This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
readability tweak suggested by GRommel@sears.com
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
CommitLineData
a0d0e21e
LW
1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
12 (S) A severe warning (mandatory).
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
748a9306 18Optional warnings are enabled by using the B<-w> switch. Warnings may
68dc0745
PP
19be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}> to a reference to a routine that
20will be called on each warning instead of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
4438c4b7 21
748a9306 22Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
4438c4b7
JH
23L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
24disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
25See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e
LW
26
27Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 28just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
10f9c03d
CK
29Since the messages are listed in alphabetical order, the symbols
30C<"%(-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
a0d0e21e
LW
31
32=over 4
33
09bef843
SB
34=item "my sub" not yet implemented
35
36(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try that
37yet.
38
a0d0e21e
LW
39=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
40
41(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
42to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
43if you want to localize a package variable.
44
9fbbe825 45=item "my" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s
2ba9eb46 46
9fbbe825
GS
47(W) A lexical variable has been redeclared in the current scope or statement,
48effectively eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost
49always a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
2ba9eb46
PP
50until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
51destroyed.
52
a0d0e21e
LW
53=item "no" not allowed in expression
54
55(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
56no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
57
58=item "use" not allowed in expression
59
60(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
61no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
62
f61d411c 63=item '!' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 64
f61d411c
JH
65(F) The '!' is allowed in pack() and unpack() only after certain types.
66See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 67
17f4a12d 68=item / cannot take a count
43192e07
IP
69
70(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
71but you have also specified an explicit size for the string.
72See L<perlfunc/pack>.
73
17f4a12d 74=item / must be followed by a, A or Z
43192e07
IP
75
76(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
77which must be followed by one of the letters a, A or Z
78to indicate what sort of string is to be unpacked.
79See L<perlfunc/pack>.
80
17f4a12d 81=item / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*
43192e07 82
437784d6 83(F) You had a pack template indicating a counted-length string,
43192e07
IP
84Currently the only things that can have their length counted are a*, A* or Z*.
85See L<perlfunc/pack>.
86
17f4a12d 87=item / must follow a numeric type
43192e07
IP
88
89(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '#',
90but this did not follow some numeric unpack specification.
91See L<perlfunc/pack>.
92
a0d0e21e
LW
93=item % may only be used in unpack
94
5f05dabc 95(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
a0d0e21e
LW
96checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
97way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
98
06387354
NT
99=item Repeat count in pack overflows
100
101(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
102your signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
103
104=item Repeat count in unpack overflows
105
106(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
107your signed integers. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
108
c9f97d15
IZ
109=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
110
111(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
112by Perl. This combination appears in an interpolated variable or a
1028017a
JH
113C<'>-delimited regular expression. The character was understood literally.
114
115=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed through
116
117(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
118by Perl inside character classes. The character was understood literally.
c9f97d15 119
eb6e2d6f
GS
120=item /%s/ should probably be written as "%s"
121
122(W) You have used a pattern where Perl expected to find a string,
437784d6 123as in the first argument to C<join>. Perl will treat the true
eb6e2d6f
GS
124or false result of matching the pattern against $_ as the string,
125which is probably not what you had in mind.
126
a0d0e21e
LW
127=item %s (...) interpreted as function
128
129(W) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 130by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 131found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
a0d0e21e 132
76cd736e
GS
133=item %s() called too early to check prototype
134
135(W) You've called a function that has a prototype before the parser saw a
136definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check that the call
137conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an early prototype
138declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the subroutine
139definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype checking. Alternatively,
140if you are certain that you're calling the function correctly, you may put
141an ampersand before the name to avoid the warning. See L<perlsub>.
142
a0d0e21e
LW
143=item %s argument is not a HASH element
144
5f05dabc 145(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash element, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
146
147 $foo{$bar}
148 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
149
5f05dabc
PP
150=item %s argument is not a HASH element or slice
151
152(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash element, such as
153
154 $foo{$bar}
155 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
156
157or a hash slice, such as
158
159 @foo{$bar, $baz, $xyzzy}
160 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
161
a0d0e21e
LW
162=item %s did not return a true value
163
164(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
165it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
166traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
167do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
168
169=item %s found where operator expected
170
171(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
172sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
173it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
174delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
175
f86702cc 176=item %s had compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
177
178(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
179
f86702cc 180=item %s has too many errors
a0d0e21e
LW
181
182(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
183Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
184
185=item %s matches null string many times
186
187(W) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
188regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
189
190=item %s never introduced
191
192(S) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
193before it could possibly have been used.
194
09bef843
SB
195=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
196
197(W) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a package-specific handler.
198That name might have a meaning to Perl itself some day, even though it
199doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a mixed-case attribute name, instead.
200See L<attributes>.
201
a0d0e21e
LW
202=item %s syntax OK
203
204(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
205
f86702cc 206=item %s: Command not found
cb1a09d0
AD
207
208(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
209of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
210Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 211
f86702cc 212=item %s: Expression syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
213
214(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
215of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
216Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 217
f86702cc 218=item %s: Undefined variable
cb1a09d0
AD
219
220(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
221of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
222Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0
AD
223
224=item %s: not found
225
8b1a09fc 226(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 227instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
228into Perl yourself.
229
a99e4ac2
GS
230=item (in cleanup) %s
231
232(W) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
233the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by
234the system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast
235number of times, the warning is issued only once for any number
236of failures that would otherwise result in the same message being
237repeated.
238
239Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag
240could also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
241
702d120d
G
242=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
243
244(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
245found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
246the previous line just because you saw this message.
247
a0d0e21e
LW
248=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
249
250(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
251which provides a race condition that breaks security.
252
253=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
254
255(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
256know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
257
08e9d68e
DD
258=item C<-p> destination: %s
259
260(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
261command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
262redirected it with select().)
263
a5f75d66
AD
264=item 500 Server error
265
266See Server error.
267
a0d0e21e
LW
268=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
269
270(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
271if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
272
273=item @ outside of string
274
2ba9eb46 275(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
a0d0e21e
LW
276the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
277
742c16d1
MJD
278=item <> should be quotes
279
280(F) You wrote C<require E<lt>fileE<gt>> when you should have written
281C<require 'file'>.
282
a0d0e21e
LW
283=item accept() on closed fd
284
285(W) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
286the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
287
288=item Allocation too large: %lx
289
54310121 290(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
55497cff 291
2ae324a7
PP
292=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
293
2c268ad5 294(W) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and transliteration (tr///)
2ae324a7
PP
295operators work on scalar values. If you apply one of them to an array
296or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to a scalar value -- the
297length of an array, or the population info of a hash -- and then work on
298that scalar value. This is probably not what you meant to do. See
299L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for alternatives.
300
a0d0e21e
LW
301=item Arg too short for msgsnd
302
303(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
304
748a9306
LW
305=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
306
307(W)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
308you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 309a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 310
5315574d
GS
311=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
312
313(W) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl keyword,
314and you have used the name without qualification for calling one or the
315other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the subroutine is
316not imported.
317
318To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
319before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
320Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
321imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
322
323To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
324on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or by declaring the subroutine
09bef843
SB
325to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes">
326or L<attributes>).
5315574d 327
a0d0e21e
LW
328=item Args must match #! line
329
330(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
3a52c276
CS
331with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
332impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
333for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 334
f86702cc 335=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e
LW
336
337(W) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
338expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
339will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
340
341=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
342
343(D) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
344is now heavily deprecated.
345
346=item assertion botched: %s
347
348(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
349
350=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
351
352(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
353
354=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
355
356(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
357must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
358know which context to supply to the right side.
359
360=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
361
362(P) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
363be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
364of those arenas.
365
54310121 366=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69
PP
367
368(P) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
369optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
370indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
371that can no longer be found in the table.
372
a0d0e21e
LW
373=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
374
375(W) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
376routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
377the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
378routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
379it.
380
381=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
382
383(P) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
384
385=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
386
387(W) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
388would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
389and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
390could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
391SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
392when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
393
dcdda58d
GS
394=item Attempt to join self
395
396(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
397impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may
398need to move the join() to some other thread.
399
84902520
TB
400=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
401
402(W) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
403function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
404means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
405invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
406literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
407avoid this warning.
408
b7a902f4
PP
409=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
410
411(W) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 412as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
b7a902f4
PP
413dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
414
a0d0e21e
LW
415=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
416
417(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 418shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 419S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
a0d0e21e
LW
420S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
421
a0d0e21e
LW
422=item Bad filehandle: %s
423
424(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
425has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
426did it in another package.
427
428=item Bad free() ignored
429
430(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
33c8a3fe
IZ
431malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
432setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
433
434This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
435"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
436C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
437system malloc().
a0d0e21e 438
aa689395
PP
439=item Bad hash
440
441(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
442
f1192cee
GA
443=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
444
6f54a448
GS
445(F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a
446pseudo-hash is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
447See L<perlref>.
57079c46 448
a0d0e21e
LW
449=item Bad name after %s::
450
451(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
452finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
453so
454
455 $var = 'myvar';
456 $sym = mypack::$var;
457
458is not the same as
459
460 $var = 'myvar';
461 $sym = "mypack::$var";
462
4ad56ec9
IZ
463=item Bad realloc() ignored
464
465(S) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had never been
466malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
467setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
468
a0d0e21e
LW
469=item Bad symbol for array
470
471(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
472wasn't a symbol table entry.
473
474=item Bad symbol for filehandle
475
476(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
477wasn't a symbol table entry.
478
479=item Bad symbol for hash
480
481(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
482wasn't a symbol table entry.
483
8b1a09fc 484=item Badly placed ()'s
cb1a09d0
AD
485
486(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
487of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
488Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 489
3fe9a6f1
PP
490=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
491
492(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
d98d5fff 493subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>" symbol.
54310121 494Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
3fe9a6f1 495
c3e0f903
GS
496=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
497
498(W) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but
499the compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point.
500Perhaps you need to predeclare a package?
501
a0d0e21e
LW
502=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
503
504(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
505Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
506
68dc0745
PP
507=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
508
509(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
510implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had
511already occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}>
512could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code
513likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
514
252aa082
JH
515=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
516
9e24b6e2
JH
517(W) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
518(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
519L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 520
a0d0e21e
LW
521=item bind() on closed fd
522
523(W) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
524the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
525
c5a0f51a
JH
526=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
527
528(W) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
529
4633a7c4
LW
530=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
531
532(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
533
f675dbe5
CB
534=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
535
536(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to iterate over
537%ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition which was too long,
538so it was truncated to the string shown.
539
a0d0e21e
LW
540=item Callback called exit
541
542(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via perl_call_sv()
543exited by calling exit.
544
0a753a76
PP
545=item Can't "goto" outside a block
546
547(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look
548like a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually
549occurs if you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which
550is a no-no. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
551
84902520
TB
552=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
553
554(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a
555foreach loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
556
a0d0e21e
LW
557=item Can't "last" outside a block
558
559(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
560except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
561current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
0a753a76
PP
562"loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can usually double
563the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner curlies
564will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
565
566=item Can't "next" outside a block
567
568(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
569there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
0a753a76
PP
570count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
571usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 572curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
a0d0e21e 573
f675dbe5
CB
574=item Can't read CRTL environ
575
576(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
577from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
578missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
579or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not searched.
580
a0d0e21e
LW
581=item Can't "redo" outside a block
582
583(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
584there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
0a753a76
PP
585count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
586usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 587curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
a0d0e21e
LW
588
589=item Can't bless non-reference value
590
591(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
592encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
593
594=item Can't break at that line
595
54310121 596(S) A warning intended to only be printed while running within the debugger, indicating
a0d0e21e
LW
597the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
598be stopped at.
599
600=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
601
602(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
603functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
604in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
605
606=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
607
54310121 608(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
a0d0e21e
LW
609ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
610you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
611an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
612
613=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
614
615(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
616object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
72b5445b
GS
617a defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
618Something like this will reproduce the error:
619
620 $BADREF = 42;
621 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
622 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
623
624=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
625
626(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
627object reference or package name contains an undefined value.
a0d0e21e
LW
628Something like this will reproduce the error:
629
630 $BADREF = undef;
631 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
632 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
633
634=item Can't chdir to %s
635
636(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
637that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
638
0545a864 639=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 640
e688b231 641(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for nosuid.
104d25b7 642
a0d0e21e
LW
643=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
644
645(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 646(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
647say things like:
648
649 *foo += 1;
650
651You CAN say
652
653 $foo = *foo;
654 $foo += 1;
655
656but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
657
658=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
659
660(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 661(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
662
663=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
664
665(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 666(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 667
57079c46
GA
668=item Can't coerce array into hash
669
670(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
671information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
672only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
673
a0d0e21e
LW
674=item Can't create pipe mailbox
675
748a9306
LW
676(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
677or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e
LW
678
679=item Can't declare %s in my
680
5f05dabc 681(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as lexical variables.
a0d0e21e
LW
682They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
683
684=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
685
686(S) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
687
54310121 688=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 689
54310121 690(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try reading
3fe9a6f1 691from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say C<-i.bak>, or some
a0d0e21e
LW
692such.
693
10f9c03d 694=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 695
10f9c03d
CK
696(S) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
697characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
698inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e
LW
699
700=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
701
702(S) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
703/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
704
705=item Can't do setegid!
706
707(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
708of suidperl.
709
710=item Can't do seteuid!
711
712(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
713
714=item Can't do setuid
715
716(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
717do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
718form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
719under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
720If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
721your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
722
723=item Can't do waitpid with flags
724
725(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
726without flags is emulated.
727
8b1a09fc 728=item Can't do {n,m} with n E<gt> m
a0d0e21e
LW
729
730(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
731your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
732
733=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
734
735(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
736For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
737
738=item Can't exec "%s": %s
739
5f05dabc 740(W) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
a0d0e21e
LW
741program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
742were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
743executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
744#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
745similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
746
747=item Can't exec %s
748
749(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
750what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
751mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
752
753=item Can't execute %s
754
2a92aaa0
GS
755(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute found
756in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
757
758=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
759
760(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
761in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The script
762exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
763
764=item Can't find %s on PATH
765
a0d0e21e 766(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
2a92aaa0 767in the PATH.
a0d0e21e
LW
768
769=item Can't find label %s
770
771(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
772for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
773
774=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
775
776(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 777the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
a0d0e21e
LW
778levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
779
fb73857a
PP
780 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
781
782If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
783included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good
784programmer's editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
785
786=item Can't fork
787
788(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
789
748a9306
LW
790=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
791
792(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
793access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
794access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
795that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
796assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
797it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
798retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
799but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 800routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
748a9306
LW
801appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
802returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
803knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
804see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
805code takes stat buffers lightly.)
806
a0d0e21e
LW
807=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
808
748a9306
LW
809(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
810can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
811
812=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
813
748a9306
LW
814(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
815mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e
LW
816
817=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
818
819(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
820call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 821you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
a0d0e21e
LW
822L<perlfunc/goto>.
823
b150fb22
RH
824=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
825
826(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval "string".
827(You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you probably don't want to.)
828
0b5b802d
GS
829=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
830
831(W) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD signal
832(sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this signal
833will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
834processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value.
835This situation typically indicates that the parent program under
836which Perl may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
837
706a304b 838=item Can't localize through a reference
4633a7c4 839
706a304b
SM
840(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
841handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
842pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be
843sure that $ref will still be a reference.
4633a7c4 844
748a9306
LW
845=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
846
2ba9eb46 847(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
848lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
849localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
850package name.
851
0ebe0038
SM
852=item Can't localize pseudo-hash element
853
854(F) You said something like C<local $ar-E<gt>{'key'}>, where $ar is
855a reference to a pseudo-hash. That hasn't been implemented yet, but
856you can get a similar effect by localizing the corresponding array
857element directly -- C<local $ar-E<gt>[$ar-E<gt>[0]{'key'}]>.
858
4727527e
IZ
859=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
860
861(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows autoload,
862but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes are a misprint
863in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit> the file, say, by
864doing C<make install>.
865
ec889f3a
GS
866=item Can't locate %s
867
868(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
869found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
870unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
871to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the extra
872library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or
873maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>
874and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e
LW
875
876=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
877
878(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
879functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 880method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
881
882=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
883
884(W) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
885to exist.
886
3e3baf6d
TB
887=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
888
889(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.
890
a0d0e21e
LW
891=item Can't modify %s in %s
892
893(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 894change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 895
cd06dffe
GS
896=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
897
437784d6
GS
898(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
899such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
cd06dffe 900
54310121 901=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
902
903(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
904a NULL.
905
5f05dabc 906=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 907
5f05dabc 908(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
909buffer.
910
911=item Can't open %s: %s
912
08e9d68e
DD
913(S) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<E<lt>E<gt>>
914filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
915switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
916is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named
917on the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
918
919=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
920
921(W) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
922try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
7e1af8bc 923IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using "E<gt>",
a0d0e21e
LW
924and then read it in under a different file handle.
925
748a9306
LW
926=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
927
928(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
929couldn't open the file specified after '2E<gt>' or '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the
930command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
931
932=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
933
934(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 935couldn't open the file specified after 'E<lt>' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
936
937=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
938
939(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
940couldn't open the file specified after 'E<gt>' or 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command
941line for writing.
748a9306
LW
942
943=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
944
945(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
946couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
947
a0d0e21e
LW
948=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
949
950(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
951
7bac28a0
PP
952=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
953
954(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
955pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when it
956was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
957this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
958
10f9c03d
CK
959=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
960
961(S) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup file. Perl
962was unable to remove the original file to replace it with the modified
963file. The file was left unmodified.
964
a0d0e21e
LW
965=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
966
10f9c03d
CK
967(S) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
968probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 969
748a9306
LW
970=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
971
972(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
973reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
974
a0d0e21e
LW
975=item Can't reswap uid and euid
976
977(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
978of suidperl.
979
980=item Can't return outside a subroutine
981
982(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
983there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
984
cd06dffe
GS
985=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
986
987(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such
988as temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue.
989This is not allowed.
990
a0d0e21e
LW
991=item Can't stat script "%s"
992
993(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
994it open already. Bizarre.
995
996=item Can't swap uid and euid
997
998(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
999of suidperl.
1000
1001=item Can't take log of %g
1002
fb73857a
PP
1003(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1004negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
1005standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for
1006the negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1007
1008=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1009
1010(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1011negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1012with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1013
1014=item Can't undef active subroutine
1015
1016(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1017however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1018redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1019
1020=item Can't unshift
1021
1022(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1023as the main Perl stack.
1024
1025=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
1026
1027(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
1028it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
1029so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
1030message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
1031
1032=item Can't upgrade to undef
1033
1034(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
1035of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
1036code calling sv_upgrade.
1037
1d2dff63
GS
1038=item Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available
1039
1040(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1041Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1042provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1043
c07a80fd
PP
1044=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1045
1046(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
8b1a09fc 1047You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the E<lt>=E<gt> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1048and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1049Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1050lexical variable.
1051
e9fa98b2
HS
1052=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
1053
1054(F) You've used the /e switch to evaluate the replacement for a
1055substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
1056most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
1057
a0d0e21e
LW
1058=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1059
1060(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
1061
1062=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1063
1064(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1065reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1066test the type of the reference, if need be.
1067
748a9306
LW
1068=item Can't use \1 to mean $1 in expression
1069
1070(W) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
1071a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 1072to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
LW
1073Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
1074out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
1075
44a8e56a
PP
1076=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while \"strict refs\" in use
1077
1078(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
1079are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
1080
748a9306 1081=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
1082
1083(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
1084are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
1085
1086=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1087
1088(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
54310121 1089be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
a0d0e21e 1090
a0d0e21e
LW
1091=item Can't use global %s in "my"
1092
1093(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 1094not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
a0d0e21e
LW
1095the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
1096variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
1097weren't.
1098
748a9306
LW
1099=item Can't use subscript on %s
1100
1101(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1102subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
1103didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
1104
810b8aa5
GS
1105=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1106
1107(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1108references can be weakened.
1109
5f05dabc 1110=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
1111
1112(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
1113an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
1114Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1115
3f4520fe 1116=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
b6c543e3
IZ
1117
1118(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but
1119there is no builtin with the name C<word>.
1120
3f4520fe 1121=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
e7ea3e70
IZ
1122
1123(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1124opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1125package. If method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
1126
b8c5462f 1127=item Character class [:%s:] unknown
4599a1de 1128
b8c5462f 1129(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown.
437784d6 1130See L<perlre>.
4599a1de 1131
b8c5462f
JH
1132=item Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes
1133
1134(W) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
644a2880 1135I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct,
437784d6
GS
1136for example: /[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that [= =] and [. .]
1137are not currently implemented; they are simply placeholders for
1138future extensions.
b8c5462f 1139
644a2880 1140=item Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
4599a1de
JH
1141
1142(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
b8c5462f 1143with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
4599a1de
JH
1144If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1145expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
b8c5462f 1146backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
4599a1de
JH
1147
1148=item Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
1149
1150(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
1151beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions.
1152If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1153expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
1154backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
1155
a0d0e21e
LW
1156=item chmod: mode argument is missing initial 0
1157
1158(W) A novice will sometimes say
1159
1160 chmod 777, $filename
1161
1162not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
1163to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
1164
8b1a09fc 1165=item Close on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
1166
1167(W) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1168
7a2e2cd6
PP
1169=item Compilation failed in require
1170
1171(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
1172Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it encountered
1173were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
1174
c3464db5
DD
1175=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1176
1177(W) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex situations
1178where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited to 32766,
1179or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1180arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1181recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1182under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather
1183than in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular
1184expression so that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlbook>
1185for information on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
1186
a0d0e21e
LW
1187=item connect() on closed fd
1188
1189(W) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1190the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
1191
779c5bc9
GS
1192=item Constant is not %s reference
1193
1194(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
1195is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference. The
1196message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This usually
1197indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
1198See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1199
4cee8e80
CS
1200=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1201
1202(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
1203inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1204workarounds.
1205
9607fc9c
PP
1206=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1207
1208(S) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
1209inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1210workarounds.
1211
423cee85
JH
1212=item constant(%s): %%^H is not localized
1213
1214(F) When setting compile-time-lexicalized hash %^H one should set the
1215corresponding bit of $^H as well.
1216
1217=item constant(%s): %s
1218
1219(F) Compile-time-substitutions (such as overloaded constants and
1220character names) were not correctly set up.
1221
e7ea3e70
IZ
1222=item Copy method did not return a reference
1223
1224(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
1225
a0d0e21e
LW
1226=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1227
1228(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1229
1230=item corrupted regexp pointers
1231
1232(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1233expression compiler gave it.
1234
1235=item corrupted regexp program
1236
1237(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
1238a valid magic number.
1239
1240=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1241
1242(W) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
3e3baf6d 1243times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
a0d0e21e
LW
1244recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
1245case it indicates something else.
1246
f10b0346 1247=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302
MJD
1248
1249(D) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it checks for an
1250undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the array is empty,
1251just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
1252
f10b0346 1253=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302
MJD
1254
1255(D) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it checks for an
1256undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash is empty,
1257just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
1258
fc36a67e
PP
1259=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1260
1261(F) In a here document construct like C<E<lt>E<lt>FOO>, the label
1262C<FOO> is too long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously
1263twisted to write code that triggers this error.
1264
3cdd684c
TP
1265=item Did not produce a valid header
1266
1267See Server error.
1268
4633a7c4
LW
1269=item Did you mean &%s instead?
1270
1271(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
1272
748a9306 1273=item Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?
a0d0e21e 1274
748a9306
LW
1275(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
1276On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
1277
7e1af8bc 1278=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1279
1280(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1281you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1282
54310121 1283=item Do you need to predeclare %s?
748a9306
LW
1284
1285(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1286found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1287name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1288because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
1289"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
1290referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
1291to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
1292can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
1293declaration.
a0d0e21e 1294
3cdd684c
TP
1295=item Document contains no data
1296
1297See Server error.
1298
a0d0e21e
LW
1299=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1300
1301(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1302
1303=item do_study: out of memory
1304
1305(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1306
1307=item Duplicate free() ignored
1308
1309(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
1310been freed.
1311
4633a7c4
LW
1312=item elseif should be elsif
1313
1314(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1315ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1316named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
1317unlikely to be what you want.
1318
4f25aa18 1319=item %s failed--call queue aborted
a0d0e21e 1320
4f25aa18
GS
1321(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a STOP, INIT, or
1322END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the queue of such
1323routines has been prematurely ended.
a0d0e21e 1324
85ab1d1d 1325=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1326
85ab1d1d 1327(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1328effective uids or gids failed.
1329
748a9306
LW
1330=item Error converting file specification %s
1331
5f05dabc 1332(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
1333specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
1334single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
1335passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
1336case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
1337
e4d48cc9
GS
1338=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1339
1340(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular expression
1341that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which is unsafe.
1342See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
1343
1344=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1345
1346(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion,
1347but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'> pragma is
1348in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1349
1350=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1351
1352(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the C<(?{ ... })>
3c247ff3
GS
1353zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the pattern contains
1354interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it is not allowed.
e4d48cc9
GS
1355If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly building the pattern
1356from an interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval().
1357See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1358
fc36a67e
PP
1359=item Excessively long <> operator
1360
1361(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1362Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1363filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1364variable and glob that.
1365
f86702cc 1366=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1367
1368(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1369
1370=item Exiting eval via %s
1371
8b1a09fc 1372(W) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1373a goto, or a loop control statement.
1374
0a753a76
PP
1375=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1376
1377(W) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a sort block or
1378subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control
1379statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1380
a0d0e21e
LW
1381=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1382
8b1a09fc 1383(W) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1384a goto, or a loop control statement.
1385
1386=item Exiting substitution via %s
1387
8b1a09fc 1388(W) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1389a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
1390
7b8d334a
GS
1391=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1392
1393(W) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1394the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1395usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target
ae6c4aac 1396package, e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1397
73b437c8
JH
1398=item false [] range "%s" in regexp
1399
1400(W) A character class range must start and end at a literal character, not
1401another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-" in your false
1402range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the "-", "\-".
1403See L<perlre>.
1404
748a9306 1405=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1406
748a9306
LW
1407(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
1408service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
1409filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
1410the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1411
1412=item fcntl is not implemented
1413
1414(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1415PDP-11 or something?
1416
1417=item Filehandle %s never opened
1418
1419(W) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
1420You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
1421the FileHandle package.
1422
af8c498a 1423=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e
LW
1424
1425(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1426intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1427"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1428you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1429L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1430
af8c498a 1431=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1432
af8c498a 1433(W) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing. If you
437784d6 1434intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1435"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
af8c498a 1436you intended only to read from the file, use "E<lt>". See
8b1a09fc 1437L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1438
1439=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1440
1441(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
1442a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1443that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1444the name.
1445
1446=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1447
1448(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
1449a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1450that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1451the name.
1452
1453=item Format %s redefined
1454
1455(W) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
1456
1457 {
4438c4b7 1458 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
1459 eval "format NAME =...";
1460 }
1461
1462=item Format not terminated
1463
1464(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1465to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1466
1467=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1468
1469(W) You said
1470
1471 if ($foo = 123)
1472
1473when you meant
1474
1475 if ($foo == 123)
1476
1477(or something like that).
1478
1479=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1480
1481(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1482
1483=item gethostent not implemented
1484
1485(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1486because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1487on the Internet.
1488
1489=item get{sock,peer}name() on closed fd
1490
1491(W) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
1492Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1493
748a9306
LW
1494=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1495
1496(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1497C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1498
a0d0e21e
LW
1499=item Glob not terminated
1500
1501(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1502a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1503finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1504the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1505
1506=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1507
68dc0745
PP
1508(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1509must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), or explicitly qualified to
a0d0e21e
LW
1510say which package the global variable is in (using "::").
1511
1512=item goto must have label
1513
1514(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1515unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1516
1517=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1518
1519(S) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
1520existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1521an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1522
1523=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1524
1525(D) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
1526is now heavily deprecated.
1527
252aa082
JH
1528=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1529
9e24b6e2
JH
1530(W) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
1531(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1532L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1533
8903cb82
PP
1534=item Identifier too long
1535
1536(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e
PP
1537about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
1538names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future
1539versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1540
f675dbe5
CB
1541=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
1542
1543(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's internal
1544environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=> delimiter
1545used to spearate keys from values. The element is ignored.
1546
1547=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
a0d0e21e 1548
f675dbe5
CB
1549(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical name
1550or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1551didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the
1552line was ignored.
a0d0e21e 1553
4fdae800
PP
1554=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1555
1556(F) A carriage return character was found in the input. This is an
1557error, and not a warning, because carriage return characters can break
54310121
PP
1558multi-line strings, including here documents (e.g., C<print E<lt>E<lt>EOF;>).
1559
1560Under Unix, this error is usually caused by executing Perl code --
68dc0745 1561either the main program, a module, or an eval'd string -- that was
54310121 1562transferred over a network connection from a non-Unix system without
68dc0745
PP
1563properly converting the text file format.
1564
1565Under systems that use something other than '\n' to delimit lines of
1566text, this error can also be caused by reading Perl code from a file
1567handle that is in binary mode (as set by the C<binmode> operator).
1568
1569In either case, the Perl code in question will probably need to be
1570converted with something like C<s/\x0D\x0A?/\n/g> before it can be
1571executed.
4fdae800 1572
a0d0e21e
LW
1573=item Illegal division by zero
1574
1575(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1576logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1577
1578=item Illegal modulus zero
1579
1580(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1581don't take to this kindly.
1582
399388f4
GS
1583=item Illegal binary digit %s
1584
437784d6 1585(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
399388f4
GS
1586
1587=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1588
1589(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1590
399388f4
GS
1591=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
1592
1593(W) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
1594Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the offending digit.
1595
1596=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306
LW
1597
1598(W) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
1599of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1600
651978e7 1601=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
6ff81951 1602
252aa082
JH
1603(W) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or A - F, a - f
1604in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal number stopped
6ff81951
GS
1605before the illegal character.
1606
81e118e0
JH
1607=item Illegal number of bits in vec
1608
0a1cd687 1609(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
c5a0f51a 1610two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
09bef843 1611
54310121
PP
1612=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
1613
1614(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1615following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
1616
9607fc9c
PP
1617=item In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s
1618
1619(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1620array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was first
1621used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and ambiguous
1622instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by prepending a backslash to
1623indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array within the
1624program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply assume
1625that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1626
a0d0e21e
LW
1627=item Insecure dependency in %s
1628
8b1a09fc 1629(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1630The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1631or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1632labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1633who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1634used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1635for more information.
1636
1637=item Insecure directory in %s
1638
1639(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1640script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1641See L<perlsec>.
1642
62f468fc 1643=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1644
1645(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
G
1646setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1647C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1648potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1649known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1650
a7ae9550
GS
1651=item Integer overflow in %s number
1652
9e24b6e2 1653(W) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified either
c6edd1b7 1654as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for your
9e24b6e2
JH
1655architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number. On a
165632-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
1657representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
16580b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
1659transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
1660internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
1661operations.
bbce6d69 1662
748a9306
LW
1663=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1664
1665(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1666of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1667whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
b687b08b 1668script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count
748a9306
LW
1669has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1670this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1671and execute the specified command.
1672
a0d0e21e
LW
1673=item internal disaster in regexp
1674
1675(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1676
4eb79ab5
GS
1677=item glob failed (%s)
1678
1679(W) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for C<glob>
1680and C<E<lt>*.cE<gt>>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
1681pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a nonzero
1682status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit resulted in a
1683coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is broken. If so,
1684you should change all of the csh-related variables in config.sh: If you
1685have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it were csh (e.g.
1686C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all empty (except that
1687C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will think csh is missing.
1688In either case, after editing config.sh, run C<./Configure -S> and
1689rebuild Perl.
5cd24f17 1690
a0d0e21e
LW
1691=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1692
1693(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1694
09bef843
SB
1695=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
1696
1697The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
1698by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1699
1700=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
1701
1702The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not recognized
1703by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1704
73b437c8 1705=item invalid [] range "%s" in regexp
a0d0e21e
LW
1706
1707(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
1209ba90 1708greater than the maximum character. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 1709
c635e13b
PP
1710=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1711
878e08df 1712(W) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.
c635e13b
PP
1713See L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
1714
09bef843
SB
1715=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
1716
1717(F) Something other than a comma or whitespace was seen between the
1718elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute
1719had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated
1720too soon. See L<attributes>.
1721
96e4d5b1
PP
1722=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1723
8903cb82 1724(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
fb73857a
PP
1725(W) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be silently
1726ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1727
1728=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1729
8903cb82 1730(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
fb73857a
PP
1731(W) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be silently
1732ignored.
96e4d5b1 1733
a0d0e21e
LW
1734=item ioctl is not implemented
1735
1736(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1737strange for a machine that supports C.
1738
1739=item junk on end of regexp
1740
1741(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1742
1743=item Label not found for "last %s"
1744
1745(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1746loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1747See L<perlfunc/last>.
1748
1749=item Label not found for "next %s"
1750
1751(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1752that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1753L<perlfunc/last>.
1754
1755=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1756
1757(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1758that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1759L<perlfunc/last>.
1760
85ab1d1d 1761=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1762
85ab1d1d 1763(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1764effective uids or gids failed.
1765
a0d0e21e
LW
1766=item listen() on closed fd
1767
1768(W) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1769the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1770
cd06dffe
GS
1771=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
1772
1773(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
1774values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context.
1775See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
1776
a0d0e21e
LW
1777=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1778
1779(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1780doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 1781
3cdd684c
TP
1782=item Method %s not permitted
1783
1784See Server error.
1785
a0d0e21e
LW
1786=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1787
1788(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1789by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1790ended earlier on the current line.
1791
1792=item Misplaced _ in number
1793
1794(W) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
1795
1796=item Missing $ on loop variable
1797
8b1a09fc
PP
1798(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1799mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1800one line to the next.
1801
4a2d328f 1802=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 1803
4a2d328f 1804(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
1805double-quotish context.
1806
a0d0e21e
LW
1807=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1808
1809(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1810"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1811
06eaf0bc
GS
1812=item Missing command in piped open
1813
1814(W) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or C<open(FH, "command |")>
1815construction, but the command was missing or blank.
1816
748a9306
LW
1817=item Missing operator before %s?
1818
1819(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1820found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1821
d98d5fff 1822=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 1823
d98d5fff
GS
1824(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than
1825closing ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place
1826you were last editing.
a0d0e21e 1827
a0d0e21e
LW
1828=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1829
1830(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1831constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1832catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1833
1834 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1835 mod(2);
1836
1837Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1838
4fe4fdb3 1839=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, subscript %d
a0d0e21e
LW
1840
1841(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1842subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1843backwards.
1844
4fe4fdb3 1845=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
a0d0e21e 1846
19a09eb8 1847(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
a0d0e21e
LW
1848be created for some peculiar reason.
1849
1850=item Module name must be constant
1851
1852(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1853
1854=item msg%s not implemented
1855
1856(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1857
1858=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1859
8b1a09fc
PP
1860(W) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
1861like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1862
09bef843
SB
1863=item Missing name in "my sub"
1864
1865(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that they
1866have a name with which they can be found.
1867
8b1a09fc
PP
1868=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1869
68dc0745
PP
1870(W) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
1871If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention
77ca0c92
LW
1872it again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
1873provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1874
1875=item Negative length
1876
1877(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1878that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1879
1880=item nested *?+ in regexp
1881
5f05dabc 1882(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1883things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1884
5f05dabc 1885Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1886to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1887
1888=item No #! line
1889
1890(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1891even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1892
1893=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1894
1895(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1896script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1897another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1898See L<perlsec>.
1899
1900=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1901
1902(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1903
1904=item No comma allowed after %s
1905
1906(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1907allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1908Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1909
0a753a76
PP
1910One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
1911constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
1912importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
1913does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
1914explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
1915L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
1916would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
1917remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
1918constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
1919list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
1920this error was triggered?
1921
748a9306
LW
1922=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1923
1924(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
54310121 1925and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you
748a9306
LW
1926want to pipe the output from this command.
1927
a0d0e21e
LW
1928=item No DB::DB routine defined
1929
1930(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1931but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1932didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1933statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1934automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1935right.
1936
1937=item No dbm on this machine
1938
1939(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1940supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1941
1942=item No DBsub routine
1943
1944(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1945but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1946didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1947ordinary subroutine call.
1948
8b1a09fc 1949=item No error file after 2E<gt> or 2E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1950
1951(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1952and found a '2E<gt>' or a '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find
1953the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 1954
8b1a09fc 1955=item No input file after E<lt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1956
1957(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1958and found a 'E<lt>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
1959from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 1960
8b1a09fc 1961=item No output file after E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1962
1963(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc 1964and found a lone 'E<gt>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
54310121 1965where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 1966
8b1a09fc 1967=item No output file after E<gt> or E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1968
1969(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1970and found a 'E<gt>' or a 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find the
1971name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 1972
a0d0e21e
LW
1973=item No Perl script found in input
1974
1975(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
1976with #! and containing the word "perl".
1977
1978=item No setregid available
1979
1980(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
1981your system.
1982
1983=item No setreuid available
1984
1985(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
1986your system.
1987
1988=item No space allowed after B<-I>
1989
1990(F) The argument to B<-I> must follow the B<-I> immediately with no
1991intervening space.
1992
88e9b055 1993=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s"
57079c46 1994
88e9b055 1995(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
57079c46
GA
1996not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
1997array indices for that to work.
1998
88e9b055 1999=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
f1192cee
GA
2000
2001(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type
2002does not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in
2003the %FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash
2004is usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
2005
748a9306
LW
2006=item No such pipe open
2007
2008(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
2009close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
2010an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
2011
a0d0e21e
LW
2012=item No such signal: SIG%s
2013
2014(W) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
2015Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
2016
bd3fa61c
CB
2017=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
2018
db7c17d7 2019(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
f675dbe5
CB
2020timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
2021to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL>
2022to translate to the number of seconds which need to be added to UTC to
2023get local time.
2024
a0d0e21e
LW
2025=item Not a CODE reference
2026
2027(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2028subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
2029use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
2030See also L<perlref>.
2031
2032=item Not a format reference
2033
2034(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2035format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2036
2037=item Not a GLOB reference
2038
55497cff 2039(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
2040a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2041something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
2042what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2043
2044=item Not a HASH reference
2045
2046(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
2047found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2048function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2049
2050=item Not a perl script
2051
2052(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2053even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2054mention perl.
2055
2056=item Not a SCALAR reference
2057
2058(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
2059found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2060function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2061
2062=item Not a subroutine reference
2063
2064(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2065subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
2066use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
2067See also L<perlref>.
2068
e7ea3e70 2069=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2070
2071(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2072doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2073
2074=item Not an ARRAY reference
2075
2076(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
2077found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2078function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2079
2080=item Not enough arguments for %s
2081
2082(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2083
2084=item Not enough format arguments
2085
2086(W) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
2087See L<perlform>.
2088
2089=item Null filename used
2090
5f05dabc 2091(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
2092that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
2093
55497cff
PP
2094=item Null picture in formline
2095
2096(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2097specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2098supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2099
a0d0e21e
LW
2100=item NULL OP IN RUN
2101
2102(P) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
2103
2104=item Null realloc
2105
2106(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2107
2108=item NULL regexp argument
2109
5f05dabc 2110(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2111
2112=item NULL regexp parameter
2113
2114(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2115
fc36a67e
PP
2116=item Number too long
2117
2118(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to about
2119about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future versions of
2120Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In the meantime,
2121try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of "1_000_000").
2122
252aa082
JH
2123=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2124
9e24b6e2
JH
2125(W) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1 (4294967295)
2126and therefore non-portable between systems. See L<perlport> for more
2127on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2128
2129See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2130
1930e939 2131=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2132
1930e939
TP
2133(S) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash, which
2134is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2135
bbce6d69
PP
2136=item Offset outside string
2137
2138(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
2139pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
2140The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
2141will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
2142
a0d0e21e
LW
2143=item oops: oopsAV
2144
2145(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
2146
2147=item oops: oopsHV
2148
2149(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
2150
56f7f34b 2151=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2152
e7ea3e70
IZ
2153(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which
2154no handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in
2155terms of other handlers, there is no default handler for any
2156operation, unless C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be
2157true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2158
748a9306
LW
2159=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2160
2161(S) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
2162expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
2163to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
2164For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
2165if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
2166
a80b8354
GS
2167=item Out of memory!
2168
2169(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2170remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl
2171has no option but to exit immediately.
2172
a0d0e21e
LW
2173=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2174
2175(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
2176but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
2177
1b979e0a 2178=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2179
55497cff 2180(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
54310121 2181remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2182
2183The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2184depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
2185However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
2186an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff
PP
2187error is trappable I<once>.
2188
1b979e0a 2189=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
55497cff
PP
2190
2191(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2192remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
2193the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
2194a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
2195
1b979e0a
IZ
2196=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2197
2198(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
2199is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g., C<$arr[time]>
2200instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
2201
a0d0e21e
LW
2202=item page overflow
2203
2204(W) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
2205See L<perlform>.
2206
2207=item panic: ck_grep
2208
2209(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
2210
2211=item panic: ck_split
2212
2213(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
2214
2215=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
2216
2217(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
2218are in the savestack.
2219
810b8aa5
GS
2220=item panic: del_backref
2221
2222(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
2223reference.
2224
a0d0e21e
LW
2225=item panic: die %s
2226
2227(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
2228it wasn't an eval context.
2229
2230=item panic: do_match
2231
2232(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2233
2234=item panic: do_split
2235
2236(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
2237
2238=item panic: do_subst
2239
2240(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2241
2242=item panic: do_trans
2243
2244(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2245
c635e13b
PP
2246=item panic: frexp
2247
2248(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2249
a0d0e21e
LW
2250=item panic: goto
2251
2252(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2253and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2254
2255=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2256
2257(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2258
2259=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2260
2261(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2262
e446cec8
IZ
2263=item panic: kid popen errno read
2264
2265(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2266
a0d0e21e
LW
2267=item panic: last
2268
2269(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2270it wasn't a block context.
2271
2272=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2273
5f05dabc 2274(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2275
2276=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2277
2278(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2279invalid enum on the top of it.
2280
2281=item panic: malloc
2282
2283(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2284
810b8aa5
GS
2285=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
2286
2287(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
2288references to an object.
2289
a0d0e21e
LW
2290=item panic: mapstart
2291
2292(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2293
2294=item panic: null array
2295
2296(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2297
2298=item panic: pad_alloc
2299
2300(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2301and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2302
2303=item panic: pad_free curpad
2304
2305(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2306and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2307
2308=item panic: pad_free po
2309
2310(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2311
2312=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2313
2314(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2315and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2316
2317=item panic: pad_sv po
2318
2319(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2320
2321=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2322
2323(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2324and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2325
2326=item panic: pad_swipe po
2327
2328(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2329
2330=item panic: pp_iter
2331
2332(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2333
2334=item panic: realloc
2335
2336(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2337
2338=item panic: restartop
2339
2340(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2341didn't supply the destination.
2342
2343=item panic: return
2344
2345(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2346then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2347
2348=item panic: scan_num
2349
2350(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2351
2352=item panic: sv_insert
2353
2354(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2355was string.
2356
2357=item panic: top_env
2358
6224f72b 2359(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
2360
2361=item panic: yylex
2362
2363(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
2364
b3c9acc1
IZ
2365=item panic: %s
2366
2367(P) An internal error.
2368
7b8d334a 2369=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e
LW
2370
2371(W) You said something like
2372
2373 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2374
2375when you meant
2376
2377 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2378
2379Remember that "my" and "local" bind closer than comma.
2380
2381=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
2382
2383(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
2384than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
2385anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
2386
2387=item Permission denied
2388
2389(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2390
bd3fa61c 2391=item pid %x not a child
748a9306
LW
2392
2393(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
2394isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
2395perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
2396
a0d0e21e
LW
2397=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2398
81777298 2399(F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
a0d0e21e
LW
2400the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2401
6bc102ca
GS
2402=item Possible Y2K bug: %s
2403
2404(W) You are concatenating the number 19 with another number, which
2405could be a potential Year 2000 problem.
2406
bbce6d69
PP
2407=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2408
774d564b
PP
2409(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
2410strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated
2411as literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
7b8d334a 2412parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2413
774d564b
PP
2414You probably wrote something like this:
2415
54310121 2416 @list = qw(
774d564b 2417 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2418 b # another comment
774d564b 2419 );
bbce6d69
PP
2420
2421when you should have written this:
2422
774d564b 2423 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
2424 a
2425 b
774d564b
PP
2426 );
2427
2428If you really want comments, build your list the
2429old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2430
2431 @list = (
2432 'a', # a comment
2433 'b', # another comment
2434 );
bbce6d69
PP
2435
2436=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2437
774d564b 2438(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore commas
68dc0745 2439aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used different
774d564b
PP
2440delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
2441used.)
bbce6d69 2442
54310121 2443You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2444
774d564b
PP
2445 qw! a, b, c !;
2446
2447which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2448commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2449
774d564b 2450 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2451
a0d0e21e
LW
2452=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2453
2454(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2455Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2456end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2457Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2458
2459=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2460
2461(S) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2462
a0d0e21e
LW
2463 open FOO || die;
2464
2465is now misinterpreted as
2466
2467 open(FOO || die);
2468
68dc0745
PP
2469because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary
2470and list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must
2471put parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator
2472instead of "||".
a0d0e21e 2473
3cdd684c
TP
2474=item Premature end of script headers
2475
2476See Server error.
2477
a0d0e21e
LW
2478=item print on closed filehandle %s
2479
2480(W) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
2481Check your logic flow.
2482
2483=item printf on closed filehandle %s
2484
2485(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2486Check your logic flow.
2487
2488=item Probable precedence problem on %s
2489
54310121 2490(W) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a conditional,
a0d0e21e
LW
2491which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
2492last argument of the previous construct, for example:
2493
2494 open FOO || die;
2495
3fe9a6f1 2496=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2497
3fe9a6f1
PP
2498(S) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been declared
2499or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2500
89ea2908
GA
2501=item Range iterator outside integer range
2502
2503(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2504are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
2505One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string
2506increment by prepending "0" to your numbers.
2507
af8c498a 2508=item Read on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2509
2510(W) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
2511Check your logic flow.
2512
4ad56ec9
IZ
2513=item realloc() of freed memory ignored
2514
2515(S) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had already
2516been freed.
2517
a0d0e21e
LW
2518=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2519
54310121 2520(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e
LW
2521
2522=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2523
2524(F) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
2525desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
2526which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2527
3e0ccd42 2528=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2529
2530(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2531an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2532
3e0ccd42
JP
2533=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method '%s' in package '%s'
2534
2535(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking a
2536method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2537
1930e939
TP
2538=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2539
2540(W) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list with
2541an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This
2542usually means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant
2543to use parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2544
2545 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2546 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2547 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2548 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2549
810b8aa5
GS
2550=item Reference is already weak
2551
2552(W) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.
2553Doing so has no effect.
2554
a0d0e21e
LW
2555=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2556
2557(W) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
2558reference count of other than 1.
2559
fb73857a
PP
2560=item regexp *+ operand could be empty
2561
2562(F) The part of the regexp subject to either the * or + quantifier
2563could match an empty string.
2564
a0d0e21e
LW
2565=item regexp memory corruption
2566
2567(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2568expression compiler gave it.
2569
2570=item regexp out of space
2571
2572(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
2573
a0d0e21e
LW
2574=item Reversed %s= operator
2575
2576(W) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
2577comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
2578
2579=item Runaway format
2580
2581(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2582produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2583199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2584themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2585shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2586
2587=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2588
a6006777 2589(W) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 2590an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc
PP
2591The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2592assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 2593like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 2594subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2595
748a9306 2596On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2597element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2598Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2599L<perlref>.
2600
a6006777
PP
2601=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2602
2603(W) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
2604a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
2605The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2606assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
2607like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
2608subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
2609
2610On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
2611element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
2612Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2613L<perlref>.
2614
a0d0e21e
LW
2615=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2616
54310121
PP
2617(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2618or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2619
2620=item Search pattern not terminated
2621
2622(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2623construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2624Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2625
96e4d5b1 2626=item %sseek() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2627
96e4d5b1
PP
2628(W) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a filehandle that
2629was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2630
2631=item select not implemented
2632
2633(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2634
2635=item sem%s not implemented
2636
2637(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
2638
2639=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2640
2641(S) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
2642that had previously been marked as free.
2643
2644=item Semicolon seems to be missing
2645
2646(W) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
2647or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
2648
2649=item Send on closed socket
2650
2651(W) The filehandle you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
2652Check your logic flow.
2653
1b1626e4 2654=item Sequence (? incomplete
7b8d334a 2655
1b1626e4
G
2656(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?.
2657See L<perlre>.
2658
a0d0e21e
LW
2659=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
2660
2661(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 2662parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2663
2664=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
2665
2666(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
2667but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
2668
2669=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
2670
2671(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
2672See L<perlre>.
2673
a5f75d66
AD
2674=item Server error
2675
3cdd684c
TP
2676This is the error message generally seen in a browser window when trying
2677to run a CGI program (including SSI) over the web. The actual error
2678text varies widely from server to server. The most frequently-seen
2679variants are "500 Server error", "Method (something) not permitted",
2680"Document contains no data", "Premature end of script headers", and
2681"Did not produce a valid header".
9607fc9c
PP
2682
2683B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
2684
2685You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the user
2686CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user account you
2687tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables (like PATH)
2688from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a location where the CGI
2689server can't find it, basically, more or less. Please see the following
2690for more information:
2691
be94a901
GS
2692 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/idiots-guide.html
2693 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/perl-cgi-faq.html
9607fc9c
PP
2694 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
2695 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
2696 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 2697
be94a901
GS
2698You should also look at L<perlfaq9>.
2699
a0d0e21e
LW
2700=item setegid() not implemented
2701
8b1a09fc 2702(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2703the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2704think so.
2705
2706=item seteuid() not implemented
2707
8b1a09fc 2708(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<gt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2709the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2710think so.
2711
81777298
GS
2712=item setpgrp can't take arguments
2713
2714(F) Your system has the setpgrp() from BSD 4.2, which takes no arguments,
2715unlike POSIX setpgid(), which takes a process ID and process group ID.
2716
a0d0e21e
LW
2717=item setrgid() not implemented
2718
8b1a09fc 2719(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2720the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2721think so.
2722
2723=item setruid() not implemented
2724
1f8d2005 2725(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<lt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2726the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2727think so.
2728
2729=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
2730
2731(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
2732because the world might have written on it already.
2733
2734=item shm%s not implemented
2735
2736(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
2737
2738=item shutdown() on closed fd
2739
2740(W) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
2741
f86702cc 2742=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e
LW
2743
2744(W) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
2745put it into the wrong package?
2746
2747=item sort is now a reserved word
2748
2749(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
2750But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
2751
2752=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
2753
2754(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
4633a7c4 2755it by not using C<E<lt>=E<gt>> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
2756See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2757
2758=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
2759
2760(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
2761or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2762
2763=item Split loop
2764
2765(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
2766more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
2767See L<perlfunc/split>.
2768
8b1a09fc 2769=item Stat on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2770
2771(W) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
54310121 2772on a filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2773
2774=item Statement unlikely to be reached
2775
2776(W) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
2777This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
2778there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
2779which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
2780by itself.
2781
17feb5d5
DD
2782=item Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression
2783
2784(W) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where it
2785makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion.
2786Try putting the quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example,
2787the way to match "abc" provided that it is followed by three
2788repetitions of "xyz" is C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
2789
e7ea3e70
IZ
2790=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
2791
2792(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation stubs.
2793Stubs should never be implicitely created, but explicit calls to C<can>
2794may break this.
2795
a0d0e21e
LW
2796=item Subroutine %s redefined
2797
2798(W) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
2799
2800 {
4438c4b7 2801 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
2802 eval "sub name { ... }";
2803 }
2804
2805=item Substitution loop
2806
2807(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
2808substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
68dc0745 2809input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2810L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2811
2812=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2813
2814(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2815construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2816Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2817
2818=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2819
2820(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2821construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2822Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2823
2824=item substr outside of string
2825
3e3baf6d
TB
2826(S),(W) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a
2827string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
2828length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is
2829mandatory if substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side
2830of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 2831
f86702cc 2832=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2833
2834(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2835version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2836
85ab1d1d
JH
2837=item switching effective %s is not implemented
2838
2839(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, we cannot switch the
2840real and effective uids or gids.
2841
a0d0e21e
LW
2842=item syntax error
2843
2844(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2845
2846 A keyword is misspelled.
2847 A semicolon is missing.
2848 A comma is missing.
2849 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2850 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2851 A closing quote is missing.
2852
2853Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2854error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2855The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2856it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2857before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2858Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2859the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2860C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2861if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2862
cb1a09d0
AD
2863=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2864
8b1a09fc 2865(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 2866instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2867into Perl yourself.
2868
6087ac44 2869=item System V %s is not implemented on this machine
a0d0e21e 2870
6087ac44
JH
2871(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem",
2872"shm", or "msg" but that System V IPC is not implemented in your
2873machine. In some machines the functionality can exist but be
2874unconfigured. Consult your system support.
a0d0e21e
LW
2875
2876=item Syswrite on closed filehandle
2877
2878(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2879Check your logic flow.
2880
fc36a67e
PP
2881=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
2882
2883(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply
2884nested for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
2885
8903cb82 2886=item tell() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2887
8903cb82
PP
2888(W) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
2889never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 2890
8b1a09fc 2891=item Test on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2892
2893(W) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
2894open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2895
2896=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2897
8b1a09fc 2898(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2899a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2900
2901 $[ = 0;
2902 $[ = 1;
2903 ...
2904 local $[ = 0;
2905 local $[ = 1;
2906 ...
2907
2908This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2909out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2910
2911=item The %s function is unimplemented
2912
2913The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2914to the probings of Configure.
2915
f86702cc 2916=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
2917
2918(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2919probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 2920think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
2921will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
2922will deny it.
2923
2924=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
2925
2926(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
2927if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
2928the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
2929
437784d6 2930=item This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s)
f675dbe5
CB
2931
2932=item This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
2933
2934(W) Warnings peculiar to VMS. You tried to change or delete an element
2935of the CRTL's internal environ array, but your copy of Perl wasn't
2936built with a CRTL that contained the setenv() function. You'll need to
2937rebuild Perl with a CRTL that does, or redefine F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see
2938L<perlvms>) so that the environ array isn't the target of the change to
2939%ENV which produced the warning.
2940
a0d0e21e
LW
2941=item times not implemented
2942
2943(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
2944you're not running on Unix.
2945
2946=item Too few args to syscall
2947
2948(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
2949system call to call, silly dilly.
2950
9607fc9c
PP
2951=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
2952
2953(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb
PP
2954B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
2955This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
2956script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
2957So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 2958
9607fc9c
PP
2959If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
2960mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed
2961by editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's
2962first argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 2963
9607fc9c
PP
2964If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
2965B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 2966
8cc95fdb
PP
2967=item Too late for "-%s" option
2968
2969(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
2970B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options
2971are not intended for use inside scripts. Use the C<use> pragma instead.
2972
cb1a09d0
AD
2973=item Too many ('s
2974
2975=item Too many )'s
2976
2977(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
2978of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
2979Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 2980
a0d0e21e
LW
2981=item Too many args to syscall
2982
5f05dabc 2983(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
2984
2985=item Too many arguments for %s
2986
2987(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
2988
2989=item trailing \ in regexp
2990
2991(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
2992it. See L<perlre>.
2993
2c268ad5 2994=item Transliteration pattern not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2995
2996(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
fb73857a
PP
2997or y/// or y[][] construct. Missing the leading C<$> from variables
2998C<$tr> or C<$y> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2999
2c268ad5 3000=item Transliteration replacement not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
3001
3002(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
3003construct.
3004
3005=item truncate not implemented
3006
3007(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
3008Configure knows about.
3009
3010=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
3011
3012(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
3013certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
3014%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
3015{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
3016
3017=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
3018
eec2d3df
GS
3019(W) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal
3020literals always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
3021
3022=item umask not implemented
3023
3024(F) Your machine doesn't implement the umask function and you tried
3025to use it to restrict permissions for yourself (EXPR & 0700).
a0d0e21e 3026
4633a7c4
LW
3027=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
3028
3029(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
3030
a0d0e21e
LW
3031=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
3032
3033(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
3034contexts were entered and left.
3035
3036=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
3037
3038(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
3039values were temporarily localized.
3040
3041=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
3042
3043(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
3044were entered and left.
3045
3046=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
3047
3048(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
3049scalars were allocated and freed.
3050
3051=item Undefined format "%s" called
3052
3053(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
3054another package? See L<perlform>.
3055
3056=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
3057
3058(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
3059it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3060
3061=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
3062
3063(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
3064has since been undefined.
3065
3066=item Undefined subroutine called
3067
3068(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
3069or if it was, it has since been undefined.
3070
3071=item Undefined subroutine in sort
3072
3073(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
3074have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3075
4633a7c4
LW
3076=item Undefined top format "%s" called
3077
3078(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
3079another package? See L<perlform>.
3080
20408e3c
GS
3081=item Undefined value assigned to typeglob
3082
3083(W) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la C<*foo = undef>.
3084This does nothing. It's possible that you really mean C<undef *foo>.
3085
a0d0e21e
LW
3086=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
3087
3088(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
3089representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
3090
3091=item Unknown BYTEORDER
3092
5f05dabc 3093(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e 3094
6170680b
IZ
3095=item Unknown open() mode '%s'
3096
437784d6
GS
3097(F) The second argument of 3-argument open() is not among the list
3098of valid modes: C<L<lt>>, C<L<gt>>, C<E<gt>E<gt>>, C<+L<lt>>,
3099C<+L<gt>>, C<+E<gt>E<gt>>, C<-|>, C<|->.
6170680b 3100
f675dbe5
CB
3101=item Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s
3102
3103(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl was reading values for %ENV before
3104iterating over it, and someone else stuck a message in the stream of
3105data Perl expected. Someone's very confused, or perhaps trying to
3106subvert Perl's population of %ENV for nefarious purposes.
3107
a0d0e21e
LW
3108=item unmatched () in regexp
3109
3110(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
3111expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 3112the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3113
d98d5fff 3114=item Unmatched right %s bracket
a0d0e21e 3115
d98d5fff
GS
3116(F) The lexer counted more closing curly or square brackets than
3117opening ones, so you're probably missing a matching opening bracket.
3118As a general rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the
3119place you were last editing.
a0d0e21e
LW
3120
3121=item unmatched [] in regexp
3122
3123(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
3124include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
3125See L<perlre>.
3126
3127=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
3128
54310121 3129(W) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
a0d0e21e
LW
3130It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
3131an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
3132
54310121 3133=item Unrecognized character %s
a0d0e21e 3134
54310121
PP
3135(F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character
3136in your Perl script (or eval). Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
3137script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.
a0d0e21e 3138
c9f97d15
IZ
3139=item Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
3140
3141(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
3142by Perl.
3143
a0d0e21e
LW
3144=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
3145
3146(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
3147Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
3148
90248788 3149=item Unrecognized switch: -%s (-h will show valid options)
a0d0e21e
LW
3150
3151(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
3152(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
3153supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
3154
3155=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
3156
3157(W) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
3158failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
54310121 3159because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chomp>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3160
3161=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
3162
3163(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
3164
54310121
PP
3165=item Unsupported function fork
3166
3167(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
3168
3169Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
3170Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
3171the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
3172
a0d0e21e
LW
3173=item Unsupported function %s
3174
7b8d334a 3175(F) This machine doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
a0d0e21e
LW
3176At least, Configure doesn't think so.
3177
3178=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
3179
3180(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
3181least that's what Configure thought.
3182
8b1a09fc 3183=item Unterminated E<lt>E<gt> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
3184
3185(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
3186a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
3187finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
3188the line, and you really meant a "less than".
3189
09bef843
SB
3190=item Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list
3191
3192(F) The lexer saw an opening (left) parenthesis character while parsing an
3193attribute list, but the matching closing (right) parenthesis
3194character was not found. You may need to add (or remove) a backslash
3195character to get your parentheses to balance. See L<attributes>.
3196
3197=item Unterminated attribute list
3198
3199(F) The lexer found something other than a simple identifier at the start
3200of an attribute, and it wasn't a semicolon or the start of a
3201block. Perhaps you terminated the parameter list of the previous attribute
3202too soon. See L<attributes>.
3203
a0d0e21e
LW
3204=item Use of $# is deprecated
3205
8b1a09fc 3206(D) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
3207Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
3208
3209=item Use of $* is deprecated
3210
4a6725af 3211(D) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
3212you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
3213use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
3214action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
3215
748a9306
LW
3216=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
3217
5f05dabc
PP
3218(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
3219only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 3220
8b1a09fc 3221=item Use of bare E<lt>E<lt> to mean E<lt>E<lt>"" is deprecated
4633a7c4
LW
3222
3223(D) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
3fe9a6f1 3224wish to use an empty line as the terminator of the here-document.
4633a7c4 3225
a0d0e21e
LW
3226=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
3227
3228(D) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
3229subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
3230a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
3231
dc848c6f
PP
3232=item Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
3233
5cd24f17
PP
3234(D) As an (ahem) accidental feature, C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines are looked
3235up as methods (using the C<@ISA> hierarchy) even when the subroutines to
3236be autoloaded were called as plain functions (e.g. C<Foo::bar()>), not
7b8d334a 3237as methods (e.g. C<Foo-E<gt>bar()> or C<$obj-E<gt>bar()>).
dc848c6f
PP
3238
3239This bug will be rectified in Perl 5.005, which will use method lookup
3240only for methods' C<AUTOLOAD>s. However, there is a significant base
3241of existing code that may be using the old behavior. So, as an
3242interim step, Perl 5.004 issues an optional warning when non-methods
3243use inherited C<AUTOLOAD>s.
3244
3245The simple rule is: Inheritance will not work when autoloading
3246non-methods. The simple fix for old code is: In any module that used to
3247depend on inheriting C<AUTOLOAD> for non-methods from a base class named
3248C<BaseClass>, execute C<*AUTOLOAD = \&BaseClass::AUTOLOAD> during startup.
3249
fb73857a
PP
3250In code that currently says C<use AutoLoader; @ISA = qw(AutoLoader);> you
3251should remove AutoLoader from @ISA and change C<use AutoLoader;> to
7b8d334a 3252C<use AutoLoader 'AUTOLOAD';>.
fb73857a 3253
85b81015
LW
3254=item Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated
3255
3256(D) The indicated bareword is a reserved word. Future versions of perl
3257may use it as a keyword, so you're better off either explicitly quoting
3258the word in a manner appropriate for its context of use, or using a
3259different name altogether. The warning can be suppressed for subroutine
3260names by either adding a C<&> prefix, or using a package qualifier,
3261e.g. C<&our()>, or C<Foo::our()>.
3262
dc848c6f
PP
3263=item Use of %s is deprecated
3264
3265(D) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
3266because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
3267bad side effects.
3268
a0d0e21e
LW
3269=item Use of uninitialized value
3270
3271(W) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
3272interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
5311ebfa 3273warning assign a defined value to your variables.
a0d0e21e 3274
8202fd39
G
3275=item Useless use of "re" pragma
3276
3277(W) You did C<use re;> without any arguments. That isn't very useful.
3278
a0d0e21e
LW
3279=item Useless use of %s in void context
3280
3281(W) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
3282with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
3283from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
3284this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
3285your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
3286if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
3287
3288 $one, $two = 1, 2;
3289
3290when you meant to say
3291
3292 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
3293
748a9306
LW
3294Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
3295reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
3296example, if you say
3297
3298 $array = (1,2);
3299
3300when you should have said
3301
3302 $array = [1,2];
3303
3304The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
3305while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
3306a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
3307throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
3308L<perlref> for more on this.
3309
55497cff
PP
3310=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
3311
3312(W) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
3313valid when C<untie> was called.
3314
68dc0745 3315=item Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777 3316
68dc0745
PP
3317(W) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), C<each()>,
3318or C<readdir()> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
3319value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which is
3320probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in conditional
3321expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
a6006777 3322
f675dbe5
CB
3323=item Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long
3324
3325(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the value of an %ENV
3326element from a CLI symbol table, and found a resultant string longer
3327than 1024 characters. The return value has been truncated to 1024
3328characters.
3329
9607fc9c 3330=item Variable "%s" is not imported%s
4633a7c4
LW
3331
3332(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
3333that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
3334something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
3335by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
3336on the front of your variable.
3337
44a8e56a
PP
3338=item Variable "%s" may be unavailable
3339
3340(W) An inner (nested) I<anonymous> subroutine is inside a I<named>
3341subroutine, and outside that is another subroutine; and the anonymous
3342(innermost) subroutine is referencing a lexical variable defined in
3343the outermost subroutine. For example:
3344
3345 sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }
3346
3347If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or
3348indirectly) from the outermost subroutine, it will share the variable
3349as you would expect. But if the anonymous subroutine is called or
3350referenced when the outermost subroutine is not active, it will see
3351the value of the shared variable as it was before and during the
3352*first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is probably not what
3353you want.
3354
3355In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle
3356subroutine anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. Perl has specific
3357support for shared variables in nested anonymous subroutines; a named
3358subroutine in between interferes with this feature.
3359
3360=item Variable "%s" will not stay shared
3361
3362(W) An inner (nested) I<named> subroutine is referencing a lexical
3363variable defined in an outer subroutine.
3364
3365When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value of
3366the outer subroutine's variable as it was before and during the
3367*first* call to the outer subroutine; in this case, after the first
3368call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer
3369subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable. In
3370other words, the variable will no longer be shared.
3371
3372Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a
3373lexical variable outside itself, then the outer and inner subroutines
3374will I<never> share the given variable.
3375
3376This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine
3377anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. When inner anonymous subs that
3378reference variables in outer subroutines are called or referenced,
54310121 3379they are automatically rebound to the current values of such
44a8e56a
PP
3380variables.
3381
f86702cc 3382=item Variable syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
3383
3384(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
3385of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
3386Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 3387
084610c0
GS
3388=item Version number must be a constant number
3389
3390(P) The attempt to translate a C<use Module n.n LIST> statement into
3391its equivalent C<BEGIN> block found an internal inconsistency with
3392the version number.
3393
3e6e419a
JH
3394=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3395
3396(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
3397
3398 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3399 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
3400 LC_ALL = "En_US",
3401 LANG = (unset)
3402 are supported and installed on your system.
3403 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
3404
3405Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
3406settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
3407This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your system
3408administrator have set up the so-called variable system but Perl could
3409not use those settings. This was not dead serious, fortunately: there
3410is a "default locale" called "C" that Perl can and will use, the
3411script will be run. Before you really fix the problem, however, you
3412will get the same error message each time you run Perl. How to really
3413fix the problem can be found in L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
3414
7e1af8bc 3415=item Warning: something's wrong
5f05dabc
PP
3416
3417(W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of C<warn "">) or
3418you called it with no args and C<$_> was empty.
3419
f86702cc 3420=item Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly
a0d0e21e 3421
8b1a09fc 3422(S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the
5f05dabc 3423close(). This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.
a0d0e21e 3424
5f05dabc 3425=item Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
a0d0e21e
LW
3426
3427(S) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
3428binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or
3429unary operator. For instance, if you know that the rand function
3430has a default argument of 1.0, and you write
3431
3432 rand + 5;
3433
3434you may THINK you wrote the same thing as
3435
3436 rand() + 5;
3437
3438but in actual fact, you got
3439
3440 rand(+5);
3441
5f05dabc 3442So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.
a0d0e21e 3443
af8c498a 3444=item Write on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
3445
3446(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
3447Check your logic flow.
3448
3449=item X outside of string
3450
3451(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position before
3452the beginning of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3453
3454=item x outside of string
3455
3456(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after
3457the end of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3458
3459=item Xsub "%s" called in sort
3460
3461(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3462
3463=item Xsub called in sort
3464
3465(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3466
3467=item You can't use C<-l> on a filehandle
3468
3469(F) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it
3470already went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.
3471Use a filename instead.
3472
3473=item YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
3474
5f05dabc 3475(F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the
a0d0e21e
LW
3476sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip
3477about what you want. Your best bet is to use the wrapsuid script in
3478the eg directory to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.
3479
3480=item You need to quote "%s"
3481
3482(W) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name. Unfortunately, you
3483already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5
3484will try to call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is
3485probably not what you want. (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)
3486
3487=item [gs]etsockopt() on closed fd
3488
3489(W) You tried to get or set a socket option on a closed socket.
3490Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
3491See L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
3492
3493=item \1 better written as $1
3494
3495(W) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables. The use
5f05dabc 3496of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
a0d0e21e
LW
3497substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
3498because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better
3499if there are more than 9 backreferences.
3500
8b1a09fc 3501=item '|' and 'E<lt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3502
3503(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3504found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using
8b1a09fc 3505'E<lt>'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
748a9306 3506
8b1a09fc 3507=item '|' and 'E<gt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3508
3509(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3510thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another
3511command. You need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you
3512from piping into a program or Perl script which 'splits' output into two
3513streams, such as
3514
3515 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
3516 while (<STDIN>) {
3517 print;
3518 print OUT;
3519 }
3520 close OUT;
3521
774d564b 3522=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
33c8a3fe 3523
774d564b
PP
3524(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
3525version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3526
3527=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
3528
dc848c6f 3529(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
33c8a3fe
IZ
3530
3531 prefix1;prefix2
3532
3533or
3534
3535 prefix1 prefix2
3536
dc848c6f
PP
3537with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix
3538of a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error
3539may appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
3540"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3541
3542=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
3543
54310121 3544(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
dc848c6f 3545C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3546
3547=item Process terminated by SIG%s
3548
3549(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
dc848c6f
PP
3550applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
3551port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
3552L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
3553in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe 3554
a0d0e21e
LW
3555=back
3556