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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
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4
5=head1 NAME
6
d66be8f9 7README.hpux - Perl version 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX) systems
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8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
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11This document describes various features of HP's Unix operating system
12(HP-UX) that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl) is
13compiled and/or runs.
f2a260d6 14
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15=head2 Using perl as shipped with HP-UX
16
17As of application release September 2001, HP-UX 11.00 is shipped with
210b36aa 18perl-5.6.1 in /opt/perl. The first occurrence is on CD 5012-7954 and
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19can be installed using
20
21 swinstall -s /cdrom perl
22
23assuming you have mounted that CD on /cdrom. In this version the
24following modules are installed:
25
26 ActivePerl::DocTools-0.04 HTML::Parser-3.19 XML::DOM-1.25
27 Archive::Tar-0.072 HTML::Tagset-3.03 XML::Parser-2.27
28 Compress::Zlib-1.08 MIME::Base64-2.11 XML::Simple-1.05
29 Convert::ASN1-0.10 Net-1.07 XML::XPath-1.09
30 Digest::MD5-2.11 PPM-2.1.5 XML::XSLT-0.32
31 File::CounterFile-0.12 SOAP::Lite-0.46 libwww-perl-5.51
32 Font::AFM-1.18 Storable-1.011 libxml-perl-0.07
33 HTML-Tree-3.11 URI-1.11 perl-ldap-0.23
34
35The build is a portable hppa-1.1 multithread build that supports large
36files compiled with gcc-2.9-hppa-991112
37
38If you perform a new installation, then Perl will be installed
39automatically.
40
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41=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on HP-UX
42
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43When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. The C compiler
44that ships with all HP-UX systems is a K&R compiler that should only be
45used to build new kernels.
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46
47Perl can be compiled with either HP's ANSI C compiler or with gcc. The
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48former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
49difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
50require the use of HP compiler-specific command-line flags.
f2a260d6 51
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52If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
53complete, and be sure to read the Perl README file for more gcc-specific
54details.
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55
56=head2 PA-RISC
57
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58HP's current Unix systems run on its own Precision Architecture
59(PA-RISC) chip. HP-UX used to run on the Motorola MC68000 family of
60chips, but any machine with this chip in it is quite obsolete and this
61document will not attempt to address issues for compiling Perl on the
62Motorola chipset.
f2a260d6 63
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64The most recent version of PA-RISC at the time of this document's last
65update is 2.0.
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66
67=head2 PA-RISC 1.0
68
69The original version of PA-RISC, HP no longer sells any system with this chip.
70
13e84f2c 71The following systems contained PA-RISC 1.0 chips:
f2a260d6 72
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73 600, 635, 645, 808, 815, 822, 825, 832, 834, 835, 840, 842, 845, 850,
74 852, 855, 860, 865, 870, 890
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75
76=head2 PA-RISC 1.1
77
78An upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it shipped for many years in many different
79system.
80
81The following systems contain with PA-RISC 1.1 chips:
82
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83 705, 710, 712, 715, 720, 722, 725, 728, 730, 735, 742, 743, 744, 745,
84 747, 750, 755, 770, 777, 778, 779, 800, 801, 803, 806, 807, 809, 811,
85 813, 816, 817, 819, 821, 826, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 847, 849,
86 851, 856, 857, 859, 867, 869, 877, 887, 891, 892, 897, A180, A180C,
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87 B115, B120, B132L, B132L+, B160L, B180L, C100, C110, C115, C120,
88 C160L, D200, D210, D220, D230, D250, D260, D310, D320, D330, D350,
89 D360, D410, DX0, DX5, DXO, E25, E35, E45, E55, F10, F20, F30, G30,
90 G40, G50, G60, G70, H20, H30, H40, H50, H60, H70, I30, I40, I50, I60,
91 I70, J200, J210, J210XC, K100, K200, K210, K220, K230, K400, K410,
92 K420, S700i, S715, S744, S760, T500, T520
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93
94=head2 PA-RISC 2.0
95
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96The most recent upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it added support for
9764-bit integer data.
f2a260d6 98
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99As of the date of this document's last update, the following systems
100contain PA-RISC 2.0 chips (this is very likely to be out of date):
f2a260d6 101
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102 700, 780, 781, 782, 783, 785, 802, 804, 810, 820, 861, 871, 879, 889,
103 893, 895, 896, 898, 899, A400, A500, B1000, B2000, C130, C140, C160,
104 C180, C180+, C180-XP, C200+, C400+, C3000, C360, C3600, CB260, D270,
105 D280, D370, D380, D390, D650, J220, J2240, J280, J282, J400, J410,
106 J5000, J5500XM, J5600, J7000, J7600, K250, K260, K260-EG, K270, K360,
107 K370, K380, K450, K460, K460-EG, K460-XP, K470, K570, K580, L1000,
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108 L2000, L3000, N4000, R380, R390, RP5400, RP5430, RP5450, RP5470,
109 RP7400, RP8400, SD16000, SD32000, SD64000, T540, T600, V2000, V2200,
110 V2250, V2500, V2600
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111
112=head2 Itanium
113
114HP also ships servers with the 128-bit Itanium processor(s). As of the
115date of this document's last update, the following systems contain
116Itanium chips (this is very likely to be out of date):
117
2925712a 118 RX4610, RX9610
f2a260d6 119
d66be8f9 120A complete list of models at the time the OS was built is in the file
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121/opt/langtools/lib/sched.models. The first column corresponds to the
122output of the "uname -m" command (without the leading "9000/"). The
123second column is the PA-RISC version and the third column is the exact
42be3f00 124chip type used. (Start browsing at the bottom to prevent confusion ;-)
d66be8f9 125
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126=head2 Portability Between PA-RISC Versions
127
128An executable compiled on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform will not execute on a
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129PA-RISC 1.1 platform, even if they are running the same version of
130HP-UX. If you are building Perl on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform and want that
d1be9408 131Perl to also run on a PA-RISC 1.1, the compiler flags +DAportable and
60ed1d8c 132+DS32 should be used.
f2a260d6 133
60ed1d8c 134It is no longer possible to compile PA-RISC 1.0 executables on either
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135the PA-RISC 1.1 or 2.0 platforms. The command-line flags are accepted,
136but the resulting executable will not run when transferred to a PA-RISC
1371.0 system.
138
a83b6f46 139=head2 Itanium Processor Family and HP-UX
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140
141HP-UX also runs on the new Itanium processor. This requires the use
142of a different version of HP-UX (currently 11.20), and with the exception
143of a few differences detailed below and in later sections, Perl should
144compile with no problems.
145
146Although PA-RISC binaries can run on Itanium systems, you should not
147attempt to use a PA-RISC version of Perl on an Itanium system. This is
148because shared libraries created on an Itanium system cannot be loaded
149while running a PA-RISC executable.
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150
151=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on HP-UX
152
153HP-UX supports dynamically loadable libraries (shared libraries).
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154Shared libraries end with the suffix .sl. On Itanium systems,
155they end with the suffix .so.
f2a260d6 156
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157Shared libraries created on a platform using a particular PA-RISC
158version are not usable on platforms using an earlier PA-RISC version by
159default. However, this backwards compatibility may be enabled using the
160same +DAportable compiler flag (with the same PA-RISC 1.0 caveat
161mentioned above).
f2a260d6 162
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163Shared libraries created on an Itanium platform cannot be loaded on
164a PA-RISC platform. Shared libraries created on a PA-RISC platform
165can only be loaded on an Itanium platform if it is a PA-RISC executable
166that is attempting to load the PA-RISC library. A PA-RISC shared
167library cannot be loaded into an Itanium executable nor vice-versa.
168
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169To create a shared library, the following steps must be performed:
170
171 1. Compile source modules with +z or +Z flag to create a .o module
172 which contains Position-Independent Code (PIC). The linker will
173 tell you in the next step if +Z was needed.
174
175 2. Link the shared library using the -b flag. If the code calls
176 any functions in other system libraries (e.g., libm), it must
177 be included on this line.
178
179(Note that these steps are usually handled automatically by the extension's
180Makefile).
181
182If these dependent libraries are not listed at shared library creation
183time, you will get fatal "Unresolved symbol" errors at run time when the
184library is loaded.
185
a75f7dba 186You may create a shared library that refers to another library, which
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187may be either an archive library or a shared library. If this second
188library is a shared library, this is called a "dependent library". The
189dependent library's name is recorded in the main shared library, but it
190is not linked into the shared library. Instead, it is loaded when the
191main shared library is loaded. This can cause problems if you build an
192extension on one system and move it to another system where the
193libraries may not be located in the same place as on the first system.
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194
195If the referred library is an archive library, then it is treated as a
196simple collection of .o modules (all of which must contain PIC). These
197modules are then linked into the shared library.
198
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199Note that it is okay to create a library which contains a dependent
200library that is already linked into perl.
f2a260d6 201
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202Some extensions, like DB_File and Compress::Zlib use/require prebuilt
203libraries for the perl extensions/modules to work. If these libraries
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204are built using the default configuration, it might happen that you
205run into an error like "invalid loader fixup" during load phase.
206HP is aware of this problem. Search the HP-UX cxx-dev forums for
207discussions about the subject. The short answer is that B<everything>
208(all libraries, everything) must be compiled with C<+z> or C<+Z> to be
209PIC (position independent code). In HP-UX 11.00 or newer the linker
210error message should tell the name of the offending object file.
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211
212A more general approach is to intervene manually, as with an example for
213the DB_File module, which requires SleepyCat's libdb.sl:
214
215 # cd .../db-3.2.9/build_unix
216 # vi Makefile
217 ... add +Z to all cflags to create shared objects
218 CFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
219 -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
220 CXXFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
221 -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
222
223 # make clean
224 # make
225 # mkdir tmp
226 # cd tmp
227 # ar x ../libdb.a
228 # ld -b -o libdb-3.2.sl *.o
229 # mv libdb-3.2.sl /usr/local/lib
230 # rm *.o
231 # cd /usr/local/lib
232 # rm -f libdb.sl
233 # ln -s libdb-3.2.sl libdb.sl
234
235 # cd .../DB_File-1.76
236 # make distclean
237 # perl Makefile.PL
238 # make
239 # make test
240 # make install
241
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242It is no longer possible to link PA-RISC 1.0 shared libraries (even
243though the command-line flags are still present).
244
245PA-RISC and Itanium object files are not interchangeable. Although
246you may be able to use ar to create an archive library of PA-RISC
247object files on an Itanium system, you cannot link against it using
248an Itanium link editor.
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249
250=head2 The HP ANSI C Compiler
251
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252When using this compiler to build Perl, you should make sure that the
253flag -Aa is added to the cpprun and cppstdin variables in the config.sh
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254file (though see the section on 64-bit perl below). If you are using a
255recent version of the Perl distribution, these flags are set automatically.
f2a260d6 256
a83b6f46 257=head2 Using Large Files with Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 258
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259Beginning with HP-UX version 10.20, files larger than 2GB (2^31 bytes)
260may be created and manipulated. Three separate methods of doing this
261are available. Of these methods, the best method for Perl is to compile
262using the -Duselargefiles flag to Configure. This causes Perl to be
263compiled using structures and functions in which these are 64 bits wide,
264rather than 32 bits wide. (Note that this will only work with HP's ANSI
265C compiler. If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get
266a version of the compiler that support 64-bit operations.)
267
268There are some drawbacks to this approach. One is that any extension
269which calls any file-manipulating C function will need to be recompiled
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270(just follow the usual "perl Makefile.PL; make; make test; make install"
271procedure).
60ed1d8c 272
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273The list of functions that will need to recompiled is:
274creat, fgetpos, fopen,
275freopen, fsetpos, fstat,
276fstatvfs, fstatvfsdev, ftruncate,
277ftw, lockf, lseek,
278lstat, mmap, nftw,
279open, prealloc, stat,
280statvfs, statvfsdev, tmpfile,
281truncate, getrlimit, setrlimit
f2a260d6 282
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283Another drawback is only valid for Perl versions before 5.6.0. This
284drawback is that the seek and tell functions (both the builtin version
285and POSIX module version) will not perform correctly.
286
287It is strongly recommended that you use this flag when you run
288Configure. If you do not do this, but later answer the question about
289large files when Configure asks you, you may get a configuration that
290cannot be compiled, or that does not function as expected.
291
a83b6f46 292=head2 Threaded Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 293
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294It is possible to compile a version of threaded Perl on any version of
295HP-UX before 10.30, but it is strongly suggested that you be running on
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296HP-UX 11.00 at least.
297
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298To compile Perl with threads, add -Dusethreads to the arguments of
299Configure. Verify that the -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L compiler flag is
300automatically added to the list of flags. Also make sure that -lpthread
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301is listed before -lc in the list of libraries to link Perl with. The
302hints provided for HP-UX during Configure will try very hard to get
303this right for you.
f2a260d6 304
210b36aa 305HP-UX versions before 10.30 require a separate installation of a POSIX
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306threads library package. Two examples are the HP DCE package, available
307on "HP-UX Hardware Extensions 3.0, Install and Core OS, Release 10.20,
308April 1999 (B3920-13941)" or the Freely available PTH package, available
309though worldwide HP-UX mirrors of precompiled packages
37a78d01 310(e.g. http://hpux.tn.tudelft.nl/hppd/hpux/)
c7d9b096 311
a83b6f46 312=head2 64-bit Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 313
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314Beginning with HP-UX 11.00, programs compiled under HP-UX can take
315advantage of the LP64 programming environment (LP64 means Longs and
316Pointers are 64 bits wide).
f2a260d6 317
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318Work is being performed on Perl to make it 64-bit compliant on all
319versions of Unix. Once this is complete, scalar variables will be able
320to hold numbers larger than 2^32 with complete precision.
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321
322As of the date of this document, Perl is not 64-bit compliant on HP-UX.
323
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324Should a user wish to experiment with compiling Perl in the LP64
325environment, use the -Duse64bitall flag to Configure. This will force
326Perl to be compiled in a pure LP64 environment (via the +DD64 flag).
f74a9bd3 327
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328You can also use the -Duse64bitint flag to Configure. Although there
329are some minor differences between compiling Perl with this flag versus
330the -Duse64bitall flag, they should not be noticeable from a Perl user's
331perspective.
f74a9bd3 332
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333In both cases, it is strongly recommended that you use these flags when
334you run Configure. If you do not use do this, but later answer the
335questions about 64-bit numbers when Configure asks you, you may get a
336configuration that cannot be compiled, or that does not function as
337expected.
f74a9bd3 338
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339(Note that these Configure flags will only work with HP's ANSI C
340compiler. If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get a
341version of the compiler that support 64-bit operations.)
f2a260d6 342
a83b6f46 343=head2 GDBM and Threads on HP-UX
d66be8f9 344
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345If you attempt to compile Perl with threads on an 11.X system and also
346link in the GDBM library, then Perl will immediately core dump when it
347starts up. The only workaround at this point is to relink the GDBM
348library under 11.X, then relink it into Perl.
d66be8f9 349
a83b6f46 350=head2 NFS filesystems and utime(2) on HP-UX
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351
352If you are compiling Perl on a remotely-mounted NFS filesystem, the test
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353io/fs.t may fail on test #18. This appears to be a bug in HP-UX and no
354fix is currently available.
d66be8f9 355
a83b6f46 356=head2 perl -P and // and HP-UX
183968aa 357
efdf3af0 358In HP-UX Perl is compiled with flags that will cause problems if the
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359-P flag of Perl (preprocess Perl code with the C preprocessor before
360perl sees it) is used. The problem is that C<//>, being a C++-style
361until-end-of-line comment, will disappear along with the remainder
362of the line. This means that common Perl constructs like
363
efdf3af0 364 s/foo//;
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365
366will turn into illegal code
367
efdf3af0 368 s/foo
183968aa 369
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370The workaround is to use some other quoting separator than C<"/">,
371like for example C<"!">:
183968aa 372
efdf3af0 373 s!foo!!;
183968aa 374
a83b6f46 375=head2 HP-UX Kernel Parameters (maxdsiz) for Compiling Perl
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376
377By default, HP-UX comes configured with a maximum data segment size of
37864MB. This is too small to correctly compile Perl with the maximum
379optimization levels. You can increase the size of the maxdsiz kernel
380parameter through the use of SAM.
381
382When using the GUI version of SAM, click on the Kernel Configuration
383icon, then the Configurable Parameters icon. Scroll down and select
384the maxdsiz line. From the Actions menu, select the Modify Configurable
385Parameter item. Insert the new formula into the Formula/Value box.
386Then follow the instructions to rebuild your kernel and reboot your
387system.
388
389In general, a value of 256MB (or "256*1024*1024") is sufficient for
390Perl to compile at maximum optimization.
391
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392=head1 nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
393
394You may get a bus error core dump from the op/pwent or op/grent
395tests. If compiled with -g you will see a stack trace much like
396the following:
397
398 #0 0xc004216c in () from /usr/lib/libc.2
399 #1 0xc00d7550 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
400 #2 0xc00d7768 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
401 #3 0xc00d78a8 in nss_delete () from /usr/lib/libc.2
402 #4 0xc01126d8 in endpwent () from /usr/lib/libc.2
403 #5 0xd1950 in Perl_pp_epwent () from ./perl
404 #6 0x94d3c in Perl_runops_standard () from ./perl
405 #7 0x23728 in S_run_body () from ./perl
406 #8 0x23428 in perl_run () from ./perl
407 #9 0x2005c in main () from ./perl
408
409The key here is the C<nss_delete> call. One workaround for this
410bug seems to be to create add to the file F</etc/nsswitch.conf>
411(at least) the following lines
412
413 group: files
414 passwd: files
415
416Whether you are using NIS does not matter. Amazingly enough,
417the same bug affects also Solaris.
418
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419=head1 AUTHOR
420
421Jeff Okamoto <okamoto@corp.hp.com>
422
423With much assistance regarding shared libraries from Marc Sabatella.
424
425=head1 DATE
426
1a4e8251 427Version 0.6.4: 2001-10-09
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428
429=cut