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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specifically designed to be readable as is.
4
5=head1 NAME
6
7README.solaris - Perl version 5 on Solaris systems
8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
11This document describes various features of Sun's Solaris operating system
12that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just perl) is
13compiled and/or runs. Some issues relating to the older SunOS 4.x are
14also discussed, though they may be out of date.
15
16For the most part, everything should just work.
17
18Starting with Solaris 8, perl5.00503 (or higher) is supplied with the
19operating system, so you might not even need to build a newer version
20of perl at all. The Sun-supplied version is installed in /usr/perl5
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21with /usr/bin/perl pointing to /usr/perl5/bin/perl. Do not disturb
22that installation unless you really know what you are doing. If you
23remove the perl supplied with the OS, there is a good chance you will
24render some bits of your system inoperable. If you wish to install a
25newer version of perl, install it under a different prefix from
26/usr/perl5. Common prefixes to use are /usr/local and /opt/perl.
27
28You may wish to put your version of perl in the PATH of all users by
b29a8fb9 29changing the link /usr/bin/perl. This is OK, as all Perl scripts
2a5ccb22 30shipped with Solaris use /usr/perl5/bin/perl.
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31
32=head2 Solaris Version Numbers.
33
34For consistency with common usage, perl's Configure script performs
35some minor manipulations on the operating system name and version
36number as reported by uname. Here's a partial translation table:
37
38 Sun: perl's Configure:
39 uname uname -r Name osname osvers
2a5ccb22 40 SunOS 4.1.3 Solaris 1.1 sunos 4.1.3
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41 SunOS 5.6 Solaris 2.6 solaris 2.6
42 SunOS 5.8 Solaris 8 solaris 2.8
43
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44The complete table can be found in the Sun Managers' FAQ
45L<ftp://ftp.cs.toronto.edu/pub/jdd/sun-managers/faq> under
46"9.1) Which Sun models run which versions of SunOS?".
47
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48=head1 RESOURCES
49
50There are many, many source for Solaris information. A few of the
51important ones for perl:
52
53=over 4
54
55=item Solaris FAQ
56
57The Solaris FAQ is available at
58L<http://www.science.uva.nl/pub/solaris/solaris2.html>.
59
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60The Sun Managers' FAQ is available at
61L<ftp://ftp.cs.toronto.edu/pub/jdd/sun-managers/faq>
62
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63=item Precompiled Binaries
64
65Precompiled binaries, links to many sites, and much, much more is
66available at L<http://www.sunfreeware.com>.
67
68=item Solaris Documentation
69
70All Solaris documentation is available on-line at L<http://docs.sun.com>.
71
72=back
73
74=head1 SETTING UP
75
76=head2 File Extraction Problems.
77
78Be sure to use a tar program compiled under Solaris (not SunOS 4.x)
79to extract the perl-5.x.x.tar.gz file. Do not use GNU tar compiled
80for SunOS4 on Solaris. (GNU tar compiled for Solaris should be fine.)
81When you run SunOS4 binaries on Solaris, the run-time system magically
82alters pathnames matching m#lib/locale# so that when tar tries to create
83lib/locale.pm, a file named lib/oldlocale.pm gets created instead.
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84If you found this advice it too late and used a SunOS4-compiled tar
85anyway, you must find the incorrectly renamed file and move it back
86to lib/locale.pm.
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87
88=head2 Compiler and Related Tools.
89
90You must use an ANSI C compiler to build perl. Perl can be compiled
91with either Sun's add-on C compiler or with gcc. The C compiler that
92shipped with SunOS4 will not do.
93
94=head3 Include /usr/ccs/bin/ in your PATH.
95
96Several tools needed to build perl are located in /usr/ccs/bin/: ar,
97as, ld, and make. Make sure that /usr/ccs/bin/ is in your PATH.
98
99You need to make sure the following packages are installed
100(this info is extracted from the Solaris FAQ):
101
102for tools (sccs, lex, yacc, make, nm, truss, ld, as): SUNWbtool,
103SUNWsprot, SUNWtoo
104
105for libraries & headers: SUNWhea, SUNWarc, SUNWlibm, SUNWlibms, SUNWdfbh,
106SUNWcg6h, SUNWxwinc, SUNWolinc
107
108for 64 bit development: SUNWarcx, SUNWbtoox, SUNWdplx, SUNWscpux,
109SUNWsprox, SUNWtoox, SUNWlmsx, SUNWlmx, SUNWlibCx
110
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111If you are in doubt which package contains a file you are missing,
112try to find an installation that has that file. Then do a
113
114 grep /my/missing/file /var/sadm/install/contents
115
116This will display a line like this:
117
118/usr/include/sys/errno.h f none 0644 root bin 7471 37605 956241356 SUNWhea
119
b29a8fb9 120The last item listed (SUNWhea in this example) is the package you need.
2a5ccb22 121
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122=head3 Avoid /usr/ucb/cc.
123
124You don't need to have /usr/ucb/ in your PATH to build perl. If you
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125want /usr/ucb/ in your PATH anyway, make sure that /usr/ucb/ is NOT
126in your PATH before the directory containing the right C compiler.
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127
128=head3 Sun's C Compiler
129
130If you use Sun's C compiler, make sure the correct directory
2a5ccb22 131(usually /opt/SUNWspro/bin/) is in your PATH (before /usr/ucb/).
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132
133=head3 GCC
134
135If you use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
136complete. As a point of reference, perl-5.6.0 built fine with
137gcc-2.8.1 on both Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 8. You'll be able to
138Configure perl with
139
140 sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
141
142If you have updated your Solaris version, you may also have to update
143your GCC. For example, if you are running Solaris 2.6 and your gcc is
144installed under /usr/local, check in /usr/local/lib/gcc-lib and make
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145sure you have the appropriate directory, sparc-sun-solaris2.6/ or
146i386-pc-solaris2.6/. If gcc's directory is for a different version of
147Solaris than you are running, then you will need to rebuild gcc for
148your new version of Solaris.
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149
150You can get a precompiled version of gcc from
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151L<http://www.sunfreeware.com/>. Make sure you pick up the package for
152your Solaris release.
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153
154=head3 GNU as and GNU ld
155
156The versions of as and ld supplied with Solaris work fine for building
157perl. There is normally no need to install the GNU versions.
158
159If you decide to ignore this advice and use the GNU versions anyway,
160then be sure that they are relatively recent. Versions newer than 2.7
161are apparently new enough. Older versions may have trouble with
162dynamic loading.
163
164If your gcc is configured to use GNU as and ld but you want to use the
165Solaris ones instead to build perl, then you'll need to add
166-B/usr/ccs/bin/ to the gcc command line. One convenient way to do
167that is with
168
169 sh Configure -Dcc='gcc -B/usr/ccs/bin/'
170
171Note that the trailing slash is required. This will result in some
2a5ccb22 172harmless warnings as Configure is run:
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173
174 gcc: file path prefix `/usr/ccs/bin/' never used
175
176These messages may safely be ignored.
177(Note that for a SunOS4 system, you must use -B/bin/ instead.)
178
179Alternatively, you can use the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX environment variable to
180ensure that Sun's as and ld are used. Consult your gcc documentation
181for further information on the -B option and the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX variable.
182
183=head3 GNU make
184
185Sun's make works fine for building perl.
186If you wish to use GNU make anyway, be sure that the set-group-id bit is not
187set. If it is, then arrange your PATH so that /usr/ccs/bin/make is
188before GNU make or else have the system administrator disable the
189set-group-id bit on GNU make.
190
191=head3 Avoid libucb.
192
193Solaris provides some BSD-compatibility functions in /usr/ucblib/libucb.a.
194Perl will not build and run correctly if linked against -lucb since it
195contains routines that are incompatible with the standard Solaris libc.
196Normally this is not a problem since the solaris hints file prevents
197Configure from even looking in /usr/ucblib for libraries, and also
198explicitly omits -lucb.
199
200=head2 Environment
201
202=head3 PATH
203
204Make sure your PATH includes the compiler (/opt/SUNWspro/bin/ if you're
205using Sun's compiler) as well as /usr/ccs/bin/ to pick up the other
206development tools (such as make, ar, as, and ld). Make sure your path
207either doesn't include /usr/ucb or that it includes it after the
208compiler and compiler tools and other standard Solaris directories.
209You definitely don't want /usr/ucb/cc.
210
211=head3 LD_LIBRARY_PATH
212
213If you have the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable set, be sure that
214it does NOT include /lib or /usr/lib. If you will be building
215extensions that call third-party shared libraries (e.g. Berkeley DB)
216then make sure that your LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable includes
217the directory with that library (e.g. /usr/local/lib).
218
219If you get an error message
220
221 dlopen: stub interception failed
222
223it is probably because your LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable
224includes a directory which is a symlink to /usr/lib (such as /lib).
225The reason this causes a problem is quite subtle. The file
226libdl.so.1.0 actually *only* contains functions which generate 'stub
227interception failed' errors! The runtime linker intercepts links to
228"/usr/lib/libdl.so.1.0" and links in internal implementations of those
229functions instead. [Thanks to Tim Bunce for this explanation.]
230
231=head1 RUN CONFIGURE.
232
233See the INSTALL file for general information regarding Configure.
234Only Solaris-specific issues are discussed here. Usually, the
235defaults should be fine.
236
237=head2 64-bit Issues.
238
239See the INSTALL file for general information regarding 64-bit compiles.
240In general, the defaults should be fine for most people.
241
242By default, perl-5.6.0 (or later) is compiled as a 32-bit application
243with largefile and long-long support.
244
245=head3 General 32-bit vs. 64-bit issues.
246
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247Solaris 7 and above will run in either 32 bit or 64 bit mode on SPARC
248CPUs, via a reboot. You can build 64 bit apps whilst running 32 bit
249mode and vice-versa. 32 bit apps will run under Solaris running in
250either 32 or 64 bit mode. 64 bit apps require Solaris to be running
b29a8fb9 25164 bit mode.
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252
253Existing 32 bit apps are properly known as LP32, i.e. Longs and
254Pointers are 32 bit. 64-bit apps are more properly known as LP64.
255The discriminating feature of a LP64 bit app is its ability to utilise a
25664-bit address space. It is perfectly possible to have a LP32 bit app
2a5ccb22 257that supports both 64-bit integers (long long) and largefiles (> 2GB),
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258and this is the default for perl-5.6.0.
259
260For a more complete explanation of 64-bit issues, see the Solaris 64-bit
261Developer's Guide at http://docs.sun.com:80/ab2/coll.45.13/SOL64TRANS/
262
263You can detect the OS mode using "isainfo -v", e.g.
264
265 fubar$ isainfo -v # Ultra 30 in 64 bit mode
266 64-bit sparcv9 applications
267 32-bit sparc applications
268
269By default, perl will be compiled as a 32-bit application. Unless you
2a5ccb22 270want to allocate more than ~ 4GB of memory inside Perl, you probably
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271don't need Perl to be a 64-bit app.
272
273=head3 Large File Suppprt
274
275For Solaris 2.6 and onwards, there are two different ways for 32-bit
2a5ccb22 276applications to manipulate large files (files whose size is > 2GByte).
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277(A 64-bit application automatically has largefile support built in
278by default.)
279
280First is the "transitional compilation environment", described in
281lfcompile64(5). According to the man page,
282
283 The transitional compilation environment exports all the
284 explicit 64-bit functions (xxx64()) and types in addition to
285 all the regular functions (xxx()) and types. Both xxx() and
286 xxx64() functions are available to the program source. A
287 32-bit application must use the xxx64() functions in order
288 to access large files. See the lf64(5) manual page for a
289 complete listing of the 64-bit transitional interfaces.
290
291The transitional compilation environment is obtained with the
292following compiler and linker flags:
293
294 getconf LFS64_CFLAGS -D_LARGEFILE64_SOURCE
295 getconf LFS64_LDFLAG # nothing special needed
296 getconf LFS64_LIBS # nothing special needed
297
298Second is the "large file compilation environment", described in
299lfcompile(5). According to the man page,
300
301 Each interface named xxx() that needs to access 64-bit entities
302 to access large files maps to a xxx64() call in the
303 resulting binary. All relevant data types are defined to be
304 of correct size (for example, off_t has a typedef definition
305 for a 64-bit entity).
306
307 An application compiled in this environment is able to use
308 the xxx() source interfaces to access both large and small
309 files, rather than having to explicitly utilize the transitional
310 xxx64() interface calls to access large files.
311
312Two exceptions are fseek() and ftell(). 32-bit applications should
313use fseeko(3C) and ftello(3C). These will get automatically mapped
314to fseeko64() and ftello64().
315
316The large file compilation environment is obtained with
317
318 getconf LFS_CFLAGS -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64
319 getconf LFS_LDFLAGS # nothing special needed
320 getconf LFS_LIBS # nothing special needed
321
322By default, perl uses the large file compilation environment and
323relies on Solaris to do the underlying mapping of interfaces.
324
325=head3 Building an LP64 Perl
326
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327To compile a 64-bit application on an UltraSparc with a recent Sun Compiler,
328you need to use the flag "-xarch=v9". getconf(1) will tell you this, e.g.
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329
330 fubar$ getconf -a | grep v9
331 XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS: -xarch=v9
332 XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS: -xarch=v9
333 XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LINTFLAGS: -xarch=v9
334 XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_CFLAGS: -xarch=v9
335 XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LDFLAGS: -xarch=v9
336 XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LINTFLAGS: -xarch=v9
337 _XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS: -xarch=v9
338 _XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS: -xarch=v9
339 _XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LINTFLAGS: -xarch=v9
340 _XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_CFLAGS: -xarch=v9
341 _XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LDFLAGS: -xarch=v9
342 _XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LINTFLAGS: -xarch=v9
343
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344This flag is supported in Sun WorkShop Compilers 5.0 and onwards
345(now marketed under the name Forte) when used on Solaris 7 or later on
346UltraSparc systems.
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347
348If you are using gcc, you would need to use -mcpu=v9 -m64 instead. This
349option is not yet supported as of gcc 2.95.2; from install/SPECIFIC
350in that release:
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352GCC version 2.95 is not able to compile code correctly for sparc64
353targets. Users of the Linux kernel, at least, can use the sparc32
354program to start up a new shell invocation with an environment that
355causes configure to recognize (via uname -a) the system as sparc-*-*
356instead.
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357
358All this should be handled automatically by the hints file, if
359requested.
360
2a5ccb22 361If you do want to be able to allocate more than 4GB memory inside
d420ca49 362perl, then you should use the Solaris malloc, since the perl
2a5ccb22 363malloc breaks when dealing with more than 2GB of memory. You can do
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364this with
365
366 sh Configure -Uusemymalloc
367
368=head3 Long Doubles.
369
370As of 5.6.0, long doubles are not working.
371
372=head2 Threads.
373
374It is possible to build a threaded version of perl on Solaris. The entire
375perl thread implementation is still experimental, however, so beware.
376Perl uses the sched_yield(3RT) function. In versions of Solaris up
377to 2.6, that function is in -lposix4. Starting with Solaris 7, it is
378in -lrt. The hints file should handle adding this automatically.
379
380=head2 Malloc Issues.
381
382You should not use perl's malloc if you are building with gcc. There
383are reports of core dumps, especially in the PDL module. The problem
384appears to go away under -DDEBUGGING, so it has been difficult to
385track down. Sun's compiler appears to be ok with or without perl's
386malloc. [XXX further investigation is needed here.]
387
388You should also not use perl's malloc if you are building perl as
389an LP64 application, since perl's malloc has trouble allocating more
2a5ccb22 390than 2GB of memory.
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391
392You can avoid perl's malloc by Configuring with
393
394 sh Configure -Uusemymalloc
395
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396[XXX Update hints file.]
397
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398=head1 MAKE PROBLEMS.
399
400=over 4
401
402=item Dynamic Loading Problems With GNU as and GNU ld
403
404If you have problems with dynamic loading using gcc on SunOS or
405Solaris, and you are using GNU as and GNU ld, see the section
406L<"GNU as and GNU ld"> above.
407
408=item ld.so.1: ./perl: fatal: relocation error:
409
410If you get this message on SunOS or Solaris, and you're using gcc,
411it's probably the GNU as or GNU ld problem in the previous item
412L<"GNU as and GNU ld">.
413
414=item dlopen: stub interception failed
415
416The primary cause of the 'dlopen: stub interception failed' message is
417that the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable includes a directory
418which is a symlink to /usr/lib (such as /lib). See
419L<"LD_LIBRARY_PATH"> above.
420
421=item #error "No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified"
422
423This is a common error when trying to build perl on Solaris 2.6 with a
424gcc installation from Solaris 2.5 or 2.5.1. The Solaris header files
425changed, so you need to update your gcc installation. You can either
426rerun the fixincludes script from gcc or take the opportunity to
427update your gcc installation.
428
429=item sh: ar: not found
430
431This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar'
432was not found. You need to check your PATH environment variable to
433make sure that it includes the directory with the 'ar' command. This
434is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the /usr/ccs/bin/
435directory.
436
437=back
438
439=head1 MAKE TEST
440
441=head2 op/stat.t test 4
442
443op/stat.t test 4 may fail if you are on a tmpfs of some sort.
444Building in /tmp sometimes shows this behavior. The
445test suite detects if you are building in /tmp, but it may not be able
446to catch all tmpfs situations.
447
448=head1 PREBUILT BINARIES.
449
450You can pick up prebuilt binaries for Solaris from
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451L<http://www.sunfreeware.com/>, ActiveState L<http://www.activestate.com/>,
452and L<http://www.perl.com/> under the Binaries list at the top of the page.
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453There are probably other sources as well. Please note that these sites
454are under the control of their respective owners, not the perl developers.
455
456=head1 RUNTIME ISSUES.
457
458=head2 Limits on Numbers of Open Files.
459
460The stdio(3C) manpage notes that only 255 files may be opened using
461fopen(), and only file descriptors 0 through 255 can be used in a
462stream. Since perl calls open() and then fdopen(3C) with the
463resulting file descriptor, perl is limited to 255 simultaneous open
464files.
465
466=head1 SOLARIS-SPECIFIC MODULES.
467
468See the modules under the Solaris:: namespace on CPAN,
469L<http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/Solaris/>.
470
471=head1 SOLARIS-SPECIFIC PROBLEMS WITH MODULES.
472
473=head2 Proc::ProcessTable
474
475Proc::ProcessTable does not compile on Solaris with perl5.6.0 and higher
476if you have LARGEFILES defined. Since largefile support is the
477default in 5.6.0 and later, you have to take special steps to use this
478module.
479
480The problem is that various structures visible via procfs use off_t,
481and if you compile with largefile support these change from 32 bits to
48264 bits. Thus what you get back from procfs doesn't match up with
483the structures in perl, resulting in garbage. See proc(4) for further
484discussion.
485
486A fix for Proc::ProcessTable is to edit Makefile to
487explicitly remove the largefile flags from the ones MakeMaker picks up
488from Config.pm. This will result in Proc::ProcessTable being built
2a5ccb22 489under the correct environment. Everything should then be OK as long as
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490Proc::ProcessTable doesn't try to share off_t's with the rest of perl,
491or if it does they should be explicitly specified as off64_t.
492
493=head2 BSD::Resource
494
495BSD::Resource versions earlier than 1.09 do not compile on Solaris
496with perl 5.6.0 and higher, for the same reasons as Proc::ProcessTable.
497BSD::Resource versions starting from 1.09 have a workaround for the problem.
498
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499=head2 Net::SSLeay
500
501Net::SSLeay requires a /dev/urandom to be present. This device is not
502part of Solaris. You can either get the package SUNWski (packaged with
503several Sun software products, for example the Sun WebServer, which is
504part of the Solaris Server Intranet Extension, or the Sun Directory
505Services, part of Solaris for ISPs) or download the ANDIrand package
506from L<http://www.cosy.sbg.ac.at/~andi/>. If you use SUNWski, make a
507symbolic link /dev/urandom pointing to /dev/random.
508
509It may be possible to use the Entropy Gathering Daemon (written in
510Perl!), available from L<http://www.lothar.com/tech/crypto/>.
511
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512=head1 AUTHOR
513
514The original was written by Andy Dougherty F<doughera@lafayette.edu>
515drawing heavily on advice from Alan Burlison, Nick Ing-Simmons, Tim Bunce,
516and many other Solaris users over the years.
517
518Please report any errors, updates, or suggestions to F<perlbug@perl.org>.
519
520=head1 LAST MODIFIED
521
b29a8fb9 522$Id: README.solaris,v 1.4 2000/11/11 20:29:58 doughera Exp $