import>, C<no>, C<package>, C<require>, C<use>
cb1a09d0 198
353c6505 199=item Keywords related to classes and object-orientation
d74e8afc 200X<object> X<class> X<package>
cb1a09d0 201
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202C<bless>, C<dbmclose>, C<dbmopen>, C<package>, C<ref>, C<tie>, C<tied>,
203C<untie>, C<use>
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204
205=item Low-level socket functions
d74e8afc 206X<socket> X<sock>
cb1a09d0 207
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208C<accept>, C<bind>, C<connect>, C<getpeername>, C<getsockname>,
209C<getsockopt>, C<listen>, C<recv>, C<send>, C<setsockopt>, C<shutdown>,
737dd4b4 210C<socket>, C<socketpair>
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211
212=item System V interprocess communication functions
d74e8afc 213X<IPC> X<System V> X<semaphore> X<shared memory> X<memory> X<message>
cb1a09d0 214
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215C<msgctl>, C<msgget>, C<msgrcv>, C<msgsnd>, C<semctl>, C<semget>, C<semop>,
216C<shmctl>, C<shmget>, C<shmread>, C<shmwrite>
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217
218=item Fetching user and group info
d74e8afc 219X<user> X<group> X<password> X<uid> X<gid> X<passwd> X</etc/passwd>
cb1a09d0 220
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221C<endgrent>, C<endhostent>, C<endnetent>, C<endpwent>, C<getgrent>,
222C<getgrgid>, C<getgrnam>, C<getlogin>, C<getpwent>, C<getpwnam>,
223C<getpwuid>, C<setgrent>, C<setpwent>
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224
225=item Fetching network info
d74e8afc 226X<network> X<protocol> X<host> X<hostname> X<IP> X<address> X<service>
cb1a09d0 227
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228C<endprotoent>, C<endservent>, C<gethostbyaddr>, C<gethostbyname>,
229C<gethostent>, C<getnetbyaddr>, C<getnetbyname>, C<getnetent>,
230C<getprotobyname>, C<getprotobynumber>, C<getprotoent>,
231C<getservbyname>, C<getservbyport>, C<getservent>, C<sethostent>,
232C<setnetent>, C<setprotoent>, C<setservent>
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233
234=item Time-related functions
d74e8afc 235X<time> X<date>
cb1a09d0 236
22fae026 237C<gmtime>, C<localtime>, C<time>, C<times>
cb1a09d0 238
37798a01 239=item Functions new in perl5
d74e8afc 240X<perl5>
37798a01 241
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242C<abs>, C<bless>, C<break>, C<chomp>, C<chr>, C<continue>, C<default>,
243C<exists>, C<formline>, C<given>, C<glob>, C<import>, C<lc>, C<lcfirst>,
1dc8ecb8 244C<lock>, C<map>, C<my>, C<no>, C<our>, C<prototype>, C<qr//>, C<qw//>, C<qx//>,
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245C<readline>, C<readpipe>, C<ref>, C<sub>*, C<sysopen>, C<tie>, C<tied>, C<uc>,
246C<ucfirst>, C<untie>, C<use>, C<when>
37798a01 247
3b10bc60 248* C<sub> was a keyword in Perl 4, but in Perl 5 it is an
5a964f20 249operator, which can be used in expressions.
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250
251=item Functions obsoleted in perl5
252
22fae026 253C<dbmclose>, C<dbmopen>
37798a01 254
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255=back
256
60f9f73c 257=head2 Portability
d74e8afc 258X<portability> X<Unix> X<portable>
60f9f73c 259
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260Perl was born in Unix and can therefore access all common Unix
261system calls. In non-Unix environments, the functionality of some
262Unix system calls may not be available, or details of the available
263functionality may differ slightly. The Perl functions affected
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264by this are:
265
266C<-X>, C<binmode>, C<chmod>, C<chown>, C<chroot>, C<crypt>,
267C<dbmclose>, C<dbmopen>, C<dump>, C<endgrent>, C<endhostent>,
268C<endnetent>, C<endprotoent>, C<endpwent>, C<endservent>, C<exec>,
ef5a6dd7
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269C<fcntl>, C<flock>, C<fork>, C<getgrent>, C<getgrgid>, C<gethostbyname>,
270C<gethostent>, C<getlogin>, C<getnetbyaddr>, C<getnetbyname>, C<getnetent>,
54d7b083 271C<getppid>, C<getpgrp>, C<getpriority>, C<getprotobynumber>,
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272C<getprotoent>, C<getpwent>, C<getpwnam>, C<getpwuid>,
273C<getservbyport>, C<getservent>, C<getsockopt>, C<glob>, C<ioctl>,
274C<kill>, C<link>, C<lstat>, C<msgctl>, C<msgget>, C<msgrcv>,
2b5ab1e7 275C<msgsnd>, C<open>, C<pipe>, C<readlink>, C<rename>, C<select>, C<semctl>,
60f9f73c
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276C<semget>, C<semop>, C<setgrent>, C<sethostent>, C<setnetent>,
277C<setpgrp>, C<setpriority>, C<setprotoent>, C<setpwent>,
278C<setservent>, C<setsockopt>, C<shmctl>, C<shmget>, C<shmread>,
737dd4b4 279C<shmwrite>, C<socket>, C<socketpair>,
80cbd5ad
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280C<stat>, C<symlink>, C<syscall>, C<sysopen>, C<system>,
281C<times>, C<truncate>, C<umask>, C<unlink>,
2b5ab1e7 282C<utime>, C<wait>, C<waitpid>
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283
284For more information about the portability of these functions, see
285L<perlport> and other available platform-specific documentation.
286
cb1a09d0
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287=head2 Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions
288
3b10bc60 289=over
a0d0e21e 290
5b3c99c0 291=item -X FILEHANDLE
d74e8afc
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292X<-r>X<-w>X<-x>X<-o>X<-R>X<-W>X<-X>X<-O>X<-e>X<-z>X<-s>X<-f>X<-d>X<-l>X<-p>
293X<-S>X<-b>X<-c>X<-t>X<-u>X<-g>X<-k>X<-T>X<-B>X<-M>X<-A>X<-C>
a0d0e21e 294
5b3c99c0 295=item -X EXPR
a0d0e21e 296
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297=item -X DIRHANDLE
298
5b3c99c0 299=item -X
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300
301A file test, where X is one of the letters listed below. This unary
5228a96c
SP
302operator takes one argument, either a filename, a filehandle, or a dirhandle,
303and tests the associated file to see if something is true about it. If the
7660c0ab 304argument is omitted, tests C<$_>, except for C<-t>, which tests STDIN.
19799a22 305Unless otherwise documented, it returns C<1> for true and C<''> for false, or
a0d0e21e 306the undefined value if the file doesn't exist. Despite the funny
d0821a6a 307names, precedence is the same as any other named unary operator. The
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308operator may be any of:
309
5ed4f2ec 310 -r File is readable by effective uid/gid.
311 -w File is writable by effective uid/gid.
312 -x File is executable by effective uid/gid.
313 -o File is owned by effective uid.
a0d0e21e 314
5ed4f2ec 315 -R File is readable by real uid/gid.
316 -W File is writable by real uid/gid.
317 -X File is executable by real uid/gid.
318 -O File is owned by real uid.
a0d0e21e 319
5ed4f2ec 320 -e File exists.
321 -z File has zero size (is empty).
322 -s File has nonzero size (returns size in bytes).
a0d0e21e 323
5ed4f2ec 324 -f File is a plain file.
325 -d File is a directory.
326 -l File is a symbolic link.
327 -p File is a named pipe (FIFO), or Filehandle is a pipe.
328 -S File is a socket.
329 -b File is a block special file.
330 -c File is a character special file.
331 -t Filehandle is opened to a tty.
a0d0e21e 332
5ed4f2ec 333 -u File has setuid bit set.
334 -g File has setgid bit set.
335 -k File has sticky bit set.
a0d0e21e 336
5ed4f2ec 337 -T File is an ASCII text file (heuristic guess).
338 -B File is a "binary" file (opposite of -T).
a0d0e21e 339
5ed4f2ec 340 -M Script start time minus file modification time, in days.
341 -A Same for access time.
342 -C Same for inode change time (Unix, may differ for other platforms)
a0d0e21e 343
a0d0e21e
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344Example:
345
346 while (<>) {
a9a5a0dc
VP
347 chomp;
348 next unless -f $_; # ignore specials
349 #...
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350 }
351
5ff3f7a4
GS
352The interpretation of the file permission operators C<-r>, C<-R>,
353C<-w>, C<-W>, C<-x>, and C<-X> is by default based solely on the mode
354of the file and the uids and gids of the user. There may be other
ecae030f
MO
355reasons you can't actually read, write, or execute the file: for
356example network filesystem access controls, ACLs (access control lists),
357read-only filesystems, and unrecognized executable formats. Note
358that the use of these six specific operators to verify if some operation
359is possible is usually a mistake, because it may be open to race
360conditions.
5ff3f7a4 361
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362Also note that, for the superuser on the local filesystems, the C<-r>,
363C<-R>, C<-w>, and C<-W> tests always return 1, and C<-x> and C<-X> return 1
5ff3f7a4
GS
364if any execute bit is set in the mode. Scripts run by the superuser
365may thus need to do a stat() to determine the actual mode of the file,
2b5ab1e7 366or temporarily set their effective uid to something else.
5ff3f7a4
GS
367
368If you are using ACLs, there is a pragma called C<filetest> that may
369produce more accurate results than the bare stat() mode bits.
5ff3f7a4 370When under the C<use filetest 'access'> the above-mentioned filetests
3b10bc60 371test whether the permission can (not) be granted using the
372access(2) family of system calls. Also note that the C<-x> and C<-X> may
5ff3f7a4
GS
373under this pragma return true even if there are no execute permission
374bits set (nor any extra execute permission ACLs). This strangeness is
ecae030f
MO
375due to the underlying system calls' definitions. Note also that, due to
376the implementation of C<use filetest 'access'>, the C<_> special
377filehandle won't cache the results of the file tests when this pragma is
378in effect. Read the documentation for the C<filetest> pragma for more
379information.
5ff3f7a4 380
a0d0e21e 381Note that C<-s/a/b/> does not do a negated substitution. Saying
3b10bc60 382C<-exp($foo)> still works as expected, however: only single letters
a0d0e21e
LW
383following a minus are interpreted as file tests.
384
385The C<-T> and C<-B> switches work as follows. The first block or so of the
386file is examined for odd characters such as strange control codes or
61eff3bc 387characters with the high bit set. If too many strange characters (>30%)
cf264981 388are found, it's a C<-B> file; otherwise it's a C<-T> file. Also, any file
3b10bc60 389containing a zero byte in the first block is considered a binary file. If C<-T>
9124316e 390or C<-B> is used on a filehandle, the current IO buffer is examined
3b10bc60 391rather than the first block. Both C<-T> and C<-B> return true on an empty
54310121 392file, or a file at EOF when testing a filehandle. Because you have to
4633a7c4
LW
393read a file to do the C<-T> test, on most occasions you want to use a C<-f>
394against the file first, as in C<next unless -f $file && -T $file>.
a0d0e21e 395
19799a22 396If any of the file tests (or either the C<stat> or C<lstat> operators) are given
28757baa 397the special filehandle consisting of a solitary underline, then the stat
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398structure of the previous file test (or stat operator) is used, saving
399a system call. (This doesn't work with C<-t>, and you need to remember
3b10bc60 400that lstat() and C<-l> leave values in the stat structure for the
5c9aa243 401symbolic link, not the real file.) (Also, if the stat buffer was filled by
cf264981 402an C<lstat> call, C<-T> and C<-B> will reset it with the results of C<stat _>).
5c9aa243 403Example:
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404
405 print "Can do.\n" if -r $a || -w _ || -x _;
406
407 stat($filename);
408 print "Readable\n" if -r _;
409 print "Writable\n" if -w _;
410 print "Executable\n" if -x _;
411 print "Setuid\n" if -u _;
412 print "Setgid\n" if -g _;
413 print "Sticky\n" if -k _;
414 print "Text\n" if -T _;
415 print "Binary\n" if -B _;
416
fbb0b3b3
RGS
417As of Perl 5.9.1, as a form of purely syntactic sugar, you can stack file
418test operators, in a way that C<-f -w -x $file> is equivalent to
3b10bc60 419C<-x $file && -w _ && -f _>. (This is only fancy fancy: if you use
fbb0b3b3
RGS
420the return value of C<-f $file> as an argument to another filetest
421operator, no special magic will happen.)
422
a0d0e21e 423=item abs VALUE
d74e8afc 424X<abs> X<absolute>
a0d0e21e 425
54310121 426=item abs
bbce6d69 427
a0d0e21e 428Returns the absolute value of its argument.
7660c0ab 429If VALUE is omitted, uses C<$_>.
a0d0e21e
LW
430
431=item accept NEWSOCKET,GENERICSOCKET
d74e8afc 432X<accept>
a0d0e21e 433
3b10bc60 434Accepts an incoming socket connect, just as accept(2)
19799a22 435does. Returns the packed address if it succeeded, false otherwise.
2b5ab1e7 436See the example in L<perlipc/"Sockets: Client/Server Communication">.
a0d0e21e 437
8d2a6795
GS
438On systems that support a close-on-exec flag on files, the flag will
439be set for the newly opened file descriptor, as determined by the
440value of $^F. See L<perlvar/$^F>.
441
a0d0e21e 442=item alarm SECONDS
d74e8afc
ITB
443X<alarm>
444X<SIGALRM>
445X<timer>
a0d0e21e 446
54310121 447=item alarm
bbce6d69 448
a0d0e21e 449Arranges to have a SIGALRM delivered to this process after the
cf264981 450specified number of wallclock seconds has elapsed. If SECONDS is not
d400eac8
JH
451specified, the value stored in C<$_> is used. (On some machines,
452unfortunately, the elapsed time may be up to one second less or more
453than you specified because of how seconds are counted, and process
454scheduling may delay the delivery of the signal even further.)
455
456Only one timer may be counting at once. Each call disables the
457previous timer, and an argument of C<0> may be supplied to cancel the
458previous timer without starting a new one. The returned value is the
459amount of time remaining on the previous timer.
a0d0e21e 460
2bc69794
BS
461For delays of finer granularity than one second, the Time::HiRes module
462(from CPAN, and starting from Perl 5.8 part of the standard
463distribution) provides ualarm(). You may also use Perl's four-argument
464version of select() leaving the first three arguments undefined, or you
465might be able to use the C<syscall> interface to access setitimer(2) if
466your system supports it. See L<perlfaq8> for details.
2b5ab1e7 467
80d38338
TC
468It is usually a mistake to intermix C<alarm> and C<sleep> calls, because
469C<sleep> may be internally implemented on your system with C<alarm>.
a0d0e21e 470
19799a22
GS
471If you want to use C<alarm> to time out a system call you need to use an
472C<eval>/C<die> pair. You can't rely on the alarm causing the system call to
f86cebdf 473fail with C<$!> set to C<EINTR> because Perl sets up signal handlers to
19799a22 474restart system calls on some systems. Using C<eval>/C<die> always works,
5a964f20 475modulo the caveats given in L<perlipc/"Signals">.
ff68c719
PP
476
477 eval {
a9a5a0dc
VP
478 local $SIG{ALRM} = sub { die "alarm\n" }; # NB: \n required
479 alarm $timeout;
480 $nread = sysread SOCKET, $buffer, $size;
481 alarm 0;
ff68c719 482 };
ff68c719 483 if ($@) {
a9a5a0dc 484 die unless $@ eq "alarm\n"; # propagate unexpected errors
5ed4f2ec 485 # timed out
ff68c719
PP
486 }
487 else {
5ed4f2ec 488 # didn't
ff68c719
PP
489 }
490
91d81acc
JH
491For more information see L<perlipc>.
492
a0d0e21e 493=item atan2 Y,X
d74e8afc 494X<atan2> X<arctangent> X<tan> X<tangent>
a0d0e21e
LW
495
496Returns the arctangent of Y/X in the range -PI to PI.
497
ca6e1c26 498For the tangent operation, you may use the C<Math::Trig::tan>
28757baa
PP
499function, or use the familiar relation:
500
501 sub tan { sin($_[0]) / cos($_[0]) }
502
a1021d57
RGS
503The return value for C<atan2(0,0)> is implementation-defined; consult
504your atan2(3) manpage for more information.
bf5f1b4c 505
a0d0e21e 506=item bind SOCKET,NAME
d74e8afc 507X<bind>
a0d0e21e 508
3b10bc60 509Binds a network address to a socket, just as bind(2)
19799a22 510does. Returns true if it succeeded, false otherwise. NAME should be a
4633a7c4
LW
511packed address of the appropriate type for the socket. See the examples in
512L<perlipc/"Sockets: Client/Server Communication">.
a0d0e21e 513
fae2c0fb 514=item binmode FILEHANDLE, LAYER
d74e8afc 515X<binmode> X<binary> X<text> X<DOS> X<Windows>
1c1fc3ea 516
a0d0e21e
LW
517=item binmode FILEHANDLE
518
1cbfc93d
NIS
519Arranges for FILEHANDLE to be read or written in "binary" or "text"
520mode on systems where the run-time libraries distinguish between
521binary and text files. If FILEHANDLE is an expression, the value is
522taken as the name of the filehandle. Returns true on success,
b5fe5ca2 523otherwise it returns C<undef> and sets C<$!> (errno).
1cbfc93d 524
d807c6f4
JH
525On some systems (in general, DOS and Windows-based systems) binmode()
526is necessary when you're not working with a text file. For the sake
527of portability it is a good idea to always use it when appropriate,
528and to never use it when it isn't appropriate. Also, people can
529set their I/O to be by default UTF-8 encoded Unicode, not bytes.
530
531In other words: regardless of platform, use binmode() on binary data,
532like for example images.
533
534If LAYER is present it is a single string, but may contain multiple
3b10bc60 535directives. The directives alter the behaviour of the filehandle.
920f5fe1 536When LAYER is present using binmode on a text file makes sense.
d807c6f4 537
fae2c0fb 538If LAYER is omitted or specified as C<:raw> the filehandle is made
0226bbdb
NIS
539suitable for passing binary data. This includes turning off possible CRLF
540translation and marking it as bytes (as opposed to Unicode characters).
749683d2 541Note that, despite what may be implied in I<"Programming Perl"> (the
3b10bc60 542Camel, 3rd edition) or elsewhere, C<:raw> is I<not> simply the inverse of C<:crlf>.
543Other layers that would affect the binary nature of the stream are
544I<also> disabled. See L<PerlIO>, L<perlrun>, and the discussion about the
0226bbdb 545PERLIO environment variable.
01e6739c 546
3b10bc60 547The C<:bytes>, C<:crlf>, C<:utf8>, and any other directives of the
d807c6f4
JH
548form C<:...>, are called I/O I<layers>. The C<open> pragma can be used to
549establish default I/O layers. See L<open>.
550
fae2c0fb
RGS
551I<The LAYER parameter of the binmode() function is described as "DISCIPLINE"
552in "Programming Perl, 3rd Edition". However, since the publishing of this
553book, by many known as "Camel III", the consensus of the naming of this
554functionality has moved from "discipline" to "layer". All documentation
555of this version of Perl therefore refers to "layers" rather than to
556"disciplines". Now back to the regularly scheduled documentation...>
557
6902c96a
T
558To mark FILEHANDLE as UTF-8, use C<:utf8> or C<:encoding(utf8)>.
559C<:utf8> just marks the data as UTF-8 without further checking,
560while C<:encoding(utf8)> checks the data for actually being valid
561UTF-8. More details can be found in L<PerlIO::encoding>.
1cbfc93d 562
ed53a2bb 563In general, binmode() should be called after open() but before any I/O
3b10bc60 564is done on the filehandle. Calling binmode() normally flushes any
01e6739c 565pending buffered output data (and perhaps pending input data) on the
fae2c0fb 566handle. An exception to this is the C<:encoding> layer that
01e6739c 567changes the default character encoding of the handle, see L<open>.
fae2c0fb 568The C<:encoding> layer sometimes needs to be called in
3874323d
JH
569mid-stream, and it doesn't flush the stream. The C<:encoding>
570also implicitly pushes on top of itself the C<:utf8> layer because
3b10bc60 571internally Perl operates on UTF8-encoded Unicode characters.
16fe6d59 572
19799a22 573The operating system, device drivers, C libraries, and Perl run-time
30168b04
GS
574system all work together to let the programmer treat a single
575character (C<\n>) as the line terminator, irrespective of the external
576representation. On many operating systems, the native text file
577representation matches the internal representation, but on some
578platforms the external representation of C<\n> is made up of more than
579one character.
580
68bd7414
NIS
581Mac OS, all variants of Unix, and Stream_LF files on VMS use a single
582character to end each line in the external representation of text (even
5e12dbfa 583though that single character is CARRIAGE RETURN on Mac OS and LINE FEED
01e6739c
NIS
584on Unix and most VMS files). In other systems like OS/2, DOS and the
585various flavors of MS-Windows your program sees a C<\n> as a simple C<\cJ>,
586but what's stored in text files are the two characters C<\cM\cJ>. That
587means that, if you don't use binmode() on these systems, C<\cM\cJ>
588sequences on disk will be converted to C<\n> on input, and any C<\n> in
589your program will be converted back to C<\cM\cJ> on output. This is what
590you want for text files, but it can be disastrous for binary files.
30168b04
GS
591
592Another consequence of using binmode() (on some systems) is that
593special end-of-file markers will be seen as part of the data stream.
594For systems from the Microsoft family this means that if your binary
4375e838 595data contains C<\cZ>, the I/O subsystem will regard it as the end of
30168b04
GS
596the file, unless you use binmode().
597
3b10bc60 598binmode() is important not only for readline() and print() operations,
30168b04
GS
599but also when using read(), seek(), sysread(), syswrite() and tell()
600(see L<perlport> for more details). See the C<$/> and C<$\> variables
601in L<perlvar> for how to manually set your input and output
602line-termination sequences.
a0d0e21e 603
4633a7c4 604=item bless REF,CLASSNAME
d74e8afc 605X<bless>
a0d0e21e
LW
606
607=item bless REF
608
2b5ab1e7
TC
609This function tells the thingy referenced by REF that it is now an object
610in the CLASSNAME package. If CLASSNAME is omitted, the current package
19799a22 611is used. Because a C<bless> is often the last thing in a constructor,
2b5ab1e7 612it returns the reference for convenience. Always use the two-argument
cf264981
SP
613version if a derived class might inherit the function doing the blessing.
614See L<perltoot> and L<perlobj> for more about the blessing (and blessings)
615of objects.
a0d0e21e 616
57668c4d 617Consider always blessing objects in CLASSNAMEs that are mixed case.
2b5ab1e7 618Namespaces with all lowercase names are considered reserved for
cf264981 619Perl pragmata. Builtin types have all uppercase names. To prevent
2b5ab1e7
TC
620confusion, you may wish to avoid such package names as well. Make sure
621that CLASSNAME is a true value.
60ad88b8
GS
622
623See L<perlmod/"Perl Modules">.
624
0d863452
RH
625=item break
626
627Break out of a C<given()> block.
628
3b10bc60 629This keyword is enabled by the C<"switch"> feature: see L<feature>
0d863452
RH
630for more information.
631
a0d0e21e 632=item caller EXPR
d74e8afc 633X<caller> X<call stack> X<stack> X<stack trace>
a0d0e21e
LW
634
635=item caller
636
5a964f20 637Returns the context of the current subroutine call. In scalar context,
80d38338
TC
638returns the caller's package name if there I<is> a caller (that is, if
639we're in a subroutine or C<eval> or C<require>) and the undefined value
5a964f20 640otherwise. In list context, returns
a0d0e21e 641
ee6b43cc 642 # 0 1 2
748a9306 643 ($package, $filename, $line) = caller;
a0d0e21e
LW
644
645With EXPR, it returns some extra information that the debugger uses to
646print a stack trace. The value of EXPR indicates how many call frames
647to go back before the current one.
648
ee6b43cc 649 # 0 1 2 3 4
f3aa04c2 650 ($package, $filename, $line, $subroutine, $hasargs,
ee6b43cc 651
652 # 5 6 7 8 9 10
b3ca2e83 653 $wantarray, $evaltext, $is_require, $hints, $bitmask, $hinthash)
ee6b43cc 654 = caller($i);
e7ea3e70 655
951ba7fe 656Here $subroutine may be C<(eval)> if the frame is not a subroutine
19799a22 657call, but an C<eval>. In such a case additional elements $evaltext and
7660c0ab 658C<$is_require> are set: C<$is_require> is true if the frame is created by a
19799a22 659C<require> or C<use> statement, $evaltext contains the text of the
277ddfaf 660C<eval EXPR> statement. In particular, for an C<eval BLOCK> statement,
cc1c2e42 661$subroutine is C<(eval)>, but $evaltext is undefined. (Note also that
0fc9dec4
RGS
662each C<use> statement creates a C<require> frame inside an C<eval EXPR>
663frame.) $subroutine may also be C<(unknown)> if this particular
664subroutine happens to have been deleted from the symbol table.
665C<$hasargs> is true if a new instance of C<@_> was set up for the frame.
666C<$hints> and C<$bitmask> contain pragmatic hints that the caller was
667compiled with. The C<$hints> and C<$bitmask> values are subject to change
668between versions of Perl, and are not meant for external use.
748a9306 669
b3ca2e83
NC
670C<$hinthash> is a reference to a hash containing the value of C<%^H> when the
671caller was compiled, or C<undef> if C<%^H> was empty. Do not modify the values
672of this hash, as they are the actual values stored in the optree.
673
748a9306 674Furthermore, when called from within the DB package, caller returns more
7660c0ab 675detailed information: it sets the list variable C<@DB::args> to be the
54310121 676arguments with which the subroutine was invoked.
748a9306 677
7660c0ab 678Be aware that the optimizer might have optimized call frames away before
19799a22 679C<caller> had a chance to get the information. That means that C<caller(N)>
80d38338 680might not return information about the call frame you expect it to, for
b76cc8ba 681C<< N > 1 >>. In particular, C<@DB::args> might have information from the
19799a22 682previous time C<caller> was called.
7660c0ab 683
ca9f0cb5
NC
684Also be aware that setting C<@DB::args> is I<best effort>, intended for
685debugging or generating backtraces, and should not be relied upon. In
686particular, as C<@_> contains aliases to the caller's arguments, Perl does
687not take a copy of C<@_>, so C<@DB::args> will contain modifications the
688subroutine makes to C<@_> or its contents, not the original values at call
689time. C<@DB::args>, like C<@_>, does not hold explicit references to its
690elements, so under certain cases its elements may have become freed and
691reallocated for other variables or temporary values. Finally, a side effect
692of the current implementation means that the effects of C<shift @_> can
693I<normally> be undone (but not C<pop @_> or other splicing, and not if a
694reference to C<@_> has been taken, and subject to the caveat about reallocated
695elements), so C<@DB::args> is actually a hybrid of the current state and
696initial state of C<@_>. Buyer beware.
697
a0d0e21e 698=item chdir EXPR
d74e8afc
ITB
699X<chdir>
700X<cd>
f723aae1 701X<directory, change>
a0d0e21e 702
c4aca7d0
GA
703=item chdir FILEHANDLE
704
705=item chdir DIRHANDLE
706
ce2984c3
PF
707=item chdir
708
ffce7b87 709Changes the working directory to EXPR, if possible. If EXPR is omitted,
0bfc1ec4 710changes to the directory specified by C<$ENV{HOME}>, if set; if not,
ffce7b87 711changes to the directory specified by C<$ENV{LOGDIR}>. (Under VMS, the
b4ad75f0 712variable C<$ENV{SYS$LOGIN}> is also checked, and used if it is set.) If
80d38338 713neither is set, C<chdir> does nothing. It returns true on success,
b4ad75f0 714false otherwise. See the example under C<die>.
a0d0e21e 715
3b10bc60 716On systems that support fchdir(2), you may pass a filehandle or
717directory handle as argument. On systems that don't support fchdir(2),
718passing handles raises an exception.
c4aca7d0 719
a0d0e21e 720=item chmod LIST
d74e8afc 721X<chmod> X<permission> X<mode>
a0d0e21e
LW
722
723Changes the permissions of a list of files. The first element of the
4633a7c4 724list must be the numerical mode, which should probably be an octal
4ad40acf 725number, and which definitely should I<not> be a string of octal digits:
3b10bc60 726C<0644> is okay, but C<"0644"> is not. Returns the number of files
dc848c6f 727successfully changed. See also L</oct>, if all you have is a string.
a0d0e21e 728
3b10bc60 729 $cnt = chmod 0755, "foo", "bar";
a0d0e21e 730 chmod 0755, @executables;
3b10bc60 731 $mode = "0644"; chmod $mode, "foo"; # !!! sets mode to
f86cebdf 732 # --w----r-T
3b10bc60 733 $mode = "0644"; chmod oct($mode), "foo"; # this is better
734 $mode = 0644; chmod $mode, "foo"; # this is best
a0d0e21e 735
3b10bc60 736On systems that support fchmod(2), you may pass filehandles among the
737files. On systems that don't support fchmod(2), passing filehandles raises
738an exception. Filehandles must be passed as globs or glob references to be
739recognized; barewords are considered filenames.
c4aca7d0
GA
740
741 open(my $fh, "<", "foo");
742 my $perm = (stat $fh)[2] & 07777;
743 chmod($perm | 0600, $fh);
744
3b10bc60 745You can also import the symbolic C<S_I*> constants from the C<Fcntl>
ca6e1c26
JH
746module:
747
3b10bc60 748 use Fcntl qw( :mode );
ca6e1c26 749 chmod S_IRWXU|S_IRGRP|S_IXGRP|S_IROTH|S_IXOTH, @executables;
3b10bc60 750 # Identical to the chmod 0755 of the example above.
ca6e1c26 751
a0d0e21e 752=item chomp VARIABLE
d74e8afc 753X<chomp> X<INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR> X<$/> X<newline> X<eol>
a0d0e21e 754
313c9f5c 755=item chomp( LIST )
a0d0e21e
LW
756
757=item chomp
758
2b5ab1e7
TC
759This safer version of L</chop> removes any trailing string
760that corresponds to the current value of C<$/> (also known as
28757baa
PP
761$INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR in the C<English> module). It returns the total
762number of characters removed from all its arguments. It's often used to
763remove the newline from the end of an input record when you're worried
2b5ab1e7
TC
764that the final record may be missing its newline. When in paragraph
765mode (C<$/ = "">), it removes all trailing newlines from the string.
4c5a6083
GS
766When in slurp mode (C<$/ = undef>) or fixed-length record mode (C<$/> is
767a reference to an integer or the like, see L<perlvar>) chomp() won't
b76cc8ba 768remove anything.
19799a22 769If VARIABLE is omitted, it chomps C<$_>. Example:
a0d0e21e
LW
770
771 while (<>) {
a9a5a0dc
VP
772 chomp; # avoid \n on last field
773 @array = split(/:/);
774 # ...
a0d0e21e
LW
775 }
776
4bf21a6d
RD
777If VARIABLE is a hash, it chomps the hash's values, but not its keys.
778
a0d0e21e
LW
779You can actually chomp anything that's an lvalue, including an assignment:
780
781 chomp($cwd = `pwd`);
782 chomp($answer = <STDIN>);
783
784If you chomp a list, each element is chomped, and the total number of
785characters removed is returned.
786
15e44fd8
RGS
787Note that parentheses are necessary when you're chomping anything
788that is not a simple variable. This is because C<chomp $cwd = `pwd`;>
789is interpreted as C<(chomp $cwd) = `pwd`;>, rather than as
790C<chomp( $cwd = `pwd` )> which you might expect. Similarly,
791C<chomp $a, $b> is interpreted as C<chomp($a), $b> rather than
792as C<chomp($a, $b)>.
793
a0d0e21e 794=item chop VARIABLE
d74e8afc 795X<chop>
a0d0e21e 796
313c9f5c 797=item chop( LIST )
a0d0e21e
LW
798
799=item chop
800
801Chops off the last character of a string and returns the character
5b3eff12 802chopped. It is much more efficient than C<s/.$//s> because it neither
7660c0ab 803scans nor copies the string. If VARIABLE is omitted, chops C<$_>.
4bf21a6d
RD
804If VARIABLE is a hash, it chops the hash's values, but not its keys.
805
5b3eff12 806You can actually chop anything that's an lvalue, including an assignment.
a0d0e21e
LW
807
808If you chop a list, each element is chopped. Only the value of the
19799a22 809last C<chop> is returned.
a0d0e21e 810
19799a22 811Note that C<chop> returns the last character. To return all but the last
748a9306
LW
812character, use C<substr($string, 0, -1)>.
813
15e44fd8
RGS
814See also L</chomp>.
815
a0d0e21e 816=item chown LIST
d74e8afc 817X<chown> X<owner> X<user> X<group>
a0d0e21e
LW
818
819Changes the owner (and group) of a list of files. The first two
19799a22
GS
820elements of the list must be the I<numeric> uid and gid, in that
821order. A value of -1 in either position is interpreted by most
822systems to leave that value unchanged. Returns the number of files
823successfully changed.
a0d0e21e
LW
824
825 $cnt = chown $uid, $gid, 'foo', 'bar';
826 chown $uid, $gid, @filenames;
827
3b10bc60 828On systems that support fchown(2), you may pass filehandles among the
829files. On systems that don't support fchown(2), passing filehandles raises
830an exception. Filehandles must be passed as globs or glob references to be
831recognized; barewords are considered filenames.
c4aca7d0 832
54310121 833Here's an example that looks up nonnumeric uids in the passwd file:
a0d0e21e
LW
834
835 print "User: ";
19799a22 836 chomp($user = <STDIN>);
5a964f20 837 print "Files: ";
19799a22 838 chomp($pattern = <STDIN>);
a0d0e21e
LW
839
840 ($login,$pass,$uid,$gid) = getpwnam($user)
a9a5a0dc 841 or die "$user not in passwd file";
a0d0e21e 842
5ed4f2ec 843 @ary = glob($pattern); # expand filenames
a0d0e21e
LW
844 chown $uid, $gid, @ary;
845
54310121 846On most systems, you are not allowed to change the ownership of the
4633a7c4
LW
847file unless you're the superuser, although you should be able to change
848the group to any of your secondary groups. On insecure systems, these
849restrictions may be relaxed, but this is not a portable assumption.
19799a22
GS
850On POSIX systems, you can detect this condition this way:
851
852 use POSIX qw(sysconf _PC_CHOWN_RESTRICTED);
853 $can_chown_giveaway = not sysconf(_PC_CHOWN_RESTRICTED);
4633a7c4 854
a0d0e21e 855=item chr NUMBER
d74e8afc 856X<chr> X<character> X<ASCII> X<Unicode>
a0d0e21e 857
54310121 858=item chr
bbce6d69 859
a0d0e21e 860Returns the character represented by that NUMBER in the character set.
a0ed51b3 861For example, C<chr(65)> is C<"A"> in either ASCII or Unicode, and
2575c402 862chr(0x263a) is a Unicode smiley face.
aaa68c4a 863
8a064bd6 864Negative values give the Unicode replacement character (chr(0xfffd)),
80d38338 865except under the L<bytes> pragma, where the low eight bits of the value
8a064bd6
JH
866(truncated to an integer) are used.
867
974da8e5
JH
868If NUMBER is omitted, uses C<$_>.
869
b76cc8ba 870For the reverse, use L</ord>.
a0d0e21e 871
2575c402
JW
872Note that characters from 128 to 255 (inclusive) are by default
873internally not encoded as UTF-8 for backward compatibility reasons.
974da8e5 874
2575c402 875See L<perlunicode> for more about Unicode.
bbce6d69 876
a0d0e21e 877=item chroot FILENAME
d74e8afc 878X<chroot> X<root>
a0d0e21e 879
54310121 880=item chroot
bbce6d69 881
5a964f20 882This function works like the system call by the same name: it makes the
4633a7c4 883named directory the new root directory for all further pathnames that
951ba7fe 884begin with a C</> by your process and all its children. (It doesn't
28757baa 885change your current working directory, which is unaffected.) For security
4633a7c4 886reasons, this call is restricted to the superuser. If FILENAME is
19799a22 887omitted, does a C<chroot> to C<$_>.
a0d0e21e
LW
888
889=item close FILEHANDLE
d74e8afc 890X<close>
a0d0e21e 891
6a518fbc
TP
892=item close
893
3b10bc60 894Closes the file or pipe associated with the filehandle, flushes the IO
e0f13c26
RGS
895buffers, and closes the system file descriptor. Returns true if those
896operations have succeeded and if no error was reported by any PerlIO
897layer. Closes the currently selected filehandle if the argument is
898omitted.
fb73857a
PP
899
900You don't have to close FILEHANDLE if you are immediately going to do
3b10bc60 901another C<open> on it, because C<open> closes it for you. (See
19799a22
GS
902C<open>.) However, an explicit C<close> on an input file resets the line
903counter (C<$.>), while the implicit close done by C<open> does not.
fb73857a 904
3b10bc60 905If the filehandle came from a piped open, C<close> returns false if one of
906the other syscalls involved fails or if its program exits with non-zero
907status. If the only problem was that the program exited non-zero, C<$!>
908will be set to C<0>. Closing a pipe also waits for the process executing
909on the pipe to exit--in case you wish to look at the output of the pipe
910afterwards--and implicitly puts the exit status value of that command into
911C<$?> and C<${^CHILD_ERROR_NATIVE}>.
5a964f20 912
80d38338
TC
913Closing the read end of a pipe before the process writing to it at the
914other end is done writing results in the writer receiving a SIGPIPE. If
915the other end can't handle that, be sure to read all the data before
916closing the pipe.
73689b13 917
fb73857a 918Example:
a0d0e21e 919
fb73857a
PP
920 open(OUTPUT, '|sort >foo') # pipe to sort
921 or die "Can't start sort: $!";
5ed4f2ec 922 #... # print stuff to output
923 close OUTPUT # wait for sort to finish
fb73857a
PP
924 or warn $! ? "Error closing sort pipe: $!"
925 : "Exit status $? from sort";
5ed4f2ec 926 open(INPUT, 'foo') # get sort's results
fb73857a 927 or die "Can't open 'foo' for input: $!";
a0d0e21e 928
5a964f20
TC
929FILEHANDLE may be an expression whose value can be used as an indirect
930filehandle, usually the real filehandle name.
a0d0e21e
LW
931
932=item closedir DIRHANDLE
d74e8afc 933X<closedir>
a0d0e21e 934
19799a22 935Closes a directory opened by C<opendir> and returns the success of that
5a964f20
TC
936system call.
937
a0d0e21e 938=item connect SOCKET,NAME
d74e8afc 939X<connect>
a0d0e21e 940
80d38338
TC
941Attempts to connect to a remote socket, just like connect(2).
942Returns true if it succeeded, false otherwise. NAME should be a
4633a7c4
LW
943packed address of the appropriate type for the socket. See the examples in
944L<perlipc/"Sockets: Client/Server Communication">.
a0d0e21e 945
cb1a09d0 946=item continue BLOCK
d74e8afc 947X<continue>
cb1a09d0 948
0d863452
RH
949=item continue
950
cf264981
SP
951C<continue> is actually a flow control statement rather than a function. If
952there is a C<continue> BLOCK attached to a BLOCK (typically in a C<while> or
98293880
JH
953C<foreach>), it is always executed just before the conditional is about to
954be evaluated again, just like the third part of a C<for> loop in C. Thus
cb1a09d0
AD
955it can be used to increment a loop variable, even when the loop has been
956continued via the C<next> statement (which is similar to the C C<continue>
957statement).
958
98293880 959C<last>, C<next>, or C<redo> may appear within a C<continue>
3b10bc60 960block; C<last> and C<redo> behave as if they had been executed within
19799a22 961the main block. So will C<next>, but since it will execute a C<continue>
1d2dff63
GS
962block, it may be more entertaining.
963
964 while (EXPR) {
a9a5a0dc
VP
965 ### redo always comes here
966 do_something;
1d2dff63 967 } continue {
a9a5a0dc
VP
968 ### next always comes here
969 do_something_else;
970 # then back the top to re-check EXPR
1d2dff63
GS
971 }
972 ### last always comes here
973
3b10bc60 974Omitting the C<continue> section is equivalent to using an
975empty one, logically enough, so C<next> goes directly back
1d2dff63
GS
976to check the condition at the top of the loop.
977
3b10bc60 978If the C<"switch"> feature is enabled, C<continue> is also a
979function that exits the current C<when> (or C<default>) block and
980falls through to the next one. See L<feature> and
0d863452
RH
981L<perlsyn/"Switch statements"> for more information.
982
983
a0d0e21e 984=item cos EXPR
d74e8afc 985X<cos> X<cosine> X<acos> X<arccosine>
a0d0e21e 986
d6217f1e
GS
987=item cos
988
5a964f20 989Returns the cosine of EXPR (expressed in radians). If EXPR is omitted,
7660c0ab 990takes cosine of C<$_>.
a0d0e21e 991
ca6e1c26 992For the inverse cosine operation, you may use the C<Math::Trig::acos()>
28757baa
PP
993function, or use this relation:
994
995 sub acos { atan2( sqrt(1 - $_[0] * $_[0]), $_[0] ) }
996
a0d0e21e 997=item crypt PLAINTEXT,SALT
d74e8afc 998X<crypt> X<digest> X<hash> X<salt> X<plaintext> X<password>
f723aae1 999X<decrypt> X<cryptography> X<passwd> X<encrypt>
a0d0e21e 1000
ef2e6798
MS
1001Creates a digest string exactly like the crypt(3) function in the C
1002library (assuming that you actually have a version there that has not
bb23f8d1 1003been extirpated as a potential munition).
ef2e6798
MS
1004
1005crypt() is a one-way hash function. The PLAINTEXT and SALT is turned
1006into a short string, called a digest, which is returned. The same
1007PLAINTEXT and SALT will always return the same string, but there is no
1008(known) way to get the original PLAINTEXT from the hash. Small
1009changes in the PLAINTEXT or SALT will result in large changes in the
1010digest.
1011
1012There is no decrypt function. This function isn't all that useful for
1013cryptography (for that, look for F<Crypt> modules on your nearby CPAN
1014mirror) and the name "crypt" is a bit of a misnomer. Instead it is
1015primarily used to check if two pieces of text are the same without
1016having to transmit or store the text itself. An example is checking
1017if a correct password is given. The digest of the password is stored,
cf264981 1018not the password itself. The user types in a password that is
ef2e6798
MS
1019crypt()'d with the same salt as the stored digest. If the two digests
1020match the password is correct.
1021
1022When verifying an existing digest string you should use the digest as
1023the salt (like C<crypt($plain, $digest) eq $digest>). The SALT used
cf264981 1024to create the digest is visible as part of the digest. This ensures
ef2e6798
MS
1025crypt() will hash the new string with the same salt as the digest.
1026This allows your code to work with the standard L<crypt|/crypt> and
1027with more exotic implementations. In other words, do not assume
1028anything about the returned string itself, or how many bytes in the
1029digest matter.
85c16d83
JH
1030
1031Traditionally the result is a string of 13 bytes: two first bytes of
1032the salt, followed by 11 bytes from the set C<[./0-9A-Za-z]>, and only
bb23f8d1 1033the first eight bytes of PLAINTEXT mattered. But alternative
ef2e6798 1034hashing schemes (like MD5), higher level security schemes (like C2),
e1020413 1035and implementations on non-Unix platforms may produce different
ef2e6798 1036strings.
85c16d83
JH
1037
1038When choosing a new salt create a random two character string whose
1039characters come from the set C<[./0-9A-Za-z]> (like C<join '', ('.',
d3989d75
CW
1040'/', 0..9, 'A'..'Z', 'a'..'z')[rand 64, rand 64]>). This set of
1041characters is just a recommendation; the characters allowed in
1042the salt depend solely on your system's crypt library, and Perl can't
1043restrict what salts C<crypt()> accepts.
e71965be 1044
a0d0e21e 1045Here's an example that makes sure that whoever runs this program knows
cf264981 1046their password:
a0d0e21e
LW
1047
1048 $pwd = (getpwuid($<))[1];
a0d0e21e
LW
1049
1050 system "stty -echo";
1051 print "Password: ";
e71965be 1052 chomp($word = <STDIN>);
a0d0e21e
LW
1053 print "\n";
1054 system "stty echo";
1055
e71965be 1056 if (crypt($word, $pwd) ne $pwd) {
a9a5a0dc 1057 die "Sorry...\n";
a0d0e21e 1058 } else {
a9a5a0dc 1059 print "ok\n";
54310121 1060 }
a0d0e21e 1061
9f8f0c9d 1062Of course, typing in your own password to whoever asks you
748a9306 1063for it is unwise.
a0d0e21e 1064
ef2e6798 1065The L<crypt|/crypt> function is unsuitable for hashing large quantities
19799a22 1066of data, not least of all because you can't get the information
ef2e6798 1067back. Look at the L<Digest> module for more robust algorithms.
19799a22 1068
f2791508
JH
1069If using crypt() on a Unicode string (which I<potentially> has
1070characters with codepoints above 255), Perl tries to make sense
1071of the situation by trying to downgrade (a copy of the string)
1072the string back to an eight-bit byte string before calling crypt()
1073(on that copy). If that works, good. If not, crypt() dies with
1074C<Wide character in crypt>.
85c16d83 1075
aa689395 1076=item dbmclose HASH
d74e8afc 1077X<dbmclose>
a0d0e21e 1078
19799a22 1079[This function has been largely superseded by the C<untie> function.]
a0d0e21e 1080
aa689395 1081Breaks the binding between a DBM file and a hash.
a0d0e21e 1082
19799a22 1083=item dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MASK
d74e8afc 1084X<dbmopen> X<dbm> X<ndbm> X<sdbm> X<gdbm>
a0d0e21e 1085
19799a22 1086[This function has been largely superseded by the C<tie> function.]
a0d0e21e 1087
7b8d334a 1088This binds a dbm(3), ndbm(3), sdbm(3), gdbm(3), or Berkeley DB file to a
19799a22
GS
1089hash. HASH is the name of the hash. (Unlike normal C<open>, the first
1090argument is I<not> a filehandle, even though it looks like one). DBNAME
aa689395
PP
1091is the name of the database (without the F<.dir> or F<.pag> extension if
1092any). If the database does not exist, it is created with protection
19799a22 1093specified by MASK (as modified by the C<umask>). If your system supports
80d38338 1094only the older DBM functions, you may make only one C<dbmopen> call in your
aa689395 1095program. In older versions of Perl, if your system had neither DBM nor
19799a22 1096ndbm, calling C<dbmopen> produced a fatal error; it now falls back to
aa689395
PP
1097sdbm(3).
1098
1099If you don't have write access to the DBM file, you can only read hash
1100variables, not set them. If you want to test whether you can write,
3b10bc60 1101either use file tests or try setting a dummy hash entry inside an C<eval>
1102to trap the error.
a0d0e21e 1103
19799a22
GS
1104Note that functions such as C<keys> and C<values> may return huge lists
1105when used on large DBM files. You may prefer to use the C<each>
a0d0e21e
LW
1106function to iterate over large DBM files. Example:
1107
1108 # print out history file offsets
1109 dbmopen(%HIST,'/usr/lib/news/history',0666);
1110 while (($key,$val) = each %HIST) {
a9a5a0dc 1111 print $key, ' = ', unpack('L',$val), "\n";
a0d0e21e
LW
1112 }
1113 dbmclose(%HIST);
1114
cb1a09d0 1115See also L<AnyDBM_File> for a more general description of the pros and
184e9718 1116cons of the various dbm approaches, as well as L<DB_File> for a particularly
cb1a09d0 1117rich implementation.
4633a7c4 1118
2b5ab1e7
TC
1119You can control which DBM library you use by loading that library
1120before you call dbmopen():
1121
1122 use DB_File;
1123 dbmopen(%NS_Hist, "$ENV{HOME}/.netscape/history.db")
a9a5a0dc 1124 or die "Can't open netscape history file: $!";
2b5ab1e7 1125
a0d0e21e 1126=item defined EXPR
d74e8afc 1127X<defined> X<undef> X<undefined>
a0d0e21e 1128
54310121 1129=item defined
bbce6d69 1130
2f9daede 1131Returns a Boolean value telling whether EXPR has a value other than
3b10bc60 1132the undefined value C<undef>. If EXPR is not present, C<$_> is
2f9daede
TPG
1133checked.
1134
1135Many operations return C<undef> to indicate failure, end of file,
1136system error, uninitialized variable, and other exceptional
1137conditions. This function allows you to distinguish C<undef> from
1138other values. (A simple Boolean test will not distinguish among
7660c0ab 1139C<undef>, zero, the empty string, and C<"0">, which are all equally
2f9daede 1140false.) Note that since C<undef> is a valid scalar, its presence
19799a22 1141doesn't I<necessarily> indicate an exceptional condition: C<pop>
2f9daede
TPG
1142returns C<undef> when its argument is an empty array, I<or> when the
1143element to return happens to be C<undef>.
1144
f10b0346
GS
1145You may also use C<defined(&func)> to check whether subroutine C<&func>
1146has ever been defined. The return value is unaffected by any forward
80d38338 1147declarations of C<&func>. A subroutine that is not defined
847c7ebe 1148may still be callable: its package may have an C<AUTOLOAD> method that
3b10bc60 1149makes it spring into existence the first time that it is called; see
847c7ebe 1150L<perlsub>.
f10b0346
GS
1151
1152Use of C<defined> on aggregates (hashes and arrays) is deprecated. It
1153used to report whether memory for that aggregate has ever been
1154allocated. This behavior may disappear in future versions of Perl.
1155You should instead use a simple test for size:
1156
1157 if (@an_array) { print "has array elements\n" }
1158 if (%a_hash) { print "has hash members\n" }
2f9daede
TPG
1159
1160When used on a hash element, it tells you whether the value is defined,
dc848c6f 1161not whether the key exists in the hash. Use L</exists> for the latter
2f9daede 1162purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1163
1164Examples:
1165
1166 print if defined $switch{'D'};
1167 print "$val\n" while defined($val = pop(@ary));
1168 die "Can't readlink $sym: $!"
a9a5a0dc 1169 unless defined($value = readlink $sym);
a0d0e21e 1170 sub foo { defined &$bar ? &$bar(@_) : die "No bar"; }
2f9daede 1171 $debugging = 0 unless defined $debugging;
a0d0e21e 1172
19799a22 1173Note: Many folks tend to overuse C<defined>, and then are surprised to
7660c0ab 1174discover that the number C<0> and C<""> (the zero-length string) are, in fact,
2f9daede 1175defined values. For example, if you say
a5f75d66
AD
1176
1177 "ab" =~ /a(.*)b/;
1178
80d38338 1179The pattern match succeeds and C<$1> is defined, although it
cf264981 1180matched "nothing". It didn't really fail to match anything. Rather, it
2b5ab1e7 1181matched something that happened to be zero characters long. This is all
a5f75d66 1182very above-board and honest. When a function returns an undefined value,
2f9daede 1183it's an admission that it couldn't give you an honest answer. So you
3b10bc60 1184should use C<defined> only when questioning the integrity of what
7660c0ab 1185you're trying to do. At other times, a simple comparison to C<0> or C<""> is
2f9daede
TPG
1186what you want.
1187
dc848c6f 1188See also L</undef>, L</exists>, L</ref>.
2f9daede 1189
a0d0e21e 1190=item delete EXPR
d74e8afc 1191X<delete>
a0d0e21e 1192
d0a76353
RS
1193Given an expression that specifies an element or slice of a hash, C<delete>
1194deletes the specified elements from that hash so that exists() on that element
1195no longer returns true. Setting a hash element to the undefined value does
1196not remove its key, but deleting it does; see L</exists>.
80d38338 1197
d0a76353 1198It returns the value or values deleted in list context, or the last such
80d38338 1199element in scalar context. The return list's length always matches that of
d0a76353
RS
1200the argument list: deleting non-existent elements returns the undefined value
1201in their corresponding positions.
80d38338 1202
d0a76353
RS
1203delete() may also be used on arrays and array slices, but its behavior is less
1204straightforward. Although exists() will return false for deleted entries,
1205deleting array elements never changes indices of existing values; use shift()
1206or splice() for that. However, if all deleted elements fall at the end of an
1207array, the array's size shrinks to the position of the highest element that
1208still tests true for exists(), or to 0 if none do.
1209
1210B<Be aware> that calling delete on array values is deprecated and likely to
1211be removed in a future version of Perl.
80d38338
TC
1212
1213Deleting from C<%ENV> modifies the environment. Deleting from a hash tied to
1214a DBM file deletes the entry from the DBM file. Deleting from a C<tied> hash
1215or array may not necessarily return anything; it depends on the implementation
1216of the C<tied> package's DELETE method, which may do whatever it pleases.
a0d0e21e 1217
80d38338
TC
1218The C<delete local EXPR> construct localizes the deletion to the current
1219block at run time. Until the block exits, elements locally deleted
1220temporarily no longer exist. See L<perlsub/"Localized deletion of elements
1221of composite types">.
eba0920a
EM
1222
1223 %hash = (foo => 11, bar => 22, baz => 33);
1224 $scalar = delete $hash{foo}; # $scalar is 11
1225 $scalar = delete @hash{qw(foo bar)}; # $scalar is 22
1226 @array = delete @hash{qw(foo bar baz)}; # @array is (undef,undef,33)
1227
01020589 1228The following (inefficiently) deletes all the values of %HASH and @ARRAY:
a0d0e21e 1229
5f05dabc 1230 foreach $key (keys %HASH) {
a9a5a0dc 1231 delete $HASH{$key};
a0d0e21e
LW
1232 }
1233
01020589 1234 foreach $index (0 .. $#ARRAY) {
a9a5a0dc 1235 delete $ARRAY[$index];
01020589
GS
1236 }
1237
1238And so do these:
5f05dabc 1239
01020589
GS
1240 delete @HASH{keys %HASH};
1241
9740c838 1242 delete @ARRAY[0 .. $#ARRAY];
5f05dabc 1243
80d38338
TC
1244But both are slower than assigning the empty list
1245or undefining %HASH or @ARRAY, which is the customary
1246way to empty out an aggregate:
01020589 1247
5ed4f2ec 1248 %HASH = (); # completely empty %HASH
1249 undef %HASH; # forget %HASH ever existed
2b5ab1e7 1250
5ed4f2ec 1251 @ARRAY = (); # completely empty @ARRAY
1252 undef @ARRAY; # forget @ARRAY ever existed
2b5ab1e7 1253
80d38338
TC
1254The EXPR can be arbitrarily complicated provided its
1255final operation is an element or slice of an aggregate:
a0d0e21e
LW
1256
1257 delete $ref->[$x][$y]{$key};
5f05dabc 1258 delete @{$ref->[$x][$y]}{$key1, $key2, @morekeys};
a0d0e21e 1259
01020589
GS
1260 delete $ref->[$x][$y][$index];
1261 delete @{$ref->[$x][$y]}[$index1, $index2, @moreindices];
1262
a0d0e21e 1263=item die LIST
d74e8afc 1264X<die> X<throw> X<exception> X<raise> X<$@> X<abort>
a0d0e21e 1265
4c050ad5
NC
1266C<die> raises an exception. Inside an C<eval> the error message is stuffed
1267into C<$@> and the C<eval> is terminated with the undefined value.
1268If the exception is outside of all enclosing C<eval>s, then the uncaught
1269exception prints LIST to C<STDERR> and exits with a non-zero value. If you
1270need to exit the process with a specific exit code, see L<exit>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1271
1272Equivalent examples:
1273
1274 die "Can't cd to spool: $!\n" unless chdir '/usr/spool/news';
54310121 1275 chdir '/usr/spool/news' or die "Can't cd to spool: $!\n"
a0d0e21e 1276
ccac6780 1277If the last element of LIST does not end in a newline, the current
df37ec69
WW
1278script line number and input line number (if any) are also printed,
1279and a newline is supplied. Note that the "input line number" (also
1280known as "chunk") is subject to whatever notion of "line" happens to
1281be currently in effect, and is also available as the special variable
1282C<$.>. See L<perlvar/"$/"> and L<perlvar/"$.">.
1283
1284Hint: sometimes appending C<", stopped"> to your message will cause it
1285to make better sense when the string C<"at foo line 123"> is appended.
1286Suppose you are running script "canasta".
a0d0e21e
LW
1287
1288 die "/etc/games is no good";
1289 die "/etc/games is no good, stopped";
1290
1291produce, respectively
1292
1293 /etc/games is no good at canasta line 123.
1294 /etc/games is no good, stopped at canasta line 123.
1295
a96d0188 1296If the output is empty and C<$@> already contains a value (typically from a
7660c0ab 1297previous eval) that value is reused after appending C<"\t...propagated">.
fb73857a
PP
1298This is useful for propagating exceptions:
1299
1300 eval { ... };
1301 die unless $@ =~ /Expected exception/;
1302
a96d0188 1303If the output is empty and C<$@> contains an object reference that has a
ad216e65
JH
1304C<PROPAGATE> method, that method will be called with additional file
1305and line number parameters. The return value replaces the value in
80d38338 1306C<$@>. i.e., as if C<< $@ = eval { $@->PROPAGATE(__FILE__, __LINE__) }; >>
ad216e65
JH
1307were called.
1308
7660c0ab 1309If C<$@> is empty then the string C<"Died"> is used.
fb73857a 1310
4c050ad5
NC
1311If an uncaught exception results in interpreter exit, the exit code is
1312determined from the values of C<$!> and C<$?> with this pseudocode:
1313
1314 exit $! if $!; # errno
1315 exit $? >> 8 if $? >> 8; # child exit status
1316 exit 255; # last resort
1317
1318The intent is to squeeze as much possible information about the likely cause
1319into the limited space of the system exit code. However, as C<$!> is the value
1320of C's C<errno>, which can be set by any system call, this means that the value
1321of the exit code used by C<die> can be non-predictable, so should not be relied
1322upon, other than to be non-zero.
1323
80d38338
TC
1324You can also call C<die> with a reference argument, and if this is trapped
1325within an C<eval>, C<$@> contains that reference. This permits more
1326elaborate exception handling using objects that maintain arbitrary state
1327about the exception. Such a scheme is sometimes preferable to matching
1328particular string values of C<$@> with regular expressions. Because C<$@>
1329is a global variable and C<eval> may be used within object implementations,
1330be careful that analyzing the error object doesn't replace the reference in
1331the global variable. It's easiest to make a local copy of the reference
1332before any manipulations. Here's an example:
52531d10 1333
80d38338 1334 use Scalar::Util "blessed";
da279afe 1335
52531d10 1336 eval { ... ; die Some::Module::Exception->new( FOO => "bar" ) };
746d7dd7
GL
1337 if (my $ev_err = $@) {
1338 if (blessed($ev_err) && $ev_err->isa("Some::Module::Exception")) {
52531d10
GS
1339 # handle Some::Module::Exception
1340 }
1341 else {
1342 # handle all other possible exceptions
1343 }
1344 }
1345
3b10bc60 1346Because Perl stringifies uncaught exception messages before display,
80d38338 1347you'll probably want to overload stringification operations on
52531d10
GS
1348exception objects. See L<overload> for details about that.
1349
19799a22
GS
1350You can arrange for a callback to be run just before the C<die>
1351does its deed, by setting the C<$SIG{__DIE__}> hook. The associated
3b10bc60 1352handler is called with the error text and can change the error
19799a22
GS
1353message, if it sees fit, by calling C<die> again. See
1354L<perlvar/$SIG{expr}> for details on setting C<%SIG> entries, and
cf264981 1355L<"eval BLOCK"> for some examples. Although this feature was
19799a22 1356to be run only right before your program was to exit, this is not
3b10bc60 1357currently so: the C<$SIG{__DIE__}> hook is currently called
19799a22
GS
1358even inside eval()ed blocks/strings! If one wants the hook to do
1359nothing in such situations, put
fb73857a 1360
5ed4f2ec 1361 die @_ if $^S;
fb73857a 1362
19799a22
GS
1363as the first line of the handler (see L<perlvar/$^S>). Because
1364this promotes strange action at a distance, this counterintuitive
b76cc8ba 1365behavior may be fixed in a future release.
774d564b 1366
4c050ad5
NC
1367See also exit(), warn(), and the Carp module.
1368
a0d0e21e 1369=item do BLOCK
d74e8afc 1370X<do> X<block>
a0d0e21e
LW
1371
1372Not really a function. Returns the value of the last command in the
6b275a1f
RGS
1373sequence of commands indicated by BLOCK. When modified by the C<while> or
1374C<until> loop modifier, executes the BLOCK once before testing the loop
1375condition. (On other statements the loop modifiers test the conditional
1376first.)
a0d0e21e 1377
4968c1e4 1378C<do BLOCK> does I<not> count as a loop, so the loop control statements
2b5ab1e7
TC
1379C<next>, C<last>, or C<redo> cannot be used to leave or restart the block.
1380See L<perlsyn> for alternative strategies.
4968c1e4 1381
a0d0e21e 1382=item do SUBROUTINE(LIST)
d74e8afc 1383X<do>
a0d0e21e 1384
cf264981 1385This form of subroutine call is deprecated. See L<perlsub>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1386
1387=item do EXPR
d74e8afc 1388X<do>
a0d0e21e
LW
1389
1390Uses the value of EXPR as a filename and executes the contents of the
ea63ef19 1391file as a Perl script.
a0d0e21e
LW
1392
1393 do 'stat.pl';
1394
1395is just like
1396
986b19de 1397 eval `cat stat.pl`;
a0d0e21e 1398
2b5ab1e7 1399except that it's more efficient and concise, keeps track of the current
ea63ef19 1400filename for error messages, searches the @INC directories, and updates
2b5ab1e7
TC
1401C<%INC> if the file is found. See L<perlvar/Predefined Names> for these
1402variables. It also differs in that code evaluated with C<do FILENAME>
1403cannot see lexicals in the enclosing scope; C<eval STRING> does. It's the
1404same, however, in that it does reparse the file every time you call it,
1405so you probably don't want to do this inside a loop.
a0d0e21e 1406
8e30cc93 1407If C<do> cannot read the file, it returns undef and sets C<$!> to the
2b5ab1e7 1408error. If C<do> can read the file but cannot compile it, it
8e30cc93
G
1409returns undef and sets an error message in C<$@>. If the file is
1410successfully compiled, C<do> returns the value of the last expression
1411evaluated.
1412
80d38338 1413Inclusion of library modules is better done with the
19799a22 1414C<use> and C<require> operators, which also do automatic error checking
4633a7c4 1415and raise an exception if there's a problem.
a0d0e21e 1416
5a964f20
TC
1417You might like to use C<do> to read in a program configuration
1418file. Manual error checking can be done this way:
1419
b76cc8ba 1420 # read in config files: system first, then user
f86cebdf 1421 for $file ("/share/prog/defaults.rc",
b76cc8ba 1422 "$ENV{HOME}/.someprogrc")
a9a5a0dc
VP
1423 {
1424 unless ($return = do $file) {
1425 warn "couldn't parse $file: $@" if $@;
1426 warn "couldn't do $file: $!" unless defined $return;
1427 warn "couldn't run $file" unless $return;
1428 }
5a964f20
TC
1429 }
1430
a0d0e21e 1431=item dump LABEL
d74e8afc 1432X<dump> X<core> X<undump>
a0d0e21e 1433
1614b0e3
JD
1434=item dump
1435
19799a22
GS
1436This function causes an immediate core dump. See also the B<-u>
1437command-line switch in L<perlrun>, which does the same thing.
1438Primarily this is so that you can use the B<undump> program (not
1439supplied) to turn your core dump into an executable binary after
1440having initialized all your variables at the beginning of the
1441program. When the new binary is executed it will begin by executing
1442a C<goto LABEL> (with all the restrictions that C<goto> suffers).
1443Think of it as a goto with an intervening core dump and reincarnation.
1444If C<LABEL> is omitted, restarts the program from the top.
1445
1446B<WARNING>: Any files opened at the time of the dump will I<not>
1447be open any more when the program is reincarnated, with possible
80d38338 1448resulting confusion by Perl.
19799a22 1449
59f521f4
RGS
1450This function is now largely obsolete, mostly because it's very hard to
1451convert a core file into an executable. That's why you should now invoke
1452it as C<CORE::dump()>, if you don't want to be warned against a possible
ac206dc8 1453typo.
19799a22 1454
aa689395 1455=item each HASH
d74e8afc 1456X<each> X<hash, iterator>
aa689395 1457
aeedbbed
NC
1458=item each ARRAY
1459X<array, iterator>
1460
80d38338
TC
1461When called in list context, returns a 2-element list consisting of the key
1462and value for the next element of a hash, or the index and value for the
1463next element of an array, so that you can iterate over it. When called in
1464scalar context, returns only the key (not the value) in a hash, or the index
1465in an array.
2f9daede 1466
aeedbbed 1467Hash entries are returned in an apparently random order. The actual random
3b10bc60 1468order is subject to change in future versions of Perl, but it is
504f80c1 1469guaranteed to be in the same order as either the C<keys> or C<values>
4546b9e6 1470function would produce on the same (unmodified) hash. Since Perl
22883ac5 14715.8.2 the ordering can be different even between different runs of Perl
4546b9e6 1472for security reasons (see L<perlsec/"Algorithmic Complexity Attacks">).
ab192400 1473
80d38338
TC
1474After C<each> has returned all entries from the hash or array, the next
1475call to C<each> returns the empty list in list context and C<undef> in
1476scalar context. The next call following that one restarts iteration. Each
1477hash or array has its own internal iterator, accessed by C<each>, C<keys>,
1478and C<values>. The iterator is implicitly reset when C<each> has reached
1479the end as just described; it can be explicitly reset by calling C<keys> or
1480C<values> on the hash or array. If you add or delete a hash's elements
1481while iterating over it, entries may be skipped or duplicated--so don't do
1482that. Exception: It is always safe to delete the item most recently
3b10bc60 1483returned by C<each()>, so the following code works properly:
74fc8b5f
MJD
1484
1485 while (($key, $value) = each %hash) {
1486 print $key, "\n";
1487 delete $hash{$key}; # This is safe
1488 }
aa689395 1489
80d38338 1490This prints out your environment like the printenv(1) program,
3b10bc60 1491but in a different order:
a0d0e21e
LW
1492
1493 while (($key,$value) = each %ENV) {
a9a5a0dc 1494 print "$key=$value\n";
a0d0e21e
LW
1495 }
1496
19799a22 1497See also C<keys>, C<values> and C<sort>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1498
1499=item eof FILEHANDLE
d74e8afc
ITB
1500X<eof>
1501X<end of file>
1502X<end-of-file>
a0d0e21e 1503
4633a7c4
LW
1504=item eof ()
1505
a0d0e21e
LW
1506=item eof
1507
1508Returns 1 if the next read on FILEHANDLE will return end of file, or if
1509FILEHANDLE is not open. FILEHANDLE may be an expression whose value
5a964f20 1510gives the real filehandle. (Note that this function actually
80d38338 1511reads a character and then C<ungetc>s it, so isn't useful in an
748a9306 1512interactive context.) Do not read from a terminal file (or call
19799a22 1513C<eof(FILEHANDLE)> on it) after end-of-file is reached. File types such
748a9306
LW
1514as terminals may lose the end-of-file condition if you do.
1515
820475bd 1516An C<eof> without an argument uses the last file read. Using C<eof()>
80d38338 1517with empty parentheses is different. It refers to the pseudo file
820475bd 1518formed from the files listed on the command line and accessed via the
61eff3bc
JH
1519C<< <> >> operator. Since C<< <> >> isn't explicitly opened,
1520as a normal filehandle is, an C<eof()> before C<< <> >> has been
820475bd 1521used will cause C<@ARGV> to be examined to determine if input is
67408cae 1522available. Similarly, an C<eof()> after C<< <> >> has returned
efdd0218
RB
1523end-of-file will assume you are processing another C<@ARGV> list,
1524and if you haven't set C<@ARGV>, will read input from C<STDIN>;
1525see L<perlop/"I/O Operators">.
820475bd 1526
61eff3bc 1527In a C<< while (<>) >> loop, C<eof> or C<eof(ARGV)> can be used to
3b10bc60 1528detect the end of each file, C<eof()> will detect the end of only the
820475bd 1529last file. Examples:
a0d0e21e 1530
748a9306
LW
1531 # reset line numbering on each input file
1532 while (<>) {
a9a5a0dc
VP
1533 next if /^\s*#/; # skip comments
1534 print "$.\t$_";
5a964f20 1535 } continue {
a9a5a0dc 1536 close ARGV if eof; # Not eof()!
748a9306
LW
1537 }
1538
a0d0e21e
LW
1539 # insert dashes just before last line of last file
1540 while (<>) {
a9a5a0dc
VP
1541 if (eof()) { # check for end of last file
1542 print "--------------\n";
1543 }
1544 print;
1545 last if eof(); # needed if we're reading from a terminal
a0d0e21e
LW
1546 }
1547
a0d0e21e 1548Practical hint: you almost never need to use C<eof> in Perl, because the
3ce0d271
GS
1549input operators typically return C<undef> when they run out of data, or if
1550there was an error.
a0d0e21e
LW
1551
1552=item eval EXPR
d74e8afc 1553X<eval> X<try> X<catch> X<evaluate> X<parse> X<execute>
f723aae1 1554X<error, handling> X<exception, handling>
a0d0e21e
LW
1555
1556=item eval BLOCK
1557
ce2984c3
PF
1558=item eval
1559
c7cc6f1c
GS
1560In the first form, the return value of EXPR is parsed and executed as if it
1561were a little Perl program. The value of the expression (which is itself
5a964f20 1562determined within scalar context) is first parsed, and if there weren't any
be3174d2
GS
1563errors, executed in the lexical context of the current Perl program, so
1564that any variable settings or subroutine and format definitions remain
cf264981 1565afterwards. Note that the value is parsed every time the C<eval> executes.
be3174d2
GS
1566If EXPR is omitted, evaluates C<$_>. This form is typically used to
1567delay parsing and subsequent execution of the text of EXPR until run time.
c7cc6f1c
GS
1568
1569In the second form, the code within the BLOCK is parsed only once--at the
cf264981 1570same time the code surrounding the C<eval> itself was parsed--and executed
c7cc6f1c
GS
1571within the context of the current Perl program. This form is typically
1572used to trap exceptions more efficiently than the first (see below), while
1573also providing the benefit of checking the code within BLOCK at compile
1574time.
1575
1576The final semicolon, if any, may be omitted from the value of EXPR or within
1577the BLOCK.
1578
1579In both forms, the value returned is the value of the last expression
5a964f20 1580evaluated inside the mini-program; a return statement may be also used, just
c7cc6f1c 1581as with subroutines. The expression providing the return value is evaluated
cf264981
SP
1582in void, scalar, or list context, depending on the context of the C<eval>
1583itself. See L</wantarray> for more on how the evaluation context can be
1584determined.
a0d0e21e 1585
19799a22 1586If there is a syntax error or runtime error, or a C<die> statement is
bbead3ca
BL
1587executed, C<eval> returns an undefined value in scalar context
1588or an empty list in list context, and C<$@> is set to the
3b10bc60 1589error message. If there was no error, C<$@> is guaranteed to be the empty
1590string. Beware that using C<eval> neither silences Perl from printing
c7cc6f1c 1591warnings to STDERR, nor does it stuff the text of warning messages into C<$@>.
d9984052
A
1592To do either of those, you have to use the C<$SIG{__WARN__}> facility, or
1593turn off warnings inside the BLOCK or EXPR using S<C<no warnings 'all'>>.
1594See L</warn>, L<perlvar>, L<warnings> and L<perllexwarn>.
a0d0e21e 1595
19799a22
GS
1596Note that, because C<eval> traps otherwise-fatal errors, it is useful for
1597determining whether a particular feature (such as C<socket> or C<symlink>)
a0d0e21e
LW
1598is implemented. It is also Perl's exception trapping mechanism, where
1599the die operator is used to raise exceptions.
1600
5f1da31c
NT
1601If you want to trap errors when loading an XS module, some problems with
1602the binary interface (such as Perl version skew) may be fatal even with
1603C<eval> unless C<$ENV{PERL_DL_NONLAZY}> is set. See L<perlrun>.
1604
a0d0e21e
LW
1605If the code to be executed doesn't vary, you may use the eval-BLOCK
1606form to trap run-time errors without incurring the penalty of
1607recompiling each time. The error, if any, is still returned in C<$@>.
1608Examples:
1609
54310121 1610 # make divide-by-zero nonfatal
a0d0e21e
LW
1611 eval { $answer = $a / $b; }; warn $@ if $@;
1612
1613 # same thing, but less efficient
1614 eval '$answer = $a / $b'; warn $@ if $@;
1615
1616 # a compile-time error
5ed4f2ec 1617 eval { $answer = }; # WRONG
a0d0e21e
LW
1618
1619 # a run-time error
5ed4f2ec 1620 eval '$answer ='; # sets $@
a0d0e21e 1621
cf264981
SP
1622Using the C<eval{}> form as an exception trap in libraries does have some
1623issues. Due to the current arguably broken state of C<__DIE__> hooks, you
1624may wish not to trigger any C<__DIE__> hooks that user code may have installed.
2b5ab1e7 1625You can use the C<local $SIG{__DIE__}> construct for this purpose,
80d38338 1626as this example shows:
774d564b 1627
80d38338 1628 # a private exception trap for divide-by-zero
f86cebdf
GS
1629 eval { local $SIG{'__DIE__'}; $answer = $a / $b; };
1630 warn $@ if $@;
774d564b
PP
1631
1632This is especially significant, given that C<__DIE__> hooks can call
19799a22 1633C<die> again, which has the effect of changing their error messages:
774d564b
PP
1634
1635 # __DIE__ hooks may modify error messages
1636 {
f86cebdf
GS
1637 local $SIG{'__DIE__'} =
1638 sub { (my $x = $_[0]) =~ s/foo/bar/g; die $x };
c7cc6f1c
GS
1639 eval { die "foo lives here" };
1640 print $@ if $@; # prints "bar lives here"
774d564b
PP
1641 }
1642
19799a22 1643Because this promotes action at a distance, this counterintuitive behavior
2b5ab1e7
TC
1644may be fixed in a future release.
1645
19799a22 1646With an C<eval>, you should be especially careful to remember what's
a0d0e21e
LW
1647being looked at when:
1648
5ed4f2ec 1649 eval $x; # CASE 1
1650 eval "$x"; # CASE 2
a0d0e21e 1651
5ed4f2ec 1652 eval '$x'; # CASE 3
1653 eval { $x }; # CASE 4
a0d0e21e 1654
5ed4f2ec 1655 eval "\$$x++"; # CASE 5
1656 $$x++; # CASE 6
a0d0e21e 1657
2f9daede 1658Cases 1 and 2 above behave identically: they run the code contained in
19799a22 1659the variable $x. (Although case 2 has misleading double quotes making
2f9daede 1660the reader wonder what else might be happening (nothing is).) Cases 3
7660c0ab 1661and 4 likewise behave in the same way: they run the code C<'$x'>, which
19799a22 1662does nothing but return the value of $x. (Case 4 is preferred for
2f9daede
TPG
1663purely visual reasons, but it also has the advantage of compiling at
1664compile-time instead of at run-time.) Case 5 is a place where
19799a22 1665normally you I<would> like to use double quotes, except that in this
2f9daede
TPG
1666particular situation, you can just use symbolic references instead, as
1667in case 6.
a0d0e21e 1668
8a5a710d
DN
1669The assignment to C<$@> occurs before restoration of localised variables,
1670which means a temporary is required if you want to mask some but not all
1671errors:
1672
1673 # alter $@ on nefarious repugnancy only
1674 {
1675 my $e;
1676 {
1677 local $@; # protect existing $@
1678 eval { test_repugnancy() };
1679 # $@ =~ /nefarious/ and die $@; # DOES NOT WORK
1680 $@ =~ /nefarious/ and $e = $@;
1681 }
1682 die $e if defined $e
1683 }
1684
4968c1e4 1685C<eval BLOCK> does I<not> count as a loop, so the loop control statements
2b5ab1e7 1686C<next>, C<last>, or C<redo> cannot be used to leave or restart the block.
4968c1e4 1687
3b10bc60 1688An C<eval ''> executed within the C<DB> package doesn't see the usual
1689surrounding lexical scope, but rather the scope of the first non-DB piece
1690of code that called it. You don't normally need to worry about this unless
1691you are writing a Perl debugger.
d819b83a 1692
a0d0e21e 1693=item exec LIST
d74e8afc 1694X<exec> X<execute>
a0d0e21e 1695
8bf3b016
GS
1696=item exec PROGRAM LIST
1697
3b10bc60 1698The C<exec> function executes a system command I<and never returns>;
19799a22
GS
1699use C<system> instead of C<exec> if you want it to return. It fails and
1700returns false only if the command does not exist I<and> it is executed
fb73857a 1701directly instead of via your system's command shell (see below).
a0d0e21e 1702
19799a22 1703Since it's a common mistake to use C<exec> instead of C<system>, Perl
80d38338 1704warns you if there is a following statement that isn't C<die>, C<warn>,
3b10bc60 1705or C<exit> (if C<-w> is set--but you always do that, right?). If you
19799a22 1706I<really> want to follow an C<exec> with some other statement, you
55d729e4
GS
1707can use one of these styles to avoid the warning:
1708
5a964f20
TC
1709 exec ('foo') or print STDERR "couldn't exec foo: $!";
1710 { exec ('foo') }; print STDERR "couldn't exec foo: $!";
55d729e4 1711
5a964f20 1712If there is more than one argument in LIST, or if LIST is an array
f86cebdf 1713with more than one value, calls execvp(3) with the arguments in LIST.
5a964f20
TC
1714If there is only one scalar argument or an array with one element in it,
1715the argument is checked for shell metacharacters, and if there are any,
1716the entire argument is passed to the system's command shell for parsing
1717(this is C</bin/sh -c> on Unix platforms, but varies on other platforms).
1718If there are no shell metacharacters in the argument, it is split into
b76cc8ba 1719words and passed directly to C<execvp>, which is more efficient.
19799a22 1720Examples:
a0d0e21e 1721
19799a22
GS
1722 exec '/bin/echo', 'Your arguments are: ', @ARGV;
1723 exec "sort $outfile | uniq";
a0d0e21e
LW
1724
1725If you don't really want to execute the first argument, but want to lie
1726to the program you are executing about its own name, you can specify
1727the program you actually want to run as an "indirect object" (without a
1728comma) in front of the LIST. (This always forces interpretation of the
54310121 1729LIST as a multivalued list, even if there is only a single scalar in
a0d0e21e
LW
1730the list.) Example:
1731
1732 $shell = '/bin/csh';
5ed4f2ec 1733 exec $shell '-sh'; # pretend it's a login shell
a0d0e21e
LW
1734
1735or, more directly,
1736
5ed4f2ec 1737 exec {'/bin/csh'} '-sh'; # pretend it's a login shell
a0d0e21e 1738
3b10bc60 1739When the arguments get executed via the system shell, results are
1740subject to its quirks and capabilities. See L<perlop/"`STRING`">
bb32b41a
GS
1741for details.
1742
19799a22
GS
1743Using an indirect object with C<exec> or C<system> is also more
1744secure. This usage (which also works fine with system()) forces
1745interpretation of the arguments as a multivalued list, even if the
1746list had just one argument. That way you're safe from the shell
1747expanding wildcards or splitting up words with whitespace in them.
5a964f20
TC
1748
1749 @args = ( "echo surprise" );
1750
2b5ab1e7 1751 exec @args; # subject to shell escapes
f86cebdf 1752 # if @args == 1
2b5ab1e7 1753 exec { $args[0] } @args; # safe even with one-arg list
5a964f20
TC
1754
1755The first version, the one without the indirect object, ran the I<echo>
80d38338
TC
1756program, passing it C<"surprise"> an argument. The second version didn't;
1757it tried to run a program named I<"echo surprise">, didn't find it, and set
1758C<$?> to a non-zero value indicating failure.
5a964f20 1759
80d38338 1760Beginning with v5.6.0, Perl attempts to flush all files opened for
0f897271
GS
1761output before the exec, but this may not be supported on some platforms
1762(see L<perlport>). To be safe, you may need to set C<$|> ($AUTOFLUSH
1763in English) or call the C<autoflush()> method of C<IO::Handle> on any
80d38338 1764open handles to avoid lost output.
0f897271 1765
80d38338
TC
1766Note that C<exec> will not call your C<END> blocks, nor will it invoke
1767C<DESTROY> methods on your objects.
7660c0ab 1768
a0d0e21e 1769=item exists EXPR
d74e8afc 1770X<exists> X<autovivification>
a0d0e21e 1771
d0a76353
RS
1772Given an expression that specifies an element of a hash, returns true if the
1773specified element in the hash has ever been initialized, even if the
1774corresponding value is undefined.
a0d0e21e 1775
5ed4f2ec 1776 print "Exists\n" if exists $hash{$key};
1777 print "Defined\n" if defined $hash{$key};
01020589
GS
1778 print "True\n" if $hash{$key};
1779
d0a76353
RS
1780exists may also be called on array elements, but its behavior is much less
1781obvious, and is strongly tied to the use of L</delete> on arrays. B<Be aware>
1782that calling exists on array values is deprecated and likely to be removed in
1783a future version of Perl.
1784
5ed4f2ec 1785 print "Exists\n" if exists $array[$index];
1786 print "Defined\n" if defined $array[$index];
01020589 1787 print "True\n" if $array[$index];
a0d0e21e 1788
8ea97a1e 1789A hash or array element can be true only if it's defined, and defined if
a0d0e21e
LW
1790it exists, but the reverse doesn't necessarily hold true.
1791
afebc493
GS
1792Given an expression that specifies the name of a subroutine,
1793returns true if the specified subroutine has ever been declared, even
1794if it is undefined. Mentioning a subroutine name for exists or defined
80d38338 1795does not count as declaring it. Note that a subroutine that does not
847c7ebe
DD
1796exist may still be callable: its package may have an C<AUTOLOAD>
1797method that makes it spring into existence the first time that it is
3b10bc60 1798called; see L<perlsub>.
afebc493 1799
5ed4f2ec 1800 print "Exists\n" if exists &subroutine;
1801 print "Defined\n" if defined &subroutine;
afebc493 1802
a0d0e21e 1803Note that the EXPR can be arbitrarily complicated as long as the final
afebc493 1804operation is a hash or array key lookup or subroutine name:
a0d0e21e 1805
5ed4f2ec 1806 if (exists $ref->{A}->{B}->{$key}) { }
1807 if (exists $hash{A}{B}{$key}) { }
2b5ab1e7 1808
5ed4f2ec 1809 if (exists $ref->{A}->{B}->[$ix]) { }
1810 if (exists $hash{A}{B}[$ix]) { }
01020589 1811
afebc493
GS
1812 if (exists &{$ref->{A}{B}{$key}}) { }
1813
3b10bc60 1814Although the mostly deeply nested array or hash will not spring into
1815existence just because its existence was tested, any intervening ones will.
61eff3bc 1816Thus C<< $ref->{"A"} >> and C<< $ref->{"A"}->{"B"} >> will spring
01020589 1817into existence due to the existence test for the $key element above.
3b10bc60 1818This happens anywhere the arrow operator is used, including even here:
5a964f20 1819
2b5ab1e7 1820 undef $ref;
5ed4f2ec 1821 if (exists $ref->{"Some key"}) { }
1822 print $ref; # prints HASH(0x80d3d5c)
2b5ab1e7
TC
1823
1824This surprising autovivification in what does not at first--or even
1825second--glance appear to be an lvalue context may be fixed in a future
5a964f20 1826release.
a0d0e21e 1827
afebc493
GS
1828Use of a subroutine call, rather than a subroutine name, as an argument
1829to exists() is an error.
1830
5ed4f2ec 1831 exists &sub; # OK
1832 exists &sub(); # Error
afebc493 1833
a0d0e21e 1834=item exit EXPR
d74e8afc 1835X<exit> X<terminate> X<abort>
a0d0e21e 1836
ce2984c3
PF
1837=item exit
1838
2b5ab1e7 1839Evaluates EXPR and exits immediately with that value. Example:
a0d0e21e
LW
1840
1841 $ans = <STDIN>;
1842 exit 0 if $ans =~ /^[Xx]/;
1843
19799a22 1844See also C<die>. If EXPR is omitted, exits with C<0> status. The only
2b5ab1e7
TC
1845universally recognized values for EXPR are C<0> for success and C<1>
1846for error; other values are subject to interpretation depending on the
1847environment in which the Perl program is running. For example, exiting
184869 (EX_UNAVAILABLE) from a I<sendmail> incoming-mail filter will cause
1849the mailer to return the item undelivered, but that's not true everywhere.
a0d0e21e 1850
19799a22
GS
1851Don't use C<exit> to abort a subroutine if there's any chance that
1852someone might want to trap whatever error happened. Use C<die> instead,
1853which can be trapped by an C<eval>.
28757baa 1854
19799a22 1855The exit() function does not always exit immediately. It calls any
2b5ab1e7 1856defined C<END> routines first, but these C<END> routines may not
19799a22 1857themselves abort the exit. Likewise any object destructors that need to
2b5ab1e7
TC
1858be called are called before the real exit. If this is a problem, you
1859can call C<POSIX:_exit($status)> to avoid END and destructor processing.
87275199 1860See L<perlmod> for details.
5a964f20 1861
a0d0e21e 1862=item exp EXPR
d74e8afc 1863X<exp> X<exponential> X<antilog> X<antilogarithm> X<e>
a0d0e21e 1864
54310121 1865=item exp
bbce6d69 1866
b76cc8ba 1867Returns I<e> (the natural logarithm base) to the power of EXPR.
a0d0e21e
LW
1868If EXPR is omitted, gives C<exp($_)>.
1869
1870=item fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR
d74e8afc 1871X<fcntl>
a0d0e21e 1872
f86cebdf 1873Implements the fcntl(2) function. You'll probably have to say
a0d0e21e
LW
1874
1875 use Fcntl;
1876
0ade1984 1877first to get the correct constant definitions. Argument processing and
3b10bc60 1878value returned work just like C<ioctl> below.
a0d0e21e
LW
1879For example:
1880
1881 use Fcntl;
5a964f20 1882 fcntl($filehandle, F_GETFL, $packed_return_buffer)
a9a5a0dc 1883 or die "can't fcntl F_GETFL: $!";
5a964f20 1884
554ad1fc 1885You don't have to check for C<defined> on the return from C<fcntl>.
951ba7fe
GS
1886Like C<ioctl>, it maps a C<0> return from the system call into
1887C<"0 but true"> in Perl. This string is true in boolean context and C<0>
2b5ab1e7
TC
1888in numeric context. It is also exempt from the normal B<-w> warnings
1889on improper numeric conversions.
5a964f20 1890
3b10bc60 1891Note that C<fcntl> raises an exception if used on a machine that
2b5ab1e7
TC
1892doesn't implement fcntl(2). See the Fcntl module or your fcntl(2)
1893manpage to learn what functions are available on your system.
a0d0e21e 1894
be2f7487 1895Here's an example of setting a filehandle named C<REMOTE> to be
1896non-blocking at the system level. You'll have to negotiate C<$|>
1897on your own, though.
1898
1899 use Fcntl qw(F_GETFL F_SETFL O_NONBLOCK);
1900
1901 $flags = fcntl(REMOTE, F_GETFL, 0)
1902 or die "Can't get flags for the socket: $!\n";
1903
1904 $flags = fcntl(REMOTE, F_SETFL, $flags | O_NONBLOCK)
1905 or die "Can't set flags for the socket: $!\n";
1906
a0d0e21e 1907=item fileno FILEHANDLE
d74e8afc 1908X<fileno>
a0d0e21e 1909
2b5ab1e7
TC
1910Returns the file descriptor for a filehandle, or undefined if the
1911filehandle is not open. This is mainly useful for constructing
19799a22 1912bitmaps for C<select> and low-level POSIX tty-handling operations.
2b5ab1e7
TC
1913If FILEHANDLE is an expression, the value is taken as an indirect
1914filehandle, generally its name.
5a964f20 1915
b76cc8ba 1916You can use this to find out whether two handles refer to the
5a964f20
TC
1917same underlying descriptor:
1918
1919 if (fileno(THIS) == fileno(THAT)) {
a9a5a0dc 1920 print "THIS and THAT are dups\n";
b76cc8ba
NIS
1921 }
1922
1923(Filehandles connected to memory objects via new features of C<open> may
1924return undefined even though they are open.)
1925
a0d0e21e
LW
1926
1927=item flock FILEHANDLE,OPERATION
d74e8afc 1928X<flock> X<lock> X<locking>
a0d0e21e 1929
19799a22
GS
1930Calls flock(2), or an emulation of it, on FILEHANDLE. Returns true
1931for success, false on failure. Produces a fatal error if used on a
2b5ab1e7 1932machine that doesn't implement flock(2), fcntl(2) locking, or lockf(3).
19799a22 1933C<flock> is Perl's portable file locking interface, although it locks
3b10bc60 1934entire files only, not records.
2b5ab1e7
TC
1935
1936Two potentially non-obvious but traditional C<flock> semantics are
1937that it waits indefinitely until the lock is granted, and that its locks
1938B<merely advisory>. Such discretionary locks are more flexible, but offer
cf264981
SP
1939fewer guarantees. This means that programs that do not also use C<flock>
1940may modify files locked with C<flock>. See L<perlport>,
2b5ab1e7
TC
1941your port's specific documentation, or your system-specific local manpages
1942for details. It's best to assume traditional behavior if you're writing
1943portable programs. (But if you're not, you should as always feel perfectly
1944free to write for your own system's idiosyncrasies (sometimes called
1945"features"). Slavish adherence to portability concerns shouldn't get
1946in the way of your getting your job done.)
a3cb178b 1947
8ebc5c01
PP
1948OPERATION is one of LOCK_SH, LOCK_EX, or LOCK_UN, possibly combined with
1949LOCK_NB. These constants are traditionally valued 1, 2, 8 and 4, but
ea3105be 1950you can use the symbolic names if you import them from the Fcntl module,
68dc0745
PP
1951either individually, or as a group using the ':flock' tag. LOCK_SH
1952requests a shared lock, LOCK_EX requests an exclusive lock, and LOCK_UN
ea3105be 1953releases a previously requested lock. If LOCK_NB is bitwise-or'ed with
3b10bc60 1954LOCK_SH or LOCK_EX then C<flock> returns immediately rather than blocking
1955waiting for the lock; check the return status to see if you got it.
68dc0745 1956
2b5ab1e7
TC
1957To avoid the possibility of miscoordination, Perl now flushes FILEHANDLE
1958before locking or unlocking it.
8ebc5c01 1959
f86cebdf 1960Note that the emulation built with lockf(3) doesn't provide shared
8ebc5c01 1961locks, and it requires that FILEHANDLE be open with write intent. These
2b5ab1e7 1962are the semantics that lockf(3) implements. Most if not all systems
f86cebdf 1963implement lockf(3) in terms of fcntl(2) locking, though, so the
8ebc5c01
PP
1964differing semantics shouldn't bite too many people.
1965
becacb53
TM
1966Note that the fcntl(2) emulation of flock(3) requires that FILEHANDLE
1967be open with read intent to use LOCK_SH and requires that it be open
1968with write intent to use LOCK_EX.
1969
19799a22
GS
1970Note also that some versions of C<flock> cannot lock things over the
1971network; you would need to use the more system-specific C<fcntl> for
f86cebdf
GS
1972that. If you like you can force Perl to ignore your system's flock(2)
1973function, and so provide its own fcntl(2)-based emulation, by passing
8ebc5c01 1974the switch C<-Ud_flock> to the F<Configure> program when you configure
3b10bc60 1975Perl.
4633a7c4
LW
1976
1977Here's a mailbox appender for BSD systems.
a0d0e21e 1978
7ed5353d 1979 use Fcntl qw(:flock SEEK_END); # import LOCK_* and SEEK_END constants
a0d0e21e
LW
1980
1981 sub lock {
a9a5a0dc
VP
1982 my ($fh) = @_;
1983 flock($fh, LOCK_EX) or die "Cannot lock mailbox - $!\n";
7ed5353d 1984
a9a5a0dc
VP
1985 # and, in case someone appended while we were waiting...
1986 seek($fh, 0, SEEK_END) or die "Cannot seek - $!\n";
a0d0e21e
LW
1987 }
1988
1989 sub unlock {
a9a5a0dc
VP
1990 my ($fh) = @_;
1991 flock($fh, LOCK_UN) or die "Cannot unlock mailbox - $!\n";
a0d0e21e
LW
1992 }
1993
b0169937 1994 open(my $mbox, ">>", "/usr/spool/mail/$ENV{'USER'}")
5ed4f2ec 1995 or die "Can't open mailbox: $!";
a0d0e21e 1996
7ed5353d 1997 lock($mbox);
b0169937 1998 print $mbox $msg,"\n\n";
7ed5353d 1999 unlock($mbox);
a0d0e21e 2000
3b10bc60 2001On systems that support a real flock(2), locks are inherited across fork()
2002calls, whereas those that must resort to the more capricious fcntl(2)
2003function lose their locks, making it seriously harder to write servers.
2b5ab1e7 2004
cb1a09d0 2005See also L<DB_File> for other flock() examples.
a0d0e21e
LW
2006
2007=item fork
d74e8afc 2008X<fork> X<child> X<parent>
a0d0e21e 2009
2b5ab1e7
TC
2010Does a fork(2) system call to create a new process running the
2011same program at the same point. It returns the child pid to the
2012parent process, C<0> to the child process, or C<undef> if the fork is
2013unsuccessful. File descriptors (and sometimes locks on those descriptors)
2014are shared, while everything else is copied. On most systems supporting
2015fork(), great care has gone into making it extremely efficient (for
2016example, using copy-on-write technology on data pages), making it the
2017dominant paradigm for multitasking over the last few decades.
5a964f20 2018
80d38338 2019Beginning with v5.6.0, Perl attempts to flush all files opened for
0f897271
GS
2020output before forking the child process, but this may not be supported
2021on some platforms (see L<perlport>). To be safe, you may need to set
2022C<$|> ($AUTOFLUSH in English) or call the C<autoflush()> method of
80d38338 2023C<IO::Handle> on any open handles to avoid duplicate output.
a0d0e21e 2024
19799a22 2025If you C<fork> without ever waiting on your children, you will
2b5ab1e7
TC
2026accumulate zombies. On some systems, you can avoid this by setting
2027C<$SIG{CHLD}> to C<"IGNORE">. See also L<perlipc> for more examples of
2028forking and reaping moribund children.
cb1a09d0 2029
28757baa
PP
2030Note that if your forked child inherits system file descriptors like
2031STDIN and STDOUT that are actually connected by a pipe or socket, even
2b5ab1e7 2032if you exit, then the remote server (such as, say, a CGI script or a
19799a22 2033backgrounded job launched from a remote shell) won't think you're done.
2b5ab1e7 2034You should reopen those to F</dev/null> if it's any issue.
28757baa 2035
cb1a09d0 2036=item format
d74e8afc 2037X<format>
cb1a09d0 2038
19799a22 2039Declare a picture format for use by the C<write> function. For
cb1a09d0
AD
2040example:
2041
54310121 2042 format Something =
a9a5a0dc
VP
2043 Test: @<<<<<<<< @||||| @>>>>>
2044 $str, $%, '$' . int($num)
cb1a09d0
AD
2045 .
2046
2047 $str = "widget";
184e9718 2048 $num = $cost/$quantity;
cb1a09d0
AD
2049 $~ = 'Something';
2050 write;
2051
2052See L<perlform> for many details and examples.
2053
8903cb82 2054=item formline PICTURE,LIST
d74e8afc 2055X<formline>
a0d0e21e 2056
5a964f20 2057This is an internal function used by C<format>s, though you may call it,
a0d0e21e
LW
2058too. It formats (see L<perlform>) a list of values according to the
2059contents of PICTURE, placing the output into the format output
7660c0ab 2060accumulator, C<$^A> (or C<$ACCUMULATOR> in English).
19799a22 2061Eventually, when a C<write> is done, the contents of
cf264981
SP
2062C<$^A> are written to some filehandle. You could also read C<$^A>
2063and then set C<$^A> back to C<"">. Note that a format typically
19799a22 2064does one C<formline> per line of form, but the C<formline> function itself
748a9306 2065doesn't care how many newlines are embedded in the PICTURE. This means
3b10bc60 2066that the C<~> and C<~~> tokens treat the entire PICTURE as a single line.
748a9306 2067You may therefore need to use multiple formlines to implement a single
3b10bc60 2068record format, just like the C<format> compiler.
748a9306 2069
19799a22 2070Be careful if you put double quotes around the picture, because an C<@>
748a9306 2071character may be taken to mean the beginning of an array name.
19799a22 2072C<formline> always returns true. See L<perlform> for other examples.
a0d0e21e
LW
2073
2074=item getc FILEHANDLE
f723aae1 2075X<getc> X<getchar> X<character> X<file, read>
a0d0e21e
LW
2076
2077=item getc
2078
2079Returns the next character from the input file attached to FILEHANDLE,
3b10bc60 2080or the undefined value at end of file or if there was an error (in
b5fe5ca2
SR
2081the latter case C<$!> is set). If FILEHANDLE is omitted, reads from
2082STDIN. This is not particularly efficient. However, it cannot be
2083used by itself to fetch single characters without waiting for the user
2084to hit enter. For that, try something more like:
4633a7c4
LW
2085
2086 if ($BSD_STYLE) {
a9a5a0dc 2087 system "stty cbreak </dev/tty >/dev/tty 2>&1";
4633a7c4
LW
2088 }
2089 else {
a9a5a0dc 2090 system "stty", '-icanon', 'eol', "\001";
4633a7c4
LW
2091 }
2092
2093 $key = getc(STDIN);
2094
2095 if ($BSD_STYLE) {
a9a5a0dc 2096 system "stty -cbreak </dev/tty >/dev/tty 2>&1";
4633a7c4
LW
2097 }
2098 else {
3b10bc60 2099 system 'stty', 'icanon', 'eol', '^@'; # ASCII NUL
4633a7c4
LW
2100 }
2101 print "\n";
2102
54310121
PP
2103Determination of whether $BSD_STYLE should be set
2104is left as an exercise to the reader.
cb1a09d0 2105
19799a22 2106The C<POSIX::getattr> function can do this more portably on
2b5ab1e7
TC
2107systems purporting POSIX compliance. See also the C<Term::ReadKey>
2108module from your nearest CPAN site; details on CPAN can be found on
2109L<perlmodlib/CPAN>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2110
2111=item getlogin
d74e8afc 2112X<getlogin> X<login>
a0d0e21e 2113
cf264981 2114This implements the C library function of the same name, which on most
3b10bc60 2115systems returns the current login from F</etc/utmp>, if any. If it
2116returns the empty string, use C<getpwuid>.
a0d0e21e 2117
f86702cc 2118 $login = getlogin || getpwuid($<) || "Kilroy";
a0d0e21e 2119
19799a22
GS
2120Do not consider C<getlogin> for authentication: it is not as
2121secure as C<getpwuid>.
4633a7c4 2122
a0d0e21e 2123=item getpeername SOCKET
d74e8afc 2124X<getpeername> X<peer>
a0d0e21e
LW
2125
2126Returns the packed sockaddr address of other end of the SOCKET connection.
2127
4633a7c4
LW
2128 use Socket;
2129 $hersockaddr = getpeername(SOCK);
19799a22 2130 ($port, $iaddr) = sockaddr_in($hersockaddr);
4633a7c4
LW
2131 $herhostname = gethostbyaddr($iaddr, AF_INET);
2132 $herstraddr = inet_ntoa($iaddr);
a0d0e21e
LW
2133
2134=item getpgrp PID
d74e8afc 2135X<getpgrp> X<group>
a0d0e21e 2136
47e29363 2137Returns the current process group for the specified PID. Use
7660c0ab 2138a PID of C<0> to get the current process group for the
4633a7c4 2139current process. Will raise an exception if used on a machine that
f86cebdf 2140doesn't implement getpgrp(2). If PID is omitted, returns process
19799a22 2141group of current process. Note that the POSIX version of C<getpgrp>
7660c0ab 2142does not accept a PID argument, so only C<PID==0> is truly portable.
a0d0e21e
LW
2143
2144=item getppid
d74e8afc 2145X<getppid> X<parent> X<pid>
a0d0e21e
LW
2146
2147Returns the process id of the parent process.
2148
4d76a344
RGS
2149Note for Linux users: on Linux, the C functions C<getpid()> and
2150C<getppid()> return different values from different threads. In order to
3b10bc60 2151be portable, this behavior is not reflected by the Perl-level function
4d76a344 2152C<getppid()>, that returns a consistent value across threads. If you want
e3256f86
RGS
2153to call the underlying C<getppid()>, you may use the CPAN module
2154C<Linux::Pid>.
4d76a344 2155
a0d0e21e 2156=item getpriority WHICH,WHO
d74e8afc 2157X<getpriority> X<priority> X<nice>
a0d0e21e 2158
4633a7c4 2159Returns the current priority for a process, a process group, or a user.
f4084e39 2160(See C<getpriority(2)>.) Will raise a fatal exception if used on a
f86cebdf 2161machine that doesn't implement getpriority(2).
a0d0e21e
LW
2162
2163=item getpwnam NAME
d74e8afc
ITB
2164X<getpwnam> X<getgrnam> X<gethostbyname> X<getnetbyname> X<getprotobyname>
2165X<getpwuid> X<getgrgid> X<getservbyname> X<gethostbyaddr> X<getnetbyaddr>
2166X<getprotobynumber> X<getservbyport> X<getpwent> X<getgrent> X<gethostent>
2167X<getnetent> X<getprotoent> X<getservent> X<setpwent> X<setgrent> X<sethostent>
2168X<setnetent> X<setprotoent> X<setservent> X<endpwent> X<endgrent> X<endhostent>
2169X<endnetent> X<endprotoent> X<endservent>
a0d0e21e
LW
2170
2171=item getgrnam NAME
2172
2173=item gethostbyname NAME
2174
2175=item getnetbyname NAME
2176
2177=item getprotobyname NAME
2178
2179=item getpwuid UID
2180
2181=item getgrgid GID
2182
2183=item getservbyname NAME,PROTO
2184
2185=item gethostbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE
2186
2187=item getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE
2188
2189=item getprotobynumber NUMBER
2190
2191=item getservbyport PORT,PROTO
2192
2193=item getpwent
2194
2195=item getgrent
2196
2197=item gethostent
2198
2199=item getnetent
2200
2201=item getprotoent
2202
2203=item getservent
2204
2205=item setpwent
2206
2207=item setgrent
2208
2209=item sethostent STAYOPEN
2210
2211=item setnetent STAYOPEN
2212
2213=item setprotoent STAYOPEN
2214
2215=item setservent STAYOPEN
2216
2217=item endpwent
2218
2219=item endgrent
2220
2221=item endhostent
2222
2223=item endnetent
2224
2225=item endprotoent
2226
2227=item endservent
2228
80d38338
TC
2229These routines are the same as their counterparts in the
2230system C library. In list context, the return values from the
a0d0e21e
LW
2231various get routines are as follows:
2232
2233 ($name,$passwd,$uid,$gid,
6ee623d5 2234 $quota,$comment,$gcos,$dir,$shell,$expire) = getpw*
a0d0e21e
LW
2235 ($name,$passwd,$gid,$members) = getgr*
2236 ($name,$aliases,$addrtype,$length,@addrs) = gethost*
2237 ($name,$aliases,$addrtype,$net) = getnet*
2238 ($name,$aliases,$proto) = getproto*
2239 ($name,$aliases,$port,$proto) = getserv*
2240
3b10bc60 2241(If the entry doesn't exist you get an empty list.)
a0d0e21e 2242
4602f195
JH
2243The exact meaning of the $gcos field varies but it usually contains
2244the real name of the user (as opposed to the login name) and other
2245information pertaining to the user. Beware, however, that in many
2246system users are able to change this information and therefore it
106325ad 2247cannot be trusted and therefore the $gcos is tainted (see
2959b6e3
JH
2248L<perlsec>). The $passwd and $shell, user's encrypted password and
2249login shell, are also tainted, because of the same reason.
4602f195 2250
5a964f20 2251In scalar context, you get the name, unless the function was a
a0d0e21e
LW
2252lookup by name, in which case you get the other thing, whatever it is.
2253(If the entry doesn't exist you get the undefined value.) For example:
2254
5a964f20
TC
2255 $uid = getpwnam($name);
2256 $name = getpwuid($num);
2257 $name = getpwent();
2258 $gid = getgrnam($name);
08a33e13 2259 $name = getgrgid($num);
5a964f20
TC
2260 $name = getgrent();
2261 #etc.
a0d0e21e 2262
4602f195 2263In I<getpw*()> the fields $quota, $comment, and $expire are special
80d38338 2264in that they are unsupported on many systems. If the
4602f195
JH
2265$quota is unsupported, it is an empty scalar. If it is supported, it
2266usually encodes the disk quota. If the $comment field is unsupported,
2267it is an empty scalar. If it is supported it usually encodes some
2268administrative comment about the user. In some systems the $quota
2269field may be $change or $age, fields that have to do with password
2270aging. In some systems the $comment field may be $class. The $expire
2271field, if present, encodes the expiration period of the account or the
2272password. For the availability and the exact meaning of these fields
2273in your system, please consult your getpwnam(3) documentation and your
2274F<pwd.h> file. You can also find out from within Perl what your
2275$quota and $comment fields mean and whether you have the $expire field
2276by using the C<Config> module and the values C<d_pwquota>, C<d_pwage>,
2277C<d_pwchange>, C<d_pwcomment>, and C<d_pwexpire>. Shadow password
3b10bc60 2278files are supported only if your vendor has implemented them in the
4602f195 2279intuitive fashion that calling the regular C library routines gets the
5d3a0a3b 2280shadow versions if you're running under privilege or if there exists
cf264981
SP
2281the shadow(3) functions as found in System V (this includes Solaris
2282and Linux.) Those systems that implement a proprietary shadow password
5d3a0a3b 2283facility are unlikely to be supported.
6ee623d5 2284
19799a22 2285The $members value returned by I<getgr*()> is a space separated list of
a0d0e21e
LW
2286the login names of the members of the group.
2287
2288For the I<gethost*()> functions, if the C<h_errno> variable is supported in
2289C, it will be returned to you via C<$?> if the function call fails. The
3b10bc60 2290C<@addrs> value returned by a successful call is a list of raw
2291addresses returned by the corresponding library call. In the
2292Internet domain, each address is four bytes long; you can unpack it
a0d0e21e
LW
2293by saying something like:
2294
f337b084 2295 ($a,$b,$c,$d) = unpack('W4',$addr[0]);
a0d0e21e 2296
2b5ab1e7
TC
2297The Socket library makes this slightly easier:
2298
2299 use Socket;
2300 $iaddr = inet_aton("127.1"); # or whatever address
2301 $name = gethostbyaddr($iaddr, AF_INET);
2302
2303 # or going the other way
19799a22 2304 $straddr = inet_ntoa($iaddr);
2b5ab1e7 2305
d760c846
GS
2306In the opposite way, to resolve a hostname to the IP address
2307you can write this:
2308
2309 use Socket;
2310 $packed_ip = gethostbyname("www.perl.org");
2311 if (defined $packed_ip) {
2312 $ip_address = inet_ntoa($packed_ip);
2313 }
2314
2315Make sure <gethostbyname()> is called in SCALAR context and that
2316its return value is checked for definedness.
2317
19799a22
GS
2318If you get tired of remembering which element of the return list
2319contains which return value, by-name interfaces are provided
2320in standard modules: C<File::stat>, C<Net::hostent>, C<Net::netent>,
2321C<Net::protoent>, C<Net::servent>, C<Time::gmtime>, C<Time::localtime>,
2322and C<User::grent>. These override the normal built-ins, supplying
2323versions that return objects with the appropriate names
2324for each field. For example:
5a964f20
TC
2325
2326 use File::stat;
2327 use User::pwent;
2328 $is_his = (stat($filename)->uid == pwent($whoever)->uid);
2329
b76cc8ba
NIS
2330Even though it looks like they're the same method calls (uid),
2331they aren't, because a C<File::stat> object is different from
19799a22 2332a C<User::pwent> object.
5a964f20 2333
a0d0e21e 2334=item getsockname SOCKET
d74e8afc 2335X<getsockname>
a0d0e21e 2336
19799a22
GS
2337Returns the packed sockaddr address of this end of the SOCKET connection,
2338in case you don't know the address because you have several different
2339IPs that the connection might have come in on.
a0d0e21e 2340
4633a7c4
LW
2341 use Socket;
2342 $mysockaddr = getsockname(SOCK);
19799a22 2343 ($port, $myaddr) = sockaddr_in($mysockaddr);
b76cc8ba 2344 printf "Connect to %s [%s]\n",
19799a22
GS
2345 scalar gethostbyaddr($myaddr, AF_INET),
2346 inet_ntoa($myaddr);
a0d0e21e
LW
2347
2348=item getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME
d74e8afc 2349X<getsockopt>
a0d0e21e 2350
636e6b1f
TH
2351Queries the option named OPTNAME associated with SOCKET at a given LEVEL.
2352Options may exist at multiple protocol levels depending on the socket
2353type, but at least the uppermost socket level SOL_SOCKET (defined in the
2354C<Socket> module) will exist. To query options at another level the
2355protocol number of the appropriate protocol controlling the option
2356should be supplied. For example, to indicate that an option is to be
2357interpreted by the TCP protocol, LEVEL should be set to the protocol
80d38338 2358number of TCP, which you can get using C<getprotobyname>.
636e6b1f 2359
80d38338 2360The function returns a packed string representing the requested socket
3b10bc60 2361option, or C<undef> on error, with the reason for the error placed in
2362C<$!>). Just what is in the packed string depends on LEVEL and OPTNAME;
80d38338
TC
2363consult getsockopt(2) for details. A common case is that the option is an
2364integer, in which case the result is a packed integer, which you can decode
2365using C<unpack> with the C<i> (or C<I>) format.
636e6b1f 2366
80d38338 2367An example to test whether Nagle's algorithm is turned on on a socket:
636e6b1f 2368
4852725b 2369 use Socket qw(:all);
636e6b1f
TH
2370
2371 defined(my $tcp = getprotobyname("tcp"))
a9a5a0dc 2372 or die "Could not determine the protocol number for tcp";
4852725b
DD
2373 # my $tcp = IPPROTO_TCP; # Alternative
2374 my $packed = getsockopt($socket, $tcp, TCP_NODELAY)
80d38338 2375 or die "getsockopt TCP_NODELAY: $!";
636e6b1f
TH
2376 my $nodelay = unpack("I", $packed);
2377 print "Nagle's algorithm is turned ", $nodelay ? "off\n" : "on\n";
2378
a0d0e21e
LW
2379
2380=item glob EXPR
d74e8afc 2381X<glob> X<wildcard> X<filename, expansion> X<expand>
a0d0e21e 2382
0a753a76
PP
2383=item glob
2384
d9a9d457
JL
2385In list context, returns a (possibly empty) list of filename expansions on
2386the value of EXPR such as the standard Unix shell F</bin/csh> would do. In
2387scalar context, glob iterates through such filename expansions, returning
2388undef when the list is exhausted. This is the internal function
2389implementing the C<< <*.c> >> operator, but you can use it directly. If
2390EXPR is omitted, C<$_> is used. The C<< <*.c> >> operator is discussed in
2391more detail in L<perlop/"I/O Operators">.
a0d0e21e 2392
80d38338
TC
2393Note that C<glob> splits its arguments on whitespace and treats
2394each segment as separate pattern. As such, C<glob("*.c *.h")>
2395matches all files with a F<.c> or F<.h> extension. The expression
b474a1b1 2396C<glob(".* *")> matches all files in the current working directory.
80d38338
TC
2397
2398If non-empty braces are the only wildcard characters used in the
2399C<glob>, no filenames are matched, but potentially many strings
2400are returned. For example, this produces nine strings, one for
2401each pairing of fruits and colors:
2402
2403 @many = glob "{apple,tomato,cherry}={green,yellow,red}";
5c0c9249 2404
3a4b19e4 2405Beginning with v5.6.0, this operator is implemented using the standard
5c0c9249
PF
2406C<File::Glob> extension. See L<File::Glob> for details, including
2407C<bsd_glob> which does not treat whitespace as a pattern separator.
3a4b19e4 2408
a0d0e21e 2409=item gmtime EXPR
d74e8afc 2410X<gmtime> X<UTC> X<Greenwich>
a0d0e21e 2411
ce2984c3
PF
2412=item gmtime
2413
435fbc73
GS
2414Works just like L<localtime> but the returned values are
2415localized for the standard Greenwich time zone.
a0d0e21e 2416
435fbc73
GS
2417Note: when called in list context, $isdst, the last value
2418returned by gmtime is always C<0>. There is no
2419Daylight Saving Time in GMT.
0a753a76 2420
62aa5637
MS
2421See L<perlport/gmtime> for portability concerns.
2422
a0d0e21e 2423=item goto LABEL
d74e8afc 2424X<goto> X<jump> X<jmp>
a0d0e21e 2425
748a9306
LW
2426=item goto EXPR
2427
a0d0e21e
LW
2428=item goto &NAME
2429
b500e03b
GG
2430The C<goto-LABEL> form finds the statement labeled with LABEL and
2431resumes execution there. It can't be used to get out of a block or
2432subroutine given to C<sort>. It can be used to go almost anywhere
2433else within the dynamic scope, including out of subroutines, but it's
2434usually better to use some other construct such as C<last> or C<die>.
2435The author of Perl has never felt the need to use this form of C<goto>
3b10bc60 2436(in Perl, that is; C is another matter). (The difference is that C
b500e03b
GG
2437does not offer named loops combined with loop control. Perl does, and
2438this replaces most structured uses of C<goto> in other languages.)
a0d0e21e 2439
7660c0ab
A
2440The C<goto-EXPR> form expects a label name, whose scope will be resolved
2441dynamically. This allows for computed C<goto>s per FORTRAN, but isn't
748a9306
LW
2442necessarily recommended if you're optimizing for maintainability:
2443
2444 goto ("FOO", "BAR", "GLARCH")[$i];
2445
b500e03b 2446Use of C<goto-LABEL> or C<goto-EXPR> to jump into a construct is
0b98bec9 2447deprecated and will issue a warning. Even then, it may not be used to
b500e03b
GG
2448go into any construct that requires initialization, such as a
2449subroutine or a C<foreach> loop. It also can't be used to go into a
0b98bec9 2450construct that is optimized away.
b500e03b 2451
1b6921cb
BT
2452The C<goto-&NAME> form is quite different from the other forms of
2453C<goto>. In fact, it isn't a goto in the normal sense at all, and
2454doesn't have the stigma associated with other gotos. Instead, it
2455exits the current subroutine (losing any changes set by local()) and
2456immediately calls in its place the named subroutine using the current
2457value of @_. This is used by C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines that wish to
2458load another subroutine and then pretend that the other subroutine had
2459been called in the first place (except that any modifications to C<@_>
6cb9131c
GS
2460in the current subroutine are propagated to the other subroutine.)
2461After the C<goto>, not even C<caller> will be able to tell that this
2462routine was called first.
2463
2464NAME needn't be the name of a subroutine; it can be a scalar variable
cf264981 2465containing a code reference, or a block that evaluates to a code
6cb9131c 2466reference.
a0d0e21e
LW
2467
2468=item grep BLOCK LIST
d74e8afc 2469X<grep>
a0d0e21e
LW
2470
2471=item grep EXPR,LIST
2472
2b5ab1e7
TC
2473This is similar in spirit to, but not the same as, grep(1) and its
2474relatives. In particular, it is not limited to using regular expressions.
2f9daede 2475
a0d0e21e 2476Evaluates the BLOCK or EXPR for each element of LIST (locally setting
7660c0ab 2477C<$_> to each element) and returns the list value consisting of those
19799a22
GS
2478elements for which the expression evaluated to true. In scalar
2479context, returns the number of times the expression was true.
a0d0e21e
LW
2480
2481 @foo = grep(!/^#/, @bar); # weed out comments
2482
2483or equivalently,
2484
2485 @foo = grep {!/^#/} @bar; # weed out comments
2486
be3174d2
GS
2487Note that C<$_> is an alias to the list value, so it can be used to
2488modify the elements of the LIST. While this is useful and supported,
2489it can cause bizarre results if the elements of LIST are not variables.
2b5ab1e7
TC
2490Similarly, grep returns aliases into the original list, much as a for
2491loop's index variable aliases the list elements. That is, modifying an
19799a22
GS
2492element of a list returned by grep (for example, in a C<foreach>, C<map>
2493or another C<grep>) actually modifies the element in the original list.
2b5ab1e7 2494This is usually something to be avoided when writing clear code.
a0d0e21e 2495
a4fb8298 2496If C<$_> is lexical in the scope where the C<grep> appears (because it has
cf264981 2497been declared with C<my $_>) then, in addition to being locally aliased to
80d38338 2498the list elements, C<$_> keeps being lexical inside the block; i.e., it
a4fb8298
RGS
2499can't be seen from the outside, avoiding any potential side-effects.
2500
19799a22 2501See also L</map> for a list composed of the results of the BLOCK or EXPR.
38325410 2502
a0d0e21e 2503=item hex EXPR
d74e8afc 2504X<hex> X<hexadecimal>
a0d0e21e 2505
54310121 2506=item hex
bbce6d69 2507
2b5ab1e7 2508Interprets EXPR as a hex string and returns the corresponding value.
38366c11 2509(To convert strings that might start with either C<0>, C<0x>, or C<0b>, see
2b5ab1e7 2510L</oct>.) If EXPR is omitted, uses C<$_>.
2f9daede
TPG
2511
2512 print hex '0xAf'; # prints '175'
2513 print hex 'aF'; # same
a0d0e21e 2514
19799a22 2515Hex strings may only represent integers. Strings that would cause
53305cf1 2516integer overflow trigger a warning. Leading whitespace is not stripped,
38366c11
DN
2517unlike oct(). To present something as hex, look into L</printf>,
2518L</sprintf>, or L</unpack>.
19799a22 2519
ce2984c3 2520=item import LIST
d74e8afc 2521X<import>
a0d0e21e 2522
19799a22 2523There is no builtin C<import> function. It is just an ordinary
4633a7c4 2524method (subroutine) defined (or inherited) by modules that wish to export
19799a22 2525names to another module. The C<use> function calls the C<import> method
cea6626f 2526for the package used. See also L</use>, L<perlmod>, and L<Exporter>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2527
2528=item index STR,SUBSTR,POSITION
d74e8afc 2529X<index> X<indexOf> X<InStr>
a0d0e21e
LW
2530
2531=item index STR,SUBSTR
2532
2b5ab1e7
TC
2533The index function searches for one string within another, but without
2534the wildcard-like behavior of a full regular-expression pattern match.
2535It returns the position of the first occurrence of SUBSTR in STR at
2536or after POSITION. If POSITION is omitted, starts searching from the
26f149de
YST
2537beginning of the string. POSITION before the beginning of the string
2538or after its end is treated as if it were the beginning or the end,
2539respectively. POSITION and the return value are based at C<0> (or whatever
2b5ab1e7 2540you've set the C<$[> variable to--but don't do that). If the substring
cf264981 2541is not found, C<index> returns one less than the base, ordinarily C<-1>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2542
2543=item int EXPR
f723aae1 2544X<int> X<integer> X<truncate> X<trunc> X<floor>
a0d0e21e 2545
54310121 2546=item int
bbce6d69 2547
7660c0ab 2548Returns the integer portion of EXPR. If EXPR is omitted, uses C<$_>.
2b5ab1e7 2549You should not use this function for rounding: one because it truncates
3b10bc60 2550towards C<0>, and two because machine representations of floating-point
2b5ab1e7
TC
2551numbers can sometimes produce counterintuitive results. For example,
2552C<int(-6.725/0.025)> produces -268 rather than the correct -269; that's
2553because it's really more like -268.99999999999994315658 instead. Usually,
19799a22 2554the C<sprintf>, C<printf>, or the C<POSIX::floor> and C<POSIX::ceil>
2b5ab1e7 2555functions will serve you better than will int().
a0d0e21e
LW
2556
2557=item ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR
d74e8afc 2558X<ioctl>
a0d0e21e 2559
2b5ab1e7 2560Implements the ioctl(2) function. You'll probably first have to say
a0d0e21e 2561
5ed4f2ec 2562 require "sys/ioctl.ph"; # probably in $Config{archlib}/sys/ioctl.ph
a0d0e21e 2563
a11c483f 2564to get the correct function definitions. If F<sys/ioctl.ph> doesn't
a0d0e21e 2565exist or doesn't have the correct definitions you'll have to roll your
61eff3bc 2566own, based on your C header files such as F<< <sys/ioctl.h> >>.
5a964f20 2567(There is a Perl script called B<h2ph> that comes with the Perl kit that
54310121 2568may help you in this, but it's nontrivial.) SCALAR will be read and/or
3b10bc60 2569written depending on the FUNCTION; a C pointer to the string value of SCALAR
19799a22 2570will be passed as the third argument of the actual C<ioctl> call. (If SCALAR
4633a7c4
LW
2571has no string value but does have a numeric value, that value will be
2572passed rather than a pointer to the string value. To guarantee this to be
19799a22
GS
2573true, add a C<0> to the scalar before using it.) The C<pack> and C<unpack>
2574functions may be needed to manipulate the values of structures used by
b76cc8ba 2575C<ioctl>.
a0d0e21e 2576
19799a22 2577The return value of C<ioctl> (and C<fcntl>) is as follows:
a0d0e21e 2578
5ed4f2ec 2579 if OS returns: then Perl returns:
2580 -1 undefined value
2581 0 string "0 but true"
2582 anything else that number
a0d0e21e 2583
19799a22 2584Thus Perl returns true on success and false on failure, yet you can
a0d0e21e
LW
2585still easily determine the actual value returned by the operating
2586system:
2587
2b5ab1e7 2588 $retval = ioctl(...) || -1;
a0d0e21e
LW
2589 printf "System returned %d\n", $retval;
2590
be2f7487 2591The special string C<"0 but true"> is exempt from B<-w> complaints
5a964f20
TC
2592about improper numeric conversions.
2593
a0d0e21e 2594=item join EXPR,LIST
d74e8afc 2595X<join>
a0d0e21e 2596
2b5ab1e7
TC
2597Joins the separate strings of LIST into a single string with fields
2598separated by the value of EXPR, and returns that new string. Example:
a0d0e21e 2599
2b5ab1e7 2600 $rec = join(':', $login,$passwd,$uid,$gid,$gcos,$home,$shell);
a0d0e21e 2601
eb6e2d6f
GS
2602Beware that unlike C<split>, C<join> doesn't take a pattern as its
2603first argument. Compare L</split>.
a0d0e21e 2604
aa689395 2605=item keys HASH
d74e8afc 2606X<keys> X<key>
aa689395 2607
aeedbbed
NC
2608=item keys ARRAY
2609
2610Returns a list consisting of all the keys of the named hash, or the indices
2611of an array. (In scalar context, returns the number of keys or indices.)
504f80c1 2612
aeedbbed 2613The keys of a hash are returned in an apparently random order. The actual
3b10bc60 2614random order is subject to change in future versions of Perl, but it
504f80c1 2615is guaranteed to be the same order as either the C<values> or C<each>
4546b9e6
JH
2616function produces (given that the hash has not been modified). Since
2617Perl 5.8.1 the ordering is different even between different runs of
2618Perl for security reasons (see L<perlsec/"Algorithmic Complexity
d6df3700 2619Attacks">).
504f80c1 2620
aeedbbed 2621As a side effect, calling keys() resets the HASH or ARRAY's internal iterator
cf264981
SP
2622(see L</each>). In particular, calling keys() in void context resets
2623the iterator with no other overhead.
a0d0e21e 2624
aa689395 2625Here is yet another way to print your environment:
a0d0e21e
LW
2626
2627 @keys = keys %ENV;
2628 @values = values %ENV;
b76cc8ba 2629 while (@keys) {
a9a5a0dc 2630 print pop(@keys), '=', pop(@values), "\n";
a0d0e21e
LW
2631 }
2632
2633or how about sorted by key:
2634
2635 foreach $key (sort(keys %ENV)) {
a9a5a0dc 2636 print $key, '=', $ENV{$key}, "\n";
a0d0e21e
LW
2637 }
2638
8ea1e5d4
GS
2639The returned values are copies of the original keys in the hash, so
2640modifying them will not affect the original hash. Compare L</values>.
2641
19799a22 2642To sort a hash by value, you'll need to use a C<sort> function.
aa689395 2643Here's a descending numeric sort of a hash by its values:
4633a7c4 2644
5a964f20 2645 foreach $key (sort { $hash{$b} <=> $hash{$a} } keys %hash) {
a9a5a0dc 2646 printf "%4d %s\n", $hash{$key}, $key;
4633a7c4
LW
2647 }
2648
3b10bc60 2649Used as an lvalue, C<keys> allows you to increase the number of hash buckets
aa689395
PP
2650allocated for the given hash. This can gain you a measure of efficiency if
2651you know the hash is going to get big. (This is similar to pre-extending
2652an array by assigning a larger number to $#array.) If you say
55497cff
PP
2653
2654 keys %hash = 200;
2655
ab192400
GS
2656then C<%hash> will have at least 200 buckets allocated for it--256 of them,
2657in fact, since it rounds up to the next power of two. These
55497cff
PP
2658buckets will be retained even if you do C<%hash = ()>, use C<undef
2659%hash> if you want to free the storage while C<%hash> is still in scope.
2660You can't shrink the number of buckets allocated for the hash using
19799a22 2661C<keys> in this way (but you needn't worry about doing this by accident,
aeedbbed
NC
2662as trying has no effect). C<keys @array> in an lvalue context is a syntax
2663error.
55497cff 2664
19799a22 2665See also C<each>, C<values> and C<sort>.
ab192400 2666
b350dd2f 2667=item kill SIGNAL, LIST
d74e8afc 2668X<kill> X<signal>
a0d0e21e 2669
b350dd2f 2670Sends a signal to a list of processes. Returns the number of
517db077
GS
2671processes successfully signaled (which is not necessarily the
2672same as the number actually killed).
a0d0e21e
LW
2673
2674 $cnt = kill 1, $child1, $child2;
2675 kill 9, @goners;
2676
3b10bc60 2677If SIGNAL is zero, no signal is sent to the process, but C<kill>
2678checks whether it's I<possible> to send a signal to it (that
70fb64f6 2679means, to be brief, that the process is owned by the same user, or we are
3b10bc60 2680the super-user). This is useful to check that a child process is still
81fd35db
DN
2681alive (even if only as a zombie) and hasn't changed its UID. See
2682L<perlport> for notes on the portability of this construct.
b350dd2f 2683
e2c0f81f
DG
2684Unlike in the shell, if SIGNAL is negative, it kills process groups instead
2685of processes. That means you usually want to use positive not negative signals.
2686You may also use a signal name in quotes.
2687
2688The behavior of kill when a I<PROCESS> number is zero or negative depends on
2689the operating system. For example, on POSIX-conforming systems, zero will
2690signal the current process group and -1 will signal all processes.
1e9c1022
JL
2691
2692See L<perlipc/"Signals"> for more details.
a0d0e21e
LW
2693
2694=item last LABEL
d74e8afc 2695X<last> X<break>
a0d0e21e
LW
2696
2697=item last
2698
2699The C<last> command is like the C<break> statement in C (as used in
2700loops); it immediately exits the loop in question. If the LABEL is
2701omitted, the command refers to the innermost enclosing loop. The
2702C<continue> block, if any, is not executed:
2703
4633a7c4 2704 LINE: while (<STDIN>) {
a9a5a0dc
VP
2705 last LINE if /^$/; # exit when done with header
2706 #...
a0d0e21e
LW
2707 }
2708
80d38338 2709C<last> cannot be used to exit a block that returns a value such as
2b5ab1e7
TC
2710C<eval {}>, C<sub {}> or C<do {}>, and should not be used to exit
2711a grep() or map() operation.
4968c1e4 2712
6c1372ed
GS
2713Note that a block by itself is semantically identical to a loop
2714that executes once. Thus C<last> can be used to effect an early
2715exit out of such a block.
2716
98293880
JH
2717See also L</continue> for an illustration of how C<last>, C<next>, and
2718C<redo> work.
1d2dff63 2719
a0d0e21e 2720=item lc EXPR
d74e8afc 2721X<lc> X<lowercase>
a0d0e21e 2722
54310121 2723=item lc
bbce6d69 2724
d1be9408 2725Returns a lowercased version of EXPR. This is the internal function
3980dc9c 2726implementing the C<\L> escape in double-quoted strings.
a0d0e21e 2727
7660c0ab 2728If EXPR is omitted, uses C<$_>.
bbce6d69 2729
3980dc9c
KW
2730What gets returned depends on several factors:
2731
2732=over
2733
2734=item If C<use bytes> is in effect:
2735
2736=over
2737
2738=item On EBCDIC platforms
2739
2740The results are what the C language system call C<tolower()> returns.
2741
2742=item On ASCII platforms
2743
2744The results follow ASCII semantics. Only characters C<A-Z> change, to C<a-z>
2745respectively.
2746
2747=back
2748
2749=item Otherwise, If EXPR has the UTF8 flag set
2750
2751If the current package has a subroutine named C<ToLower>, it will be used to
2752change the case (See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Case Mappings>.)
2753Otherwise Unicode semantics are used for the case change.
2754
2755=item Otherwise, if C<use locale> is in effect
2756
2757Respects current LC_CTYPE locale. See L<perllocale>.
2758
2759=item Otherwise, if C<use feature 'unicode_strings'> is in effect:
2760
2761Unicode semantics are used for the case change. Any subroutine named
2762C<ToLower> will not be used.
2763
2764=item Otherwise:
2765
2766=over
2767
2768=item On EBCDIC platforms
2769
2770The results are what the C language system call C<tolower()> returns.
2771
2772=item On ASCII platforms
2773
2774ASCII semantics are used for the case change. The lowercase of any character
2775outside the ASCII range is the character itself.
2776
2777=back
2778
2779=back
2780
a0d0e21e 2781=item lcfirst EXPR
d74e8afc 2782X<lcfirst> X<lowercase>
a0d0e21e 2783
54310121 2784=item lcfirst
bbce6d69 2785
ad0029c4
JH
2786Returns the value of EXPR with the first character lowercased. This
2787is the internal function implementing the C<\l> escape in
3980dc9c 2788double-quoted strings.
a0d0e21e 2789
7660c0ab 2790If EXPR is omitted, uses C<$_>.
bbce6d69 2791
3980dc9c
KW
2792This function behaves the same way under various pragma, such as in a locale,
2793as L</lc> does.
2794
a0d0e21e 2795=item length EXPR
d74e8afc 2796X<length> X<size>
a0d0e21e 2797
54310121 2798=item length
bbce6d69 2799
974da8e5 2800Returns the length in I<characters> of the value of EXPR. If EXPR is
9f621bb0 2801omitted, returns length of C<$_>. If EXPR is undefined, returns C<undef>.
3b10bc60 2802
2803This function cannot be used on an entire array or hash to find out how
2804many elements these have. For that, use C<scalar @array> and C<scalar keys
2805%hash>, respectively.
2806
2807Like all Perl character operations, length() normally deals in logical
2808characters, not physical bytes. For how many bytes a string encoded as
2809UTF-8 would take up, use C<length(Encode::encode_utf8(EXPR))> (you'll have
2810to C<use Encode> first). See L<Encode> and L<perlunicode>.
974da8e5 2811
a0d0e21e 2812=item link OLDFILE,NEWFILE
d74e8afc 2813X<link>
a0d0e21e 2814
19799a22 2815Creates a new filename linked to the old filename. Returns true for
b76cc8ba 2816success, false otherwise.
a0d0e21e
LW
2817
2818=item listen SOCKET,QUEUESIZE
d74e8afc 2819X<listen>
a0d0e21e 2820
3b10bc60 2821Does the same thing that the listen(2) system call does. Returns true if
b76cc8ba 2822it succeeded, false otherwise. See the example in
cea6626f 2823L<perlipc/"Sockets: Client/Server Communication">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2824
2825=item local EXPR
d74e8afc 2826X<local>
a0d0e21e 2827
19799a22 2828You really probably want to be using C<my> instead, because C<local> isn't
b76cc8ba 2829what most people think of as "local". See
13a2d996 2830L<perlsub/"Private Variables via my()"> for details.
2b5ab1e7 2831
5a964f20
TC
2832A local modifies the listed variables to be local to the enclosing
2833block, file, or eval. If more than one value is listed, the list must
2834be placed in parentheses. See L<perlsub/"Temporary Values via local()">
2835for details, including issues with tied arrays and hashes.
a0d0e21e 2836
d361fafa
VP
2837The C<delete local EXPR> construct can also be used to localize the deletion
2838of array/hash elements to the current block.
2839See L<perlsub/"Localized deletion of elements of composite types">.
2840
a0d0e21e 2841=item localtime EXPR
435fbc73 2842X<localtime> X<ctime>
a0d0e21e 2843
ba053783
AL
2844=item localtime
2845
19799a22 2846Converts a time as returned by the time function to a 9-element list
5f05dabc 2847with the time analyzed for the local time zone. Typically used as
a0d0e21e
LW
2848follows:
2849
54310121 2850 # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
a0d0e21e 2851 ($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday,$isdst) =
ba053783 2852 localtime(time);
a0d0e21e 2853
48a26b3a 2854All list elements are numeric, and come straight out of the C `struct
ba053783
AL
2855tm'. C<$sec>, C<$min>, and C<$hour> are the seconds, minutes, and hours
2856of the specified time.
48a26b3a 2857
ba053783
AL
2858C<$mday> is the day of the month, and C<$mon> is the month itself, in
2859the range C<0..11> with 0 indicating January and 11 indicating December.
2860This makes it easy to get a month name from a list:
54310121 2861
ba053783
AL
2862 my @abbr = qw( Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec );
2863 print "$abbr[$mon] $mday";
2864 # $mon=9, $mday=18 gives "Oct 18"
abd75f24 2865
ba053783
AL
2866C<$year> is the number of years since 1900, not just the last two digits
2867of the year. That is, C<$year> is C<123> in year 2023. The proper way
80d38338 2868to get a 4-digit year is simply:
abd75f24 2869
ba053783 2870 $year += 1900;
abd75f24 2871
435fbc73
GS
2872Otherwise you create non-Y2K-compliant programs--and you wouldn't want
2873to do that, would you?
2874
ba053783
AL
2875To get the last two digits of the year (e.g., '01' in 2001) do:
2876
2877 $year = sprintf("%02d", $year % 100);
2878
2879C<$wday> is the day of the week, with 0 indicating Sunday and 3 indicating
2880Wednesday. C<$yday> is the day of the year, in the range C<0..364>
2881(or C<0..365> in leap years.)
2882
2883C<$isdst> is true if the specified time occurs during Daylight Saving
2884Time, false otherwise.
abd75f24 2885
e1998452 2886If EXPR is omitted, C<localtime()> uses the current time (as returned
e3176d09 2887by time(3)).
a0d0e21e 2888
48a26b3a 2889In scalar context, C<localtime()> returns the ctime(3) value:
a0d0e21e 2890
5f05dabc 2891 $now_string = localtime; # e.g., "Thu Oct 13 04:54:34 1994"
a0d0e21e 2892
fe86afc2
NC
2893This scalar value is B<not> locale dependent but is a Perl builtin. For GMT
2894instead of local time use the L</gmtime> builtin. See also the
2895C<Time::Local> module (to convert the second, minutes, hours, ... back to
2896the integer value returned by time()), and the L<POSIX> module's strftime(3)
2897and mktime(3) functions.
2898
2899To get somewhat similar but locale dependent date strings, set up your
2900locale environment variables appropriately (please see L<perllocale>) and
2901try for example:
a3cb178b 2902
5a964f20 2903 use POSIX qw(strftime);
2b5ab1e7 2904 $now_string = strftime "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Y", localtime;
fe86afc2
NC
2905 # or for GMT formatted appropriately for your locale:
2906 $now_string = strftime "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Y", gmtime;
a3cb178b
GS
2907
2908Note that the C<%a> and C<%b>, the short forms of the day of the week
2909and the month of the year, may not necessarily be three characters wide.
a0d0e21e 2910
62aa5637
MS
2911See L<perlport/localtime> for portability concerns.
2912
435fbc73
GS
2913The L<Time::gmtime> and L<Time::localtime> modules provides a convenient,
2914by-name access mechanism to the gmtime() and localtime() functions,
2915respectively.
2916
2917For a comprehensive date and time representation look at the
2918L<DateTime> module on CPAN.
2919
07698885 2920=item lock THING
d74e8afc 2921X<lock>
19799a22 2922
01e6739c 2923This function places an advisory lock on a shared variable, or referenced
03730085 2924object contained in I<THING> until the lock goes out of scope.
a6d5524e 2925
f3a23afb 2926lock() is a "weak keyword" : this means that if you've defined a function
67408cae 2927by this name (before any calls to it), that function will be called
7b043ca5
RGS
2928instead. If you are not under C<use threads::shared> this does nothing.
2929See L<threads::shared>.
19799a22 2930
a0d0e21e 2931=item log EXPR
d74e8afc 2932X<log> X<logarithm> X<e> X<ln> X<base>
a0d0e21e 2933
54310121 2934=item log
bbce6d69 2935
2b5ab1e7
TC
2936Returns the natural logarithm (base I<e>) of EXPR. If EXPR is omitted,
2937returns log of C<$_>. To get the log of another base, use basic algebra:
19799a22 2938The base-N log of a number is equal to the natural log of that number
2b5ab1e7
TC
2939divided by the natural log of N. For example:
2940
2941 sub log10 {
a9a5a0dc
VP
2942 my $n = shift;
2943 return log($n)/log(10);
b76cc8ba 2944 }
2b5ab1e7
TC
2945
2946See also L</exp> for the inverse operation.
a0d0e21e 2947
a0d0e21e 2948=item lstat EXPR
d74e8afc 2949X<lstat>
a0d0e21e 2950
54310121 2951=item lstat
bbce6d69 2952
19799a22 2953Does the same thing as the C<stat> function (including setting the
5a964f20
TC
2954special C<_> filehandle) but stats a symbolic link instead of the file
2955the symbolic link points to. If symbolic links are unimplemented on
c837d5b4
DP
2956your system, a normal C<stat> is done. For much more detailed
2957information, please see the documentation for C<stat>.
a0d0e21e 2958
7660c0ab 2959If EXPR is omitted, stats C<$_>.
bbce6d69 2960
a0d0e21e
LW
2961=item m//
2962
9f4b9cd0 2963The match operator. See L<perlop/"Regexp Quote-Like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2964
2965=item map BLOCK LIST
d74e8afc 2966X<map>
a0d0e21e
LW
2967
2968=item map EXPR,LIST
2969
19799a22
GS
2970Evaluates the BLOCK or EXPR for each element of LIST (locally setting
2971C<$_> to each element) and returns the list value composed of the
2972results of each such evaluation. In scalar context, returns the
2973total number of elements so generated. Evaluates BLOCK or EXPR in
2974list context, so each element of LIST may produce zero, one, or
2975more elements in the returned value.
dd99ebda 2976
a0d0e21e
LW
2977 @chars = map(chr, @nums);
2978
2979translates a list of numbers to the corresponding characters. And
2980
d8216f19 2981 %hash = map { get_a_key_for($_) => $_ } @array;
a0d0e21e
LW
2982
2983is just a funny way to write
2984
2985 %hash = ();
d8216f19 2986 foreach (@array) {
a9a5a0dc 2987 $hash{get_a_key_for($_)} = $_;
a0d0e21e
LW
2988 }
2989
be3174d2
GS
2990Note that C<$_> is an alias to the list value, so it can be used to
2991modify the elements of the LIST. While this is useful and supported,
2992it can cause bizarre results if the elements of LIST are not variables.
2b5ab1e7
TC
2993Using a regular C<foreach> loop for this purpose would be clearer in
2994most cases. See also L</grep> for an array composed of those items of
2995the original list for which the BLOCK or EXPR evaluates to true.
fb73857a 2996
a4fb8298 2997If C<$_> is lexical in the scope where the C<map> appears (because it has
d8216f19
RGS
2998been declared with C<my $_>), then, in addition to being locally aliased to
2999the list elements, C<$_> keeps being lexical inside the block; that is, it
a4fb8298
RGS
3000can't be seen from the outside, avoiding any potential side-effects.
3001
205fdb4d 3002C<{> starts both hash references and blocks, so C<map { ...> could be either
3b10bc60 3003the start of map BLOCK LIST or map EXPR, LIST. Because Perl doesn't look
80d38338
TC
3004ahead for the closing C<}> it has to take a guess at which it's dealing with
3005based on what it finds just after the C<{>. Usually it gets it right, but if it
205fdb4d
NC
3006doesn't it won't realize something is wrong until it gets to the C<}> and
3007encounters the missing (or unexpected) comma. The syntax error will be
80d38338 3008reported close to the C<}>, but you'll need to change something near the C<{>
3b10bc60 3009such as using a unary C<+> to give Perl some help:
205fdb4d 3010
3b10bc60 3011 %hash = map { "\L$_" => 1 } @array # perl guesses EXPR. wrong
3012 %hash = map { +"\L$_" => 1 } @array # perl guesses BLOCK. right
3013 %hash = map { ("\L$_" => 1) } @array # this also works
3014 %hash = map { lc($_) => 1 } @array # as does this.
3015 %hash = map +( lc($_) => 1 ), @array # this is EXPR and works!
cea6626f 3016
3b10bc60 3017 %hash = map ( lc($_), 1 ), @array # evaluates to (1, @array)
205fdb4d 3018
d8216f19 3019or to force an anon hash constructor use C<+{>:
205fdb4d 3020
3b10bc60 3021 @hashes = map +{ lc($_) => 1 }, @array # EXPR, so needs comma at end
205fdb4d 3022
3b10bc60 3023to get a list of anonymous hashes each with only one entry apiece.
205fdb4d 3024
19799a22 3025=item mkdir FILENAME,MASK
d74e8afc 3026X<mkdir> X<md> X<directory, create>
a0d0e21e 3027
5a211162
GS
3028=item mkdir FILENAME
3029
491873e5
RGS
3030=item mkdir
3031
0591cd52 3032Creates the directory specified by FILENAME, with permissions
19799a22
GS
3033specified by MASK (as modified by C<umask>). If it succeeds it
3034returns true, otherwise it returns false and sets C<$!> (errno).
491873e5
RGS
3035If omitted, MASK defaults to 0777. If omitted, FILENAME defaults
3036to C<$_>.
0591cd52 3037
19799a22 3038In general, it is better to create directories with permissive MASK,
0591cd52 3039and let the user modify that with their C<umask>, than it is to supply
19799a22 3040a restrictive MASK and give the user no way to be more permissive.
0591cd52
NT
3041The exceptions to this rule are when the file or directory should be
3042kept private (mail files, for instance). The perlfunc(1) entry on
19799a22 3043C<umask> discusses the choice of MASK in more detail.
a0d0e21e 3044
cc1852e8
JH
3045Note that according to the POSIX 1003.1-1996 the FILENAME may have any
3046number of trailing slashes. Some operating and filesystems do not get
3047this right, so Perl automatically removes all trailing slashes to keep
3048everyone happy.
3049
80d38338 3050To recursively create a directory structure, look at
dd184578
RGS
3051the C<mkpath> function of the L<File::Path> module.
3052
a0d0e21e 3053=item msgctl ID,CMD,ARG
d74e8afc 3054X<msgctl>
a0d0e21e 3055
f86cebdf 3056Calls the System V IPC function msgctl(2). You'll probably have to say
0ade1984
JH
3057
3058 use IPC::SysV;
3059
7660c0ab 3060first to get the correct constant definitions. If CMD is C<IPC_STAT>,
cf264981 3061then ARG must be a variable that will hold the returned C<msqid_ds>
951ba7fe
GS
3062structure. Returns like C<ioctl>: the undefined value for error,
3063C<"0 but true"> for zero, or the actual return value otherwise. See also
4755096e 3064L<perlipc/"SysV IPC">, C<IPC::SysV>, and C<IPC::Semaphore> documentation.
a0d0e21e
LW
3065
3066=item msgget KEY,FLAGS
d74e8afc 3067X<msgget>
a0d0e21e 3068
f86cebdf 3069Calls the System V IPC function msgget(2). Returns the message queue
4755096e
GS
3070id, or the undefined value if there is an error. See also
3071L<perlipc/"SysV IPC"> and C<IPC::SysV> and C<IPC::Msg> documentation.
a0d0e21e 3072
a0d0e21e 3073=item msgrcv ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS
d74e8afc 3074X<msgrcv>
a0d0e21e
LW
3075
3076Calls the System V IPC function msgrcv to receive a message from
3077message queue ID into variable VAR with a maximum message size of
41d6edb2
JH
3078SIZE. Note that when a message is received, the message type as a
3079native long integer will be the first thing in VAR, followed by the
3080actual message. This packing may be opened with C<unpack("l! a*")>.
3081Taints the variable. Returns true if successful, or false if there is
4755096e
GS
3082an error. See also L<perlipc/"SysV IPC">, C<IPC::SysV>, and
3083C<IPC::SysV::Msg> documentation.
41d6edb2
JH
3084
3085=item msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS