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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
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4
5=head1 NAME
6
d66be8f9 7README.hpux - Perl version 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX) systems
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8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
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11This document describes various features of HP's Unix operating system
12(HP-UX) that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl) is
13compiled and/or runs.
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14
15=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on HP-UX
16
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17When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. The C compiler
18that ships with all HP-UX systems is a K&R compiler that should only be
19used to build new kernels.
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20
21Perl can be compiled with either HP's ANSI C compiler or with gcc. The
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22former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
23difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
24require the use of HP compiler-specific command-line flags.
f2a260d6 25
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26If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
27complete, and be sure to read the Perl README file for more gcc-specific
28details.
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29
30=head2 PA-RISC
31
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32HP's current Unix systems run on its own Precision Architecture
33(PA-RISC) chip. HP-UX used to run on the Motorola MC68000 family of
34chips, but any machine with this chip in it is quite obsolete and this
35document will not attempt to address issues for compiling Perl on the
36Motorola chipset.
f2a260d6 37
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38The most recent version of PA-RISC at the time of this document's last
39update is 2.0.
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40
41=head2 PA-RISC 1.0
42
43The original version of PA-RISC, HP no longer sells any system with this chip.
44
13e84f2c 45The following systems contained PA-RISC 1.0 chips:
f2a260d6 46
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47 600, 635, 645, 808, 815, 822, 825, 832, 834, 835, 840, 842, 845, 850, 852,
48 855, 860, 865, 870, 890
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49
50=head2 PA-RISC 1.1
51
52An upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it shipped for many years in many different
53system.
54
55The following systems contain with PA-RISC 1.1 chips:
56
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57 705, 710, 712, 715, 720, 722, 725, 728, 730, 735, 742, 743, 744, 745, 747,
58 750, 755, 770, 777, 778, 779, 800, 801, 803, 806, 807, 809, 811, 813, 816,
59 817, 819, 821, 826, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 847, 849, 851, 856, 857,
60 859, 867, 869, 877, 887, 891, 892, 897, A180, A180C, B115, B120, B132L,
61 B132L+, B160L, B180L, C100, C110, C115, C120, C160L, D200, D210, D220,
62 D230, D250, D260, D310, D320, D330, D350, D360, D410, DX0, DX5, DXO, E25,
63 E35, E45, E55, F10, F20, F30, G30, G40, G50, G60, G70, H20, H30, H40, H50,
64 H60, H70, I30, I40, I50, I60, I70, J200, J210, J210XC, K100, K200, K210,
65 K220, K230, K400, K410, K420, S700i, S715, S744, S760, T500, T520
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66
67=head2 PA-RISC 2.0
68
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69The most recent upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it added support for
7064-bit integer data.
f2a260d6 71
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72As of the date of this document's last update, the following systems
73contain PA-RISC 2.0 chips (this is very likely to be out of date):
f2a260d6 74
60ed1d8c 75 700, 780, 781, 782, 783, 785, 802, 804, 810, 820, 861, 871, 879, 889, 893,
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76 895, 896, 898, 899, A400, A500, B1000, B2000, C130, C140, C160, C180,
77 C180+, C180-XP, C200+, C400+, C3000, C360, C3600, CB260, D270, D280, D370,
78 D380, D390, D650, J220, J2240, J280, J282, J400, J410, J5000, J5500XM,
79 J5600, J7000, J7600, K250, K260, K260-EG, K270, K360, K370, K380, K450,
80 K460, K460-EG, K460-XP, K470, K570, K580, L1000, L2000, L3000, N4000,
81 R380, R390, SD16000, SD32000, SD64000, T540, T600, V2000, V2200, V2250,
82 V2500, V2600
83
84=head2 Itanium
85
86HP also ships servers with the 128-bit Itanium processor(s). As of the
87date of this document's last update, the following systems contain
88Itanium chips (this is very likely to be out of date):
89
90 rx4610
f2a260d6 91
d66be8f9 92A complete list of models at the time the OS was built is in the file
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93/opt/langtools/lib/sched.models. The first column corresponds to the
94output of the "uname -m" command (without the leading "9000/"). The
95second column is the PA-RISC version and the third column is the exact
42be3f00 96chip type used. (Start browsing at the bottom to prevent confusion ;-)
d66be8f9 97
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98=head2 Portability Between PA-RISC Versions
99
100An executable compiled on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform will not execute on a
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101PA-RISC 1.1 platform, even if they are running the same version of
102HP-UX. If you are building Perl on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform and want that
103Perl to to also run on a PA-RISC 1.1, the compiler flags +DAportable and
104+DS32 should be used.
f2a260d6 105
60ed1d8c 106It is no longer possible to compile PA-RISC 1.0 executables on either
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107the PA-RISC 1.1 or 2.0 platforms. The command-line flags are accepted,
108but the resulting executable will not run when transferred to a PA-RISC
1091.0 system.
110
a83b6f46 111=head2 Itanium Processor Family and HP-UX
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112
113HP-UX also runs on the new Itanium processor. This requires the use
114of a different version of HP-UX (currently 11.20), and with the exception
115of a few differences detailed below and in later sections, Perl should
116compile with no problems.
117
118Although PA-RISC binaries can run on Itanium systems, you should not
119attempt to use a PA-RISC version of Perl on an Itanium system. This is
120because shared libraries created on an Itanium system cannot be loaded
121while running a PA-RISC executable.
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122
123=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on HP-UX
124
125HP-UX supports dynamically loadable libraries (shared libraries).
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126Shared libraries end with the suffix .sl. On Itanium systems,
127they end with the suffix .so.
f2a260d6 128
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129Shared libraries created on a platform using a particular PA-RISC
130version are not usable on platforms using an earlier PA-RISC version by
131default. However, this backwards compatibility may be enabled using the
132same +DAportable compiler flag (with the same PA-RISC 1.0 caveat
133mentioned above).
f2a260d6 134
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135Shared libraries created on an Itanium platform cannot be loaded on
136a PA-RISC platform. Shared libraries created on a PA-RISC platform
137can only be loaded on an Itanium platform if it is a PA-RISC executable
138that is attempting to load the PA-RISC library. A PA-RISC shared
139library cannot be loaded into an Itanium executable nor vice-versa.
140
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141To create a shared library, the following steps must be performed:
142
143 1. Compile source modules with +z or +Z flag to create a .o module
144 which contains Position-Independent Code (PIC). The linker will
145 tell you in the next step if +Z was needed.
146
147 2. Link the shared library using the -b flag. If the code calls
148 any functions in other system libraries (e.g., libm), it must
149 be included on this line.
150
151(Note that these steps are usually handled automatically by the extension's
152Makefile).
153
154If these dependent libraries are not listed at shared library creation
155time, you will get fatal "Unresolved symbol" errors at run time when the
156library is loaded.
157
a75f7dba 158You may create a shared library that refers to another library, which
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159may be either an archive library or a shared library. If this second
160library is a shared library, this is called a "dependent library". The
161dependent library's name is recorded in the main shared library, but it
162is not linked into the shared library. Instead, it is loaded when the
163main shared library is loaded. This can cause problems if you build an
164extension on one system and move it to another system where the
165libraries may not be located in the same place as on the first system.
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166
167If the referred library is an archive library, then it is treated as a
168simple collection of .o modules (all of which must contain PIC). These
169modules are then linked into the shared library.
170
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171Note that it is okay to create a library which contains a dependent
172library that is already linked into perl.
f2a260d6 173
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174Some extensions, like DB_File and Compress::Zlib use/require prebuilt
175libraries for the perl extensions/modules to work. If these libraries
176are built using the default configuration, it might happen that you run
177into an error like "invalid loader fixup" during load phase. HP is aware
178of this problem and address it at
179 http://devresource.hp.com/devresource/Docs/TechTips/cxxTips.html#tip13
180
181A more general approach is to intervene manually, as with an example for
182the DB_File module, which requires SleepyCat's libdb.sl:
183
184 # cd .../db-3.2.9/build_unix
185 # vi Makefile
186 ... add +Z to all cflags to create shared objects
187 CFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
188 -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
189 CXXFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
190 -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
191
192 # make clean
193 # make
194 # mkdir tmp
195 # cd tmp
196 # ar x ../libdb.a
197 # ld -b -o libdb-3.2.sl *.o
198 # mv libdb-3.2.sl /usr/local/lib
199 # rm *.o
200 # cd /usr/local/lib
201 # rm -f libdb.sl
202 # ln -s libdb-3.2.sl libdb.sl
203
204 # cd .../DB_File-1.76
205 # make distclean
206 # perl Makefile.PL
207 # make
208 # make test
209 # make install
210
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211It is no longer possible to link PA-RISC 1.0 shared libraries (even
212though the command-line flags are still present).
213
214PA-RISC and Itanium object files are not interchangeable. Although
215you may be able to use ar to create an archive library of PA-RISC
216object files on an Itanium system, you cannot link against it using
217an Itanium link editor.
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218
219=head2 The HP ANSI C Compiler
220
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221When using this compiler to build Perl, you should make sure that the
222flag -Aa is added to the cpprun and cppstdin variables in the config.sh
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223file (though see the section on 64-bit perl below). If you are using a
224recent version of the Perl distribution, these flags are set automatically.
f2a260d6 225
a83b6f46 226=head2 Using Large Files with Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 227
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228Beginning with HP-UX version 10.20, files larger than 2GB (2^31 bytes)
229may be created and manipulated. Three separate methods of doing this
230are available. Of these methods, the best method for Perl is to compile
231using the -Duselargefiles flag to Configure. This causes Perl to be
232compiled using structures and functions in which these are 64 bits wide,
233rather than 32 bits wide. (Note that this will only work with HP's ANSI
234C compiler. If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get
235a version of the compiler that support 64-bit operations.)
236
237There are some drawbacks to this approach. One is that any extension
238which calls any file-manipulating C function will need to be recompiled
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239(just follow the usual "perl Makefile.PL; make; make test; make install"
240procedure).
60ed1d8c 241
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242The list of functions that will need to recompiled is:
243creat, fgetpos, fopen,
244freopen, fsetpos, fstat,
245fstatvfs, fstatvfsdev, ftruncate,
246ftw, lockf, lseek,
247lstat, mmap, nftw,
248open, prealloc, stat,
249statvfs, statvfsdev, tmpfile,
250truncate, getrlimit, setrlimit
f2a260d6 251
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252Another drawback is only valid for Perl versions before 5.6.0. This
253drawback is that the seek and tell functions (both the builtin version
254and POSIX module version) will not perform correctly.
255
256It is strongly recommended that you use this flag when you run
257Configure. If you do not do this, but later answer the question about
258large files when Configure asks you, you may get a configuration that
259cannot be compiled, or that does not function as expected.
260
a83b6f46 261=head2 Threaded Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 262
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263It is possible to compile a version of threaded Perl on any version of
264HP-UX before 10.30, but it is strongly suggested that you be running on
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265HP-UX 11.00 at least.
266
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267To compile Perl with threads, add -Dusethreads to the arguments of
268Configure. Verify that the -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L compiler flag is
269automatically added to the list of flags. Also make sure that -lpthread
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270is listed before -lc in the list of libraries to link Perl with. The
271hints provided for HP-UX during Configure will try very hard to get
272this right for you.
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274HP-UX versions before 10.30 require a seperate installation of a POSIX
275threads library package. Two examples are the HP DCE package, available
276on "HP-UX Hardware Extensions 3.0, Install and Core OS, Release 10.20,
277April 1999 (B3920-13941)" or the Freely available PTH package, available
278though worldwide HP-UX mirrors of precompiled packages
279(e.g. http://hpux.tn.tudelft.nl/hppd/hpux/alpha.html)
280
a83b6f46 281=head2 64-bit Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 282
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283Beginning with HP-UX 11.00, programs compiled under HP-UX can take
284advantage of the LP64 programming environment (LP64 means Longs and
285Pointers are 64 bits wide).
f2a260d6 286
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287Work is being performed on Perl to make it 64-bit compliant on all
288versions of Unix. Once this is complete, scalar variables will be able
289to hold numbers larger than 2^32 with complete precision.
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290
291As of the date of this document, Perl is not 64-bit compliant on HP-UX.
292
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293Should a user wish to experiment with compiling Perl in the LP64
294environment, use the -Duse64bitall flag to Configure. This will force
295Perl to be compiled in a pure LP64 environment (via the +DD64 flag).
f74a9bd3 296
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297You can also use the -Duse64bitint flag to Configure. Although there
298are some minor differences between compiling Perl with this flag versus
299the -Duse64bitall flag, they should not be noticeable from a Perl user's
300perspective.
f74a9bd3 301
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302In both cases, it is strongly recommended that you use these flags when
303you run Configure. If you do not use do this, but later answer the
304questions about 64-bit numbers when Configure asks you, you may get a
305configuration that cannot be compiled, or that does not function as
306expected.
f74a9bd3 307
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308(Note that these Configure flags will only work with HP's ANSI C
309compiler. If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get a
310version of the compiler that support 64-bit operations.)
f2a260d6 311
a83b6f46 312=head2 GDBM and Threads on HP-UX
d66be8f9 313
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314If you attempt to compile Perl with threads on an 11.X system and also
315link in the GDBM library, then Perl will immediately core dump when it
316starts up. The only workaround at this point is to relink the GDBM
317library under 11.X, then relink it into Perl.
d66be8f9 318
a83b6f46 319=head2 NFS filesystems and utime(2) on HP-UX
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320
321If you are compiling Perl on a remotely-mounted NFS filesystem, the test
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322io/fs.t may fail on test #18. This appears to be a bug in HP-UX and no
323fix is currently available.
d66be8f9 324
a83b6f46 325=head2 perl -P and // and HP-UX
183968aa 326
efdf3af0 327In HP-UX Perl is compiled with flags that will cause problems if the
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328-P flag of Perl (preprocess Perl code with the C preprocessor before
329perl sees it) is used. The problem is that C<//>, being a C++-style
330until-end-of-line comment, will disappear along with the remainder
331of the line. This means that common Perl constructs like
332
efdf3af0 333 s/foo//;
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334
335will turn into illegal code
336
efdf3af0 337 s/foo
183968aa 338
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339The workaround is to use some other quoting separator than C<"/">,
340like for example C<"!">:
183968aa 341
efdf3af0 342 s!foo!!;
183968aa 343
a83b6f46 344=head2 HP-UX Kernel Parameters (maxdsiz) for Compiling Perl
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345
346By default, HP-UX comes configured with a maximum data segment size of
34764MB. This is too small to correctly compile Perl with the maximum
348optimization levels. You can increase the size of the maxdsiz kernel
349parameter through the use of SAM.
350
351When using the GUI version of SAM, click on the Kernel Configuration
352icon, then the Configurable Parameters icon. Scroll down and select
353the maxdsiz line. From the Actions menu, select the Modify Configurable
354Parameter item. Insert the new formula into the Formula/Value box.
355Then follow the instructions to rebuild your kernel and reboot your
356system.
357
358In general, a value of 256MB (or "256*1024*1024") is sufficient for
359Perl to compile at maximum optimization.
360
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361=head1 nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
362
363You may get a bus error core dump from the op/pwent or op/grent
364tests. If compiled with -g you will see a stack trace much like
365the following:
366
367 #0 0xc004216c in () from /usr/lib/libc.2
368 #1 0xc00d7550 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
369 #2 0xc00d7768 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
370 #3 0xc00d78a8 in nss_delete () from /usr/lib/libc.2
371 #4 0xc01126d8 in endpwent () from /usr/lib/libc.2
372 #5 0xd1950 in Perl_pp_epwent () from ./perl
373 #6 0x94d3c in Perl_runops_standard () from ./perl
374 #7 0x23728 in S_run_body () from ./perl
375 #8 0x23428 in perl_run () from ./perl
376 #9 0x2005c in main () from ./perl
377
378The key here is the C<nss_delete> call. One workaround for this
379bug seems to be to create add to the file F</etc/nsswitch.conf>
380(at least) the following lines
381
382 group: files
383 passwd: files
384
385Whether you are using NIS does not matter. Amazingly enough,
386the same bug affects also Solaris.
387
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388=head1 AUTHOR
389
390Jeff Okamoto <okamoto@corp.hp.com>
391
392With much assistance regarding shared libraries from Marc Sabatella.
393
394=head1 DATE
395
1a4e8251 396Version 0.6.4: 2001-10-09
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397
398=cut