This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
capitalize correctly, noticed by David Dyck.
[perl5.git] / pod / perltoc.pod
CommitLineData
cb1a09d0
AD
1
2=head1 NAME
3
4perltoc - perl documentation table of contents
5
6=head1 DESCRIPTION
7
8This page provides a brief table of contents for the rest of the Perl
28757baa 9documentation set. It is meant to be scanned quickly or grepped
402d0d99 10through to locate the proper section you're looking for.
cb1a09d0
AD
11
12=head1 BASIC DOCUMENTATION
13
cb1a09d0
AD
14=head2 perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language
15
d420ca49 16=over 4
a45bd81d 17
cb1a09d0
AD
18=item SYNOPSIS
19
69fba242
JH
20=over 4
21
22=item Overview
23
24=item Tutorials
25
cb52f95f
JH
26=item Reference Manual
27
69fba242
JH
28=item Internals and C Language Interface
29
30=item Miscellaneous
31
32=item Platform-Specific
33
34=back
35
cb1a09d0
AD
36=item DESCRIPTION
37
14218588 38=item AVAILABILITY
cb1a09d0
AD
39
40=item ENVIRONMENT
41
cb1a09d0
AD
42=item AUTHOR
43
cb1a09d0
AD
44=item FILES
45
cb1a09d0
AD
46=item SEE ALSO
47
cb1a09d0
AD
48=item DIAGNOSTICS
49
cb1a09d0
AD
50=item BUGS
51
cb1a09d0
AD
52=item NOTES
53
a45bd81d
GS
54=back
55
10151d09
JH
56=head2 perlintro -- a brief introduction and overview of Perl
57
58=over 4
59
60=item DESCRIPTION
61
62=over 4
63
64=item What is Perl?
65
66=item Running Perl programs
67
68=item Basic syntax overview
69
70=item Perl variable types
71
72Scalars, Arrays, Hashes
73
74=item Variable scoping
75
76=item Conditional and looping constructs
77
78if, while, for, foreach
79
80=item Builtin operators and functions
81
82Arithmetic, Numeric comparison, String comparison, Boolean logic,
83Miscellaneous
84
85=item Files and I/O
86
87=item Regular expressions
88
89Simple matching, Simple substitution, More complex regular expressions,
90Parentheses for capturing, Other regexp features
91
92=item Writing subroutines
93
94=item OO Perl
95
96=item Using Perl modules
97
98=back
99
100=item AUTHOR
101
102=back
103
428dc699
JH
104=head2 perlfaq - frequently asked questions about Perl ($Date: 2001/11/19
10517:09:37 $)
68dc0745 106
d420ca49 107=over 4
a45bd81d 108
68dc0745
PP
109=item DESCRIPTION
110
983dbef6 111=over 4
68dc0745 112
983dbef6 113=item perlfaq: Structural overview of the FAQ.
68dc0745 114
983dbef6 115=item L<perlfaq1>: General Questions About Perl
68dc0745 116
983dbef6 117=item L<perlfaq2>: Obtaining and Learning about Perl
68dc0745 118
983dbef6 119=item L<perlfaq3>: Programming Tools
68dc0745 120
983dbef6 121=item L<perlfaq4>: Data Manipulation
68dc0745 122
983dbef6 123=item L<perlfaq5>: Files and Formats
68dc0745 124
983dbef6 125=item L<perlfaq6>: Regexps
68dc0745 126
983dbef6 127=item L<perlfaq7>: General Perl Language Issues
68dc0745 128
983dbef6 129=item L<perlfaq8>: System Interaction
68dc0745 130
983dbef6 131=item L<perlfaq9>: Networking
68dc0745 132
a45bd81d
GS
133=back
134
983dbef6 135=item About the perlfaq documents
68dc0745 136
d420ca49 137=over 4
a45bd81d 138
983dbef6 139=item Where to get the perlfaq
68dc0745 140
983dbef6 141=item How to contribute to the perlfaq
68dc0745 142
983dbef6
JH
143=item What will happen if you mail your Perl programming problems to the
144authors
68dc0745 145
983dbef6 146=back
68dc0745 147
983dbef6 148=item Credits
68dc0745 149
983dbef6 150=item Author and Copyright Information
68dc0745 151
983dbef6
JH
152=over 4
153
154=item Bundled Distributions
155
156=item Disclaimer
68dc0745 157
4755096e 158=back
68dc0745 159
983dbef6
JH
160=item Changes
161
1621/November/2000, 23/May/99, 13/April/99, 7/January/99, 22/June/98,
16324/April/97, 23/April/97, 25/March/97, 18/March/97, 17/March/97 Version,
164Initial Release: 11/March/97
165
4755096e 166=back
68dc0745 167
4755096e 168=head2 perlbook - Perl book information
68dc0745 169
d420ca49 170=over 4
68dc0745 171
4755096e 172=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 173
a45bd81d
GS
174=back
175
4755096e 176=head2 perlsyn - Perl syntax
a45bd81d 177
d420ca49 178=over 4
68dc0745
PP
179
180=item DESCRIPTION
181
d420ca49 182=over 4
68dc0745 183
4755096e 184=item Declarations
68dc0745 185
4755096e 186=item Simple statements
68dc0745 187
4755096e 188=item Compound statements
3fe9a6f1 189
4755096e 190=item Loop Control
68dc0745 191
4755096e 192=item For Loops
68dc0745 193
4755096e 194=item Foreach Loops
68dc0745 195
4755096e 196=item Basic BLOCKs and Switch Statements
68dc0745 197
4755096e 198=item Goto
68dc0745 199
4755096e 200=item PODs: Embedded Documentation
68dc0745 201
4755096e 202=item Plain Old Comments (Not!)
68dc0745 203
4755096e 204=back
68dc0745 205
4755096e 206=back
193fb0af 207
4755096e 208=head2 perldata - Perl data types
68dc0745 209
d420ca49 210=over 4
68dc0745 211
4755096e 212=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 213
d420ca49 214=over 4
68dc0745 215
4755096e 216=item Variable names
68dc0745 217
4755096e 218=item Context
68dc0745 219
4755096e
GS
220=item Scalar values
221
222=item Scalar value constructors
223
224=item List value constructors
225
226=item Slices
227
228=item Typeglobs and Filehandles
68dc0745
PP
229
230=back
231
4755096e 232=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 233
a45bd81d
GS
234=back
235
4755096e 236=head2 perlop - Perl operators and precedence
68dc0745 237
d420ca49 238=over 4
a45bd81d 239
4755096e
GS
240=item SYNOPSIS
241
68dc0745
PP
242=item DESCRIPTION
243
d420ca49 244=over 4
68dc0745 245
4755096e 246=item Terms and List Operators (Leftward)
68dc0745 247
4755096e 248=item The Arrow Operator
68dc0745 249
4755096e 250=item Auto-increment and Auto-decrement
68dc0745 251
4755096e 252=item Exponentiation
68dc0745 253
4755096e 254=item Symbolic Unary Operators
68dc0745 255
4755096e 256=item Binding Operators
68dc0745 257
4755096e 258=item Multiplicative Operators
68dc0745 259
4755096e 260=item Additive Operators
68dc0745 261
4755096e 262=item Shift Operators
14218588 263
4755096e 264=item Named Unary Operators
68dc0745 265
4755096e 266=item Relational Operators
68dc0745 267
4755096e 268=item Equality Operators
68dc0745 269
4755096e 270=item Bitwise And
68dc0745 271
4755096e 272=item Bitwise Or and Exclusive Or
68dc0745 273
4755096e 274=item C-style Logical And
68dc0745 275
4755096e 276=item C-style Logical Or
68dc0745 277
4755096e 278=item Range Operators
68dc0745 279
4755096e 280=item Conditional Operator
68dc0745 281
4755096e 282=item Assignment Operators
68dc0745 283
4755096e 284=item Comma Operator
68dc0745 285
4755096e 286=item List Operators (Rightward)
68dc0745 287
4755096e 288=item Logical Not
68dc0745 289
4755096e 290=item Logical And
14218588 291
4755096e 292=item Logical or and Exclusive Or
68dc0745 293
4755096e 294=item C Operators Missing From Perl
68dc0745 295
4755096e 296unary &, unary *, (TYPE)
68dc0745 297
4755096e 298=item Quote and Quote-like Operators
68dc0745 299
4755096e 300=item Regexp Quote-Like Operators
68dc0745 301
4755096e 302?PATTERN?, m/PATTERN/cgimosx, /PATTERN/cgimosx, q/STRING/, C<'STRING'>,
2d967e39
JH
303qq/STRING/, "STRING", qr/STRING/imosx, qx/STRING/, `STRING`, qw/STRING/,
304s/PATTERN/REPLACEMENT/egimosx, tr/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds,
35bf961c 305y/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds, <<EOF
68dc0745 306
4755096e 307=item Gory details of parsing quoted constructs
68dc0745 308
4755096e
GS
309Finding the end, Removal of backslashes before delimiters, Interpolation,
310C<<<'EOF'>, C<m''>, C<s'''>, C<tr///>, C<y///>, C<''>, C<q//>, C<"">,
311C<``>, C<qq//>, C<qx//>, C<< <file*glob> >>, C<?RE?>, C</RE/>, C<m/RE/>,
312C<s/RE/foo/>,, Interpolation of regular expressions, Optimization of
313regular expressions
68dc0745 314
4755096e 315=item I/O Operators
68dc0745 316
4755096e 317=item Constant Folding
68dc0745 318
4755096e
GS
319=item Bitwise String Operators
320
321=item Integer Arithmetic
322
323=item Floating-point Arithmetic
324
325=item Bigger Numbers
68dc0745 326
a45bd81d
GS
327=back
328
4755096e
GS
329=back
330
c2e66d9e
GS
331=head2 perlsub - Perl subroutines
332
d420ca49 333=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
334
335=item SYNOPSIS
336
337=item DESCRIPTION
338
d420ca49 339=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
340
341=item Private Variables via my()
342
343=item Persistent Private Variables
344
345=item Temporary Values via local()
346
347=item Lvalue subroutines
348
349=item Passing Symbol Table Entries (typeglobs)
350
351=item When to Still Use local()
352
c2e66d9e
GS
353=item Pass by Reference
354
355=item Prototypes
356
357=item Constant Functions
358
359=item Overriding Built-in Functions
360
361=item Autoloading
362
363=item Subroutine Attributes
364
365=back
366
367=item SEE ALSO
368
369=back
370
371=head2 perlfunc - Perl builtin functions
372
d420ca49 373=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
374
375=item DESCRIPTION
376
d420ca49 377=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
378
379=item Perl Functions by Category
380
381Functions for SCALARs or strings, Regular expressions and pattern matching,
382Numeric functions, Functions for real @ARRAYs, Functions for list data,
383Functions for real %HASHes, Input and output functions, Functions for fixed
384length data or records, Functions for filehandles, files, or directories,
385Keywords related to the control flow of your perl program, Keywords related
386to scoping, Miscellaneous functions, Functions for processes and process
387groups, Keywords related to perl modules, Keywords related to classes and
388object-orientedness, Low-level socket functions, System V interprocess
389communication functions, Fetching user and group info, Fetching network
390info, Time-related functions, Functions new in perl5, Functions obsoleted
391in perl5
392
393=item Portability
394
395=item Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions
396
397I<-X> FILEHANDLE, I<-X> EXPR, I<-X>, abs VALUE, abs, accept
398NEWSOCKET,GENERICSOCKET, alarm SECONDS, alarm, atan2 Y,X, bind SOCKET,NAME,
399binmode FILEHANDLE, DISCIPLINE, binmode FILEHANDLE, bless REF,CLASSNAME,
400bless REF, caller EXPR, caller, chdir EXPR, chmod LIST, chomp VARIABLE,
07fcf8ff
JH
401chomp( LIST ), chomp, chop VARIABLE, chop( LIST ), chop, chown LIST, chr
402NUMBER, chr, chroot FILENAME, chroot, close FILEHANDLE, close, closedir
403DIRHANDLE, connect SOCKET,NAME, continue BLOCK, cos EXPR, cos, crypt
404PLAINTEXT,SALT, dbmclose HASH, dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MASK, defined EXPR,
405defined, delete EXPR, die LIST, do BLOCK, do SUBROUTINE(LIST), do EXPR,
406dump LABEL, dump, each HASH, eof FILEHANDLE, eof (), eof, eval EXPR, eval
407BLOCK, exec LIST, exec PROGRAM LIST, exists EXPR, exit EXPR, exp EXPR, exp,
408fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, fileno FILEHANDLE, flock
409FILEHANDLE,OPERATION, fork, format, formline PICTURE,LIST, getc FILEHANDLE,
410getc, getlogin, getpeername SOCKET, getpgrp PID, getppid, getpriority
411WHICH,WHO, getpwnam NAME, getgrnam NAME, gethostbyname NAME, getnetbyname
412NAME, getprotobyname NAME, getpwuid UID, getgrgid GID, getservbyname
413NAME,PROTO, gethostbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE,
414getprotobynumber NUMBER, getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent, getgrent,
415gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, setpwent, setgrent,
416sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent STAYOPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN, setservent
417STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent,
418endservent, getsockname SOCKET, getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob EXPR,
419glob, gmtime EXPR, goto LABEL, goto EXPR, goto &NAME, grep BLOCK LIST, grep
420EXPR,LIST, hex EXPR, hex, import, index STR,SUBSTR,POSITION, index
421STR,SUBSTR, int EXPR, int, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, join
422EXPR,LIST, keys HASH, kill SIGNAL, LIST, last LABEL, last, lc EXPR, lc,
423lcfirst EXPR, lcfirst, length EXPR, length, link OLDFILE,NEWFILE, listen
428dc699
JH
424SOCKET,QUEUESIZE, local EXPR, localtime EXPR, lock THING, log EXPR, log,
425lstat EXPR, lstat, m//, map BLOCK LIST, map EXPR,LIST, mkdir FILENAME,MASK,
426mkdir FILENAME, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG, msgget KEY,FLAGS, msgrcv
07fcf8ff
JH
427ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS, msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS, my EXPR, my EXPR : ATTRIBUTES,
428next LABEL, next, no Module LIST, oct EXPR, oct, open FILEHANDLE,EXPR, open
493a87da
JH
429FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR,LIST, open
430FILEHANDLE,MODE,REFERENCE, open FILEHANDLE, opendir DIRHANDLE,EXPR, ord
431EXPR, ord, our EXPR, our EXPR : ATTRIBUTES, pack TEMPLATE,LIST, package
432NAMESPACE, package, pipe READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE, pop ARRAY, pop, pos
433SCALAR, pos, print FILEHANDLE LIST, print LIST, print, printf FILEHANDLE
434FORMAT, LIST, printf FORMAT, LIST, prototype FUNCTION, push ARRAY,LIST,
435q/STRING/, qq/STRING/, qr/STRING/, qx/STRING/, qw/STRING/, quotemeta EXPR,
436quotemeta, rand EXPR, rand, read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, read
437FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, readdir DIRHANDLE, readline EXPR, readlink EXPR,
438readlink, readpipe EXPR, recv SOCKET,SCALAR,LENGTH,FLAGS, redo LABEL, redo,
439ref EXPR, ref, rename OLDNAME,NEWNAME, require VERSION, require EXPR,
440require, reset EXPR, reset, return EXPR, return, reverse LIST, rewinddir
441DIRHANDLE, rindex STR,SUBSTR,POSITION, rindex STR,SUBSTR, rmdir FILENAME,
442rmdir, s///, scalar EXPR, seek FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, seekdir
443DIRHANDLE,POS, select FILEHANDLE, select, select RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT,
444semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG, semget KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS, semop KEY,OPSTRING, send
c2e66d9e
GS
445SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS,TO, send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS, setpgrp PID,PGRP, setpriority
446WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY, setsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL, shift ARRAY,
447shift, shmctl ID,CMD,ARG, shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS, shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE,
448shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, shutdown SOCKET,HOW, sin EXPR, sin, sleep
80cbd5ad
JH
449EXPR, sleep, sockatmark SOCKET, socket SOCKET,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL,
450socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, sort SUBNAME LIST, sort
451BLOCK LIST, sort LIST, splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH,LIST, splice
452ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH, splice ARRAY,OFFSET, splice ARRAY, split
453/PATTERN/,EXPR,LIMIT, split /PATTERN/,EXPR, split /PATTERN/, split, sprintf
454FORMAT, LIST, sqrt EXPR, sqrt, srand EXPR, srand, stat FILEHANDLE, stat
455EXPR, stat, study SCALAR, study, sub BLOCK, sub NAME, sub NAME BLOCK,
456substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH,REPLACEMENT, substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH, substr
c2e66d9e
GS
457EXPR,OFFSET, symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE, syscall LIST, sysopen
458FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE, sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS, sysread
459FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, sysseek
460FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, system LIST, system PROGRAM LIST, syswrite
461FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,
462syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR, tell FILEHANDLE, tell, telldir DIRHANDLE, tie
463VARIABLE,CLASSNAME,LIST, tied VARIABLE, time, times, tr///, truncate
464FILEHANDLE,LENGTH, truncate EXPR,LENGTH, uc EXPR, uc, ucfirst EXPR,
465ucfirst, umask EXPR, umask, undef EXPR, undef, unlink LIST, unlink, unpack
466TEMPLATE,EXPR, untie VARIABLE, unshift ARRAY,LIST, use Module VERSION LIST,
467use Module VERSION, use Module LIST, use Module, use VERSION, utime LIST,
468values HASH, vec EXPR,OFFSET,BITS, wait, waitpid PID,FLAGS, wantarray, warn
469LIST, write FILEHANDLE, write EXPR, write, y///
470
471=back
472
473=back
474
4755096e 475=head2 perlreftut - Mark's very short tutorial about references
68dc0745 476
d420ca49 477=over 4
a45bd81d 478
68dc0745
PP
479=item DESCRIPTION
480
4755096e
GS
481=item Who Needs Complicated Data Structures?
482
483=item The Solution
484
485=item Syntax
68dc0745 486
d420ca49 487=over 4
68dc0745 488
4755096e 489=item Making References
46fc3d4c 490
4755096e 491=item Using References
68dc0745 492
4755096e 493=back
68dc0745 494
4755096e 495=item An Example
68dc0745 496
4755096e 497=item Arrow Rule
14218588 498
4755096e 499=item Solution
68dc0745 500
4755096e 501=item The Rest
68dc0745 502
4755096e 503=item Summary
68dc0745 504
4755096e
GS
505=item Credits
506
d420ca49 507=over 4
4755096e
GS
508
509=item Distribution Conditions
68dc0745
PP
510
511=back
512
4755096e
GS
513=back
514
515=head2 perldsc - Perl Data Structures Cookbook
68dc0745 516
d420ca49 517=over 4
68dc0745 518
4755096e 519=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 520
4755096e
GS
521arrays of arrays, hashes of arrays, arrays of hashes, hashes of hashes,
522more elaborate constructs
14218588 523
4755096e 524=item REFERENCES
68dc0745 525
4755096e 526=item COMMON MISTAKES
68dc0745 527
4755096e 528=item CAVEAT ON PRECEDENCE
68dc0745 529
4755096e 530=item WHY YOU SHOULD ALWAYS C<use strict>
14218588 531
4755096e 532=item DEBUGGING
68dc0745 533
4755096e 534=item CODE EXAMPLES
68dc0745 535
4755096e 536=item ARRAYS OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 537
d420ca49 538=over 4
68dc0745 539
ba62762e 540=item Declaration of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 541
ba62762e 542=item Generation of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 543
ba62762e 544=item Access and Printing of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 545
4755096e 546=back
68dc0745 547
4755096e 548=item HASHES OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 549
d420ca49 550=over 4
68dc0745 551
4755096e 552=item Declaration of a HASH OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 553
4755096e 554=item Generation of a HASH OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 555
4755096e 556=item Access and Printing of a HASH OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 557
4755096e 558=back
68dc0745 559
4755096e 560=item ARRAYS OF HASHES
68dc0745 561
d420ca49 562=over 4
68dc0745 563
ba62762e 564=item Declaration of an ARRAY OF HASHES
68dc0745 565
ba62762e 566=item Generation of an ARRAY OF HASHES
68dc0745 567
ba62762e 568=item Access and Printing of an ARRAY OF HASHES
14218588 569
4755096e 570=back
68dc0745 571
4755096e 572=item HASHES OF HASHES
68dc0745 573
d420ca49 574=over 4
68dc0745 575
4755096e 576=item Declaration of a HASH OF HASHES
68dc0745 577
4755096e 578=item Generation of a HASH OF HASHES
68dc0745 579
4755096e 580=item Access and Printing of a HASH OF HASHES
68dc0745
PP
581
582=back
583
4755096e 584=item MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
68dc0745 585
d420ca49 586=over 4
68dc0745 587
4755096e 588=item Declaration of MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
14218588 589
4755096e 590=item Declaration of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
68dc0745 591
4755096e 592=item Generation of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
68dc0745 593
4755096e 594=back
68dc0745 595
4755096e 596=item Database Ties
68dc0745 597
4755096e 598=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 599
4755096e 600=item AUTHOR
14218588 601
4755096e 602=back
68dc0745 603
4755096e 604=head2 perlrequick - Perl regular expressions quick start
68dc0745 605
d420ca49 606=over 4
68dc0745 607
4755096e 608=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 609
4755096e 610=item The Guide
68dc0745 611
d420ca49 612=over 4
68dc0745 613
4755096e 614=item Simple word matching
68dc0745 615
4755096e 616=item Using character classes
68dc0745 617
4755096e 618=item Matching this or that
68dc0745 619
4755096e 620=item Grouping things and hierarchical matching
68dc0745 621
4755096e 622=item Extracting matches
68dc0745 623
4755096e 624=item Matching repetitions
68dc0745 625
4755096e 626=item More matching
68dc0745 627
4755096e 628=item Search and replace
68dc0745 629
4755096e 630=item The split operator
68dc0745
PP
631
632=back
633
4755096e 634=item BUGS
68dc0745 635
4755096e 636=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 637
4755096e 638=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
68dc0745 639
d420ca49 640=over 4
68dc0745 641
4755096e 642=item Acknowledgments
14218588 643
68dc0745
PP
644=back
645
a45bd81d
GS
646=back
647
8a93676d 648=head2 perlpod - the Plain Old Documentation format
68dc0745 649
d420ca49 650=over 4
a45bd81d 651
68dc0745
PP
652=item DESCRIPTION
653
d420ca49 654=over 4
68dc0745 655
8a93676d
SB
656=item Ordinary Paragraph
657
c2e66d9e 658=item Verbatim Paragraph
68dc0745 659
c2e66d9e 660=item Command Paragraph
68dc0745 661
8a93676d
SB
662C<=head1 I<Heading Text>>, C<=head2 I<Heading Text>>, C<=head3 I<Heading
663Text>>, C<=head4 I<Heading Text>>, C<=over I<indentlevel>>, C<=item
664I<stuff...>>, C<=back>, C<=cut>, C<=pod>, C<=begin I<formatname>>, C<=end
665I<formatname>>, C<=for I<formatname> I<text...>>
666
667=item Formatting Codes
668
669C<IE<lt>textE<gt>> -- italic text, C<BE<lt>textE<gt>> -- bold text,
670C<CE<lt>codeE<gt>> -- code text, C<LE<lt>nameE<gt>> -- a hyperlink,
671C<EE<lt>escapeE<gt>> -- a character escape, C<FE<lt>filenameE<gt>> -- used
672for filenames, C<SE<lt>textE<gt>> -- text contains non-breaking spaces,
673C<XE<lt>topic nameE<gt>> -- an index entry, C<ZE<lt>E<gt>> -- a null
674(zero-effect) formatting code
68dc0745 675
c2e66d9e 676=item The Intent
68dc0745 677
c2e66d9e 678=item Embedding Pods in Perl Modules
68dc0745 679
8a93676d
SB
680=item Hints for Writing Pod
681
682=back
683
684=item SEE ALSO
685
686=item AUTHOR
193fb0af 687
c2e66d9e 688=back
68dc0745 689
8a93676d
SB
690=head2 perlpodspec - Plain Old Documentation: format specification and
691notes
692
693=over 4
694
695=item DESCRIPTION
696
697=item Pod Definitions
698
699=item Pod Commands
700
701"=head1", "=head2", "=head3", "=head4", "=pod", "=cut", "=over", "=item",
702"=back", "=begin formatname", "=end formatname", "=for formatname text..."
703
704=item Pod Formatting Codes
705
706C<IE<lt>textE<gt>> -- italic text, C<BE<lt>textE<gt>> -- bold text,
707C<CE<lt>codeE<gt>> -- code text, C<FE<lt>filenameE<gt>> -- style for
708filenames, C<XE<lt>topic nameE<gt>> -- an index entry, C<ZE<lt>E<gt>> -- a
709null (zero-effect) formatting code, C<LE<lt>nameE<gt>> -- a hyperlink,
710C<EE<lt>escapeE<gt>> -- a character escape, C<SE<lt>textE<gt>> -- text
711contains non-breaking spaces
712
713=item Notes on Implementing Pod Processors
714
715=item About LE<lt>...E<gt> Codes
716
717First:, Second:, Third:, Fourth:, Fifth:, Sixth:
718
719=item About =over...=back Regions
720
721=item About Data Paragraphs and "=begin/=end" Regions
722
c2e66d9e 723=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 724
c2e66d9e 725=item AUTHOR
68dc0745 726
c2e66d9e 727=back
68dc0745 728
c2e66d9e 729=head2 perlstyle - Perl style guide
68dc0745 730
d420ca49 731=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
732
733=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 734
4755096e 735=back
68dc0745 736
c2e66d9e 737=head2 perltrap - Perl traps for the unwary
68dc0745 738
d420ca49 739=over 4
68dc0745 740
c2e66d9e 741=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 742
d420ca49 743=over 4
68dc0745 744
c2e66d9e 745=item Awk Traps
68dc0745 746
c2e66d9e 747=item C Traps
4755096e 748
c2e66d9e 749=item Sed Traps
4755096e 750
c2e66d9e 751=item Shell Traps
4755096e 752
c2e66d9e 753=item Perl Traps
68dc0745 754
c2e66d9e 755=item Perl4 to Perl5 Traps
68dc0745 756
c2e66d9e
GS
757Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps, Parsing Traps, Numerical
758Traps, General data type traps, Context Traps - scalar, list contexts,
759Precedence Traps, General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc,
760Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps, OS Traps, DBM Traps, Unclassified Traps
761
762=item Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps
763
764Discontinuance, Deprecation, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance,
765Discontinuance, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, BugFix,
766Discontinuance, Deprecation, Discontinuance, Discontinuance
767
768=item Parsing Traps
769
07fcf8ff 770Parsing, Parsing, Parsing, Parsing, Parsing
c2e66d9e
GS
771
772=item Numerical Traps
773
774Numerical, Numerical, Numerical, Bitwise string ops
775
776=item General data type traps
777
778(Arrays), (Arrays), (Hashes), (Globs), (Globs), (Scalar String),
779(Constants), (Scalars), (Variable Suicide)
780
781=item Context Traps - scalar, list contexts
782
783(list context), (scalar context), (scalar context), (list, builtin)
784
785=item Precedence Traps
786
787Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence,
788Precedence
789
790=item General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc.
791
792Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular
793Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression,
794Regular Expression
795
796=item Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps
797
798(Signals), (Sort Subroutine), warn() won't let you specify a filehandle
799
800=item OS Traps
801
802(SysV), (SysV)
803
804=item Interpolation Traps
805
806Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation,
807Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation
808
809=item DBM Traps
810
811DBM, DBM
812
813=item Unclassified Traps
814
815C<require>/C<do> trap using returned value, C<split> on empty string with
816LIMIT specified
68dc0745 817
4755096e 818=back
68dc0745 819
c2e66d9e 820=back
14218588 821
c2e66d9e 822=head2 perlrun - how to execute the Perl interpreter
68dc0745 823
d420ca49 824=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
825
826=item SYNOPSIS
827
828=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 829
d420ca49 830=over 4
68dc0745 831
c2e66d9e
GS
832=item #! and quoting on non-Unix systems
833
834OS/2, MS-DOS, Win95/NT, Macintosh, VMS
835
836=item Location of Perl
837
838=item Command Switches
839
91e74348 840B<-0>[I<digits>], B<-a>, B<-C>, B<-c>, B<-d>, B<-d:>I<foo[=bar,baz]>,
c2e66d9e
GS
841B<-D>I<letters>, B<-D>I<number>, B<-e> I<commandline>, B<-F>I<pattern>,
842B<-h>, B<-i>[I<extension>], B<-I>I<directory>, B<-l>[I<octnum>],
843B<-m>[B<->]I<module>, B<-M>[B<->]I<module>, B<-M>[B<->]I<'module ...'>,
844B<-[mM]>[B<->]I<module=arg[,arg]...>, B<-n>, B<-p>, B<-P>, B<-s>, B<-S>,
0e9b9e0c
JH
845B<-t>, B<-T>, B<-u>, B<-U>, B<-v>, B<-V>, B<-V:>I<name>, B<-w>, B<-W>,
846B<-X>, B<-x> I<directory>
68dc0745 847
4755096e 848=back
68dc0745 849
c2e66d9e
GS
850=item ENVIRONMENT
851
852HOME, LOGDIR, PATH, PERL5LIB, PERL5OPT, PERLLIB, PERL5DB, PERL5SHELL
853(specific to the Win32 port), PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS, PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL,
cb52f95f
JH
854PERL_ENCODING, PERL_ROOT (specific to the VMS port), SYS$LOGIN (specific to
855the VMS port)
c2e66d9e
GS
856
857=back
858
859=head2 perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
860
d420ca49 861=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
862
863=item DESCRIPTION
864
4755096e 865=back
68dc0745 866
4755096e 867=head2 perllexwarn - Perl Lexical Warnings
68dc0745 868
d420ca49 869=over 4
68dc0745 870
4755096e 871=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 872
d420ca49 873=over 4
68dc0745 874
4755096e 875=item Default Warnings and Optional Warnings
14218588 876
4755096e 877=item What's wrong with B<-w> and C<$^W>
68dc0745 878
4755096e 879=item Controlling Warnings from the Command Line
68dc0745 880
4755096e 881B<-w>, B<-W>, B<-X>
a45bd81d 882
4755096e 883=item Backward Compatibility
68dc0745 884
4755096e 885=item Category Hierarchy
a45bd81d 886
4755096e 887=item Fatal Warnings
68dc0745 888
4755096e 889=item Reporting Warnings from a Module
68dc0745 890
4755096e 891=back
68dc0745 892
4755096e 893=item TODO
68dc0745 894
4755096e 895=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 896
4755096e 897=item AUTHOR
68dc0745 898
4755096e 899=back
68dc0745 900
10862624
RF
901=head2 perldebtut - Perl debugging tutorial
902
d420ca49 903=over 4
10862624
RF
904
905=item DESCRIPTION
906
907=item use strict
908
d396a558
JH
909=item Looking at data and -w and w
910
911=item help
10862624
RF
912
913=item Stepping through code
914
915=item Placeholder for a, w, t, T
916
d396a558 917=item REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
10862624 918
d396a558 919=item OUTPUT TIPS
10862624
RF
920
921=item CGI
922
923=item GUIs
924
d396a558 925=item SUMMARY
10862624
RF
926
927=item SEE ALSO
928
929=item AUTHOR
930
931=item CONTRIBUTORS
932
933=back
934
4755096e 935=head2 perldebug - Perl debugging
68dc0745 936
d420ca49 937=over 4
68dc0745 938
4755096e 939=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 940
4755096e 941=item The Perl Debugger
68dc0745 942
d420ca49 943=over 4
68dc0745 944
4755096e 945=item Debugger Commands
68dc0745 946
4755096e
GS
947h [command], p expr, x expr, V [pkg [vars]], X [vars], T, s [expr], n
948[expr], r, <CR>, c [line|sub], l, l min+incr, l min-max, l line, l subname,
949-, w [line], f filename, /pattern/, ?pattern?, L, S [[!]regex], t, t expr,
950b [line] [condition], b subname [condition], b postpone subname
951[condition], b load filename, b compile subname, d [line], D, a [line]
952command, a [line], A, W expr, W, O booloption .., O anyoption? .., O
953option=value .., < ?, < [ command ], << command, > ?, > command, >>
954command, { ?, { [ command ], {{ command, ! number, ! -number, ! pattern, !!
e61ecf27
JH
955cmd, @ file, H -number, q or ^D, R, |dbcmd, ||dbcmd, command, m expr, man
956[manpage]
68dc0745 957
4755096e 958=item Configurable Options
68dc0745 959
4755096e
GS
960C<recallCommand>, C<ShellBang>, C<pager>, C<tkRunning>, C<signalLevel>,
961C<warnLevel>, C<dieLevel>, C<AutoTrace>, C<LineInfo>, C<inhibit_exit>,
a6fb92f1
JH
962C<PrintRet>, C<ornaments>, C<frame>, C<maxTraceLen>, C<windowSize>,
963C<arrayDepth>, C<hashDepth>, C<compactDump>, C<veryCompact>, C<globPrint>,
964C<DumpDBFiles>, C<DumpPackages>, C<DumpReused>, C<quote>, C<HighBit>,
965C<undefPrint>, C<UsageOnly>, C<TTY>, C<noTTY>, C<ReadLine>, C<NonStop>
68dc0745 966
4755096e 967=item Debugger input/output
68dc0745 968
4755096e
GS
969Prompt, Multiline commands, Stack backtrace, Line Listing Format, Frame
970listing
68dc0745 971
4755096e 972=item Debugging compile-time statements
68dc0745 973
4755096e 974=item Debugger Customization
68dc0745 975
4755096e 976=item Readline Support
68dc0745 977
4755096e 978=item Editor Support for Debugging
68dc0745 979
4755096e 980=item The Perl Profiler
68dc0745 981
4755096e 982=back
68dc0745 983
4755096e 984=item Debugging regular expressions
68dc0745 985
4755096e 986=item Debugging memory usage
14218588 987
4755096e 988=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 989
4755096e 990=item BUGS
68dc0745 991
a45bd81d
GS
992=back
993
c2e66d9e 994=head2 perlvar - Perl predefined variables
68dc0745 995
d420ca49 996=over 4
a45bd81d 997
68dc0745
PP
998=item DESCRIPTION
999
d420ca49 1000=over 4
68dc0745 1001
c2e66d9e 1002=item Predefined Names
68dc0745 1003
640374d0 1004$ARG, $_, $a, $b, $<I<digits>>, $MATCH, $&, $PREMATCH, $`, $POSTMATCH, $',
354a27bf 1005$LAST_PAREN_MATCH, $+, $^N, @LAST_MATCH_END, @+, $MULTILINE_MATCHING, $*,
53d7eaa8
JH
1006HANDLE->input_line_number(EXPR), $INPUT_LINE_NUMBER, $NR, $,
1007IO::Handle->input_record_separator(EXPR), $INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $RS, $/,
1008HANDLE->autoflush(EXPR), $OUTPUT_AUTOFLUSH, $|,
2a2bf5f4
JH
1009IO::Handle->output_field_separator EXPR, $OUTPUT_FIELD_SEPARATOR, $OFS, $,,
1010IO::Handle->output_record_separator EXPR, $OUTPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $ORS,
1011$\, $LIST_SEPARATOR, $", $SUBSCRIPT_SEPARATOR, $SUBSEP, $;, $OFMT, $#,
53d7eaa8
JH
1012HANDLE->format_page_number(EXPR), $FORMAT_PAGE_NUMBER, $%,
1013HANDLE->format_lines_per_page(EXPR), $FORMAT_LINES_PER_PAGE, $=,
1014HANDLE->format_lines_left(EXPR), $FORMAT_LINES_LEFT, $-, @LAST_MATCH_START,
2a2bf5f4
JH
1015@-, C<$`> is the same as C<substr($var, 0, $-[0])>, C<$&> is the same as
1016C<substr($var, $-[0], $+[0] - $-[0])>, C<$'> is the same as C<substr($var,
1017$+[0])>, C<$1> is the same as C<substr($var, $-[1], $+[1] - $-[1])>, C<$2>
1018is the same as C<substr($var, $-[2], $+[2] - $-[2])>, C<$3> is the same as
53d7eaa8
JH
1019C<substr $var, $-[3], $+[3] - $-[3])>, HANDLE->format_name(EXPR),
1020$FORMAT_NAME, $~, HANDLE->format_top_name(EXPR), $FORMAT_TOP_NAME, $^,
2a2bf5f4
JH
1021IO::Handle->format_line_break_characters EXPR,
1022$FORMAT_LINE_BREAK_CHARACTERS, $:, IO::Handle->format_formfeed EXPR,
cb52f95f
JH
1023$FORMAT_FORMFEED, $^L, $ACCUMULATOR, $^A, $CHILD_ERROR, $?, ${^ENCODING},
1024$OS_ERROR, $ERRNO, $!, $EXTENDED_OS_ERROR, $^E, $EVAL_ERROR, $@,
1025$PROCESS_ID, $PID, $$, $REAL_USER_ID, $UID, $<, $EFFECTIVE_USER_ID, $EUID,
1026$>, $REAL_GROUP_ID, $GID, $(, $EFFECTIVE_GROUP_ID, $EGID, $),
1027$PROGRAM_NAME, $0, $[, $], $COMPILING, $^C, $DEBUGGING, $^D,
1028$SYSTEM_FD_MAX, $^F, $^H, %^H, $INPLACE_EDIT, $^I, $^M, $OSNAME, $^O,
428dc699
JH
1029${^OPEN}, $PERLDB, $^P, 0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20, 0x40, 0x80,
10300x100, 0x200, $LAST_REGEXP_CODE_RESULT, $^R, $EXCEPTIONS_BEING_CAUGHT, $^S,
1031$BASETIME, $^T, ${^TAINT}, $PERL_VERSION, $^V, $WARNING, $^W,
1032${^WARNING_BITS}, ${^WIDE_SYSTEM_CALLS}, $EXECUTABLE_NAME, $^X, ARGV,
1033$ARGV, @ARGV, @F, @INC, @_, %INC, %ENV, $ENV{expr}, %SIG, $SIG{expr}
68dc0745 1034
c2e66d9e 1035=item Error Indicators
68dc0745 1036
c2e66d9e 1037=item Technical Note on the Syntax of Variable Names
4755096e 1038
c2e66d9e
GS
1039=back
1040
1041=item BUGS
4755096e
GS
1042
1043=back
1044
c2e66d9e 1045=head2 perllol - Manipulating Arrays of Arrays in Perl
4755096e 1046
d420ca49 1047=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
1048
1049=item DESCRIPTION
1050
4d4e713d
JH
1051=over 4
1052
c2e66d9e
GS
1053=item Declaration and Access of Arrays of Arrays
1054
1055=item Growing Your Own
1056
1057=item Access and Printing
1058
1059=item Slices
1060
4d4e713d
JH
1061=back
1062
c2e66d9e
GS
1063=item SEE ALSO
1064
1065=item AUTHOR
4755096e
GS
1066
1067=back
1068
c2e66d9e 1069=head2 perlopentut - tutorial on opening things in Perl
4755096e 1070
d420ca49 1071=over 4
4755096e
GS
1072
1073=item DESCRIPTION
1074
c2e66d9e
GS
1075=item Open E<agrave> la shell
1076
d420ca49 1077=over 4
4755096e 1078
c2e66d9e 1079=item Simple Opens
4755096e 1080
c2e66d9e 1081=item Pipe Opens
4755096e 1082
c2e66d9e 1083=item The Minus File
4755096e 1084
c2e66d9e 1085=item Mixing Reads and Writes
4755096e
GS
1086
1087=item Filters
1088
1089=back
1090
1091=item Open E<agrave> la C
1092
d420ca49 1093=over 4
4755096e
GS
1094
1095=item Permissions E<agrave> la mode
1096
1097=back
1098
1099=item Obscure Open Tricks
1100
d420ca49 1101=over 4
4755096e
GS
1102
1103=item Re-Opening Files (dups)
1104
1105=item Dispelling the Dweomer
1106
1107=item Paths as Opens
1108
1109=item Single Argument Open
1110
1111=item Playing with STDIN and STDOUT
1112
1113=back
1114
1115=item Other I/O Issues
1116
d420ca49 1117=over 4
4755096e
GS
1118
1119=item Opening Non-File Files
1120
1121=item Binary Files
1122
1123=item File Locking
1124
1125=back
1126
1127=item SEE ALSO
1128
1129=item AUTHOR and COPYRIGHT
1130
1131=item HISTORY
1132
1133=back
1134
34babc16
JH
1135=head2 perlpacktut - tutorial on C<pack> and C<unpack>
1136
1137=over 4
1138
1139=item DESCRIPTION
1140
1141=item The Basic Principle
1142
1143=item Packing Text
1144
1145=item Packing Numbers
1146
1147=over 4
1148
1149=item Integers
1150
1151=item Unpacking a Stack Frame
1152
1153=item How to Eat an Egg on a Net
1154
1155=item Floating point Numbers
1156
1157=back
1158
1159=item Exotic Templates
1160
1161=over 4
1162
1163=item Bit Strings
1164
1165=item Uuencoding
1166
1167=item Doing Sums
1168
1169=item Unicode
1170
493a87da
JH
1171=item Another Portable Binary Encoding
1172
34babc16
JH
1173=back
1174
1175=item Lengths and Widths
1176
1177=over 4
1178
1179=item String Lengths
1180
1181=item Dynamic Templates
1182
34babc16
JH
1183=back
1184
1185=item Packing and Unpacking C Structures
1186
1187=over 4
1188
1189=item The Alignment Pit
1190
1191=item Alignment, Take 2
1192
248e172a
JH
1193=item Alignment, Take 3
1194
34babc16
JH
1195=item Pointers for How to Use Them
1196
1197=back
1198
1199=item Pack Recipes
1200
493a87da
JH
1201=item Funnies Section
1202
34babc16
JH
1203=item Authors
1204
1205=back
1206
c2e66d9e 1207=head2 perlretut - Perl regular expressions tutorial
4755096e 1208
d420ca49 1209=over 4
4755096e
GS
1210
1211=item DESCRIPTION
1212
c2e66d9e 1213=item Part 1: The basics
4755096e 1214
d420ca49 1215=over 4
4755096e 1216
c2e66d9e 1217=item Simple word matching
4755096e 1218
c2e66d9e 1219=item Using character classes
4755096e 1220
c2e66d9e 1221=item Matching this or that
4755096e 1222
c2e66d9e 1223=item Grouping things and hierarchical matching
4755096e 1224
c2e66d9e 1225=item Extracting matches
4755096e 1226
c2e66d9e 1227=item Matching repetitions
4755096e 1228
c2e66d9e 1229=item Building a regexp
4755096e 1230
c2e66d9e 1231=item Using regular expressions in Perl
4755096e 1232
c2e66d9e 1233=back
4755096e 1234
c2e66d9e 1235=item Part 2: Power tools
4755096e 1236
d420ca49 1237=over 4
4755096e 1238
c2e66d9e 1239=item More on characters, strings, and character classes
4755096e 1240
c2e66d9e 1241=item Compiling and saving regular expressions
4755096e 1242
c2e66d9e 1243=item Embedding comments and modifiers in a regular expression
4755096e 1244
c2e66d9e 1245=item Non-capturing groupings
4755096e 1246
c2e66d9e 1247=item Looking ahead and looking behind
4755096e 1248
c2e66d9e 1249=item Using independent subexpressions to prevent backtracking
4755096e 1250
c2e66d9e 1251=item Conditional expressions
4755096e 1252
c2e66d9e 1253=item A bit of magic: executing Perl code in a regular expression
4755096e 1254
c2e66d9e 1255=item Pragmas and debugging
4755096e
GS
1256
1257=back
1258
c2e66d9e 1259=item BUGS
4755096e 1260
c2e66d9e 1261=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 1262
c2e66d9e 1263=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
4755096e 1264
d420ca49 1265=over 4
4755096e 1266
c2e66d9e 1267=item Acknowledgments
4755096e
GS
1268
1269=back
1270
4755096e
GS
1271=back
1272
c2e66d9e 1273=head2 perlre - Perl regular expressions
4755096e 1274
d420ca49 1275=over 4
4755096e
GS
1276
1277=item DESCRIPTION
1278
c2e66d9e 1279i, m, s, x
4755096e 1280
d420ca49 1281=over 4
4755096e 1282
c2e66d9e 1283=item Regular Expressions
4755096e 1284
428dc699 1285[1], [2], [3], cntrl, graph, print, punct, xdigit
4755096e 1286
c2e66d9e 1287=item Extended Patterns
4755096e 1288
c2e66d9e
GS
1289C<(?#text)>, C<(?imsx-imsx)>, C<(?:pattern)>, C<(?imsx-imsx:pattern)>,
1290C<(?=pattern)>, C<(?!pattern)>, C<(?<=pattern)>, C<(?<!pattern)>, C<(?{
1291code })>, C<(??{ code })>, C<< (?>pattern) >>,
1292C<(?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern)>, C<(?(condition)yes-pattern)>
4755096e 1293
c2e66d9e 1294=item Backtracking
4755096e 1295
c2e66d9e 1296=item Version 8 Regular Expressions
4755096e 1297
c2e66d9e 1298=item Warning on \1 vs $1
4755096e 1299
c2e66d9e
GS
1300=item Repeated patterns matching zero-length substring
1301
1302=item Combining pieces together
1303
1304C<ST>, C<S|T>, C<S{REPEAT_COUNT}>, C<S{min,max}>, C<S{min,max}?>, C<S?>,
1305C<S*>, C<S+>, C<S??>, C<S*?>, C<S+?>, C<< (?>S) >>, C<(?=S)>, C<(?<=S)>,
1306C<(?!S)>, C<(?<!S)>, C<(??{ EXPR })>,
1307C<(?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern)>
1308
1309=item Creating custom RE engines
4755096e
GS
1310
1311=back
1312
c2e66d9e 1313=item BUGS
4755096e 1314
c2e66d9e 1315=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 1316
c2e66d9e
GS
1317=back
1318
d396a558
JH
1319=head2 perlref - Perl references and nested data structures
1320
d420ca49 1321=over 4
d396a558
JH
1322
1323=item NOTE
1324
1325=item DESCRIPTION
1326
d420ca49 1327=over 4
d396a558
JH
1328
1329=item Making References
1330
1331=item Using References
1332
1333=item Symbolic references
1334
1335=item Not-so-symbolic references
1336
1337=item Pseudo-hashes: Using an array as a hash
1338
1339=item Function Templates
1340
1341=back
1342
1343=item WARNING
1344
1345=item SEE ALSO
1346
1347=back
1348
c2e66d9e 1349=head2 perlform - Perl formats
4755096e 1350
d420ca49 1351=over 4
4755096e 1352
c2e66d9e 1353=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1354
d420ca49 1355=over 4
4755096e 1356
c2e66d9e 1357=item Format Variables
4755096e 1358
c2e66d9e 1359=back
4755096e 1360
c2e66d9e 1361=item NOTES
4755096e 1362
d420ca49 1363=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
1364
1365=item Footers
1366
1367=item Accessing Formatting Internals
4755096e
GS
1368
1369=back
1370
c2e66d9e 1371=item WARNINGS
4755096e
GS
1372
1373=back
1374
d396a558 1375=head2 perlboot - Beginner's Object-Oriented Tutorial
4755096e 1376
d420ca49 1377=over 4
4755096e
GS
1378
1379=item DESCRIPTION
1380
d420ca49 1381=over 4
c2e66d9e 1382
d396a558
JH
1383=item If we could talk to the animals...
1384
1385=item Introducing the method invocation arrow
1386
1387=item Invoking a barnyard
1388
1389=item The extra parameter of method invocation
1390
1391=item Calling a second method to simplify things
1392
1393=item Inheriting the windpipes
1394
1395=item A few notes about @ISA
1396
1397=item Overriding the methods
1398
1399=item Starting the search from a different place
1400
1401=item The SUPER way of doing things
1402
1403=item Where we're at so far...
1404
1405=item A horse is a horse, of course of course -- or is it?
1406
1407=item Invoking an instance method
1408
1409=item Accessing the instance data
1410
1411=item How to build a horse
1412
1413=item Inheriting the constructor
1414
1415=item Making a method work with either classes or instances
1416
1417=item Adding parameters to a method
1418
1419=item More interesting instances
1420
1421=item A horse of a different color
1422
1423=item Summary
1424
1425=back
1426
1427=item SEE ALSO
1428
1429=item COPYRIGHT
1430
1431=back
1432
1433=head2 perltoot - Tom's object-oriented tutorial for perl
c2e66d9e 1434
d420ca49 1435=over 4
4755096e 1436
d396a558 1437=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1438
d396a558 1439=item Creating a Class
4755096e 1440
d420ca49 1441=over 4
4755096e 1442
d396a558 1443=item Object Representation
4755096e 1444
d396a558 1445=item Class Interface
4755096e 1446
d396a558 1447=item Constructors and Instance Methods
c2e66d9e 1448
d396a558 1449=item Planning for the Future: Better Constructors
c2e66d9e 1450
d396a558 1451=item Destructors
c2e66d9e 1452
d396a558 1453=item Other Object Methods
4755096e
GS
1454
1455=back
1456
d396a558 1457=item Class Data
4755096e 1458
d420ca49 1459=over 4
4755096e 1460
d396a558 1461=item Accessing Class Data
4755096e 1462
d396a558 1463=item Debugging Methods
4755096e 1464
d396a558 1465=item Class Destructors
4755096e 1466
d396a558 1467=item Documenting the Interface
4755096e 1468
d396a558 1469=back
4755096e 1470
d396a558
JH
1471=item Aggregation
1472
1473=item Inheritance
1474
d420ca49 1475=over 4
d396a558
JH
1476
1477=item Overridden Methods
1478
1479=item Multiple Inheritance
1480
1481=item UNIVERSAL: The Root of All Objects
4755096e 1482
c2e66d9e 1483=back
4755096e 1484
d396a558 1485=item Alternate Object Representations
4755096e 1486
d420ca49 1487=over 4
4755096e 1488
d396a558 1489=item Arrays as Objects
4755096e 1490
d396a558
JH
1491=item Closures as Objects
1492
1493=back
1494
1495=item AUTOLOAD: Proxy Methods
1496
d420ca49 1497=over 4
d396a558
JH
1498
1499=item Autoloaded Data Methods
1500
1501=item Inherited Autoloaded Data Methods
1502
1503=back
1504
1505=item Metaclassical Tools
1506
d420ca49 1507=over 4
d396a558
JH
1508
1509=item Class::Struct
1510
1511=item Data Members as Variables
4755096e 1512
d420ca49
AD
1513=back
1514
c2e66d9e 1515=item NOTES
4755096e 1516
d420ca49
AD
1517=over 4
1518
d396a558
JH
1519=item Object Terminology
1520
1521=back
1522
1523=item SEE ALSO
1524
1525=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
1526
1527=item COPYRIGHT
1528
d420ca49 1529=over 4
c2e66d9e 1530
d396a558 1531=item Acknowledgments
c2e66d9e 1532
d396a558 1533=back
c2e66d9e 1534
d396a558 1535=back
c2e66d9e 1536
890a53b9 1537=head2 perltooc - Tom's OO Tutorial for Class Data in Perl
c2e66d9e 1538
d420ca49 1539=over 4
c2e66d9e 1540
d396a558 1541=item DESCRIPTION
c2e66d9e 1542
dc5c060f
JH
1543=item Class Data in a Can
1544
d396a558
JH
1545=item Class Data as Package Variables
1546
d420ca49 1547=over 4
d396a558
JH
1548
1549=item Putting All Your Eggs in One Basket
1550
1551=item Inheritance Concerns
1552
1553=item The Eponymous Meta-Object
1554
1555=item Indirect References to Class Data
1556
1557=item Monadic Classes
1558
1559=item Translucent Attributes
4755096e
GS
1560
1561=back
1562
d396a558 1563=item Class Data as Lexical Variables
4755096e 1564
d420ca49 1565=over 4
4755096e 1566
d396a558
JH
1567=item Privacy and Responsibility
1568
1569=item File-Scoped Lexicals
1570
1571=item More Inheritance Concerns
1572
1573=item Locking the Door and Throwing Away the Key
1574
1575=item Translucency Revisited
4755096e 1576
c2e66d9e 1577=back
4755096e 1578
d396a558
JH
1579=item NOTES
1580
c2e66d9e 1581=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 1582
d396a558
JH
1583=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
1584
1585=item ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
1586
c2e66d9e 1587=item HISTORY
4755096e 1588
c2e66d9e 1589=back
4755096e 1590
d396a558 1591=head2 perlobj - Perl objects
4755096e 1592
d420ca49 1593=over 4
4755096e 1594
c2e66d9e 1595=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1596
d420ca49 1597=over 4
4755096e 1598
d396a558 1599=item An Object is Simply a Reference
4755096e 1600
d396a558 1601=item A Class is Simply a Package
4755096e 1602
d396a558 1603=item A Method is Simply a Subroutine
4755096e 1604
d396a558 1605=item Method Invocation
4755096e 1606
bd28ded5 1607=item Indirect Object Syntax
d396a558
JH
1608
1609=item Default UNIVERSAL methods
1610
1611isa(CLASS), can(METHOD), VERSION( [NEED] )
1612
1613=item Destructors
1614
1615=item Summary
1616
1617=item Two-Phased Garbage Collection
4755096e 1618
c2e66d9e 1619=back
4755096e 1620
d396a558
JH
1621=item SEE ALSO
1622
1623=back
1624
1625=head2 perlbot - Bag'o Object Tricks (the BOT)
1626
d420ca49 1627=over 4
d396a558
JH
1628
1629=item DESCRIPTION
1630
1631=item OO SCALING TIPS
1632
1633=item INSTANCE VARIABLES
1634
1635=item SCALAR INSTANCE VARIABLES
1636
1637=item INSTANCE VARIABLE INHERITANCE
1638
1639=item OBJECT RELATIONSHIPS
1640
1641=item OVERRIDING SUPERCLASS METHODS
1642
1643=item USING RELATIONSHIP WITH SDBM
1644
1645=item THINKING OF CODE REUSE
1646
1647=item CLASS CONTEXT AND THE OBJECT
1648
1649=item INHERITING A CONSTRUCTOR
1650
1651=item DELEGATION
1652
1653=back
1654
1655=head2 perltie - how to hide an object class in a simple variable
1656
d420ca49 1657=over 4
d396a558
JH
1658
1659=item SYNOPSIS
1660
1661=item DESCRIPTION
1662
d420ca49 1663=over 4
d396a558
JH
1664
1665=item Tying Scalars
1666
93d73c42
JH
1667TIESCALAR classname, LIST, FETCH this, STORE this, value, UNTIE this,
1668DESTROY this
d396a558
JH
1669
1670=item Tying Arrays
1671
1672TIEARRAY classname, LIST, FETCH this, index, STORE this, index, value,
165c0277
JH
1673FETCHSIZE this, STORESIZE this, count, EXTEND this, count, EXISTS this,
1674key, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, PUSH this, LIST, POP this, SHIFT this,
1675UNSHIFT this, LIST, SPLICE this, offset, length, LIST, UNTIE this, DESTROY
1676this
d396a558
JH
1677
1678=item Tying Hashes
1679
1680USER, HOME, CLOBBER, LIST, TIEHASH classname, LIST, FETCH this, key, STORE
1681this, key, value, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, EXISTS this, key, FIRSTKEY
93d73c42 1682this, NEXTKEY this, lastkey, UNTIE this, DESTROY this
d396a558
JH
1683
1684=item Tying FileHandles
1685
1686TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, WRITE this, LIST, PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this,
93d73c42
JH
1687LIST, READ this, LIST, READLINE this, GETC this, CLOSE this, UNTIE this,
1688DESTROY this
d396a558 1689
9fa7f388
JH
1690=item UNTIE this
1691
d396a558
JH
1692=item The C<untie> Gotcha
1693
1694=back
4755096e 1695
c2e66d9e 1696=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 1697
d396a558
JH
1698=item BUGS
1699
1700=item AUTHOR
1701
c2e66d9e 1702=back
4755096e 1703
c2e66d9e
GS
1704=head2 perlipc - Perl interprocess communication (signals, fifos, pipes,
1705safe subprocesses, sockets, and semaphores)
4755096e 1706
d420ca49 1707=over 4
4755096e 1708
c2e66d9e 1709=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1710
c2e66d9e 1711=item Signals
4755096e 1712
c2e66d9e 1713=item Named Pipes
4755096e 1714
d420ca49 1715=over 4
4755096e 1716
c2e66d9e 1717=item WARNING
4755096e 1718
c2e66d9e 1719=back
4755096e 1720
c2e66d9e 1721=item Using open() for IPC
4755096e 1722
d420ca49 1723=over 4
4755096e 1724
c2e66d9e 1725=item Filehandles
4755096e 1726
c2e66d9e 1727=item Background Processes
4755096e 1728
c2e66d9e 1729=item Complete Dissociation of Child from Parent
4755096e 1730
c2e66d9e 1731=item Safe Pipe Opens
4755096e 1732
c2e66d9e 1733=item Bidirectional Communication with Another Process
4755096e 1734
c2e66d9e 1735=item Bidirectional Communication with Yourself
4755096e
GS
1736
1737=back
1738
c2e66d9e 1739=item Sockets: Client/Server Communication
4755096e 1740
d420ca49 1741=over 4
4755096e 1742
c2e66d9e 1743=item Internet Line Terminators
4755096e 1744
c2e66d9e 1745=item Internet TCP Clients and Servers
4755096e 1746
c2e66d9e
GS
1747=item Unix-Domain TCP Clients and Servers
1748
1749=back
1750
1751=item TCP Clients with IO::Socket
4755096e 1752
d420ca49 1753=over 4
4755096e 1754
c2e66d9e 1755=item A Simple Client
4755096e 1756
c2e66d9e 1757C<Proto>, C<PeerAddr>, C<PeerPort>
4755096e 1758
c2e66d9e 1759=item A Webget Client
4755096e 1760
c2e66d9e 1761=item Interactive Client with IO::Socket
4755096e 1762
c2e66d9e 1763=back
4755096e 1764
c2e66d9e 1765=item TCP Servers with IO::Socket
4755096e 1766
c2e66d9e 1767Proto, LocalPort, Listen, Reuse
4755096e 1768
c2e66d9e 1769=item UDP: Message Passing
4755096e 1770
c2e66d9e 1771=item SysV IPC
4755096e 1772
c2e66d9e 1773=item NOTES
4755096e 1774
c2e66d9e 1775=item BUGS
4755096e 1776
c2e66d9e 1777=item AUTHOR
4755096e 1778
c2e66d9e 1779=item SEE ALSO
4755096e
GS
1780
1781=back
1782
bd28ded5 1783=head2 perlfork - Perl's fork() emulation (EXPERIMENTAL, subject to change)
4755096e 1784
d420ca49 1785=over 4
4755096e 1786
c2e66d9e
GS
1787=item SYNOPSIS
1788
1789=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1790
d420ca49 1791=over 4
4755096e 1792
c2e66d9e 1793=item Behavior of other Perl features in forked pseudo-processes
4755096e 1794
c2e66d9e
GS
1795$$ or $PROCESS_ID, %ENV, chdir() and all other builtins that accept
1796filenames, wait() and waitpid(), kill(), exec(), exit(), Open handles to
1797files, directories and network sockets
4755096e 1798
c2e66d9e 1799=item Resource limits
4755096e 1800
c2e66d9e 1801=item Killing the parent process
4755096e 1802
c2e66d9e 1803=item Lifetime of the parent process and pseudo-processes
4755096e 1804
c2e66d9e 1805=item CAVEATS AND LIMITATIONS
4755096e 1806
c2e66d9e
GS
1807BEGIN blocks, Open filehandles, Forking pipe open() not yet implemented,
1808Global state maintained by XSUBs, Interpreter embedded in larger
1809application, Thread-safety of extensions
4755096e 1810
c2e66d9e 1811=back
4755096e 1812
c2e66d9e
GS
1813=item BUGS
1814
1815=item AUTHOR
1816
1817=item SEE ALSO
4755096e
GS
1818
1819=back
1820
c2e66d9e 1821=head2 perlnumber - semantics of numbers and numeric operations in Perl
4755096e 1822
d420ca49 1823=over 4
4755096e 1824
c2e66d9e 1825=item SYNOPSIS
4755096e 1826
c2e66d9e 1827=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1828
c2e66d9e 1829=item Storing numbers
4755096e 1830
c2e66d9e 1831=item Numeric operators and numeric conversions
4755096e 1832
c2e66d9e 1833=item Flavors of Perl numeric operations
4755096e 1834
c2e66d9e
GS
1835Arithmetic operators except, C<no integer>, Arithmetic operators except,
1836C<use integer>, Bitwise operators, C<no integer>, Bitwise operators, C<use
1837integer>, Operators which expect an integer, Operators which expect a
1838string
4755096e 1839
c2e66d9e 1840=item AUTHOR
4755096e 1841
c2e66d9e 1842=item SEE ALSO
4755096e
GS
1843
1844=back
1845
c2e66d9e 1846=head2 perlthrtut - tutorial on threads in Perl
4755096e 1847
d420ca49 1848=over 4
4755096e
GS
1849
1850=item DESCRIPTION
1851
53d7eaa8
JH
1852=back
1853
1854=head2 perlothrtut - old tutorial on threads in Perl
1855
1856=over 4
1857
1858=item DESCRIPTION
1859
c2e66d9e 1860=item What Is A Thread Anyway?
4755096e 1861
c2e66d9e 1862=item Threaded Program Models
4755096e 1863
d420ca49 1864=over 4
4755096e 1865
c2e66d9e 1866=item Boss/Worker
4755096e 1867
c2e66d9e 1868=item Work Crew
4755096e 1869
c2e66d9e 1870=item Pipeline
4755096e
GS
1871
1872=back
1873
c2e66d9e 1874=item Native threads
4755096e 1875
c2e66d9e 1876=item What kind of threads are perl threads?
4755096e 1877
c2e66d9e 1878=item Threadsafe Modules
4755096e 1879
c2e66d9e 1880=item Thread Basics
4755096e 1881
d420ca49 1882=over 4
4755096e 1883
c2e66d9e 1884=item Basic Thread Support
4755096e 1885
c2e66d9e 1886=item Creating Threads
4755096e 1887
c2e66d9e 1888=item Giving up control
4755096e 1889
c2e66d9e 1890=item Waiting For A Thread To Exit
4755096e 1891
c2e66d9e 1892=item Errors In Threads
4755096e 1893
c2e66d9e 1894=item Ignoring A Thread
4755096e
GS
1895
1896=back
1897
c2e66d9e 1898=item Threads And Data
4755096e 1899
d420ca49 1900=over 4
4755096e 1901
c2e66d9e 1902=item Shared And Unshared Data
4755096e 1903
c2e66d9e 1904=item Thread Pitfall: Races
4755096e 1905
c2e66d9e 1906=item Controlling access: lock()
4755096e 1907
c2e66d9e 1908=item Thread Pitfall: Deadlocks
4755096e 1909
c2e66d9e 1910=item Queues: Passing Data Around
4755096e 1911
c2e66d9e 1912=back
4755096e 1913
c2e66d9e 1914=item Threads And Code
4755096e 1915
d420ca49 1916=over 4
4755096e 1917
c2e66d9e 1918=item Semaphores: Synchronizing Data Access
4755096e 1919
c2e66d9e 1920Basic semaphores, Advanced Semaphores
4755096e 1921
c2e66d9e 1922=item Attributes: Restricting Access To Subroutines
4755096e 1923
c2e66d9e 1924=item Subroutine Locks
4755096e 1925
c2e66d9e 1926=item Methods
4755096e 1927
c2e66d9e 1928=item Locking A Subroutine
4755096e
GS
1929
1930=back
1931
c2e66d9e 1932=item General Thread Utility Routines
4755096e 1933
d420ca49 1934=over 4
4755096e 1935
c2e66d9e 1936=item What Thread Am I In?
4755096e 1937
c2e66d9e 1938=item Thread IDs
4755096e 1939
c2e66d9e 1940=item Are These Threads The Same?
4755096e 1941
c2e66d9e 1942=item What Threads Are Running?
4755096e 1943
c2e66d9e 1944=back
4755096e 1945
c2e66d9e 1946=item A Complete Example
4755096e 1947
c2e66d9e 1948=item Conclusion
4755096e 1949
c2e66d9e 1950=item Bibliography
4755096e 1951
d420ca49 1952=over 4
4755096e 1953
c2e66d9e 1954=item Introductory Texts
4755096e 1955
c2e66d9e 1956=item OS-Related References
4755096e 1957
c2e66d9e 1958=item Other References
4755096e
GS
1959
1960=back
1961
c2e66d9e 1962=item Acknowledgements
4755096e 1963
c2e66d9e 1964=item AUTHOR
4755096e 1965
c2e66d9e 1966=item Copyrights
4755096e 1967
c2e66d9e 1968=back
4755096e 1969
c2e66d9e 1970=head2 perlport - Writing portable Perl
4755096e 1971
d420ca49 1972=over 4
4755096e 1973
c2e66d9e 1974=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1975
c2e66d9e
GS
1976Not all Perl programs have to be portable, Nearly all of Perl already I<is>
1977portable
4755096e 1978
c2e66d9e 1979=item ISSUES
4755096e 1980
d420ca49 1981=over 4
4755096e 1982
c2e66d9e 1983=item Newlines
4755096e 1984
c2e66d9e 1985=item Numbers endianness and Width
4755096e 1986
c2e66d9e 1987=item Files and Filesystems
4755096e 1988
c2e66d9e 1989=item System Interaction
4755096e 1990
c2e66d9e 1991=item Interprocess Communication (IPC)
4755096e 1992
c2e66d9e 1993=item External Subroutines (XS)
4755096e 1994
c2e66d9e 1995=item Standard Modules
4755096e 1996
c2e66d9e 1997=item Time and Date
4755096e 1998
c2e66d9e 1999=item Character sets and character encoding
4755096e 2000
c2e66d9e 2001=item Internationalisation
4755096e 2002
c2e66d9e 2003=item System Resources
4755096e 2004
c2e66d9e 2005=item Security
4755096e 2006
c2e66d9e 2007=item Style
4755096e
GS
2008
2009=back
2010
c2e66d9e 2011=item CPAN Testers
4755096e 2012
c2e66d9e
GS
2013Mailing list: cpan-testers@perl.org, Testing results:
2014http://testers.cpan.org/
4755096e 2015
c2e66d9e 2016=item PLATFORMS
4755096e 2017
d420ca49 2018=over 4
4755096e 2019
c2e66d9e 2020=item Unix
4755096e 2021
c2e66d9e 2022=item DOS and Derivatives
4755096e 2023
c2e66d9e 2024=item S<Mac OS>
4755096e 2025
c2e66d9e 2026=item VMS
4755096e 2027
c2e66d9e 2028=item VOS
4755096e 2029
c2e66d9e 2030=item EBCDIC Platforms
4755096e 2031
c2e66d9e 2032=item Acorn RISC OS
4755096e 2033
c2e66d9e 2034=item Other perls
4755096e
GS
2035
2036=back
2037
c2e66d9e 2038=item FUNCTION IMPLEMENTATIONS
4755096e 2039
d420ca49 2040=over 4
4755096e 2041
c2e66d9e
GS
2042=item Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions
2043
2044-I<X> FILEHANDLE, -I<X> EXPR, -I<X>, alarm SECONDS, alarm, binmode
2045FILEHANDLE, chmod LIST, chown LIST, chroot FILENAME, chroot, crypt
2046PLAINTEXT,SALT, dbmclose HASH, dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MODE, dump LABEL, exec
ba62762e
JH
2047LIST, exit EXPR, exit, fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, flock
2048FILEHANDLE,OPERATION, fork, getlogin, getpgrp PID, getppid, getpriority
2049WHICH,WHO, getpwnam NAME, getgrnam NAME, getnetbyname NAME, getpwuid UID,
2050getgrgid GID, getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getprotobynumber NUMBER,
2051getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent, getgrent, gethostent, getnetent,
2052getprotoent, getservent, setpwent, setgrent, sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent
2053STAYOPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN, setservent STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent,
2054endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent, endservent, getsockopt
2055SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob EXPR, glob, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR,
2056kill SIGNAL, LIST, link OLDFILE,NEWFILE, lstat FILEHANDLE, lstat EXPR,
2057lstat, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG, msgget KEY,FLAGS, msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS, msgrcv
2058ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS, open FILEHANDLE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE, pipe
2059READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE, readlink EXPR, readlink, select
2060RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT, semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG, semget
2061KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS, semop KEY,OPSTRING, setgrent, setpgrp PID,PGRP,
c2e66d9e
GS
2062setpriority WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY, setpwent, setsockopt
2063SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL, shmctl ID,CMD,ARG, shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS,
80cbd5ad
JH
2064shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE, shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, sockatmark SOCKET,
2065socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, stat FILEHANDLE, stat
2066EXPR, stat, symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE, syscall LIST, sysopen
d396a558
JH
2067FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS, system LIST, times, truncate
2068FILEHANDLE,LENGTH, truncate EXPR,LENGTH, umask EXPR, umask, utime LIST,
2069wait, waitpid PID,FLAGS
4755096e 2070
d396a558 2071=back
4755096e 2072
d396a558 2073=item CHANGES
4755096e 2074
603b90a8
JH
2075v1.48, 02 February 2001, v1.47, 22 March 2000, v1.46, 12 February 2000,
2076v1.45, 20 December 1999, v1.44, 19 July 1999, v1.43, 24 May 1999, v1.42, 22
2077May 1999, v1.41, 19 May 1999, v1.40, 11 April 1999, v1.39, 11 February
20781999, v1.38, 31 December 1998, v1.37, 19 December 1998, v1.36, 9 September
20791998, v1.35, 13 August 1998, v1.33, 06 August 1998, v1.32, 05 August 1998,
2080v1.30, 03 August 1998, v1.23, 10 July 1998
4755096e 2081
d396a558 2082=item Supported Platforms
4755096e 2083
d396a558 2084=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 2085
d396a558 2086=item AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS
4755096e 2087
d396a558 2088=item VERSION
4755096e
GS
2089
2090=back
2091
d396a558
JH
2092=head2 perllocale - Perl locale handling (internationalization and
2093localization)
4755096e 2094
d420ca49 2095=over 4
4755096e 2096
d396a558 2097=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2098
d396a558
JH
2099=item PREPARING TO USE LOCALES
2100
2101=item USING LOCALES
4755096e 2102
d420ca49 2103=over 4
4755096e 2104
d396a558 2105=item The use locale pragma
4755096e 2106
d396a558 2107=item The setlocale function
4755096e 2108
d396a558 2109=item Finding locales
4755096e 2110
d396a558 2111=item LOCALE PROBLEMS
4755096e 2112
d396a558 2113=item Temporarily fixing locale problems
4755096e 2114
d396a558 2115=item Permanently fixing locale problems
4755096e 2116
d396a558 2117=item Permanently fixing your system's locale configuration
4755096e 2118
d396a558 2119=item Fixing system locale configuration
4755096e 2120
d396a558 2121=item The localeconv function
4755096e 2122
d0363f02
JH
2123=item I18N::Langinfo
2124
4755096e
GS
2125=back
2126
d396a558 2127=item LOCALE CATEGORIES
4755096e 2128
d420ca49 2129=over 4
4755096e 2130
d396a558 2131=item Category LC_COLLATE: Collation
4755096e 2132
d396a558 2133=item Category LC_CTYPE: Character Types
4755096e 2134
d396a558 2135=item Category LC_NUMERIC: Numeric Formatting
4755096e 2136
d396a558 2137=item Category LC_MONETARY: Formatting of monetary amounts
4755096e 2138
d396a558 2139=item LC_TIME
4755096e 2140
d396a558 2141=item Other categories
4755096e 2142
d396a558 2143=back
4755096e 2144
d396a558 2145=item SECURITY
4755096e 2146
d396a558 2147=item ENVIRONMENT
4755096e 2148
d396a558
JH
2149PERL_BADLANG, LC_ALL, LANGUAGE, LC_CTYPE, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY,
2150LC_NUMERIC, LC_TIME, LANG
4755096e 2151
d396a558 2152=item NOTES
4755096e 2153
d420ca49 2154=over 4
4755096e 2155
d396a558 2156=item Backward compatibility
4755096e 2157
d396a558 2158=item I18N:Collate obsolete
4755096e 2159
d396a558 2160=item Sort speed and memory use impacts
4755096e 2161
d396a558 2162=item write() and LC_NUMERIC
4755096e 2163
d396a558 2164=item Freely available locale definitions
4755096e 2165
d396a558 2166=item I18n and l10n
4755096e 2167
d396a558 2168=item An imperfect standard
4755096e
GS
2169
2170=back
2171
d396a558 2172=item BUGS
4755096e 2173
d420ca49 2174=over 4
4755096e 2175
d396a558 2176=item Broken systems
4755096e
GS
2177
2178=back
2179
2180=item SEE ALSO
2181
d396a558 2182=item HISTORY
4755096e
GS
2183
2184=back
2185
07fcf8ff 2186=head2 perluniintro - Perl Unicode introduction
ba62762e
JH
2187
2188=over 4
2189
2190=item DESCRIPTION
2191
2192=over 4
2193
2194=item Unicode
2195
2196=item Perl's Unicode Support
2197
2198=item Perl's Unicode Model
2199
2200=item Creating Unicode
2201
2202=item Handling Unicode
2203
2204=item Legacy Encodings
2205
2206=item Unicode I/O
2207
3ecb3787
JH
2208=item Displaying Unicode As Text
2209
ba62762e
JH
2210=item Special Cases
2211
2212=item Advanced Topics
2213
2214=item Miscellaneous
2215
2216=item Questions With Answers
2217
2218Will My Old Scripts Break?, How Do I Make My Scripts Work With Unicode?,
80637b95
JH
2219How Do I Know Whether My String Is In Unicode?, How Do I Detect Data That's
2220Not Valid In a Particular Encoding, How Do I Convert Binary Data Into a
2221Particular Encoding, Or Vice Versa?, How Do I Display Unicode? How Do I
2222Input Unicode?, How Does Unicode Work With Traditional Locales?
ba62762e
JH
2223
2224=item Hexadecimal Notation
2225
2226=item Further Resources
2227
2228=back
2229
34babc16
JH
2230=item UNICODE IN OLDER PERLS
2231
ba62762e
JH
2232=item SEE ALSO
2233
2234=item ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
2235
2236=item AUTHOR, COPYRIGHT, AND LICENSE
2237
2238=back
2239
d396a558 2240=head2 perlunicode - Unicode support in Perl
4755096e 2241
d420ca49 2242=over 4
4755096e
GS
2243
2244=item DESCRIPTION
2245
d420ca49 2246=over 4
4755096e 2247
e42c74e1 2248=item Important Caveats
4755096e 2249
d396a558 2250Input and Output Disciplines, Regular Expressions, C<use utf8> still needed
ad0029c4 2251to enable UTF-8/UTF-EBCDIC in scripts
4755096e 2252
d396a558 2253=item Byte and Character semantics
4755096e 2254
d396a558 2255=item Effects of character semantics
4755096e 2256
fbe3d936
JH
2257=item Scripts
2258
2259=item Blocks
2260
d396a558 2261=item Character encodings for input and output
4755096e 2262
d396a558
JH
2263=back
2264
2265=item CAVEATS
2266
e61ecf27
JH
2267=item UNICODE REGULAR EXPRESSION SUPPORT LEVEL
2268
ba62762e
JH
2269=over 4
2270
2271=item Unicode Encodings
2272
80637b95
JH
2273UTF-8, UTF-EBDIC, UTF-16, UTF-16BE, UTF16-LE, Surrogates, and BOMs (Byte
2274Order Marks), UTF-32, UTF-32BE, UTF32-LE, UCS-2, UCS-4, UTF-7
ba62762e
JH
2275
2276=item Security Implications of Malformed UTF-8
2277
2278=item Unicode in Perl on EBCDIC
2279
37b1fd75
JH
2280=item Using Unicode in XS
2281
ba62762e
JH
2282=back
2283
d396a558 2284=item SEE ALSO
4755096e
GS
2285
2286=back
2287
d396a558 2288=head2 perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms
4755096e 2289
d420ca49 2290=over 4
4755096e 2291
d396a558 2292=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2293
d396a558 2294=item COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS
4755096e 2295
d420ca49 2296=over 4
4755096e 2297
d396a558 2298=item ASCII
4755096e 2299
d396a558 2300=item ISO 8859
4755096e 2301
d396a558 2302=item Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1)
4755096e 2303
d396a558 2304=item EBCDIC
4755096e 2305
d396a558 2306=item 13 variant characters
4755096e 2307
d396a558 2308=item 0037
4755096e 2309
d396a558 2310=item 1047
4755096e 2311
d396a558 2312=item POSIX-BC
4755096e 2313
41ca3a40
JH
2314=item Unicode and UTF
2315
4755096e
GS
2316=back
2317
d396a558 2318=item SINGLE OCTET TABLES
4755096e 2319
41ca3a40 2320recipe 0, recipe 1, recipe 2, recipe 3, recipe 4, recipe 5, recipe 6
4755096e 2321
d396a558 2322=item IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS
4755096e 2323
d396a558 2324=item CONVERSIONS
4755096e 2325
d420ca49 2326=over 4
37d4d706
JH
2327
2328=item tr///
2329
2330=item iconv
2331
2332=item C RTL
2333
2334=back
2335
d396a558 2336=item OPERATOR DIFFERENCES
4755096e 2337
d396a558 2338=item FUNCTION DIFFERENCES
4755096e 2339
d396a558 2340chr(), ord(), pack(), print(), printf(), sort(), sprintf(), unpack()
4755096e 2341
d396a558 2342=item REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES
4755096e 2343
d396a558 2344=item SOCKETS
4755096e 2345
d396a558 2346=item SORTING
4755096e 2347
d420ca49 2348=over 4
4755096e 2349
9fa7f388 2350=item Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences.
4755096e 2351
9fa7f388 2352=item MONO CASE then sort data.
4755096e 2353
9fa7f388 2354=item Convert, sort data, then re convert.
4755096e 2355
d396a558 2356=item Perform sorting on one type of machine only.
4755096e
GS
2357
2358=back
2359
41ca3a40 2360=item TRANSFORMATION FORMATS
37d4d706 2361
d420ca49 2362=over 4
37d4d706
JH
2363
2364=item URL decoding and encoding
2365
2366=item uu encoding and decoding
2367
2368=item Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding
2369
41ca3a40 2370=item Caesarian ciphers
37d4d706
JH
2371
2372=back
2373
2374=item Hashing order and checksums
4755096e 2375
d396a558 2376=item I18N AND L10N
4755096e 2377
d396a558 2378=item MULTI OCTET CHARACTER SETS
4755096e 2379
d396a558 2380=item OS ISSUES
4755096e 2381
d420ca49 2382=over 4
4755096e 2383
d396a558 2384=item OS/400
7029d033 2385
d396a558 2386IFS access
4755096e 2387
41ca3a40 2388=item OS/390, z/OS
4755096e 2389
41ca3a40 2390chcp, dataset access, OS/390, z/OS iconv, locales
4755096e 2391
d396a558 2392=item VM/ESA?
4755096e 2393
d396a558 2394=item POSIX-BC?
4755096e 2395
d396a558 2396=back
4755096e 2397
9fa7f388
JH
2398=item BUGS
2399
b3b6085d
PP
2400=item SEE ALSO
2401
d396a558 2402=item REFERENCES
c2e66d9e 2403
41ca3a40
JH
2404=item HISTORY
2405
d396a558 2406=item AUTHOR
4755096e
GS
2407
2408=back
2409
d396a558 2410=head2 perlsec - Perl security
4755096e 2411
d420ca49 2412=over 4
4755096e 2413
4755096e
GS
2414=item DESCRIPTION
2415
d420ca49 2416=over 4
4755096e 2417
d396a558 2418=item Laundering and Detecting Tainted Data
4755096e 2419
d396a558 2420=item Switches On the "#!" Line
4755096e 2421
d396a558 2422=item Cleaning Up Your Path
c2e66d9e 2423
d396a558 2424=item Security Bugs
c2e66d9e 2425
d396a558 2426=item Protecting Your Programs
4755096e
GS
2427
2428=back
2429
c2e66d9e
GS
2430=item SEE ALSO
2431
4755096e
GS
2432=back
2433
c2e66d9e 2434=head2 perlmod - Perl modules (packages and symbol tables)
4755096e 2435
d420ca49 2436=over 4
4755096e
GS
2437
2438=item DESCRIPTION
2439
d420ca49 2440=over 4
4755096e 2441
c2e66d9e 2442=item Packages
4755096e 2443
c2e66d9e 2444=item Symbol Tables
4755096e 2445
c2e66d9e 2446=item Package Constructors and Destructors
4755096e 2447
c2e66d9e 2448=item Perl Classes
4755096e 2449
c2e66d9e 2450=item Perl Modules
4755096e 2451
a6fb92f1
JH
2452=item Making your module threadsafe
2453
4755096e
GS
2454=back
2455
c2e66d9e 2456=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 2457
c2e66d9e 2458=back
4755096e 2459
35bf961c
JH
2460=head2 perlmodinstall - Installing CPAN Modules
2461
2462=over 4
2463
2464=item DESCRIPTION
2465
2466=over 4
2467
2468=item PREAMBLE
2469
2470B<DECOMPRESS> the file, B<UNPACK> the file into a directory, B<BUILD> the
2471module (sometimes unnecessary), B<INSTALL> the module
2472
2473=back
2474
2475=item PORTABILITY
2476
2477=item HEY
2478
2479=item AUTHOR
2480
2481=item COPYRIGHT
2482
2483=back
2484
c2e66d9e 2485=head2 perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones
4755096e 2486
d420ca49 2487=over 4
4755096e 2488
c2e66d9e 2489=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2490
c2e66d9e 2491=item THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY
4755096e 2492
d420ca49 2493=over 4
4755096e 2494
c2e66d9e 2495=item Pragmatic Modules
4755096e 2496
c2e66d9e 2497attributes, attrs, autouse, base, blib, bytes, charnames, constant,
34babc16 2498diagnostics, encoding, fields, filetest, integer, less, locale, open, ops,
c27482a4
JH
2499overload, re, sigtrap, sort, strict, subs, utf8, vars, vmsish, warnings,
2500warnings::register
4755096e 2501
c2e66d9e 2502=item Standard Modules
4755096e 2503
c27482a4
JH
2504AnyDBM_File, AutoLoader, AutoSplit, B, B::Asmdata, B::Assembler, B::Bblock,
2505B::Bytecode, B::C, B::CC, B::Concise, B::Debug, B::Deparse,
2506B::Disassembler, B::Lint, B::Showlex, B::Stackobj, B::Stash, B::Terse,
2507B::Xref, Benchmark, ByteLoader, CGI, CGI::Apache, CGI::Carp, CGI::Cookie,
2508CGI::Fast, CGI::Pretty, CGI::Push, CGI::Switch, CGI::Util, CPAN,
2509CPAN::FirstTime, CPAN::Nox, Carp, Carp::Heavy, Class::ISA, Class::Struct,
2510Cwd, DB, DB_File, Devel::SelfStubber, Digest, DirHandle, Dumpvalue, Encode,
2511Encode::EncodeFormat, Encode::Tcl, English, Env, Exporter, Exporter::Heavy,
2512ExtUtils::Command, ExtUtils::Constant, ExtUtils::Embed, ExtUtils::Install,
2513ExtUtils::Installed, ExtUtils::Liblist, ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin,
2514ExtUtils::MM_NW5, ExtUtils::MM_OS2, ExtUtils::MM_Unix, ExtUtils::MM_VMS,
2515ExtUtils::MM_Win32, ExtUtils::MakeMaker, ExtUtils::Manifest,
2516ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap, ExtUtils::Mksymlists, ExtUtils::Packlist,
2517ExtUtils::testlib, Fatal, Fcntl, File::Basename, File::CheckTree,
2518File::Compare, File::Copy, File::DosGlob, File::Find, File::Path,
2519File::Spec, File::Spec::Epoc, File::Spec::Functions, File::Spec::Mac,
2520File::Spec::OS2, File::Spec::Unix, File::Spec::VMS, File::Spec::Win32,
2521File::Temp, File::stat, FileCache, FileHandle, Filter::Simple, FindBin,
2522Getopt::Long, Getopt::Std, I18N::Collate, I18N::LangTags,
2523I18N::LangTags::List, IO, IPC::Open2, IPC::Open3, Locale::Constants,
2524Locale::Country, Locale::Currency, Locale::Language, Locale::Maketext,
2525Locale::Maketext::TPJ13, Math::BigFloat, Math::BigInt, Math::BigInt::Calc,
2526Math::Complex, Math::Trig, Memoize, Memoize::AnyDBM_File, Memoize::Expire,
2527Memoize::ExpireFile, Memoize::ExpireTest, Memoize::NDBM_File,
37b1fd75
JH
2528Memoize::SDBM_File, Memoize::Storable, NDBM_File, NEXT, Net::Cmd,
2529Net::Config, Net::Domain, Net::FTP, Net::NNTP, Net::Netrc, Net::POP3,
2530Net::Ping, Net::SMTP, Net::Time, Net::hostent, Net::libnetFAQ, Net::netent,
2531Net::protoent, Net::servent, O, ODBM_File, Opcode, POSIX, PerlIO,
2532Pod::Checker, Pod::Find, Pod::Html, Pod::InputObjects, Pod::LaTeX,
34babc16
JH
2533Pod::Man, Pod::ParseLink, Pod::ParseUtils, Pod::Parser, Pod::Plainer,
2534Pod::Select, Pod::Text, Pod::Text::Color, Pod::Text::Overstrike,
2535Pod::Text::Termcap, Pod::Usage, Pod::t::basic, SDBM_File, Safe,
2536Search::Dict, SelectSaver, SelfLoader, Shell, Socket, Storable, Switch,
2537Symbol, Term::ANSIColor, Term::Cap, Term::Complete, Term::ReadLine, Test,
2538Test::Builder, Test::Harness, Test::More, Test::Simple, Test::Tutorial,
2539Text::Abbrev, Text::Balanced, Text::ParseWords, Text::Soundex, Text::Tabs,
2540Text::Wrap, Thread, Tie::Array, Tie::Handle, Tie::Hash, Tie::RefHash,
2541Tie::Scalar, Tie::SubstrHash, Time::Local, Time::gmtime, Time::localtime,
2542Time::tm, UNIVERSAL, Unicode::Collate, Unicode::UCD, User::grent,
e61ecf27 2543User::pwent, Win32
4755096e 2544
c2e66d9e 2545=item Extension Modules
4755096e 2546
c2e66d9e 2547=back
4755096e 2548
c2e66d9e 2549=item CPAN
4755096e 2550
603b90a8
JH
2551=over 4
2552
2553=item Africa
2554
2555=item Asia
2556
2557=item Central America
2558
2559=item Europe
2560
2561=item North America
2562
2563=item Oceania
2564
2565=item South America
2566
2567=back
4755096e 2568
c2e66d9e 2569=item Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse
4755096e 2570
d420ca49 2571=over 4
4755096e 2572
c2e66d9e 2573=item Guidelines for Module Creation
4755096e 2574
c2e66d9e 2575=item Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules
4755096e 2576
c2e66d9e 2577=item Guidelines for Reusing Application Code
4755096e 2578
c2e66d9e 2579=back
4755096e 2580
c2e66d9e 2581=item NOTE
4755096e 2582
c2e66d9e 2583=back
4755096e 2584
35bf961c 2585=head2 perlmodstyle - Perl module style guide
4755096e 2586
d420ca49 2587=over 4
4755096e 2588
35bf961c
JH
2589=item INTRODUCTION
2590
2591=item QUICK CHECKLIST
4755096e 2592
d420ca49 2593=over 4
4755096e 2594
35bf961c 2595=item Before you start
4755096e 2596
35bf961c
JH
2597=item The API
2598
2599=item Stability
2600
2601=item Documentation
2602
2603=item Release considerations
4755096e 2604
c2e66d9e 2605=back
4755096e 2606
35bf961c 2607=item BEFORE YOU START WRITING A MODULE
a9ef4385 2608
35bf961c 2609=over 4
c2e66d9e 2610
35bf961c 2611=item Has it been done before?
c2e66d9e 2612
35bf961c
JH
2613=item Do one thing and do it well
2614
2615=item What's in a name?
2616
2617=back
2618
2619=item DESIGNING AND WRITING YOUR MODULE
2620
2621=over 4
2622
2623=item To OO or not to OO?
2624
2625=item Designing your API
2626
2627Write simple routines to do simple things, Separate functionality from
2628output, Provide sensible shortcuts and defaults, Naming conventions,
2629Parameter passing
2630
2631=item Strictness and warnings
2632
2633=item Backwards compatibility
2634
2635=item Error handling and messages
2636
2637=back
2638
2639=item DOCUMENTING YOUR MODULE
2640
2641=over 4
2642
2643=item POD
2644
2645=item README, INSTALL, release notes, changelogs
2646
2647=back
2648
2649=item RELEASE CONSIDERATIONS
2650
2651=over 4
2652
2653=item Version numbering
2654
2655=item Pre-requisites
2656
2657=item Testing
2658
2659=item Packaging
2660
2661=item Licensing
2662
2663=back
2664
2665=item COMMON PITFALLS
2666
2667=over 4
2668
2669=item Reinventing the wheel
2670
2671=item Trying to do too much
2672
2673=item Inappropriate documentation
2674
2675=back
2676
2677=item SEE ALSO
2678
2679L<perlstyle>, L<perlnewmod>, L<perlpod>, L<podchecker>, Testing tools,
2680http://pause.perl.org/, Any good book on software engineering
2681
2682=item AUTHOR
4755096e
GS
2683
2684=back
2685
c2e66d9e 2686=head2 perlnewmod - preparing a new module for distribution
4755096e 2687
d420ca49 2688=over 4
4755096e 2689
c2e66d9e 2690=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2691
d420ca49 2692=over 4
4755096e 2693
c2e66d9e 2694=item Warning
4755096e 2695
c2e66d9e 2696=item What should I make into a module?
4755096e 2697
c2e66d9e 2698=item Step-by-step: Preparing the ground
4755096e 2699
c2e66d9e 2700Look around, Check it's new, Discuss the need, Choose a name, Check again
4755096e 2701
c2e66d9e 2702=item Step-by-step: Making the module
4755096e 2703
c2e66d9e 2704Start with F<h2xs>, Use L<strict|strict> and L<warnings|warnings>, Use
4d4e713d
JH
2705L<Carp|Carp>, Use L<Exporter|Exporter> - wisely!, Use L<plain old
2706documentation|perlpod>, Write tests, Write the README
4755096e 2707
c2e66d9e 2708=item Step-by-step: Distributing your module
4755096e 2709
c2e66d9e
GS
2710Get a CPAN user ID, C<perl Makefile.PL; make test; make dist>, Upload the
2711tarball, Announce to the modules list, Announce to clpa, Fix bugs!
4755096e 2712
c2e66d9e 2713=back
4755096e 2714
c2e66d9e 2715=item AUTHOR
4755096e 2716
c2e66d9e 2717=item SEE ALSO
4755096e
GS
2718
2719=back
2720
cb52f95f
JH
2721=head2 perlfaq1 - General Questions About Perl ($Revision: 1.2 $, $Date:
27222001/11/09 08:06:04 $)
4755096e 2723
d420ca49 2724=over 4
4755096e
GS
2725
2726=item DESCRIPTION
2727
d420ca49 2728=over 4
4755096e
GS
2729
2730=item What is Perl?
2731
2732=item Who supports Perl? Who develops it? Why is it free?
2733
2734=item Which version of Perl should I use?
2735
2736=item What are perl4 and perl5?
2737
2738=item What is perl6?
2739
2740=item How stable is Perl?
2741
2742=item Is Perl difficult to learn?
2743
2744=item How does Perl compare with other languages like Java, Python, REXX,
2745Scheme, or Tcl?
2746
2747=item Can I do [task] in Perl?
2748
2749=item When shouldn't I program in Perl?
2750
2751=item What's the difference between "perl" and "Perl"?
2752
2753=item Is it a Perl program or a Perl script?
2754
2755=item What is a JAPH?
2756
2757=item Where can I get a list of Larry Wall witticisms?
2758
165c0277
JH
2759=item How can I convince my sysadmin/supervisor/employees to use version
27605/5.005/Perl instead of some other language?
4755096e
GS
2761
2762=back
2763
2764=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
2765
2766=back
2767
cb52f95f
JH
2768=head2 perlfaq2 - Obtaining and Learning about Perl ($Revision: 1.3 $,
2769$Date: 2001/11/09 08:06:04 $)
4755096e 2770
d420ca49 2771=over 4
4755096e
GS
2772
2773=item DESCRIPTION
2774
d420ca49 2775=over 4
4755096e
GS
2776
2777=item What machines support Perl? Where do I get it?
2778
2779=item How can I get a binary version of Perl?
2780
2781=item I don't have a C compiler on my system. How can I compile perl?
2782
2783=item I copied the Perl binary from one machine to another, but scripts
2784don't work.
2785
2786=item I grabbed the sources and tried to compile but gdbm/dynamic
2787loading/malloc/linking/... failed. How do I make it work?
2788
2789=item What modules and extensions are available for Perl? What is CPAN?
2790What does CPAN/src/... mean?
2791
2792=item Is there an ISO or ANSI certified version of Perl?
2793
2794=item Where can I get information on Perl?
2795
2796=item What are the Perl newsgroups on Usenet? Where do I post questions?
2797
2798=item Where should I post source code?
2799
2800=item Perl Books
2801
2802References, Tutorials, Task-Oriented, Special Topics
2803
2804=item Perl in Magazines
2805
2806=item Perl on the Net: FTP and WWW Access
2807
2808=item What mailing lists are there for Perl?
2809
2810=item Archives of comp.lang.perl.misc
2811
2812=item Where can I buy a commercial version of Perl?
2813
2814=item Where do I send bug reports?
2815
2816=item What is perl.com? Perl Mongers? pm.org? perl.org?
2817
2818=back
2819
2820=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
2821
2822=back
2823
428dc699
JH
2824=head2 perlfaq3 - Programming Tools ($Revision: 1.10 $, $Date: 2001/11/19
282517:09:37 $)
4755096e 2826
d420ca49 2827=over 4
4755096e
GS
2828
2829=item DESCRIPTION
2830
d420ca49 2831=over 4
4755096e
GS
2832
2833=item How do I do (anything)?
2834
2835=item How can I use Perl interactively?
2836
2837=item Is there a Perl shell?
2838
2839=item How do I debug my Perl programs?
2840
2841=item How do I profile my Perl programs?
2842
2843=item How do I cross-reference my Perl programs?
2844
2845=item Is there a pretty-printer (formatter) for Perl?
2846
2847=item Is there a ctags for Perl?
2848
2849=item Is there an IDE or Windows Perl Editor?
2850
245d750e
JH
2851Komodo, The Object System, Open Perl IDE, PerlBuilder, visiPerl+,
2852CodeMagicCD, GNU Emacs, MicroEMACS, XEmacs, Elvis, Vile, Vim, Codewright,
603b90a8
JH
2853MultiEdit, SlickEdit, Bash, Ksh, Tcsh, Zsh, BBEdit and BBEdit Lite, Alpha
2854
4755096e
GS
2855=item Where can I get Perl macros for vi?
2856
2857=item Where can I get perl-mode for emacs?
2858
2859=item How can I use curses with Perl?
2860
2861=item How can I use X or Tk with Perl?
2862
2863=item How can I generate simple menus without using CGI or Tk?
2864
4755096e
GS
2865=item How can I make my Perl program run faster?
2866
2867=item How can I make my Perl program take less memory?
2868
35bf961c
JH
2869Don't slurp!, Use map and grep selectively, Avoid unnecessary quotes and
2870stringification, Pass by reference, Tie large variables to disk
2871
4755096e
GS
2872=item Is it unsafe to return a pointer to local data?
2873
2874=item How can I free an array or hash so my program shrinks?
2875
2876=item How can I make my CGI script more efficient?
2877
2878=item How can I hide the source for my Perl program?
2879
2880=item How can I compile my Perl program into byte code or C?
2881
2882=item How can I compile Perl into Java?
2883
2884=item How can I get C<#!perl> to work on [MS-DOS,NT,...]?
2885
2886=item Can I write useful Perl programs on the command line?
2887
2888=item Why don't Perl one-liners work on my DOS/Mac/VMS system?
2889
2890=item Where can I learn about CGI or Web programming in Perl?
2891
cb52f95f
JH
2892=item Where can I learn about object-oriented Perl programming?
2893
4755096e
GS
2894=item Where can I learn about linking C with Perl? [h2xs, xsubpp]
2895
2896=item I've read perlembed, perlguts, etc., but I can't embed perl in
d420ca49 2897my C program; what am I doing wrong?
4755096e
GS
2898
2899=item When I tried to run my script, I got this message. What does it
2900mean?
2901
2902=item What's MakeMaker?
2903
2904=back
2905
2906=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
2907
2908=back
2909
3ecb3787
JH
2910=head2 perlfaq4 - Data Manipulation ($Revision: 1.9 $, $Date: 2001/12/07
291121:17:58 $)
4755096e 2912
d420ca49 2913=over 4
4755096e
GS
2914
2915=item DESCRIPTION
2916
2917=item Data: Numbers
2918
d420ca49 2919=over 4
4755096e
GS
2920
2921=item Why am I getting long decimals (eg, 19.9499999999999) instead of the
2922numbers I should be getting (eg, 19.95)?
2923
2924=item Why isn't my octal data interpreted correctly?
2925
2926=item Does Perl have a round() function? What about ceil() and floor()?
2927Trig functions?
2928
1fdc5aa6
JH
2929=item How do I convert between numeric representations:
2930
2931B<How do I convert Hexadecimal into decimal:>, B<How do I convert from
2932decimal to hexadecimal:>, B<How do I convert from octal to decimal:>, B<How
2933do I convert from decimal to octal:>, B<How do I convert from binary to
2934decimal:>, B<How do I convert from decimal to binary:>
4755096e
GS
2935
2936=item Why doesn't & work the way I want it to?
2937
2938=item How do I multiply matrices?
2939
2940=item How do I perform an operation on a series of integers?
2941
2942=item How can I output Roman numerals?
2943
2944=item Why aren't my random numbers random?
2945
2946=back
2947
2948=item Data: Dates
2949
d420ca49 2950=over 4
4755096e
GS
2951
2952=item How do I find the week-of-the-year/day-of-the-year?
2953
2954=item How do I find the current century or millennium?
2955
2956=item How can I compare two dates and find the difference?
2957
2958=item How can I take a string and turn it into epoch seconds?
2959
2960=item How can I find the Julian Day?
2961
2962=item How do I find yesterday's date?
2963
2964=item Does Perl have a Year 2000 problem? Is Perl Y2K compliant?
2965
2966=back
2967
2968=item Data: Strings
2969
d420ca49 2970=over 4
4755096e
GS
2971
2972=item How do I validate input?
2973
2974=item How do I unescape a string?
2975
2976=item How do I remove consecutive pairs of characters?
2977
2978=item How do I expand function calls in a string?
2979
2980=item How do I find matching/nesting anything?
2981
2982=item How do I reverse a string?
2983
2984=item How do I expand tabs in a string?
2985
2986=item How do I reformat a paragraph?
2987
2988=item How can I access/change the first N letters of a string?
2989
2990=item How do I change the Nth occurrence of something?
2991
2992=item How can I count the number of occurrences of a substring within a
2993string?
2994
2995=item How do I capitalize all the words on one line?
2996
2997=item How can I split a [character] delimited string except when inside
2998[character]? (Comma-separated files)
2999
3000=item How do I strip blank space from the beginning/end of a string?
3001
3002=item How do I pad a string with blanks or pad a number with zeroes?
3003
3004=item How do I extract selected columns from a string?
3005
3006=item How do I find the soundex value of a string?
3007
3008=item How can I expand variables in text strings?
3009
3010=item What's wrong with always quoting "$vars"?
3011
3012=item Why don't my <<HERE documents work?
3013
30141. There must be no space after the << part, 2. There (probably) should be
3015a semicolon at the end, 3. You can't (easily) have any space in front of
3016the tag
3017
3018=back
3019
3020=item Data: Arrays
3021
d420ca49 3022=over 4
4755096e
GS
3023
3024=item What is the difference between a list and an array?
3025
3026=item What is the difference between $array[1] and @array[1]?
3027
3028=item How can I remove duplicate elements from a list or array?
3029
ab648d5e 3030a), b), c), d), e)
4755096e 3031
389925df
JH
3032=item How can I tell whether a certain element is contained in a list or
3033array?
4755096e
GS
3034
3035=item How do I compute the difference of two arrays? How do I compute the
3036intersection of two arrays?
3037
3038=item How do I test whether two arrays or hashes are equal?
3039
3040=item How do I find the first array element for which a condition is true?
3041
3042=item How do I handle linked lists?
3043
3044=item How do I handle circular lists?
3045
3046=item How do I shuffle an array randomly?
3047
3048=item How do I process/modify each element of an array?
3049
3050=item How do I select a random element from an array?
3051
3052=item How do I permute N elements of a list?
3053
3054=item How do I sort an array by (anything)?
3055
3056=item How do I manipulate arrays of bits?
3057
3058=item Why does defined() return true on empty arrays and hashes?
3059
3060=back
3061
3062=item Data: Hashes (Associative Arrays)
3063
d420ca49 3064=over 4
4755096e
GS
3065
3066=item How do I process an entire hash?
3067
3068=item What happens if I add or remove keys from a hash while iterating over
3069it?
3070
3071=item How do I look up a hash element by value?
3072
3073=item How can I know how many entries are in a hash?
3074
3075=item How do I sort a hash (optionally by value instead of key)?
3076
3077=item How can I always keep my hash sorted?
3078
3079=item What's the difference between "delete" and "undef" with hashes?
3080
3081=item Why don't my tied hashes make the defined/exists distinction?
3082
3083=item How do I reset an each() operation part-way through?
3084
3085=item How can I get the unique keys from two hashes?
3086
3087=item How can I store a multidimensional array in a DBM file?
3088
3089=item How can I make my hash remember the order I put elements into it?
3090
3091=item Why does passing a subroutine an undefined element in a hash create
3092it?
3093
3094=item How can I make the Perl equivalent of a C structure/C++ class/hash or
3095array of hashes or arrays?
3096
3097=item How can I use a reference as a hash key?
3098
3099=back
3100
3101=item Data: Misc
3102
d420ca49 3103=over 4
4755096e
GS
3104
3105=item How do I handle binary data correctly?
3106
3107=item How do I determine whether a scalar is a number/whole/integer/float?
3108
3109=item How do I keep persistent data across program calls?
3110
3111=item How do I print out or copy a recursive data structure?
3112
3113=item How do I define methods for every class/object?
3114
3115=item How do I verify a credit card checksum?
3116
3117=item How do I pack arrays of doubles or floats for XS code?
3118
3119=back
3120
3121=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
3122
3123=back
3124
80637b95
JH
3125=head2 perlfaq5 - Files and Formats ($Revision: 1.5 $, $Date: 2001/12/18
312609:01:14 $)
4755096e 3127
d420ca49 3128=over 4
4755096e
GS
3129
3130=item DESCRIPTION
3131
d420ca49 3132=over 4
4755096e
GS
3133
3134=item How do I flush/unbuffer an output filehandle? Why must I do this?
3135
3136=item How do I change one line in a file/delete a line in a file/insert a
3137line in the middle of a file/append to the beginning of a file?
3138
3139=item How do I count the number of lines in a file?
3140
3141=item How do I make a temporary file name?
3142
3143=item How can I manipulate fixed-record-length files?
3144
3145=item How can I make a filehandle local to a subroutine? How do I pass
3146filehandles between subroutines? How do I make an array of filehandles?
3147
3148=item How can I use a filehandle indirectly?
3149
3150=item How can I set up a footer format to be used with write()?
3151
3152=item How can I write() into a string?
3153
3154=item How can I output my numbers with commas added?
3155
3156=item How can I translate tildes (~) in a filename?
3157
3158=item How come when I open a file read-write it wipes it out?
3159
3160=item Why do I sometimes get an "Argument list too long" when I use <*>?
3161
3162=item Is there a leak/bug in glob()?
3163
3164=item How can I open a file with a leading ">" or trailing blanks?
3165
3166=item How can I reliably rename a file?
3167
3168=item How can I lock a file?
3169
3170=item Why can't I just open(FH, ">file.lock")?
3171
3172=item I still don't get locking. I just want to increment the number in
3173the file. How can I do this?
3174
1fa7ca25
JH
3175=item All I want to do is append a small amount of text to the end of a
3176file. Do I still have to use locking?
3177
4755096e
GS
3178=item How do I randomly update a binary file?
3179
3180=item How do I get a file's timestamp in perl?
3181
3182=item How do I set a file's timestamp in perl?
3183
3184=item How do I print to more than one file at once?
3185
3186=item How can I read in an entire file all at once?
3187
3188=item How can I read in a file by paragraphs?
3189
3190=item How can I read a single character from a file? From the keyboard?
3191
3192=item How can I tell whether there's a character waiting on a filehandle?
3193
3194=item How do I do a C<tail -f> in perl?
3195
3196=item How do I dup() a filehandle in Perl?
3197
3198=item How do I close a file descriptor by number?
3199
3200=item Why can't I use "C:\temp\foo" in DOS paths? What doesn't
3201`C:\temp\foo.exe` work?
3202
3203=item Why doesn't glob("*.*") get all the files?
3204
3205=item Why does Perl let me delete read-only files? Why does C<-i> clobber
3206protected files? Isn't this a bug in Perl?
3207
3208=item How do I select a random line from a file?
3209
3210=item Why do I get weird spaces when I print an array of lines?
3211
3212=back
3213
3214=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
3215
3216=back
3217
3ecb3787 3218=head2 perlfaq6 - Regexes ($Revision: 1.5 $, $Date: 2001/12/02 01:55:12 $)
4755096e 3219
d420ca49 3220=over 4
4755096e
GS
3221
3222=item DESCRIPTION
3223
d420ca49 3224=over 4
4755096e
GS
3225
3226=item How can I hope to use regular expressions without creating illegible
3227and unmaintainable code?
3228
3229Comments Outside the Regex, Comments Inside the Regex, Different Delimiters
3230
3231=item I'm having trouble matching over more than one line. What's wrong?
3232
3233=item How can I pull out lines between two patterns that are themselves on
3234different lines?
3235
3236=item I put a regular expression into $/ but it didn't work. What's wrong?
3237
d420ca49 3238=item How do I substitute case insensitively on the LHS while preserving
4755096e
GS
3239case on the RHS?
3240
3241=item How can I make C<\w> match national character sets?
3242
3243=item How can I match a locale-smart version of C</[a-zA-Z]/>?
3244
3245=item How can I quote a variable to use in a regex?
3246
3247=item What is C</o> really for?
3248
3249=item How do I use a regular expression to strip C style comments from a
3250file?
3251
3252=item Can I use Perl regular expressions to match balanced text?
3253
3254=item What does it mean that regexes are greedy? How can I get around it?
3255
165c0277 3256=item How do I process each word on each line?
4755096e
GS
3257
3258=item How can I print out a word-frequency or line-frequency summary?
3259
3260=item How can I do approximate matching?
3261
3262=item How do I efficiently match many regular expressions at once?
3263
3264=item Why don't word-boundary searches with C<\b> work for me?
3265
3266=item Why does using $&, $`, or $' slow my program down?
3267
3268=item What good is C<\G> in a regular expression?
3269
3270=item Are Perl regexes DFAs or NFAs? Are they POSIX compliant?
3271
3272=item What's wrong with using grep or map in a void context?
3273
3274=item How can I match strings with multibyte characters?
3275
3276=item How do I match a pattern that is supplied by the user?
3277
3278=back
3279
3280=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
3281
3282=back
3283
cb52f95f
JH
3284=head2 perlfaq7 - Perl Language Issues ($Revision: 1.4 $, $Date: 2001/11/07
328502:27:50 $)
4755096e 3286
d420ca49 3287=over 4
4755096e
GS
3288
3289=item DESCRIPTION
3290
d420ca49 3291=over 4
4755096e
GS
3292
3293=item Can I get a BNF/yacc/RE for the Perl language?
3294
3295=item What are all these $@%&* punctuation signs, and how do I know when to
3296use them?
3297
3298=item Do I always/never have to quote my strings or use semicolons and
3299commas?
3300
3301=item How do I skip some return values?
68dc0745
PP
3302
3303=item How do I temporarily block warnings?
3304
3305=item What's an extension?
3306
3307=item Why do Perl operators have different precedence than C operators?
3308
3309=item How do I declare/create a structure?
3310
3311=item How do I create a module?
3312
3313=item How do I create a class?
3314
3315=item How can I tell if a variable is tainted?
3316
3317=item What's a closure?
3318
46fc3d4c
PP
3319=item What is variable suicide and how can I prevent it?
3320
68dc0745 3321=item How can I pass/return a {Function, FileHandle, Array, Hash, Method,
14218588 3322Regex}?
68dc0745 3323
14218588 3324Passing Variables and Functions, Passing Filehandles, Passing Regexes,
68dc0745
PP
3325Passing Methods
3326
3327=item How do I create a static variable?
3328
14218588 3329=item What's the difference between dynamic and lexical (static) scoping?
68dc0745
PP
3330Between local() and my()?
3331
3332=item How can I access a dynamic variable while a similarly named lexical
3333is in scope?
3334
3335=item What's the difference between deep and shallow binding?
3336
b38f6a39 3337=item Why doesn't "my($foo) = <FILE>;" work right?
68dc0745 3338
54310121 3339=item How do I redefine a builtin function, operator, or method?
68dc0745
PP
3340
3341=item What's the difference between calling a function as &foo and foo()?
3342
3343=item How do I create a switch or case statement?
3344
3345=item How can I catch accesses to undefined variables/functions/methods?
3346
3347=item Why can't a method included in this same file be found?
3348
3349=item How can I find out my current package?
3350
46fc3d4c
PP
3351=item How can I comment out a large block of perl code?
3352
14218588
GS
3353=item How do I clear a package?
3354
3355=item How can I use a variable as a variable name?
3356
68dc0745
PP
3357=back
3358
3359=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
3360
a45bd81d
GS
3361=back
3362
cb52f95f
JH
3363=head2 perlfaq8 - System Interaction ($Revision: 1.4 $, $Date: 2001/11/09
336408:06:04 $)
68dc0745 3365
d420ca49 3366=over 4
a45bd81d 3367
68dc0745
PP
3368=item DESCRIPTION
3369
d420ca49 3370=over 4
68dc0745
PP
3371
3372=item How do I find out which operating system I'm running under?
3373
3374=item How come exec() doesn't return?
3375
3376=item How do I do fancy stuff with the keyboard/screen/mouse?
3377
3378Keyboard, Screen, Mouse
3379
fb9cefb4
GS
3380=item How do I print something out in color?
3381
3382=item How do I read just one key without waiting for a return key?
3383
3384=item How do I check whether input is ready on the keyboard?
3385
3386=item How do I clear the screen?
3387
3388=item How do I get the screen size?
3389
68dc0745
PP
3390=item How do I ask the user for a password?
3391
3392=item How do I read and write the serial port?
3393
3394lockfiles, open mode, end of line, flushing output, non-blocking input
3395
3396=item How do I decode encrypted password files?
3397
3398=item How do I start a process in the background?
3399
fb9cefb4 3400STDIN, STDOUT, and STDERR are shared, Signals, Zombies
68dc0745
PP
3401
3402=item How do I trap control characters/signals?
3403
3404=item How do I modify the shadow password file on a Unix system?
3405
3406=item How do I set the time and date?
3407
3408=item How can I sleep() or alarm() for under a second?
3409
3410=item How can I measure time under a second?
3411
3412=item How can I do an atexit() or setjmp()/longjmp()? (Exception handling)
3413
d420ca49 3414=item Why doesn't my sockets program work under System V (Solaris)? What
68dc0745
PP
3415does the error message "Protocol not supported" mean?
3416
3417=item How can I call my system's unique C functions from Perl?
3418
3419=item Where do I get the include files to do ioctl() or syscall()?
3420
3421=item Why do setuid perl scripts complain about kernel problems?
3422
3423=item How can I open a pipe both to and from a command?
3424
3fe9a6f1
PP
3425=item Why can't I get the output of a command with system()?
3426
68dc0745
PP
3427=item How can I capture STDERR from an external command?
3428
3429=item Why doesn't open() return an error when a pipe open fails?
3430
3431=item What's wrong with using backticks in a void context?
3432
3433=item How can I call backticks without shell processing?
3434
3435=item Why can't my script read from STDIN after I gave it EOF (^D on Unix,
54310121 3436^Z on MS-DOS)?
68dc0745
PP
3437
3438=item How can I convert my shell script to perl?
3439
3440=item Can I use perl to run a telnet or ftp session?
3441
3442=item How can I write expect in Perl?
3443
3444=item Is there a way to hide perl's command line from programs such as
3445"ps"?
3446
3447=item I {changed directory, modified my environment} in a perl script. How
3448come the change disappeared when I exited the script? How do I get my
3449changes to be visible?
3450
fb9cefb4 3451Unix
68dc0745
PP
3452
3453=item How do I close a process's filehandle without waiting for it to
3454complete?
3455
3456=item How do I fork a daemon process?
3457
68dc0745
PP
3458=item How do I find out if I'm running interactively or not?
3459
3460=item How do I timeout a slow event?
3461
3462=item How do I set CPU limits?
3463
3464=item How do I avoid zombies on a Unix system?
3465
3466=item How do I use an SQL database?
3467
3468=item How do I make a system() exit on control-C?
3469
3470=item How do I open a file without blocking?
3471
14218588 3472=item How do I install a module from CPAN?
68dc0745 3473
fb9cefb4
GS
3474=item What's the difference between require and use?
3475
46fc3d4c
PP
3476=item How do I keep my own module/library directory?
3477
3478=item How do I add the directory my program lives in to the module/library
3479search path?
3480
3481=item How do I add a directory to my include path at runtime?
3482
14218588
GS
3483=item What is socket.ph and where do I get it?
3484
68dc0745
PP
3485=back
3486
fc36a67e
PP
3487=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
3488
a45bd81d
GS
3489=back
3490
cb52f95f 3491=head2 perlfaq9 - Networking ($Revision: 1.5 $, $Date: 2001/11/09 08:06:04
3fe9a6f1 3492$)
68dc0745 3493
d420ca49 3494=over 4
a45bd81d 3495
68dc0745
PP
3496=item DESCRIPTION
3497
d420ca49 3498=over 4
68dc0745 3499
35bf961c
JH
3500=item What is the correct form of response from a CGI script?
3501