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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
4
5=head1 NAME
6
7README.aix - Perl version 5 on IBM Unix (AIX) systems
8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
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11This document describes various features of IBM's Unix operating
12system (AIX) that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl)
13is compiled and/or runs.
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14
15=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on AIX
16
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17For information on compilers on older versions of AIX, see L<Compiling
18Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3>.
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19
20When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
21an ANSI compliant C-compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
22gcc for AIX are widely available.
23
24=head2 Supported Compilers
25
26Currently all versions of IBM's "xlc", "xlc_r", "cc", "cc_r" or
c5252117 27"vac" ANSI/C compiler will work for building Perl if that compiler
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28works on your system.
29
c5252117 30If you plan to link Perl to any module that requires thread-support,
e1051f11 31like DBD::Oracle, it is better to use the _r version of the compiler.
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32This will not build a threaded Perl, but a thread-enabled Perl. See
33also L<Threaded Perl> later on.
e1051f11 34
e37e7c83 35As of writing (2009-08) only the IBM XL C for AIX or XL C/C++ for AIX
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36compiler is supported by IBM on AIX 5L/6.1.
37
38The following compiler versions are supported by IBM:
39
40XL C and XL C/C++ V7, V8, V9, V10
41
42The XL C for AIX is integrated in the XL C/C++ for AIX compiler.
43
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44If you choose XL C/C++ V9 you need APAR IZ35785 installed
45otherwise the integrated SDBM_File do not compile correctly due
46to an optimization bug. You can circumvent this problem by
47adding -qipa to the optimization flags (-Doptimize='-O -qipa').
48The PTF for APAR IZ35785 which solves this problem is available
e3c125ff 49from IBM (April 2009 PTF for XL C/C++ Enterprise Edition for AIX, V9.0).
7fabfece 50
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51Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
52The former is recommended, as not only it can compile Perl with no
53difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later
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54that require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
55
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56If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
57complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
58details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the
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59development team.
60
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61=head2 Incompatibility with AIX Toolbox lib gdbm
62
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63If the AIX Toolbox version of lib gdbm 1.8.x is installed on the
64system then Perl will not work. This library contains a defect version
65of the dbm_store() function. The lib gdbm will be automatically removed
66from the wanted libraries.
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67
68=head2 Perl 5.10 was successfully compiled and tested on:
69
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70 AIX Level | Compiler Level | w th | w/o th
71 --------------------------+-------------------------+------+-------
72 5.1 TL9 32 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK
73 5.1 TL9 32 bit | gcc 3.2.2 | OK | OK
74 5.1 TL9 64 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK
75 5.2 TL10 32 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK
e3c125ff 76 5.2 TL8 64 bit | VA C/C++ V6 | OK | OK
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77 5.2 TL10 64 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK
78 5.3 TL7 32 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK
79 5.3 TL7 32 bit | gcc 4.2.4 | OK | OK
80 5.3 TL7 64 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK
81 6.1 TL1 32 bit | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK
82 6.1 TL1 64 bit + IZ39077 | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK
e3c125ff 83
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84 w th = with thread
85 w/o th = without thread
e3c125ff 86 OK = tested
fe5460cc 87
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88Successfully tested means that all "make test" runs finish with an
89result of 100% OK. All tests were conducted with -Duseshrplib set.
fe5460cc 90
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91=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX
92
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93Starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.x / 5.10.x) and AIX 4.3
94or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface in the so
95called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface that was
96used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases 4.2 and
97earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with compiled
98modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make Perl
99more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
100using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of
101C++ code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions,
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102which was not possible using the emulated interface.
103
104It is highly recommended to use the new interface.
105
106=head2 Using Large Files with Perl
107
108Should yield no problems.
109
110=head2 Threaded Perl
111
81189653 112Should yield no problems with AIX 5.1 / 5.2 / 5.3 and 6.1.
7fabfece 113
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114IBM uses the AIX system Perl (V5.6.0 on AIX 5.1 and V5.8.2 on
115AIX 5.2 / 5.3 and 6.1) for some AIX
116system scripts. If you switch the links in /usr/bin from the
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117AIX system Perl (/usr/opt/perl5) to the newly build Perl then you
118get the same features as with the IBM AIX system Perl if the
119threaded options are used.
120
c5252117 121The threaded Perl build works also on AIX 5.1 but the IBM Perl
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122build (Perl v5.6.0) is not threaded on AIX 5.1.
123
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124=head2 64-bit Perl
125
126If your AIX system is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
127configurations to work. If you want to use 64-bit Perl on AIX 6.1
128you need a APAR for a libc.a bug which affects (n)dbm_XXX functions.
81189653 129The APAR number for this problem is IZ39077.
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130
131If you need more memory (larger data segment) for your Perl programs you
132can set:
133
134 /etc/security/limits
135 default: (or your user)
e3c125ff 136 data = -1 (default is 262144 * 512 byte)
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137
138With the default setting the size is limited to 128MB.
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139The -1 removes this limit. If the "make test" fails please change
140your /etc/security/limits as stated above.
7fabfece 141
e1051f11 142=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (threaded/32-bit)
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143
144With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
145passes all make tests in threaded 32-bit mode, which is the default
c5252117 146configuration for the Perl builds that AIX ships with.
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147
148 rm config.sh
149 ./Configure \
150 -d \
151 -Dcc=cc_r \
152 -Duseshrplib \
153 -Dusethreads \
154 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
155
fe5460cc 156The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
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157IBM AIX system Perl installation.
158
159=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (32-bit)
160
fe5460cc 161With the following options you get a Perl version which passes
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162all make tests in 32-bit mode.
163
164 rm config.sh
165 ./Configure \
166 -d \
167 -Dcc=cc_r \
168 -Duseshrplib \
169 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
170
171The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
172IBM AIX system Perl installation.
173
e1051f11 174=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (threaded/64-bit)
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175
176With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
177passes all make tests in 64-bit mode.
178
179 export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
180
181 rm config.sh
182 ./Configure \
183 -d \
184 -Dcc=cc_r \
185 -Duseshrplib \
186 -Dusethreads \
187 -Duse64bitall \
188 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
189
190=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1(64-bit)
191
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192With the following options you get a Perl version which passes all
193make tests in 64-bit mode.
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194
195 export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
e3c125ff 196
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197 rm config.sh
198 ./Configure \
199 -d \
200 -Dcc=cc_r \
201 -Duseshrplib \
202 -Duse64bitall \
203 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
204
fe5460cc 205The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
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206IBM AIX system Perl installation.
207
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208If you choose gcc to compile 64-bit Perl then you need to add the
209following option:
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210
211 -Dcc='gcc -maix64'
212
213
214=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3
215
216Due to the fact that AIX 4.3.3 reached end-of-service in December 31,
2172003 this information is provided as is. The Perl versions prior to
218Perl 5.8.9 could be compiled on AIX up to 4.3.3 with the following
219settings (your mileage may vary):
7fabfece 220
d5d9880c 221When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
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222an ANSI compliant C-compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
223gcc for AIX are widely available.
224
225At the moment of writing, AIX supports two different native C compilers,
4951a6f9 226for which you have to pay: B<xlC> and B<vac>. If you decide to use either
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227of these two (which is quite a lot easier than using gcc), be sure to
228upgrade to the latest available patch level. Currently:
229
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230 xlC.C 3.1.4.10 or 3.6.6.0 or 4.0.2.2 or 5.0.2.9 or 6.0.0.3
231 vac.C 4.4.0.3 or 5.0.2.6 or 6.0.0.1
232
233note that xlC has the OS version in the name as of version 4.0.2.0, so
234you will find xlC.C for AIX-5.0 as package
235
236 xlC.aix50.rte 5.0.2.0 or 6.0.0.3
237
66a1b24b 238subversions are not the same "latest" on all OS versions. For example,
c67773d0 239the latest xlC-5 on aix41 is 5.0.2.9, while on aix43, it is 5.0.2.7.
20d11268 240
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241Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
242The former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
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243difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
244require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
245
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246The IBM's compiler patch levels 5.0.0.0 and 5.0.1.0 have compiler
247optimization bugs that affect compiling perl.c and regcomp.c,
248respectively. If Perl's configuration detects those compiler patch
249levels, optimization is turned off for the said source code files.
250Upgrading to at least 5.0.2.0 is recommended.
251
20d11268 252If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
eed1f4d3 253complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
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254details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the development
255team.
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256
257=head2 OS level
258
259Before installing the patches to the IBM C-compiler you need to know the
260level of patching for the Operating System. IBM's command 'oslevel' will
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261show the base, but is not always complete (in this example oslevel shows
2624.3.NULL, whereas the system might run most of 4.3.THREE):
1a3e4d88 263
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264 # oslevel
265 4.3.0.0
266 # lslpp -l | grep 'bos.rte '
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267 bos.rte 4.3.3.75 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
268 bos.rte 4.3.2.0 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
269 #
270
c5252117 271The same might happen to AIX 5.1 or other OS levels. As a side note, Perl
64cb7701 272cannot be built without bos.adt.syscalls and bos.adt.libm installed
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273
274 # lslpp -l | egrep "syscalls|libm"
275 bos.adt.libm 5.1.0.25 COMMITTED Base Application Development
c67773d0 276 bos.adt.syscalls 5.1.0.36 COMMITTED System Calls Application
64cb7701 277 #
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278
279=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX
280
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281AIX supports dynamically loadable objects as well as shared libraries.
282Shared libraries by convention end with the suffix .a, which is a bit
283misleading, as an archive can contain static as well as dynamic members.
c5252117 284For Perl dynamically loaded objects we use the .so suffix also used on
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285many other platforms.
286
287Note that starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.0) and AIX 4.3
288or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface in the so
289called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface that was
290used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases 4.2 and
291earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with compiled
c5252117 292modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make Perl
efc3b6b5 293more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
8218ea5d 294using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of C++
c5252117 295code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions, which
8218ea5d 296was not possible using the emulated interface.
12f54d27 297
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298=head2 The IBM ANSI C Compiler
299
300All defaults for Configure can be used.
301
302If you've chosen to use vac 4, be sure to run 4.4.0.3. Older versions
4951a6f9 303will turn up nasty later on. For vac 5 be sure to run at least 5.0.1.0,
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304but vac 5.0.2.6 or up is highly recommended. Note that since IBM has
305removed vac 5.0.2.1 through 5.0.2.5 from the software depot, these
306versions should be considered obsolete.
20d11268 307
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308Here's a brief lead of how to upgrade the compiler to the latest
309level. Of course this is subject to changes. You can only upgrade
310versions from ftp-available updates if the first three digit groups
311are the same (in where you can skip intermediate unlike the patches
c5252117 312in the developer snapshots of Perl), or to one version up where the
66a1b24b 313"base" is available. In other words, the AIX compiler patches are
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314cumulative.
315
316 vac.C.4.4.0.1 => vac.C.4.4.0.3 is OK (vac.C.4.4.0.2 not needed)
317 xlC.C.3.1.3.3 => xlC.C.3.1.4.10 is NOT OK (xlC.C.3.1.4.0 is not available)
318
319 # ftp ftp.software.ibm.com
320 Connected to service.boulder.ibm.com.
321 : welcome message ...
322 Name (ftp.software.ibm.com:merijn): anonymous
323 331 Guest login ok, send your complete e-mail address as password.
324 Password:
325 ... accepted login stuff
326 ftp> cd /aix/fixes/v4/
327 ftp> dir other other.ll
328 output to local-file: other.ll? y
329 200 PORT command successful.
330 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
331 226 Transfer complete.
332 ftp> dir xlc xlc.ll
333 output to local-file: xlc.ll? y
334 200 PORT command successful.
335 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
336 226 Transfer complete.
337 ftp> bye
338 ... goodbye messages
339 # ls -l *.ll
340 -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 1169432 Nov 2 17:29 other.ll
341 -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 29170 Nov 2 17:29 xlc.ll
342
343On AIX 4.2 using xlC, we continue:
344
345 # lslpp -l | fgrep 'xlC.C '
346 xlC.C 3.1.4.9 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
347 xlC.C 3.1.4.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
348 # grep 'xlC.C.3.1.4.*.bff' xlc.ll
349 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6286336 Jul 22 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.1.bff
350 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6173696 Aug 24 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
351 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6319104 Aug 14 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.2.bff
352 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6316032 Oct 21 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.3.bff
353 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6315008 Dec 20 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.4.bff
354 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6178816 Mar 28 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.5.bff
355 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6188032 May 22 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.6.bff
356 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6191104 Sep 5 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.7.bff
357 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6185984 Jan 13 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.8.bff
358 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6169600 May 27 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.9.bff
359 # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/xlc/xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
360 #
361
362On AIX 4.3 using vac, we continue:
363
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364 # lslpp -l | grep 'vac.C '
365 vac.C 5.0.2.2 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
366 vac.C 5.0.2.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
367 # grep 'vac.C.5.0.2.*.bff' other.ll
368 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 13592576 Apr 16 2001 vac.C.5.0.2.0.bff
369 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14133248 Apr 9 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.3.bff
370 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14173184 May 20 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.4.bff
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371 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14192640 Nov 22 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
372 # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/other/vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
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373 #
374
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375Likewise on all other OS levels. Then execute the following command, and
376fill in its choices
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377
378 # smit install_update
379 -> Install and Update from LATEST Available Software
c67773d0 380 * INPUT device / directory for software [ vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff ]
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381 [ OK ]
382 [ OK ]
383
384Follow the messages ... and you're done.
385
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386If you like a more web-like approach, a good start point can be
387http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/download/downloadaz.jsp and click
388"C for AIX", and follow the instructions.
389
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390=head2 The usenm option
391
392If linking miniperl
393
394 cc -o miniperl ... miniperlmain.o opmini.o perl.o ... -lm -lc ...
395
396causes error like this
397
398 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .aintl
399 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .copysignl
400 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .syscall
401 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .eaccess
402 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresuid
403 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresgid
404 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setproctitle
405 ld: 0711-345 Use the -bloadmap or -bnoquiet option to obtain more information.
406
407you could retry with
408
409 make realclean
410 rm config.sh
411 ./Configure -Dusenm ...
412
413which makes Configure to use the C<nm> tool when scanning for library
414symbols, which usually is not done in AIX.
415
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416Related to this, you probably should not use the C<-r> option of
417Configure in AIX, because that affects of how the C<nm> tool is used.
418
c5252117 419=head2 Using GNU's gcc for building Perl
20d11268 420
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421Using gcc-3.x (tested with 3.0.4, 3.1, and 3.2) now works out of the box,
422as do recent gcc-2.9 builds available directly from IBM as part of their
423Linux compatibility packages, available here:
818c4caa 424
4238f5a6 425 http://www.ibm.com/servers/aix/products/aixos/linux/
20d11268 426
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427=head2 Using Large Files with Perl
428
60ecc970 429Should yield no problems.
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430
431=head2 Threaded Perl
432
60ecc970 433Threads seem to work OK, though at the moment not all tests pass when
1d69df2b 434threads are used in combination with 64-bit configurations.
20d11268 435
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436You may get a warning when doing a threaded build:
437
438 "pp_sys.c", line 4640.39: 1506-280 (W) Function argument assignment between types "unsigned char*" and "const void*" is not allowed.
439
440The exact line number may vary, but if the warning (W) comes from a line
441line this
442
443 hent = PerlSock_gethostbyaddr(addr, (Netdb_hlen_t) addrlen, addrtype);
444
445in the "pp_ghostent" function, you may ignore it safely. The warning
446is caused by the reentrant variant of gethostbyaddr() having a slightly
447different prototype than its non-reentrant variant, but the difference
448is not really significant here.
449
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450=head2 64-bit Perl
451
1d69df2b 452If your AIX is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
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453configurations to work. In combination with threads some tests might
454still fail.
20d11268 455
12f54d27 456=head2 AIX 4.2 and extensions using C++ with statics
20d11268 457
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458In AIX 4.2 Perl extensions that use C++ functions that use statics
459may have problems in that the statics are not getting initialized.
460In newer AIX releases this has been solved by linking Perl with
461the libC_r library, but unfortunately in AIX 4.2 the said library
462has an obscure bug where the various functions related to time
463(such as time() and gettimeofday()) return broken values, and
464therefore in AIX 4.2 Perl is not linked against the libC_r.
20d11268 465
7fabfece 466=head1 AUTHORS
20d11268 467
3bd76f0a 468H.Merijn Brand <h.m.brand@xs4all.nl>
7fabfece 469Rainer Tammer <tammer@tammer.net>
20d11268 470
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471=head1 DATE
472
e37e7c83 473Version 0.0.10: 07 Aug 2009
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474
475=cut