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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
6df41af2 53=item Allocation too large: %lx
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
6df41af2 92=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 93
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94(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
95redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
96redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 97
6df41af2 98=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 99
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100(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
101redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
102into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
103though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
104which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 105
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106 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
107 while (<STDIN>) {
108 print;
109 print OUT;
110 }
111 close OUT;
c9f97d15 112
6df41af2 113=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 114
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115(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
116transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 117one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 118a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
119hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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120you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
121alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 122
6df41af2 123=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 124
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125(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
126with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
127impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
128for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 129
6df41af2 130=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 131
6df41af2 132(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 133
b0fdf69e 134=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 135
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136(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
137subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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138
139 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 140 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 141 &do_something
a0d0e21e 142
8ea97a1e 143=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 144
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145(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
146such as:
5f05dabc 147
148 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 149 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 150
8ea97a1e 151or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 152
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153 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
154 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 155
6df41af2 156=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 157
6df41af2 158(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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159name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
160error.
a0d0e21e 161
f86702cc 162=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 163
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164(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
165that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
166will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 167
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168=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
169
170(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
171forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
172data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
173the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
174If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
175the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
176
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177=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
178
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179(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
180spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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181
182=item assertion botched: %s
183
184(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
185
186=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
187
188(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
189
190=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
191
192(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
193must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
194know which context to supply to the right side.
195
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196=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
197
4447dfc1 198(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
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199thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
200Usually it's a good idea to first collect the return values of the
201created threads by joining them, and only then exit from the main
202thread. See L<threads>.
203
2393f1b9 204=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 205
49293501 206(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 207the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 208
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209=item Attempt to bless into a reference
210
211(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
212the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
213supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
214
215 bless $self, $proto;
216
217when you intended
218
219 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
220
221If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
222of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
223example by:
224
225 bless $self, "$proto";
226
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227=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
228
229(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
230which is not in its key set.
231
232=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
233
234(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
235declared readonly from a restricted hash.
236
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237=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
238
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239(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
240that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
241outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 242
54310121 243=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 244
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245(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
246strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
247strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
248of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 249
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250=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
251
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252(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
253free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
254SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
255free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
256try to free it.
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257
258=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
259
e476b1b5 260(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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261
262=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
263
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264(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
265see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
266earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
267This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
268that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
269mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
270corrupted.
a0d0e21e 271
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272=item Attempt to join self
273
274(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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275impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
276to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 277
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278=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
279
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280(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
281function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
282means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
283invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
284literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
285avoid this warning.
84902520 286
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287=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
288
289(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
290compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
291unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
292L<perlvar/%INC>.
293
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294=item Attempt to set length of freed array
295
296(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
297can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
298of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
299
300 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
301 $$r = 503
302
b7a902f4 303=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
304
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305(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
306used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
307dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 308
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309=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
310
311(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "locked"
312attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
313effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in the next major
314release of Perl 5.
315
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316=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
317
318(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 319attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
259976bd 320had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in the next major
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321release of Perl 5.
322
fe13d51d 323=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
a0d0e21e 324
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325(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
326or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 327S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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328S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
329
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330=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
331
496a33f5 332(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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333substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
334most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
335
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336=item Bad filehandle: %s
337
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338(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
339symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
340open(), or did it in another package.
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341
342=item Bad free() ignored
343
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344(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
345been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 346setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 347
9ea8bc6d 348This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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349dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
350which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 351
aa689395 352=item Bad hash
353
354(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
355
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356=item Badly placed ()'s
357
358(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
359of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
360Perl yourself.
361
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362=item Bad name after %s::
363
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364(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
365didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
366of quotes, so
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367
368 $var = 'myvar';
369 $sym = mypack::$var;
370
371is not the same as
372
373 $var = 'myvar';
374 $sym = "mypack::$var";
375
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376=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
377
378(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
379plugin API.
380
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381=item Bad realloc() ignored
382
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383(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
384never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
385by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 386
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387=item Bad symbol for array
388
389(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
390wasn't a symbol table entry.
391
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392=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
393
394(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
395that wasn't a symbol table entry.
396
397
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398=item Bad symbol for filehandle
399
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400(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
401that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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402
403=item Bad symbol for hash
404
405(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
406wasn't a symbol table entry.
407
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408=item Bareword found in conditional
409
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410(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
411conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
412of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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413
414 open FOO || die;
415
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416It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
417a bareword:
34d09196
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418
419 use constant TYPO => 1;
420 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
421
422The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
423
6df41af2
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424=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
425
426(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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427subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
428symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
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429
430=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
431
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432(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
433compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
434you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 435
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436=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
437
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438(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
439subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
440exited.
a0d0e21e 441
68dc0745 442=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
443
444(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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445implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
446occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
447be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
448depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 449
6df41af2
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450=item \1 better written as $1
451
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452(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
453The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
454substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
455because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
456there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 457
252aa082
JH
458=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
459
e476b1b5 460(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
461(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
462L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 463
69282e91 464=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 465
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466(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
467check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 468
c289d2f7
JH
469=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
470
471(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
472Check you control flow and number of arguments.
473
c5a0f51a
JH
474=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
475
e476b1b5 476(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 477
4633a7c4
LW
478=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
479
be771a83 480(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
b45f050a 481copyable.
4633a7c4 482
f675dbe5
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483=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
484
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485(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
486iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
487which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 488
a0d0e21e
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489=item Callback called exit
490
4929bf7b 491(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
492exited by calling exit.
493
6df41af2 494=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 495
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496(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
497parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
498that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
499early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
500subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
501checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
502function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
503the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 504
49704364 505=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
506
507(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
508compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
509attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
510See L<perlfunc/pack>.
511
49704364 512=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
513
514(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
515format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
516
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NC
517=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
518
519(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
520then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
521triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
522from that type of reference to a typeglob.
523
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NC
524=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
525
526(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
527be directly assigned not.
528
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RGS
529=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
530
531(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
532either with open() or binmode().
533
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534=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
535
536(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
537integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
538to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
539
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540=item Can't bless non-reference value
541
542(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
543encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
544
dc57907a
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545=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
546
0d863452
RH
547(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
548a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
549
550=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 551
0d863452
RH
552(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
553
a0d0e21e
LW
554=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
555
556(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
557functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
558in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
559
6df41af2
GS
560=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
561
562(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
563object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
564like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
565
566 $BADREF = undef;
567 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
568 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
569
a0d0e21e
LW
570=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
571
54310121 572(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
573ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
574didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
575object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
576
577=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
578
579(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
580object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
581defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
582Something like this will reproduce the error:
583
584 $BADREF = 42;
585 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
586 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
587
a0d0e21e
LW
588=item Can't chdir to %s
589
590(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
591that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
592
0545a864 593=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 594
be771a83
GS
595(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
596nosuid.
104d25b7 597
6df41af2
GS
598=item Can't coerce array into hash
599
600(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
601information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
602only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
603
a0d0e21e
LW
604=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
605
606(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 607(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
608say things like:
609
610 *foo += 1;
611
612You CAN say
613
614 $foo = *foo;
615 $foo += 1;
616
617but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
618
619=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
620
621(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 622(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
623
624=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
625
626(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 627(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 628
0d863452 629=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 630
0d863452
RH
631(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
632or C<default> block.
633
a0d0e21e
LW
634=item Can't create pipe mailbox
635
be771a83
GS
636(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
637quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 638
eb64745e 639=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 640
2f7e735d 641(F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared with a specific
30c282f6 642class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration. The semantics may be
2f7e735d 643extended for other types of variables in future.
eb64745e
GS
644
645=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
646
30c282f6
NC
647(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
648"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 649
6df41af2
GS
650=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
651
be771a83
GS
652(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
653a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 654
a0d0e21e
LW
655=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
656
be771a83
GS
657(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
658reason.
a0d0e21e 659
54310121 660=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 661
be771a83
GS
662(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
663reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
664C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 665
10f9c03d 666=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 667
e476b1b5 668(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
669characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
670inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 671
7253e4e3 672=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 673
b45f050a 674(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 675regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 676regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 677
a0d0e21e
LW
678=item Can't do waitpid with flags
679
be771a83
GS
680(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
681waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 682
a0d0e21e
LW
683=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
684
be771a83
GS
685(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
686point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
687line.
a0d0e21e 688
1109a392
MHM
689=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
690
691(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
692or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
693little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
694See L<perlfunc/pack>.
695
a0d0e21e
LW
696=item Can't exec "%s": %s
697
d1be9408 698(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
699named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
700permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
701C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
702architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
703can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
704#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
705
706=item Can't exec %s
707
be771a83
GS
708(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
709that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
710need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
711
712=item Can't execute %s
713
be771a83
GS
714(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
715found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 716
6df41af2 717=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 718
be771a83
GS
719(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
720is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 721
56ca2fc0
JH
722=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
723
724(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
725could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
726See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
727for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 728
6df41af2
GS
729=item Can't find label %s
730
be771a83
GS
731(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
732possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
733
734=item Can't find %s on PATH
735
be771a83
GS
736(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
737found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 738
6df41af2 739=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 740
be771a83
GS
741(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
742found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
743script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
744
745=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
746
be771a83
GS
747(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
748that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
749nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 750
fb73857a 751 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
752
be771a83
GS
753If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
754unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
755editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 756
660a4616
TS
757=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
758
759(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property (for
e1b711da
KW
760example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase letters). If you did mean to use a
761Unicode property, see
762L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
763for a complete list of available properties.
660a4616
TS
764If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
765by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
766possible C<\E>).
767
b3647a36 768=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 769
be771a83
GS
770(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
771pipeline.
a0d0e21e 772
b3647a36
SR
773=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
774
c973c02e 775(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
776after five seconds.
777
748a9306
LW
778=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
779
be771a83
GS
780(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
781between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
782Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
783the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
784account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
785the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
786the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
787the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
788if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
789because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
790appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
791and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
792routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
793shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
794only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 795
a0d0e21e
LW
796=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
797
be771a83
GS
798(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
799pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
800
801=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
802
748a9306
LW
803(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
804mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 805
6df41af2 806=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 807
be771a83
GS
808(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
809loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
810
811=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
812
be771a83
GS
813(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
814a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
815you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
816See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 817
9850bf21 818=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 819
9850bf21
RH
820(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
821comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
822as the reduce() function in List::Util).
823
c74ace89 824=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 825
be771a83 826(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 827"string" or block.
b150fb22 828
6df41af2
GS
829=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
830
be771a83
GS
831(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
832subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
833cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
834routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 835
0b5b802d
GS
836=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
837
be771a83
GS
838(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
839signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
840signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
841processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
842situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
843may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 844
e2c0f81f
DG
845=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
846
847(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
848attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
849process identifier.
850
6df41af2 851=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 852
6df41af2 853(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
854except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
855block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
856block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
857usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
858inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
859L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 860
2c7d6b9c
RGS
861=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
862
863(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
864package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
865
b8170e59
JB
866=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
867
868(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
869may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
870incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
871between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 872extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
873installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
874extensions.
875
748a9306
LW
876=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
877
2ba9eb46 878(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 879lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
880localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
881package name.
882
6df41af2 883=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 884
6df41af2
GS
885(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
886handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 887pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 888that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 889
ea071790 890=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
891
892(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
893found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
894unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
895need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
896the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
897to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
898L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 899
6df41af2
GS
900=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
901
be771a83
GS
902(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
903autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
904are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
905the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 906
b8170e59
JB
907=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
908
909(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
910for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
911unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
912
a0d0e21e
LW
913=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
914
915(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
916functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 917method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
918
919=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
920
be771a83
GS
921(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
922doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 923
2f7da168
RK
924=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
925
926(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
927e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
928
3e3baf6d
TB
929=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
930
be771a83
GS
931(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
932VMS.
3e3baf6d 933
a0d0e21e
LW
934=item Can't modify %s in %s
935
be771a83
GS
936(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
937to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 938
54310121 939=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
940
941(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
942a NULL.
943
6df41af2
GS
944=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
945
946(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
947such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
948
5f05dabc 949=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 950
5f05dabc 951(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
952buffer.
953
6df41af2
GS
954=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
955
956(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
957there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
958count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
959grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
960though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
961once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 962
a0d0e21e
LW
963=item Can't open %s: %s
964
c47ff5f1 965(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
966filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
967switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
968is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
969the command line.
a0d0e21e 970
9a869a14
RGS
971=item Can't open a reference
972
973(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
974using the 3-arg open() syntax :
975
976 open FH, '>', $ref;
977
978but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
979open is not supported.
980
a0d0e21e
LW
981=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
982
be771a83
GS
983(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
984You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
985as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
986">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 987
748a9306
LW
988=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
989
be771a83
GS
990(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
991redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
992the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
993
994=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
995
be771a83
GS
996(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
997redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
998command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
999
1000=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1001
be771a83
GS
1002(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1003redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1004the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1005
1006=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1007
be771a83
GS
1008(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1009redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1010for stdout.
748a9306 1011
2b8ca739 1012=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1013
1014(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1015
fa3aa65a
JC
1016If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1017shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1018you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1019
6df41af2
GS
1020=item Can't read CRTL environ
1021
1022(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1023from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1024missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1025or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1026searched.
6df41af2 1027
6df41af2
GS
1028=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1029
1030(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1031there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1032count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1033or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1034though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1035loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1036
64977eb6 1037=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1038
be771a83
GS
1039(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1040file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1041the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1042
a0d0e21e
LW
1043=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1044
e476b1b5 1045(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1046probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1047
748a9306
LW
1048=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1049
be771a83
GS
1050(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1051to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1052
fe13d51d 1053=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1054
be771a83
GS
1055(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1056to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
1057method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1058
cd06dffe
GS
1059=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1060
be771a83
GS
1061(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1062temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1063is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1064
96ebfdd7
RK
1065=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1066
1067(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1068there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1069
78f9721b
SM
1070=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1071
1072(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1073but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1074to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1075the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1076list context.
1077
a0d0e21e
LW
1078=item Can't stat script "%s"
1079
be771a83
GS
1080(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1081open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1082
a0d0e21e
LW
1083=item Can't take log of %g
1084
fb73857a 1085(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1086negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1087standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1088negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1089
1090=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1091
1092(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a 1093negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1094with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1095
1096=item Can't undef active subroutine
1097
1098(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1099however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1100redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1101
1102=item Can't unshift
1103
1104(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1105as the main Perl stack.
1106
c81225bc 1107=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1108
be771a83
GS
1109(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1110into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1111specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1112indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1113
1db89ea5
BS
1114=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1115
e27ad1f2 1116(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1117table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1118for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1119
96ebfdd7
RK
1120=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1121
1122(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1123be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1124
6df41af2
GS
1125=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1126
be771a83
GS
1127(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1128references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1129
90b75b61 1130=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1131
1132(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1133Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1134provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1135
1109a392
MHM
1136=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1137
1138(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1139byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1140allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1141
6df41af2
GS
1142=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1143
be771a83
GS
1144(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1145foreach.
6df41af2 1146
aab6a793 1147=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1148
be771a83
GS
1149(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1150is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1151(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1152have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1153weren't.
1154
6d3b25aa
RGS
1155=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1156
1157(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1158that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1159For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1160is inside a big-endian group.
1161
28ccebc4
RGS
1162=item Can't use keyword '%s' as a label
1163
1164(F) You attempted to use a reserved keyword, such as C<print> or C<BEGIN>,
1165as a statement label. This is disallowed since Perl 5.11.0.
1166
c07a80fd 1167=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1168
1169(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1170You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd 1171and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1172Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1173lexical variable.
1174
a0d0e21e
LW
1175=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1176
1177(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1178reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1179test the type of the reference, if need be.
1180
748a9306 1181=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1182
be771a83
GS
1183(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1184references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1185
748a9306
LW
1186=item Can't use subscript on %s
1187
1188(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1189subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1190didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1191
6df41af2
GS
1192=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1193
75b44862
GS
1194(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1195creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1196backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1197expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1198value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1199instead.
6df41af2 1200
0d863452 1201=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1202
0d863452
RH
1203(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1204loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1205from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1206or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1207
810b8aa5
GS
1208=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1209
1210(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1211references can be weakened.
1212
5f05dabc 1213=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1214
be771a83
GS
1215(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1216with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1217Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1218
f337b084 1219=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1220
1221(W pack) You said
1222
1223 pack("C", $x)
1224
1225where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1226only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1227and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1228
1229 pack("C", $x & 255)
1230
1231If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1232instead.
1233
f337b084
TH
1234=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1235
1236(W pack) You said
1237
1238 pack("U0W", $x)
1239
1240where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1241all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1242meant:
1243
1244 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1245
1246=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1247
1248(W pack) You said
1249
1250 pack("c", $x)
1251
1252where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1253is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1254and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1255
1256 pack("c", $x & 255);
1257
1258If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1259instead.
1260
f337b084
TH
1261=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1262
1263(W unpack) You tried something like
1264
1265 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1266
1a147d38 1267where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1268below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1269modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1270
1271 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1272
1273=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1274
1275(W pack) You tried something like
1276
1277 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1278
1a147d38
YO
1279where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1280value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1281uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1282
1283 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1284
1285=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1286
1287(W unpack) You tried something like
1288
1289 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1290
1a147d38
YO
1291where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1292value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1293uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1294
1295 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1296
96ebfdd7
RK
1297=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1298
1299(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1300
abc7ecad
SP
1301=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1302
1303(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1304a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1305
49704364
WL
1306=item Code missing after '/'
1307
1308(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1309template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1310
6df41af2
GS
1311=item %s: Command not found
1312
be771a83
GS
1313(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1314Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1315
7a2e2cd6 1316=item Compilation failed in require
1317
1318(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1319Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1320encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1321
c3464db5
DD
1322=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1323
be771a83
GS
1324(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1325situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1326to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1327arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1328recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1329under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1330in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1331that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1332on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1333
38875929
DM
1334=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1335
1336(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1337cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
1338function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1339cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1340has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1341first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1342after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1343lock.
1344
38875929
DM
1345=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1346
1347(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1348cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
1349function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1350cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1351has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1352first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1353after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1354lock.
1355
69282e91 1356=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1357
be771a83
GS
1358(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1359to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1360L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1361
41ab332f 1362=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1363
be771a83
GS
1364(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1365an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1366specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1367corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1368L<overload>.
6df41af2 1369
fc8cd66c
YO
1370=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1371
1a147d38
YO
1372(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1373the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1374forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1375See L<charnames>.
1376
1377
779c5bc9
GS
1378=item Constant is not %s reference
1379
1380(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1381is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1382The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1383usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1384See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1385
4cee8e80
CS
1386=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1387
bb028877 1388(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1389eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1390commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1391
9607fc9c 1392=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1393
be771a83
GS
1394(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1395for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1396workarounds.
9607fc9c 1397
e7ea3e70
IZ
1398=item Copy method did not return a reference
1399
64977eb6 1400(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1401L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1402
6798c92b
GS
1403=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1404
1405(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1406
a0d0e21e
LW
1407=item corrupted regexp pointers
1408
1409(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1410expression compiler gave it.
1411
1412=item corrupted regexp program
1413
be771a83
GS
1414(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1415valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1416
6df41af2
GS
1417=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1418
1419(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1420
49704364
WL
1421=item Count after length/code in unpack
1422
1423(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1424you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1425L<perlfunc/pack>.
1426
a0d0e21e
LW
1427=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1428
be771a83
GS
1429(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1430100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1431infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1432which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1433
aad1d01f
NC
1434This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1435setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1436
f10b0346 1437=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1438
be771a83
GS
1439(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1440checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1441array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1442
f10b0346 1443=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1444
be771a83
GS
1445(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1446checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1447is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1448
62658f4d
PM
1449=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1450
1451(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1452there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1453
fc36a67e 1454=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1455
be771a83
GS
1456(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1457long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1458that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1459
cb233ae3
KW
1460=item Deprecated character(s) in \\N{...} starting at '%s'
1461
1462(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
1463But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names are
1464deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character and
1465continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces, parentheses or
1466colons.
1467
6d3b25aa
RGS
1468=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1469
1470(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1471There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1472not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1473conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1474static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1475relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1476declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1477
6d3b25aa
RGS
1478 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1479
1480becomes
1481
1482 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1483
36fb85f3
RGS
1484Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1485have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1486
1487 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1488
500ab966
RGS
1489=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1490
1491(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1492just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1493to create a dangling reference.
1494
3cdd684c
TP
1495=item Did not produce a valid header
1496
1497See Server error.
1498
6df41af2
GS
1499=item %s did not return a true value
1500
1501(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1502it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1503traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1504do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1505
cc507455 1506=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1507
be771a83
GS
1508(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some
1509such.
4633a7c4 1510
cc507455 1511=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1512
be771a83
GS
1513(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1514variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1515seems superfluous.
33633739 1516
cc507455 1517=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1518
be771a83
GS
1519(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1520@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1521carried away.
748a9306 1522
7e1af8bc 1523=item Died
5f05dabc 1524
1525(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1526you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1527
3cdd684c
TP
1528=item Document contains no data
1529
1530See Server error.
1531
62658f4d
PM
1532=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1533
1534(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1535define a C<$VERSION.>
1536
49704364
WL
1537=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1538
1539(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1540See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1541
a0d0e21e
LW
1542=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1543
1544(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1545
1546=item do_study: out of memory
1547
1548(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1549
6df41af2
GS
1550=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1551
56da5a46
RGS
1552(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1553"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1554name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1555because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1556"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1557something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1558subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1559"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1560
ac206dc8
RGS
1561=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1562
1563(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1564qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1565
84d78eb7
YO
1566=item dump is not supported
1567
1568(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1569
a0d0e21e
LW
1570=item Duplicate free() ignored
1571
be771a83
GS
1572(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1573already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1574
1109a392
MHM
1575=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1576
1577(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1578in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1579
4633a7c4
LW
1580=item elseif should be elsif
1581
56da5a46
RGS
1582(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1583ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1584"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1585unlikely to be what you want.
1586
ab13f0c7
JH
1587=item Empty %s
1588
af6f566e
HS
1589(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1590described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1591a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1592
85ab1d1d 1593=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1594
85ab1d1d 1595(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1596effective uids or gids failed.
1597
c038024b
RGS
1598=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1599
1600(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1601aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1602program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1603
748a9306
LW
1604=item Error converting file specification %s
1605
5f05dabc 1606(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1607specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1608single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1609an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1610conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1611
e4d48cc9
GS
1612=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1613
be771a83
GS
1614(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1615expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1616is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1617
fc8f615e 1618=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1619
be771a83
GS
1620(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1621C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1622pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1623is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1624building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1625that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1626
6df41af2
GS
1627=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1628
be771a83
GS
1629(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1630assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1631pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1632
1a147d38
YO
1633=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1634
1635(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1636any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1637
1638The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1639discovered.
1640
fc36a67e 1641=item Excessively long <> operator
1642
1643(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1644Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1645filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1646variable and glob that.
1647
ed9aa3b7
SG
1648=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1649
1650(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented in MacPerl. See L<perlport>.
1651
fe13d51d 1652=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1653
1654(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1655
1656=item Exiting eval via %s
1657
be771a83
GS
1658(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1659goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1660
1661=item Exiting format via %s
1662
9a2ff54b 1663(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1664goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1665
0a753a76 1666=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1667
be771a83
GS
1668(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1669sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1670loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1671
a0d0e21e
LW
1672=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1673
be771a83
GS
1674(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1675as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1676
1677=item Exiting substitution via %s
1678
be771a83
GS
1679(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1680as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1681
7b8d334a
GS
1682=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1683
be771a83
GS
1684(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1685the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1686usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1687e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1688
6df41af2
GS
1689=item %s: Expression syntax
1690
be771a83
GS
1691(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1692Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1693
1694=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1695
3c10abe3
AG
1696(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1697CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1698queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1699
7253e4e3 1700=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1701
be771a83 1702(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1703character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1704in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1705"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1706problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1707
748a9306 1708=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1709
be771a83
GS
1710(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1711system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1712details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1713you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1714
1715=item fcntl is not implemented
1716
1717(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1718PDP-11 or something?
1719
22846ab4
AB
1720=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1721
1722(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1723is not possible.
1724
f337b084
TH
1725=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1726
1727(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1728which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1729a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
1730C<u63> as format.
1731
af8c498a 1732=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1733
6c8d78fb
HS
1734(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1735it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1736"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1737write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1738
af8c498a 1739=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1740
6c8d78fb
HS
1741(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1742you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
be771a83
GS
1743with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1744intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
6c8d78fb
HS
1745Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0
1746(also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1747
1748=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1749
1750(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1751as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1752previously.
1753
1754=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1755
1756(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1757as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1758
1759=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1760
1761(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1762a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1763happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1764name.
a0d0e21e 1765
56e90b21
GS
1766=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1767
be771a83 1768(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1769some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1770filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1771same name?
56e90b21 1772
6df41af2
GS
1773=item Format not terminated
1774
1775(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1776to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1777
a0d0e21e
LW
1778=item Format %s redefined
1779
e476b1b5 1780(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1781
1782 {
271595cc 1783 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1784 eval "format NAME =...";
1785 }
1786
a0d0e21e
LW
1787=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1788
e476b1b5 1789(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1790
1791 if ($foo = 123)
1792
1793when you meant
1794
1795 if ($foo == 123)
1796
1797(or something like that).
1798
6df41af2
GS
1799=item %s found where operator expected
1800
56da5a46
RGS
1801(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1802If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1803operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1804operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1805
a0d0e21e
LW
1806=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1807
1808(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1809
1810=item gethostent not implemented
1811
1812(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1813because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1814on the Internet.
1815
69282e91 1816=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1817
be771a83
GS
1818(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1819socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1820
748a9306
LW
1821=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1822
1823(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1824C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1825
6df41af2
GS
1826=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1827
be771a83
GS
1828(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1829forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1830L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1831
1832=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1833
a4edf47d 1834(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1835that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1836declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1837which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1838
e476b1b5
GS
1839=item glob failed (%s)
1840
be771a83
GS
1841(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1842C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1843C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1844nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1845resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1846broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1847config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1848were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1849empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1850think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1851C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1852
a0d0e21e
LW
1853=item Glob not terminated
1854
1855(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1856a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1857not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1858earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1859
8b56d6ff
FC
1860=item gmtime(%.0f) too large
1861
fc003d4b
MS
1862(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was larger than
1863it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1864date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1865not-a-number value).
1866
1867=item gmtime(%.0f) too small
1868
1869(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was smaller than
1870it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1871date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1872not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 1873
6df41af2 1874=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1875
6df41af2
GS
1876(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1877version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1878
1879=item goto must have label
1880
1881(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1882unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1883
49704364 1884=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1885
49704364 1886(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is
18529408 1887supposed to follow something: a template character or a ()-group.
49704364 1888 See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1889
fe13d51d 1890=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
1891
1892(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1893
a0d0e21e
LW
1894=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1895
be771a83
GS
1896(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1897to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1898created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1899
1900=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1901
be771a83
GS
1902(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1903spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1904
6df41af2
GS
1905=item %s has too many errors
1906
1907(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1908Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1909
252aa082
JH
1910=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1911
e476b1b5 1912(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1913(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1914L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1915
8903cb82 1916=item Identifier too long
1917
1918(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 1919about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
1920names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
1921of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1922
c3c41406 1923=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 1924
ff3f963a
KW
1925(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return a
1926zero length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 1927its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
1928been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
1929
6df41af2 1930=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 1931
6df41af2 1932(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 1933
6df41af2 1934=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 1935
be771a83
GS
1936(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
1937binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
1938offending digit.
a0d0e21e 1939
4fdae800 1940=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1941
d5898338 1942(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
1943would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
1944when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
1945version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
1946to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 1947
d37a9538
ST
1948=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
1949
197afce1
MT
1950(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
1951Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
d37a9538 1952
904d85c5
RGS
1953=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
1954
1955(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
1956you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
1957
8e742a20
MHM
1958=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
1959
1960(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
1961
a0d0e21e
LW
1962=item Illegal division by zero
1963
be771a83
GS
1964(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
1965your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
1966meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 1967
6df41af2
GS
1968=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
1969
be771a83
GS
1970(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
1971A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
1972number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 1973
a0d0e21e
LW
1974=item Illegal modulus zero
1975
be771a83
GS
1976(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
1977numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 1978
6df41af2 1979=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 1980
6df41af2
GS
1981(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
1982two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
1983
1984=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 1985
d1be9408 1986(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 1987
399388f4 1988=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 1989
d1be9408 1990(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 1991Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 1992
fe13d51d 1993=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 1994
6df41af2 1995(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 1996following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 1997
6df41af2 1998=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 1999
75b44862 2000(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2001internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2002delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2003
6df41af2 2004=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2005
be771a83
GS
2006(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2007name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2008didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2009ignored.
54310121 2010
6df41af2 2011=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2012
be771a83
GS
2013(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2014the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2015system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2016times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2017would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2018
be771a83
GS
2019Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2020also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2021
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2022=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2023
2024(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2025C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2026documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2027
979699d9
JH
2028=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2029
2030(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2031Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2032encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2033
1a147d38
YO
2034=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2035
2036(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2037text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2038either consume text or fail.
2039
2040The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2041discovered.
2042
6dbe9451
NC
2043=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2044
2045(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2046of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2047C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2048as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2049
a0d0e21e
LW
2050=item Insecure dependency in %s
2051
8b1a09fc 2052(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2053The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2054setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2055tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2056from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2057such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2058L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2059
2060=item Insecure directory in %s
2061
be771a83
GS
2062(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2063setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2064the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2065See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2066
62f468fc 2067=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2068
2069(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2070setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2071C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2072supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2073the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2074
a7ae9550
GS
2075=item Integer overflow in %s number
2076
75b44862 2077(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2078either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2079your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2080On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2081representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
20820b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2083transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2084internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2085operations.
bbce6d69 2086
2fba7546
GA
2087=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2088
0be96356
AL
2089(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2090or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2fba7546
GA
2091integers for your architecture.
2092
46314c13
JP
2093=item Integer overflow in version
2094
2095(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2096size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2097because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2098element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2099trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2100100/9.
2101
7253e4e3 2102=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2103
2104(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2105The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2106discovered.
2107
748a9306
LW
2108=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2109
be771a83
GS
2110(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2111you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2112to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2113L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2114Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2115terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2116
7253e4e3 2117=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2118
7253e4e3
RK
2119(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2120<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2121discovered.
a0d0e21e 2122
6df41af2
GS
2123=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2124
75b44862 2125(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2126followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2127operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2128L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2129
09bef843
SB
2130=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2131
2132The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
2133by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2134
2135=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2136
be771a83
GS
2137The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
2138recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2139
c635e13b 2140=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2141
be771a83
GS
2142(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2143L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2144
9e08bc66
TS
2145=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2146
2147(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2148didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2149from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2150The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2151The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2152escape was discovered.
2153
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2154=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2155
2156(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")>
2157or C<use mro 'foo'>, where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO).
2158(Currently, the only valid ones are C<dfs> and C<c3>). See L<mro>.
2159
7253e4e3 2160=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2161
2162(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2163greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2164C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2165up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2166problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2167
d1573ac7 2168=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2169
2170(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2171character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2172
09bef843
SB
2173=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2174
0120eecf 2175(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2176elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2177parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2178See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2179
b4581f09
JH
2180=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2181
2182(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2183colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
2184If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2185list was terminated too soon.
2186
49704364 2187=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2188
49704364
WL
2189(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2190See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2191(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2192silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2193
46314c13
JP
2194=item Invalid version format (multiple underscores)
2195
2196(F) Versions may contain at most a single underscore, which signals
2197that the version is a beta release. See L<version> for the allowed
2198version formats.
2199
2200=item Invalid version format (underscores before decimal)
2201
2202(F) Versions may not contain decimals after the optional underscore.
2203See L<version> for the allowed version formats.
2204
a0d0e21e
LW
2205=item ioctl is not implemented
2206
2207(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2208strange for a machine that supports C.
2209
c289d2f7
JH
2210=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2211
2212(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
2213Check you control flow and number of arguments.
2214
fe13d51d 2215=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2216
2217(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
2218you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO Perl must be configured
2219with 'useperlio'.
2220
80cbd5ad
JH
2221=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2222
2223(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
2224neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
2225
b4581f09
JH
2226=item $* is no longer supported
2227
d1d15184 2228(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older perls, has
4fd19576
B
2229been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In previous versions of perl the use of
2230C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line matching within a string.
2231
2232Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
2233modifiers. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value then all regular
2234expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2235
8ae1fe26
RGS
2236=item $# is no longer supported
2237
d1d15184 2238(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older perls, has
8ae1fe26
RGS
2239been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2240printf/sprintf functions instead.
2241
6ad11d81
JH
2242=item `%s' is not a code reference
2243
04a80ee0
RGS
2244(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2245needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2246to a subroutine.
2247
2248=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2249
04a80ee0
RGS
2250(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2251unaware of.
6ad11d81 2252
a0d0e21e
LW
2253=item junk on end of regexp
2254
2255(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2256
2257=item Label not found for "last %s"
2258
be771a83
GS
2259(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2260of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2261L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2262
2263=item Label not found for "next %s"
2264
2265(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2266that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2267L<perlfunc/last>.
2268
2269=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2270
2271(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2272that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2273L<perlfunc/last>.
2274
85ab1d1d 2275=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2276
85ab1d1d 2277(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2278effective uids or gids failed.
2279
49704364
WL
2280=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2281
d7f8936a 2282(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
WL
2283length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2284an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2285
f0e67a1d
Z
2286=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2287
2288(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2289(using L<lex_stuff_pvn_flags|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn_flags> or similar), but
2290tried to insert a character that couldn't be part of the current input.
2291This is an inherent pitfall of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the
2292reasons to avoid it. Where it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only
2293plain ASCII is recommended.
2294
2295=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2296
2297(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2298detectable way.
2299
69282e91 2300=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2301
be771a83
GS
2302(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2303to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2304L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2305
8b56d6ff
FC
2306=item localtime(%.0f) too large
2307
fc003d4b
MS
2308(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was larger
2309than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2310wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2311not-a-number value).
2312
2313=item localtime(%.0f) too small
2314
2315(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was smaller
2316than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2317wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2318not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2319
58e23c8d 2320=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2321
2322(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2323handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2324
b88df990
NC
2325=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2326
2327(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2328for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2329hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2330because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2331are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2332You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2333
2f7da168
RK
2334=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2335
2336(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2337by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2338instead on the filehandle.)
2339
885ef6f5
GG
2340=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2341
963d9ce9 2342(W misc) Making a subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined
885ef6f5
GG
2343by declaring the subroutine with a lvalue attribute is not
2344possible. To make the the subroutine a lvalue subroutine add the
2345lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the the declaration before
2346the definition.
2347
96ebfdd7
RK
2348=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2349
2350(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2351values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2352L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2353
49704364
WL
2354=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
2355
2356(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2357are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2358
2359=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2360
2361(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2362are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2363
6df41af2
GS
2364=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2365
2366(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2367
2368 prefix1;prefix2
2369
2370or
6df41af2
GS
2371 prefix1 prefix2
2372
be771a83
GS
2373with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2374a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2375appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2376"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2377
2f758a16
ST
2378=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2379
d37a9538
ST
2380(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2381syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2382obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2383when the function is called.
2f758a16 2384
ba210ebe
JH
2385=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2386
2575c402
JW
2387(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2388encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2389
2575c402
JW
2390One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2391you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
23928-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2393
2394If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2395sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2396set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2397message.
2398
2399See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2400
dea0fc0b
JH
2401=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
2402
183097aa 2403(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
dea0fc0b
JH
2404doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2405
ff3f963a
KW
2406=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2407
2408(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2409
f337b084
TH
2410=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2411
2412(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2413rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2414
2415=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2416
2417(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2418rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2419
2420=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2421
2422(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2423rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2424
fe13d51d 2425=item Maximal count of pending signals (%d) exceeded
2563cec5 2426
fe13d51d 2427(F) Perl aborted due to a too high number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2428usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2429too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2430resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2431safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2432
49704364 2433=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2434
2435(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
2436regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2437shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2438See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2439
25f58aea
PN
2440=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2441
2442(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2443interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2444"use" or "my".
2445
49704364 2446=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2447
2448(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2449checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2450See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2451
a0d0e21e
LW
2452=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2453
2454(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2455doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2456
3cdd684c
TP
2457=item Method %s not permitted
2458
2459See Server error.
2460
a0d0e21e
LW
2461=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2462
2463(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2464by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2465ended earlier on the current line.
2466
2467=item Misplaced _ in number
2468
d4ced10d
JH
2469(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2470separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2471
7baa4690
HS
2472=item Missing argument in %s
2473
2474(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2475supplied.
2476
9e81e6a1
RGS
2477=item Missing argument to -%c
2478
2479(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2480immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2481
ff3f963a 2482=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2483
4a2d328f 2484(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
c3c41406
KW
2485double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space (or
2486comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2487This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately follow
2488the C<\N>.
423cee85 2489
a0d0e21e
LW
2490=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2491
2492(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2493"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2494
06eaf0bc
GS
2495=item Missing command in piped open
2496
be771a83
GS
2497(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2498C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2499blank.
06eaf0bc 2500
961ce445
RGS
2501=item Missing control char name in \c
2502
2503(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2504character name.
2505
6df41af2
GS
2506=item Missing name in "my sub"
2507
be771a83
GS
2508(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2509they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2510
2511=item Missing $ on loop variable
2512
be771a83
GS
2513(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2514are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2515can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2516
cc507455 2517=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2518
56da5a46
RGS
2519(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2520"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2521
ab13f0c7
JH
2522=item Missing right brace on %s
2523
ff3f963a
KW
2524(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2525
0a96133f 2526=item Missing right brace on \\N{} or unescaped left brace after \\N
ff3f963a 2527
0a96133f
KW
2528(F)
2529C<\N> has two meanings.
2530
2531The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed
2532in braces, meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that name.
ff3f963a 2533Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
0a96133f
KW
2534double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns, it doesn't
2535have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
ff3f963a 2536
0a96133f 2537Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only) in
c3c41406
KW
2538patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short for
2539C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
ff3f963a
KW
2540
2541This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately by a
c3c41406 2542left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if
ff3f963a
KW
2543the braces form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes
2544that this means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
0a96133f 25453; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a C<\N{>
ff3f963a
KW
2546and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2547
2548However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was mistakenly
c3c41406 2549omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and
0a96133f
KW
2550raises this error. If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant
2551the latter, escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2552
d98d5fff 2553=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2554
be771a83
GS
2555(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2556ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2557were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2558
6df41af2
GS
2559=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2560
56da5a46
RGS
2561(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2562"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2563the previous line just because you saw this message.
2564
a0d0e21e
LW
2565=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2566
2567(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2568constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2569catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2570
2571 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2572 mod(2);
2573
2574Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2575
c5674021
PDF
2576Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2577is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2578
2579 $x = 1;
2580 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2581 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2582 }
c5674021 2583
7a4340ed 2584=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2585
2586(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2587subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2588backwards.
2589
7a4340ed 2590=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2591
be771a83
GS
2592(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2593couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2594
2595=item Module name must be constant
2596
2597(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2598
be98fb35 2599=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2600
be98fb35
GS
2601(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2602you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2603about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2604
fe13d51d 2605=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2606
2607(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2608can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2609list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2610See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2611
a0d0e21e
LW
2612=item msg%s not implemented
2613
2614(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2615
2616=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2617
75b44862
GS
2618(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2619They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2620
49704364 2621=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2622
49704364
WL
2623(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2624follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2625See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2626
2627=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2628
be771a83
GS
2629(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2630that yet.
6df41af2 2631
30c282f6 2632=item "%s" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2633
be771a83
GS
2634(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2635sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2636local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2637
ff3f963a
KW
2638=item \\N in a character class must be a named character: \\N{...}
2639
c3c41406
KW
2640(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
2641character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses its
2642specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not what you want.
2643
2644=item \\N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
2645
2646(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or sequence
2647was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that bypass the lexer,
b09c05e6 2648such as using single-quotish context, or an extra backslash in double quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2649
2650 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2651 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2652 /$re/;
2653
b09c05e6 2654Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2655
2656 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2657 /$re/;
2658
2659The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2660components:
2661
2662 $re = '\N';
2663 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2664
2665It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2666doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2667
2668Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2669C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2670
2671 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2672 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2673
8b1a09fc 2674=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2675
e476b1b5 2676(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2677If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2678again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2679provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e 2680
64b374f4
FD
2681NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2682%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2683the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2684will not trigger this warning.
2685
ff3f963a
KW
2686=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \\N{U+...}
2687
2688(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
c3c41406
KW
2689number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than 0 - 9
2690or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
ff3f963a 2691
49704364
WL
2692=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2693
2694(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2695negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2696
a0d0e21e
LW
2697=item Negative length
2698
be771a83
GS
2699(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2700length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2701
ed9aa3b7
SG
2702=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2703
2704(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2705greater than or equal to zero.
2706
7253e4e3 2707=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2708
b45f050a 2709(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2710things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2711expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2712
7253e4e3 2713Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2714C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2715
6df41af2 2716=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2717
be771a83
GS
2718(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2719scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2720
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2721=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2722
2723(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2724real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2725See L<mro>.
2726
a0d0e21e
LW
2727=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2728
be771a83
GS
2729(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2730setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2731will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2732securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2733
a0d0e21e
LW
2734=item No comma allowed after %s
2735
2736(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2737allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2738Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2739
0a753a76 2740One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2741constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2742importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2743does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2744explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2745L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2746would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2747remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2748constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2749list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2750this error was triggered?
2751
748a9306
LW
2752=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2753
be771a83
GS
2754(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2755redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2756doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2757
a0d0e21e
LW
2758=item No DB::DB routine defined
2759
be771a83 2760(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
ccafdc96
RGS
2761for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2762module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2763statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2764
2765=item No dbm on this machine
2766
2767(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2768supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2769
ccafdc96 2770=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2771
ccafdc96
RGS
2772(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2773for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2774module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2775of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2776
96ebfdd7
RK
2777=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2778
2779(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2780
c47ff5f1 2781=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2782
be771a83
GS
2783(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2784redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2785find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2786
49704364
WL
2787=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2788
2789(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2790matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2791
c47ff5f1 2792=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2793
be771a83
GS
2794(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2795redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2796name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2797
6df41af2
GS
2798=item No #! line
2799
2800(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2801even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2802
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2803=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2804
2805(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2806in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2807it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2808or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2809
6df41af2
GS
2810=item "no" not allowed in expression
2811
be771a83
GS
2812(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2813returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2814
c47ff5f1 2815=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2816
be771a83
GS
2817(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2818redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2819doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2820
c47ff5f1 2821=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2822
be771a83
GS
2823(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2824redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2825find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2826
1ec3e8de
GS
2827=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2828
be771a83
GS
2829(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2830declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2831semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2832
a0d0e21e
LW
2833=item No Perl script found in input
2834
2835(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2836with #! and containing the word "perl".
2837
2838=item No setregid available
2839
2840(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2841your system.
2842
2843=item No setreuid available
2844
2845(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2846your system.
2847
6df41af2
GS
2848=item No %s specified for -%c
2849
2850(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2851you haven't specified one.
2852
e75d1f10
RD
2853=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2854
2855(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2856but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2857package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2858
2c692339
RGS
2859=item No such class %s
2860
30c282f6 2861(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration, but
2c692339
RGS
2862this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2863
3c20a832
SP
2864=item No such hook: %s
2865
2866(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl. Currently, Perl
2867accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks
2868
6df41af2
GS
2869=item No such pipe open
2870
2871(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2872close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2873earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2874
a0d0e21e
LW
2875=item No such signal: SIG%s
2876
be771a83
GS
2877(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2878not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2879names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2880
2881=item Not a CODE reference
2882
2883(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2884subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2885use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2886also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2887
2888=item Not a format reference
2889
2890(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2891format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2892
2893=item Not a GLOB reference
2894
be771a83
GS
2895(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
2896symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2897something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
2898kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2899
2900=item Not a HASH reference
2901
be771a83
GS
2902(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
2903reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
2904find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2905
6df41af2
GS
2906=item Not an ARRAY reference
2907
be771a83
GS
2908(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
2909a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2910to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 2911
a0d0e21e
LW
2912=item Not a perl script
2913
2914(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2915even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2916mention perl.
2917
2918=item Not a SCALAR reference
2919
be771a83
GS
2920(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
2921a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2922to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2923
2924=item Not a subroutine reference
2925
2926(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2927subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2928use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2929also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2930
e7ea3e70 2931=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2932
2933(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2934doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2935
a0d0e21e
LW
2936=item Not enough arguments for %s
2937
2938(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2939
6df41af2
GS
2940=item Not enough format arguments
2941
be771a83
GS
2942(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
2943supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
2944
2945=item %s: not found
2946
be771a83
GS
2947(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
2948of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
2949yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2950
2951=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 2952
6df41af2
GS
2953(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
2954timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
2955to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
2956F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
2957need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 2958
4ef2275c
GA
2959=item Non-string passed as bitmask
2960
2961(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
2962Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
2963select. See L<perlfunc/select>
2964
a0d0e21e
LW
2965=item Null filename used
2966
be771a83
GS
2967(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
2968machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2969
6df41af2
GS
2970=item NULL OP IN RUN
2971
be771a83
GS
2972(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
2973pointer.
6df41af2 2974
55497cff 2975=item Null picture in formline
2976
2977(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2978specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2979supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2980
a0d0e21e
LW
2981=item Null realloc
2982
2983(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2984
2985=item NULL regexp argument
2986
5f05dabc 2987(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2988
2989=item NULL regexp parameter
2990
2991(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2992
fc36a67e 2993=item Number too long
2994
be771a83 2995(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 2996about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
2997versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
2998the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
2999"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3000
6df41af2
GS
3001=item Octal number in vector unsupported
3002
be771a83
GS
3003(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
3004The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
3005future version.
6df41af2 3006
252aa082
JH
3007=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3008
75b44862 3009(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3010(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3011L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
3012
3013See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
3014
6ad11d81
JH
3015=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3016
04a80ee0
RGS
3017(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
3018arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3019
b21befc1
MG
3020=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3021
3022(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3023which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3024
1930e939 3025=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3026
be771a83
GS
3027(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3028which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3029
bbce6d69 3030=item Offset outside string
3031
42bc49da
JH
3032(F, W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
3033with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3034imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3035take place when going past the end of the string when either
3036C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3037for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3038with real files).
bbce6d69 3039
c289d2f7 3040=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3041
3042(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3043never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3044call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3045
96ebfdd7
RK
3046=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3047
3048(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3049that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3050
a0d0e21e
LW
3051=item oops: oopsAV
3052
e476b1b5 3053(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3054
3055=item oops: oopsHV
3056
e476b1b5 3057(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 3058
abc718f2
RGS
3059=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
3060
3061(W io deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
3062a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
3063Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3064and is deprecated.
3065
3066=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
3067
3068(W io deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
3069a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
3070Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3071and is deprecated.
3072
a0288114 3073=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 3074
be771a83
GS
3075(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
3076handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
3077of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
3078C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 3079
748a9306
LW
3080=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
3081
be771a83
GS
3082(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
3083was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
3084use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
3085example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
3086"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 3087
6df41af2
GS
3088=item "our" variable %s redeclared
3089
be771a83
GS
3090(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
3091in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 3092
a80b8354
GS
3093=item Out of memory!
3094
3095(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
3096remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
3097no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 3098
19a52907
JH
3099At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
3100process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3101C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3102the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3103and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3104
6d3b25aa
RGS
3105=item Out of memory during %s extend
3106
3107(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3108the largest possible memory allocation.
3109
6df41af2 3110=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3111
6df41af2
GS
3112(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3113remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3114the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3115possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3116
1b979e0a 3117=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3118
be771a83
GS
3119(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
3120insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3121request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3122
3123The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
3124depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
3125However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
3126emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
3127is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
3128where the failed request happened.
55497cff 3129
1b979e0a
IZ
3130=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
3131
3132(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
3133is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
3134C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 3135
6df41af2
GS
3136=item Out of memory for yacc stack
3137
be771a83
GS
3138(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
3139parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
3140otherwise.
6df41af2 3141
28be1210
TH
3142=item '.' outside of string in pack
3143
3144(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
3145position to before the start of the packed string being built.
3146
49704364 3147=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 3148
49704364 3149(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
3150the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3151
f337b084
TH
3152=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
3153
3154(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
3155the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
3156UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3157
7cb0cfe6
BM
3158=item Overloaded dereference did not return a reference
3159
3160(F) An object with an overloaded dereference operator was dereferenced,
3161but the overloaded operation did not return a reference. See
3162L<overload>.
3163
3164=item Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP
3165
3166(F) An object with a C<qr> overload was used as part of a match, but the
3167overloaded operation didn't return a compiled regexp. See L<overload>.
3168
6df41af2
GS
3169=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
3170
be771a83
GS
3171(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
3172package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
3173some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
3174mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 3175
96ebfdd7
RK
3176=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
3177
3178(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3179signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3180
a0d0e21e
LW
3181=item page overflow
3182
be771a83
GS
3183(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
3184page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 3185
6df41af2
GS
3186=item panic: %s
3187
3188(P) An internal error.
3189
c99a1475
NC
3190=item panic: attempt to call %s in %s
3191
3192(P) One of the file test operators entered a code branch that calls
3193an ACL related-function, but that function is not available on this
3194platform. Earlier checks mean that it should not be possible to
3195enter this branch on this platform.
3196
a0d0e21e
LW
3197=item panic: ck_grep
3198
3199(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
3200
3201=item panic: ck_split
3202
3203(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
3204
3205=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
3206
be771a83
GS
3207(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
3208there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 3209
810b8aa5
GS
3210=item panic: del_backref
3211
3212(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
3213reference.
3214
7619c85e
RG
3215=item panic: Devel::DProf inconsistent subroutine return
3216
3217(P) Devel::DProf called a subroutine that exited using goto(LABEL),
3218last(LABEL) or next(LABEL). Leaving that way a subroutine called from
3219an XSUB will lead very probably to a crash of the interpreter. This is
3220a bug that will hopefully one day get fixed.
3221
a0d0e21e
LW
3222=item panic: die %s
3223
3224(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
3225it wasn't an eval context.
3226
a0d0e21e
LW
3227=item panic: do_subst
3228
be771a83
GS
3229(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational
3230data.
a0d0e21e 3231
2269b42e 3232=item panic: do_trans_%s
a0d0e21e 3233
2269b42e 3234(P) The internal do_trans routines were called with invalid operational
be771a83 3235data.
a0d0e21e 3236
b7f7fd0b
NC
3237=item panic: fold_constants JMPENV_PUSH returned %d
3238
10203f38 3239(P) While attempting folding constants an exception other than an C<eval>
b7f7fd0b
NC
3240failure was caught.
3241
c635e13b 3242=item panic: frexp
3243
3244(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
3245
a0d0e21e
LW
3246=item panic: goto
3247
3248(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
3249and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
3250
23976bdd
NC
3251=item panic: hfreeentries failed to free hash
3252
3253(P) The internal routine used to clear a hashes entries tried repeatedly,
3254but each time something added more entries to the hash. Most likely the hash
3255contains an object with a reference back to the hash and a destructor that
3256adds a new object to the hash.
3257
a0d0e21e
LW
3258=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
3259
3260(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
3261
3262=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
3263
3264(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
3265
e446cec8
IZ
3266=item panic: kid popen errno read
3267
3268(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
3269
a0d0e21e
LW
3270=item panic: last
3271
3272(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
3273it wasn't a block context.
3274
3275=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
3276
be771a83
GS
3277(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the
3278scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
3279
3280=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
3281
3282(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
3283invalid enum on the top of it.
3284
810b8aa5
GS
3285=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
3286
3287(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
3288references to an object.
3289
6df41af2
GS
3290=item panic: malloc
3291
3292(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
3293
27d5b266
JH
3294=item panic: memory wrap
3295
3296(P) Something tried to allocate more memory than possible.
3297
a0d0e21e
LW
3298=item panic: pad_alloc
3299
3300(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3301and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3302
3303=item panic: pad_free curpad
3304
3305(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3306and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3307
3308=item panic: pad_free po
3309
3310(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
3311
3312=item panic: pad_reset curpad
3313
3314(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3315and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3316
3317=item panic: pad_sv po
3318
3319(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
3320
3321=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
3322
3323(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3324and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3325
3326=item panic: pad_swipe po
3327
3328(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
3329
3330=item panic: pp_iter
3331
3332(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
3333
96ebfdd7
RK
3334=item panic: pp_match%s
3335
3336(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational
3337data.
3338
2269b42e
JH
3339=item panic: pp_split
3340
3341(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
3342
a0d0e21e
LW
3343=item panic: realloc
3344
3345(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
3346
3347=item panic: restartop
3348
3349(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
3350didn't supply the destination.
3351
3352=item panic: return
3353
3354(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
3355then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
3356
3357=item panic: scan_num
3358
3359(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
3360
6c65d5f9
NC
3361=item panic: sv_chop %s
3362
3363(P) The sv_chop() routine was passed a position that is not within the
3364scalar's string buffer.
3365
a0d0e21e
LW
3366=item panic: sv_insert
3367
3368(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
3369was string.
3370
3371=item panic: top_env
3372
6224f72b 3373(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e 3374
65bca31a
NC
3375=item panic: unimplemented op %s (#%d) called
3376
3377(P) The compiler is screwed up and attempted to use an op that isn't permitted
3378at run time.
3379
dea0fc0b
JH
3380=item panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen
3381
3382(P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8 with an odd (as opposed
64977eb6 3383to even) byte length.
dea0fc0b 3384
e0ea5e2d
NC
3385=item panic: utf16_to_utf8_reversed: odd bytelen
3386
3387(P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8_reversed with an odd (as opposed
3388to even) byte length.
3389
2f7da168
RK
3390=item panic: yylex
3391
3392(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
3393
1a147d38
YO
3394=item Pattern subroutine nesting without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3395
3396(F) You used a pattern that uses too many nested subpattern calls without
3397consuming any text. Restructure the pattern so text is consumed before the
3398nesting limit is exceeded.
3399
3400The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
3401discovered.
3402
7b8d334a 3403=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e 3404
e476b1b5 3405(W parenthesis) You said something like
a0d0e21e
LW
3406
3407 my $foo, $bar = @_;
3408
3409when you meant
3410
3411 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
3412
30c282f6 3413Remember that "my", "our", "local" and "state" bind tighter than comma.
a0d0e21e 3414
96ebfdd7
RK
3415=item C<-p> destination: %s
3416