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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
4
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5=head1 NAME
6
cb8c159f 7INSTALL - Build and Installation guide for perl 5.
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8
9=head1 SYNOPSIS
10
7df75831 11First, make sure you have an up-to-date version of Perl. If you
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12didn't get your Perl source from CPAN, check the latest version at
13http://www.cpan.org/src/. Perl uses a version scheme where even-numbered
08854360 14subreleases (like 5.8.x and 5.10.x) are stable maintenance releases and
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15odd-numbered subreleases (like 5.7.x and 5.9.x) are unstable
16development releases. Development releases should not be used in
17production environments. Fixes and new features are first carefully
18tested in development releases and only if they prove themselves to be
19worthy will they be migrated to the maintenance releases.
3ce0d271 20
7df75831 21The basic steps to build and install perl 5 on a Unix system with all
dd3196cd 22the defaults are to run, from a freshly unpacked source tree:
8e07c86e 23
491517e0 24 sh Configure -de
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25 make
26 make test
27 make install
36477c24 28
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29Each of these is explained in further detail below.
30
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31The above commands will install Perl to /usr/local (or some other
32platform-specific directory -- see the appropriate file in hints/.)
7df75831 33If that's not okay with you, you can run Configure interactively, by
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34just typing "sh Configure" (without the -de args). You can also specify
35any prefix location by adding "-Dprefix='/some/dir'" to Configure's args.
36To explicitly name the perl binary, use the command
37"make install PERLNAME=myperl".
491517e0 38
668cbedd 39Building perl from source requires an ANSI compliant C compiler.
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40A minimum of C89 is required. Some features available in C99 will
41be probed for and used when found. The perl build process does not
42rely on anything more than C89.
43
ff52061e 44These options, and many more, are explained in further detail below.
7f678428 45
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46If you're building perl from a git repository, you should also consult
47the documentation in pod/perlgit.pod for information on that special
48circumstance.
49
8d74ce1c 50If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
ff52061e 51L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
8d74ce1c 52
7beaa944 53For information on what's new in this release, see the
37ee6528 54pod/perldelta.pod file. For more information about how to find more
9519d2ec 55specific detail about changes, see the Changes file.
c3edaffb 56
1ec51d55 57=head1 DESCRIPTION
edb1cbcb 58
c3edaffb 59This document is written in pod format as an easy way to indicate its
60structure. The pod format is described in pod/perlpod.pod, but you can
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61read it as is with any pager or editor. Headings and items are marked
62by lines beginning with '='. The other mark-up used is
63
64 B<text> embolden text, used for switches, programs or commands
65 C<code> literal code
66 L<name> A link (cross reference) to name
ce80d64e 67 F<file> A filename
1ec51d55 68
c42e3e15 69Although most of the defaults are probably fine for most users,
ce80d64e 70you should probably at least skim through this document before
1ec51d55 71proceeding.
c3edaffb 72
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73In addition to this file, check if there is a README file specific to
74your operating system, since it may provide additional or different
75instructions for building Perl. If there is a hint file for your
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76system (in the hints/ directory) you might also want to read it
77for even more information.
c42e3e15 78
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79For additional information about porting Perl, see the section on
80L<"Porting information"> below, and look at the files in the Porting/
81directory.
d56c5707 82
ce80d64e 83=head1 PRELIMINARIES
c42e3e15 84
ce80d64e 85=head2 Changes and Incompatibilities
c42e3e15 86
37ee6528 87Please see pod/perldelta.pod for a description of the changes and
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88potential incompatibilities introduced with this release. A few of
89the most important issues are listed below, but you should refer
37ee6528 90to pod/perldelta.pod for more detailed information.
c42e3e15 91
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92B<WARNING:> This version is not binary compatible with earlier versions
93of Perl. If you have built extensions (i.e. modules that include C code)
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94using an earlier version of Perl, you will need to rebuild and reinstall
95those extensions.
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96
97Pure perl modules without XS or C code should continue to work fine
dd3196cd 98without reinstallation. See the discussion below on
7df75831 99L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5"> for more details.
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100
101The standard extensions supplied with Perl will be handled automatically.
102
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103On a related issue, old modules may possibly be affected by the changes
104in the Perl language in the current release. Please see
37ee6528 105pod/perldelta.pod for a description of what's changed. See your
ce80d64e 106installed copy of the perllocal.pod file for a (possibly incomplete)
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107list of locally installed modules. Also see the L<CPAN> module's
108C<autobundle> function for one way to make a "bundle" of your currently
109installed modules.
16dc217a 110
aa689395 111=head1 Run Configure
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112
113Configure will figure out various things about your system. Some
114things Configure will figure out for itself, other things it will ask
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115you about. To accept the default, just press RETURN. The default is
116almost always okay. It is normal for some things to be "NOT found",
117since Configure often searches for many different ways of performing
118the same function.
119
ce80d64e 120At any Configure prompt, you can type &-d and Configure will use the
d6baa268 121defaults from then on.
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122
123After it runs, Configure will perform variable substitution on all the
1ec51d55 124*.SH files and offer to run make depend.
8e07c86e 125
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126The results of a Configure run are stored in the config.sh and Policy.sh
127files.
128
ce80d64e 129=head2 Common Configure options
844fc9f4 130
ce80d64e 131Configure supports a number of useful options. Run
844fc9f4 132
ce80d64e 133 Configure -h
d6baa268 134
ce80d64e 135to get a listing. See the Porting/Glossary file for a complete list of
fb73857a 136Configure variables you can set and their definitions.
137
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138=over 4
139
08854360 140=item C compiler
d6baa268 141
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142To compile with gcc, if it's not the default compiler on your
143system, you should run
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144
145 sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
146
08854360 147This is the preferred way to specify gcc (or any another alternative
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148compiler) so that the hints files can set appropriate defaults.
149
d6baa268 150=item Installation prefix
4633a7c4 151
8e07c86e 152By default, for most systems, perl will be installed in
8d74ce1c 153/usr/local/{bin, lib, man}. (See L<"Installation Directories">
7df75831 154and L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5"> below for
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155further details.)
156
157You can specify a different 'prefix' for the default installation
ce80d64e 158directory when Configure prompts you, or by using the Configure command
8d74ce1c 159line option -Dprefix='/some/directory', e.g.
8e07c86e 160
25f94b33 161 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl
4633a7c4 162
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163If your prefix contains the string "perl", then the suggested
164directory structure is simplified. For example, if you use
165prefix=/opt/perl, then Configure will suggest /opt/perl/lib instead of
166/opt/perl/lib/perl5/. Again, see L<"Installation Directories"> below
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167for more details. Do not include a trailing slash, (i.e. /opt/perl/)
168or you may experience odd test failures.
8e07c86e 169
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170NOTE: You must not specify an installation directory that is the same
171as or below your perl source directory. If you do, installperl will
172attempt infinite recursion.
84902520 173
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174=item /usr/bin/perl
175
176It may seem obvious, but Perl is useful only when users can easily
177find it. It's often a good idea to have both /usr/bin/perl and
dd64f1c3 178/usr/local/bin/perl be symlinks to the actual binary. Be especially
d6baa268 179careful, however, not to overwrite a version of perl supplied by your
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180vendor unless you are sure you know what you are doing. If you insist
181on replacing your vendor's perl, useful information on how it was
182configured may be found with
183
184 perl -V:config_args
185
186(Check the output carefully, however, since this doesn't preserve
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187spaces in arguments to Configure. For that, you have to look carefully
188at config_arg1, config_arg2, etc.)
d6baa268 189
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190By default, Configure will not try to link /usr/bin/perl to the current
191version of perl. You can turn on that behavior by running
d6baa268 192
7d56c962 193 Configure -Dinstallusrbinperl
d6baa268 194
7d56c962 195or by answering 'yes' to the appropriate Configure prompt.
d6baa268 196
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197In any case, system administrators are strongly encouraged to put
198(symlinks to) perl and its accompanying utilities, such as perldoc,
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199into a directory typically found along a user's PATH, or in another
200obvious and convenient place.
201
71c4561b 202=item Building a development release
04d420f9 203
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204For development releases (odd subreleases, like 5.9.x) if you want to
205use Configure -d, you will also need to supply -Dusedevel to Configure,
206because the default answer to the question "do you really want to
207Configure a development version?" is "no". The -Dusedevel skips that
208sanity check.
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209
210=back
8e07c86e 211
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212If you are willing to accept all the defaults, and you want terse
213output, you can run
214
215 sh Configure -des
216
dd3196cd 217=head2 Altering Configure variables for C compiler switches etc.
46bb10fb 218
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219For most users, most of the Configure defaults are fine, or can easily
220be set on the Configure command line. However, if Configure doesn't
221have an option to do what you want, you can change Configure variables
222after the platform hints have been run by using Configure's -A switch.
223For example, here's how to add a couple of extra flags to C compiler
224invocations:
46bb10fb 225
08854360 226 sh Configure -Accflags="-DPERL_EXTERNAL_GLOB -DNO_HASH_SEED"
46bb10fb 227
5247441a 228To clarify, those ccflags values are not Configure options; if passed to
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229Configure directly, they won't do anything useful (they will define a
230variable in config.sh, but without taking any action based upon it).
231But when passed to the compiler, those flags will activate #ifdefd code.
5247441a 232
ce80d64e 233For more help on Configure switches, run
46bb10fb 234
ce80d64e 235 sh Configure -h
46bb10fb 236
ce80d64e 237=head2 Major Configure-time Build Options
46bb10fb 238
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239There are several different ways to Configure and build perl for your
240system. For most users, the defaults are sensible and will work.
241Some users, however, may wish to further customize perl. Here are
242some of the main things you can change.
46bb10fb 243
ce80d64e 244=head3 Threads
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246On some platforms, perl can be compiled with support for threads. To
247enable this, run
4633a7c4 248
ce80d64e 249 sh Configure -Dusethreads
4633a7c4 250
ce80d64e 251The default is to compile without thread support.
cc65bb49 252
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253Perl used to have two different internal threads implementations. The
254current model (available internally since 5.6, and as a user-level module
255since 5.8) is called interpreter-based implementation (ithreads), with
256one interpreter per thread, and explicit sharing of data. The (deprecated)
2575.005 version (5005threads) was removed for release 5.10.
d6baa268 258
ce80d64e 259The 'threads' module is for use with the ithreads implementation. The
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260'Thread' module emulates the old 5005threads interface on top of the
261current ithreads model.
d6baa268 262
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263When using threads, perl uses a dynamically-sized buffer for some of
264the thread-safe library calls, such as those in the getpw*() family.
265This buffer starts small, but it will keep growing until the result
266fits. To get a fixed upper limit, you should compile Perl with
267PERL_REENTRANT_MAXSIZE defined to be the number of bytes you want. One
268way to do this is to run Configure with
08854360 269C<-Accflags=-DPERL_REENTRANT_MAXSIZE=65536>.
d6baa268 270
08854360 271=head3 Large file support
b367e8b0 272
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273Since Perl 5.6.0, Perl has supported large files (files larger than
2742 gigabytes), and in many common platforms like Linux or Solaris this
275support is on by default.
d6baa268 276
ce80d64e 277This is both good and bad. It is good in that you can use large files,
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278seek(), stat(), and -s them. It is bad in that if you are interfacing
279Perl using some extension, the components you are connecting to must also
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280be large file aware: if Perl thinks files can be large but the other
281parts of the software puzzle do not understand the concept, bad things
08854360 282will happen.
d6baa268 283
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284There's also one known limitation with the current large files
285implementation: unless you also have 64-bit integers (see the next
286section), you cannot use the printf/sprintf non-decimal integer formats
287like C<%x> to print filesizes. You can use C<%d>, though.
d6baa268 288
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289If you want to compile perl without large file support, use
290
291 sh Configure -Uuselargefiles
292
08854360 293=head3 64 bit support
d6baa268 294
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295If your platform does not run natively at 64 bits, but can simulate
296them with compiler flags and/or C<long long> or C<int64_t>,
ce80d64e 297you can build a perl that uses 64 bits.
d6baa268 298
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299There are actually two modes of 64-bitness: the first one is achieved
300using Configure -Duse64bitint and the second one using Configure
301-Duse64bitall. The difference is that the first one is minimal and
302the second one maximal. The first works in more places than the second.
d6baa268 303
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304The C<use64bitint> option does only as much as is required to get
30564-bit integers into Perl (this may mean, for example, using "long
306longs") while your memory may still be limited to 2 gigabytes (because
307your pointers could still be 32-bit). Note that the name C<64bitint>
308does not imply that your C compiler will be using 64-bit C<int>s (it
309might, but it doesn't have to). The C<use64bitint> simply means that
310you will be able to have 64 bit-wide scalar values.
d6baa268 311
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312The C<use64bitall> option goes all the way by attempting to switch
313integers (if it can), longs (and pointers) to being 64-bit. This may
314create an even more binary incompatible Perl than -Duse64bitint: the
315resulting executable may not run at all in a 32-bit box, or you may
316have to reboot/reconfigure/rebuild your operating system to be 64-bit
317aware.
d6baa268 318
08854360 319Natively 64-bit systems need neither -Duse64bitint nor -Duse64bitall.
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320On these systems, it might be the default compilation mode, and there
321is currently no guarantee that passing no use64bitall option to the
322Configure process will build a 32bit perl. Implementing -Duse32bit*
1ed7425e 323options is planned for a future release of perl.
d6baa268 324
ce80d64e 325=head3 Long doubles
d6baa268 326
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327In some systems you may be able to use long doubles to enhance the
328range and precision of your double precision floating point numbers
329(that is, Perl's numbers). Use Configure -Duselongdouble to enable
330this support (if it is available).
d6baa268 331
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332Note that the exact format and range of long doubles varies:
333the most common is the x86 80-bit (64 bits of mantissa) format,
334but there are others, with different mantissa and exponent ranges.
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335In fact, the type may not be called "long double" at C level, and
336therefore the C<uselongdouble> means "using floating point larger
337than double".
aacf4ea2 338
ce80d64e 339=head3 "more bits"
b367e8b0 340
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341You can "Configure -Dusemorebits" to turn on both the 64-bit support
342and the long double support.
b367e8b0 343
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344=head3 quadmath
345
79f6e7a5 346One option for long doubles is that gcc 4.6 and later have a library
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347called quadmath, which implements the IEEE 754 quadruple precision
348(128-bit, 113 bits of mantissa) floating point numbers. The library
349works at least on x86 and ia64 platforms. It may be part of your gcc
350installation, or you may need to install it separately.
351
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352With "Configure -Dusequadmath" you can try enabling its use, but note
353the compiler dependency, you may need to also add "-Dcc=...".
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354At C level the type is called C<__float128> (note, not "long double"),
355but Perl source knows it as NV.
257c99f5 356
ce80d64e 357=head3 Algorithmic Complexity Attacks on Hashes
504f80c1 358
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359Perl 5.18 reworked the measures used to secure its hash function
360from algorithmic complexity attacks. By default it will build with
361all of these measures enabled along with support for controlling and
362disabling them via environment variables.
363
364You can override various aspects of this feature by defining various
365symbols during configure. An example might be:
366
367 Configure -Accflags=-DPERL_HASH_FUNC_SIPHASH
368
369B<Unless stated otherwise these options are considered experimental or
370insecure and are not recommended for production use.>
371
372Perl 5.18 includes support for multiple hash functions, and changed
373the default (to ONE_AT_A_TIME_HARD), you can choose a different
374algorithm by defining one of the following symbols. Note that as of
375Perl 5.18 we can only recommend use of the default or SIPHASH. All
376the others are known to have security issues and are for research
377purposes only.
378
379 PERL_HASH_FUNC_SIPHASH
380 PERL_HASH_FUNC_SDBM
381 PERL_HASH_FUNC_DJB2
382 PERL_HASH_FUNC_SUPERFAST
383 PERL_HASH_FUNC_MURMUR3
384 PERL_HASH_FUNC_ONE_AT_A_TIME
385 PERL_HASH_FUNC_ONE_AT_A_TIME_HARD
386 PERL_HASH_FUNC_ONE_AT_A_TIME_OLD
387
388Perl 5.18 randomizes the order returned by keys(), values(), and each(),
389and allows controlling this behavior by using of the PERL_PERTURB_KEYS
390option. You can disable this option entirely with the define:
391
392 PERL_PERTURB_KEYS_DISABLED
393
394You can disable the environment variable checks and specify the type of
395key traversal randomization to be used by defining one of these:
396
397 PERL_PERTURB_KEYS_RANDOM
398 PERL_PERTURB_KEYS_DETERMINISTIC
399
400In Perl 5.18 the seed used for the hash function is randomly selected
eb717850 401at process start which can be overridden by specifying a seed by setting
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402the PERL_HASH_SEED environment variable.
403
404You can change this behavior by building perl with the
405
406 USE_HASH_SEED_EXPLICIT
407
408define, in which case one has to explicitly set the PERL_HASH_SEED
409environment variable to enable the security feature or by adding
410
411 NO_HASH_SEED
412
413to the compilation flags to completely disable the randomisation feature.
414Note these modes are poorly tested, insecure and not recommended.
504f80c1 415
3debabd9 416B<Perl has never guaranteed any ordering of the hash keys>, and the
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417ordering has already changed several times during the lifetime of Perl
4185. Also, the ordering of hash keys has always been, and continues to
08854360 419be, affected by the insertion order. Note that because of this
86358043 420randomisation for example the Data::Dumper results will be different
08854360 421between different runs of Perl, since Data::Dumper by default dumps
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422hashes "unordered". The use of the Data::Dumper C<Sortkeys> option is
423recommended.
504f80c1 424
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425See L<perlrun/PERL_HASH_SEED> and L<perlrun/PERL_PERTURB_KEYS> for
426details on the environment variables, and L<perlsec/Algorithmic
427Complexity Attacks> for further security details.
e6b54db6 428
ce80d64e 429=head3 SOCKS
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430
431Perl can be configured to be 'socksified', that is, to use the SOCKS
432TCP/IP proxy protocol library. SOCKS is used to give applications
433access to transport layer network proxies. Perl supports only SOCKS
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434Version 5. The corresponding Configure option is -Dusesocks.
435You can find more about SOCKS from wikipedia at
436L<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SOCKS>.
1b9c9cf5 437
ce80d64e 438=head3 Dynamic Loading
d6baa268 439
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440By default, Configure will compile perl to use dynamic loading.
441If you want to force perl to be compiled completely
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442statically, you can either choose this when Configure prompts you or
443you can use the Configure command line option -Uusedl.
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444With this option, you won't be able to use any new extension
445(XS) module without recompiling perl itself.
d6baa268 446
ce80d64e 447=head3 Building a shared Perl library
c3edaffb 448
449Currently, for most systems, the main perl executable is built by
450linking the "perl library" libperl.a with perlmain.o, your static
8ba4bff0 451extensions, and various extra libraries, such as -lm.
c3edaffb 452
08854360 453On systems that support dynamic loading, it may be possible to
9d67150a 454replace libperl.a with a shared libperl.so. If you anticipate building
c3edaffb 455several different perl binaries (e.g. by embedding libperl into
456different programs, or by using the optional compiler extension), then
9d67150a 457you might wish to build a shared libperl.so so that all your binaries
c3edaffb 458can share the same library.
459
460The disadvantages are that there may be a significant performance
9d67150a 461penalty associated with the shared libperl.so, and that the overall
aa689395 462mechanism is still rather fragile with respect to different versions
c3edaffb 463and upgrades.
464
465In terms of performance, on my test system (Solaris 2.5_x86) the perl
9d67150a 466test suite took roughly 15% longer to run with the shared libperl.so.
c3edaffb 467Your system and typical applications may well give quite different
468results.
469
470The default name for the shared library is typically something like
08854360 471libperl.so.5.8.8 (for Perl 5.8.8), or libperl.so.588, or simply
9d67150a 472libperl.so. Configure tries to guess a sensible naming convention
c3edaffb 473based on your C library name. Since the library gets installed in a
474version-specific architecture-dependent directory, the exact name
475isn't very important anyway, as long as your linker is happy.
476
c3edaffb 477You can elect to build a shared libperl by
478
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479 sh Configure -Duseshrplib
480
481To build a shared libperl, the environment variable controlling shared
482library search (LD_LIBRARY_PATH in most systems, DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH for
f05550c0 483Darwin, LD_LIBRARY_PATH/SHLIB_PATH
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484for HP-UX, LIBPATH for AIX, PATH for Cygwin) must be set up to include
485the Perl build directory because that's where the shared libperl will
486be created. Configure arranges makefile to have the correct shared
487library search settings. You can find the name of the environment
488variable Perl thinks works in your your system by
489
490 grep ldlibpthname config.sh
491
492However, there are some special cases where manually setting the
493shared library path might be required. For example, if you want to run
494something like the following with the newly-built but not-yet-installed
495./perl:
496
04bd6448 497 ./perl -MTestInit t/misc/failing_test.t
08854360 498
ce80d64e 499or
08854360 500
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501 ./perl -Ilib ~/my_mission_critical_test
502
503then you need to set up the shared library path explicitly.
504You can do this with
505
506 LD_LIBRARY_PATH=`pwd`:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
507
508for Bourne-style shells, or
509
510 setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH `pwd`
511
512for Csh-style shells. (This procedure may also be needed if for some
513unexpected reason Configure fails to set up makefile correctly.) (And
514again, it may be something other than LD_LIBRARY_PATH for you, see above.)
515
516You can often recognize failures to build/use a shared libperl from error
517messages complaining about a missing libperl.so (or libperl.sl in HP-UX),
518for example:
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519
520 18126:./miniperl: /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
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521
522There is also an potential problem with the shared perl library if you
523want to have more than one "flavor" of the same version of perl (e.g.
524with and without -DDEBUGGING). For example, suppose you build and
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525install a standard Perl 5.10.0 with a shared library. Then, suppose you
526try to build Perl 5.10.0 with -DDEBUGGING enabled, but everything else
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527the same, including all the installation directories. How can you
528ensure that your newly built perl will link with your newly built
529libperl.so.8 rather with the installed libperl.so.8? The answer is
530that you might not be able to. The installation directory is encoded
531in the perl binary with the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable (or
532equivalent ld command-line option). On Solaris, you can override that
533with LD_LIBRARY_PATH; on Linux, you can only override at runtime via
534LD_PRELOAD, specifying the exact filename you wish to be used; and on
535Digital Unix, you can override LD_LIBRARY_PATH by setting the
536_RLD_ROOT environment variable to point to the perl build directory.
537
538In other words, it is generally not a good idea to try to build a perl
539with a shared library if $archlib/CORE/$libperl already exists from a
540previous build.
541
542A good workaround is to specify a different directory for the
543architecture-dependent library for your -DDEBUGGING version of perl.
544You can do this by changing all the *archlib* variables in config.sh to
545point to your new architecture-dependent library.
546
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547=head3 Environment access
548
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549Perl often needs to write to the program's environment, such as when
550C<%ENV> is assigned to. Many implementations of the C library function
551C<putenv()> leak memory, so where possible perl will manipulate the
552environment directly to avoid these leaks. The default is now to perform
553direct manipulation whenever perl is running as a stand alone interpreter,
554and to call the safe but potentially leaky C<putenv()> function when the
555perl interpreter is embedded in another application. You can force perl
556to always use C<putenv()> by compiling with
557C<-Accflags="-DPERL_USE_SAFE_PUTENV">, see section L</"Altering Configure
558variables for C compiler switches etc.">. You can force an embedded perl
559to use direct manipulation by setting C<PL_use_safe_putenv = 0;> after
560the C<perl_construct()> call.
575e1338 561
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562=head2 Installation Directories
563
564The installation directories can all be changed by answering the
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565appropriate questions in Configure. For convenience, all the installation
566questions are near the beginning of Configure. Do not include trailing
567slashes on directory names. At any point during the Configure process,
568you can answer a question with &-d and Configure will use the defaults
569from then on. Alternatively, you can
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570
571 grep '^install' config.sh
572
573after Configure has run to verify the installation paths.
574
575The defaults are intended to be reasonable and sensible for most
576people building from sources. Those who build and distribute binary
577distributions or who export perl to a range of systems will probably
578need to alter them. If you are content to just accept the defaults,
579you can safely skip the next section.
580
581The directories set up by Configure fall into three broad categories.
582
583=over 4
584
585=item Directories for the perl distribution
586
0516fbdf 587By default, Configure will use the following directories for 5.21.10.
ce80d64e 588$version is the full perl version number, including subversion, e.g.
8891dd8d 5895.12.3, and $archname is a string like sun4-sunos,
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590determined by Configure. The full definitions of all Configure
591variables are in the file Porting/Glossary.
592
593 Configure variable Default value
594 $prefixexp /usr/local
595 $binexp $prefixexp/bin
596 $scriptdirexp $prefixexp/bin
597 $privlibexp $prefixexp/lib/perl5/$version
598 $archlibexp $prefixexp/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
599 $man1direxp $prefixexp/man/man1
600 $man3direxp $prefixexp/man/man3
601 $html1direxp (none)
602 $html3direxp (none)
603
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604$prefixexp is generated from $prefix, with ~ expansion done to convert
605home directories into absolute paths. Similarly for the other variables
606listed. As file system calls do not do this, you should always reference
607the ...exp variables, to support users who build perl in their home
608directory.
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609
610Actually, Configure recognizes the SVR3-style
611/usr/local/man/l_man/man1 directories, if present, and uses those
612instead. Also, if $prefix contains the string "perl", the library
613directories are simplified as described below. For simplicity, only
614the common style is shown here.
615
616=item Directories for site-specific add-on files
617
618After perl is installed, you may later wish to add modules (e.g. from
619CPAN) or scripts. Configure will set up the following directories to
620be used for installing those add-on modules and scripts.
621
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622 Configure Default
623 variable value
624 $siteprefixexp $prefixexp
625 $sitebinexp $siteprefixexp/bin
626 $sitescriptexp $siteprefixexp/bin
627 $sitelibexp $siteprefixexp/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version
628 $sitearchexp
629 $siteprefixexp/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version/$archname
630 $siteman1direxp $siteprefixexp/man/man1
631 $siteman3direxp $siteprefixexp/man/man3
632 $sitehtml1direxp (none)
633 $sitehtml3direxp (none)
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634
635By default, ExtUtils::MakeMaker will install architecture-independent
636modules into $sitelib and architecture-dependent modules into $sitearch.
637
638=item Directories for vendor-supplied add-on files
639
640Lastly, if you are building a binary distribution of perl for
641distribution, Configure can optionally set up the following directories
642for you to use to distribute add-on modules.
643
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644 Configure Default
645 variable value
646 $vendorprefixexp (none)
647
648 (The next ones are set only if vendorprefix is set.)
649
650 $vendorbinexp $vendorprefixexp/bin
651 $vendorscriptexp $vendorprefixexp/bin
652 $vendorlibexp $vendorprefixexp/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version
653 $vendorarchexp
654 $vendorprefixexp/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version/$archname
655 $vendorman1direxp $vendorprefixexp/man/man1
656 $vendorman3direxp $vendorprefixexp/man/man3
657 $vendorhtml1direxp (none)
658 $vendorhtml3direxp (none)
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659
660These are normally empty, but may be set as needed. For example,
661a vendor might choose the following settings:
662
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663 $prefix /usr
664 $siteprefix /usr/local
665 $vendorprefix /usr
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666
667This would have the effect of setting the following:
668
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669 $binexp /usr/bin
670 $scriptdirexp /usr/bin
671 $privlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/$version
672 $archlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
673 $man1direxp /usr/man/man1
674 $man3direxp /usr/man/man3
675
676 $sitebinexp /usr/local/bin
677 $sitescriptexp /usr/local/bin
678 $sitelibexp /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version
679 $sitearchexp /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version/$archname
680 $siteman1direxp /usr/local/man/man1
681 $siteman3direxp /usr/local/man/man3
682
683 $vendorbinexp /usr/bin
684 $vendorscriptexp /usr/bin
685 $vendorlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version
686 $vendorarchexp /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version/$archname
687 $vendorman1direxp /usr/man/man1
688 $vendorman3direxp /usr/man/man3
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689
690Note how in this example, the vendor-supplied directories are in the
668cbedd 691/usr hierarchy, while the directories reserved for the end user are in
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692the /usr/local hierarchy.
693
694The entire installed library hierarchy is installed in locations with
695version numbers, keeping the installations of different versions distinct.
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696However, later installations of Perl can still be configured to search
697the installed libraries corresponding to compatible earlier versions.
698See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5"> below for more
699details on how Perl can be made to search older version directories.
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700
701Of course you may use these directories however you see fit. For
702example, you may wish to use $siteprefix for site-specific files that
703are stored locally on your own disk and use $vendorprefix for
704site-specific files that are stored elsewhere on your organization's
705network. One way to do that would be something like
706
979b4168 707 sh Configure -Dsiteprefix=/usr/local -Dvendorprefix=/usr/share/perl
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708
709=item otherlibdirs
710
711As a final catch-all, Configure also offers an $otherlibdirs
712variable. This variable contains a colon-separated list of additional
713directories to add to @INC. By default, it will be empty.
714Perl will search these directories (including architecture and
715version-specific subdirectories) for add-on modules and extensions.
716
717For example, if you have a bundle of perl libraries from a previous
718installation, perhaps in a strange place:
719
720 Configure -Dotherlibdirs=/usr/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.1
721
722=item APPLLIB_EXP
723
724There is one other way of adding paths to @INC at perl build time, and
725that is by setting the APPLLIB_EXP C pre-processor token to a colon-
726separated list of directories, like this
727
728 sh Configure -Accflags='-DAPPLLIB_EXP=\"/usr/libperl\"'
729
730The directories defined by APPLLIB_EXP get added to @INC I<first>,
731ahead of any others, and so provide a way to override the standard perl
732modules should you, for example, want to distribute fixes without
733touching the perl distribution proper. And, like otherlib dirs,
734version and architecture specific subdirectories are also searched, if
735present, at run time. Of course, you can still search other @INC
736directories ahead of those in APPLLIB_EXP by using any of the standard
737run-time methods: $PERLLIB, $PERL5LIB, -I, use lib, etc.
738
785aa5e3 739=item usesitecustomize
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740
741Run-time customization of @INC can be enabled with:
742
36de116d 743 sh Configure -Dusesitecustomize
20ef40cf 744
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745which will define USE_SITECUSTOMIZE and $Config{usesitecustomize}.
746When enabled, this makes perl run F<$sitelibexp/sitecustomize.pl> before
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747anything else. This script can then be set up to add additional
748entries to @INC.
749
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750=item Man Pages
751
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752By default, man pages will be installed in $man1dir and $man3dir, which
753are normally /usr/local/man/man1 and /usr/local/man/man3. If you
754want to use a .3pm suffix for perl man pages, you can do that with
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756 sh Configure -Dman3ext=3pm
757
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758=item HTML pages
759
760Currently, the standard perl installation does not do anything with
761HTML documentation, but that may change in the future. Further, some
762add-on modules may wish to install HTML documents. The html Configure
763variables listed above are provided if you wish to specify where such
764documents should be placed. The default is "none", but will likely
765eventually change to something useful based on user feedback.
766
767=back
768
769Some users prefer to append a "/share" to $privlib and $sitelib
770to emphasize that those directories can be shared among different
771architectures.
772
773Note that these are just the defaults. You can actually structure the
774directories any way you like. They don't even have to be on the same
775filesystem.
c3edaffb 776
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777Further details about the installation directories, maintenance and
778development subversions, and about supporting multiple versions are
7df75831 779discussed in L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5"> below.
10c7e831 780
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781If you specify a prefix that contains the string "perl", then the
782library directory structure is slightly simplified. Instead of
783suggesting $prefix/lib/perl5/, Configure will suggest $prefix/lib.
2bf2710f 784
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785Thus, for example, if you Configure with
786-Dprefix=/opt/perl, then the default library directories for 5.9.0 are
2bf2710f 787
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788 Configure variable Default value
789 $privlib /opt/perl/lib/5.9.0
790 $archlib /opt/perl/lib/5.9.0/$archname
791 $sitelib /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.9.0
792 $sitearch /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.9.0/$archname
2bf2710f 793
ce80d64e 794=head2 Changing the installation directory
c3edaffb 795
ce80d64e 796Configure distinguishes between the directory in which perl (and its
7df75831 797associated files) should be installed, and the directory in which it
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798will eventually reside. For most sites, these two are the same; for
799sites that use AFS, this distinction is handled automatically.
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800However, sites that use package management software such as rpm or
801dpkg, or users building binary packages for distribution may also
802wish to install perl into a different directory before moving perl
803to its final destination. There are two ways to do that:
804
805=over 4
806
807=item installprefix
c3edaffb 808
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809To install perl under the /tmp/perl5 directory, use the following
810command line:
c3edaffb 811
7df75831 812 sh Configure -Dinstallprefix=/tmp/perl5
c3edaffb 813
ce80d64e 814(replace /tmp/perl5 by a directory of your choice).
2bf2710f 815
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816Beware, though, that if you go to try to install new add-on
817modules, they too will get installed in under '/tmp/perl5' if you
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818follow this example. That's why it's usually better to use DESTDIR,
819as shown in the next section.
c3edaffb 820
7df75831 821=item DESTDIR
9d67150a 822
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823If you need to install perl on many identical systems, it is convenient
824to compile it once and create an archive that can be installed on
825multiple systems. Suppose, for example, that you want to create an
826archive that can be installed in /opt/perl. One way to do that is by
827using the DESTDIR variable during C<make install>. The DESTDIR is
828automatically prepended to all the installation paths. Thus you
829simply do:
830717a7 830
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831 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -des
832 make
833 make test
834 make install DESTDIR=/tmp/perl5
835 cd /tmp/perl5/opt/perl
836 tar cvf /tmp/perl5-archive.tar .
9d67150a 837
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838=back
839
32878f30
NP
840=head2 Relocatable @INC
841
842To create a relocatable perl tree, use the following command line:
843
844 sh Configure -Duserelocatableinc
845
846Then the paths in @INC (and everything else in %Config) can be
847optionally located via the path of the perl executable.
848
849That means that, if the string ".../" is found at the start of any
850path, it's substituted with the directory of $^X. So, the relocation
851can be configured on a per-directory basis, although the default with
852"-Duserelocatableinc" is that everything is relocated. The initial
853install is done to the original configured prefix.
854
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855This option is not compatible with the building of a shared libperl
856("-Duseshrplib"), because in that case perl is linked with an hard-coded
857rpath that points at the libperl.so, that cannot be relocated.
858
ce80d64e 859=head2 Site-wide Policy settings
55479bb6 860
ce80d64e 861After Configure runs, it stores a number of common site-wide "policy"
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862answers (such as installation directories) in the Policy.sh file.
863If you want to build perl on another system using the same policy
864defaults, simply copy the Policy.sh file to the new system's perl build
865directory, and Configure will use it. This will work even if Policy.sh was
a0a8d9d3 866generated for another version of Perl, or on a system with a
da1b4322 867different architecture and/or operating system. However, in such cases,
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868you should review the contents of the file before using it: for
869example, your new target may not keep its man pages in the same place
870as the system on which the file was generated.
55479bb6 871
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872Alternatively, if you wish to change some or all of those policy
873answers, you should
c3edaffb 874
ce80d64e 875 rm -f Policy.sh
aa689395 876
ce80d64e 877to ensure that Configure doesn't re-use them.
2ae324a7 878
ce80d64e 879Further information is in the Policy_sh.SH file itself.
aa689395 880
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881If the generated Policy.sh file is unsuitable, you may freely edit it
882to contain any valid shell commands. It will be run just after the
883platform-specific hints files.
aa689395 884
ce80d64e 885=head2 Disabling older versions of Perl
aa689395 886
ce80d64e 887Configure will search for binary compatible versions of previously
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888installed perl binaries in the tree that is specified as target tree,
889and these will be used as locations to search for modules by the perl
890being built. The list of perl versions found will be put in the Configure
891variable inc_version_list.
86058a2d 892
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893To disable this use of older perl modules, even completely valid pure
894perl modules, you can specify to not include the paths found:
b2a6d19e 895
ce80d64e 896 sh Configure -Dinc_version_list=none ...
d6baa268 897
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898If you do want to use modules from some previous perl versions, the
899variable must contain a space separated list of directories under the
900site_perl directory, and has to include architecture-dependent
901directories separately, eg.
274ca399 902
4683a5d7 903 sh Configure -Dinc_version_list="5.16.0/x86_64-linux 5.16.0" ...
274ca399 904
ce80d64e 905When using the newer perl, you can add these paths again in the
668cbedd 906PERL5LIB environment variable or with perl's -I runtime option.
86058a2d 907
ce80d64e 908=head2 Building Perl outside of the source directory
86058a2d 909
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910Sometimes it is desirable to build Perl in a directory different from
911where the sources are, for example if you want to keep your sources
912read-only, or if you want to share the sources between different binary
913architectures. You can do this (if your file system supports symbolic
914links) by
06c896bb 915
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916 mkdir /tmp/perl/build/directory
917 cd /tmp/perl/build/directory
918 sh /path/to/perl/source/Configure -Dmksymlinks ...
06c896bb 919
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920This will create in /tmp/perl/build/directory a tree of symbolic links
921pointing to files in /path/to/perl/source. The original files are left
922unaffected. After Configure has finished you can just say
06c896bb 923
ce80d64e 924 make
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925 make test
926 make install
06c896bb 927
ce80d64e 928as usual, and Perl will be built in /tmp/perl/build/directory.
aa689395 929
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930=head2 Building a debugging perl
931
932You can run perl scripts under the perl debugger at any time with
3fe9a6f1 933B<perl -d your_script>. If, however, you want to debug perl itself,
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934you probably want to have support for perl internal debugging code
935(activated by adding -DDEBUGGING to ccflags), and/or support for the
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936system debugger by adding -g to the optimisation flags. For that,
937use the parameter:
eaf812ae 938
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939 sh Configure -DDEBUGGING
940
941or
942
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943 sh Configure -DDEBUGGING=<mode>
944
945For a more eye appealing call, -DEBUGGING is defined to be an alias
946for -DDEBUGGING. For both, the -U calls are also supported, in order
947to be able to overrule the hints or Policy.sh settings.
948
7df75831 949Here are the DEBUGGING modes:
3bf462b8 950
7df75831 951=over 4
3bf462b8 952
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953=item -DDEBUGGING
954
955=item -DEBUGGING
956
957=item -DEBUGGING=both
958
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959Sets both -DDEBUGGING in the ccflags, and adds -g to optimize.
960
961You can actually specify -g and -DDEBUGGING independently (see below),
962but usually it's convenient to have both.
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963
964=item -DEBUGGING=-g
965
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966=item -Doptimize=-g
967
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968Adds -g to optimize, but does not set -DDEBUGGING.
969
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970(Note: Your system may actually require something like cc -g2.
971Check your man pages for cc(1) and also any hint file for your system.)
972
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973=item -DEBUGGING=none
974
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975=item -UDEBUGGING
976
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977Removes -g from optimize, and -DDEBUGGING from ccflags.
978
979=back
980
3bf462b8 981If you are using a shared libperl, see the warnings about multiple
a522f097 982versions of perl under L<Building a shared Perl library>.
3bf462b8 983
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984Note that a perl built with -DDEBUGGING will be much bigger and will run
985much, much more slowly than a standard perl.
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986
987=head2 DTrace support
988
979b4168 989On platforms where DTrace is available, it may be enabled by
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990using the -Dusedtrace option to Configure. DTrace probes are available
991for subroutine entry (sub-entry) and subroutine exit (sub-exit). Here's a
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992simple D script that uses them:
993
994 perl$target:::sub-entry, perl$target:::sub-return {
995 printf("%s %s (%s:%d)\n", probename == "sub-entry" ? "->" : "<-",
996 copyinstr(arg0), copyinstr(arg1), arg2);
997 }
998
999
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1000=head2 Extensions
1001
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1002Perl ships with a number of standard extensions. These are contained
1003in the ext/ subdirectory.
1004
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1005By default, Configure will offer to build every extension which appears
1006to be supported. For example, Configure will offer to build GDBM_File
7df75831 1007only if it is able to find the gdbm library.
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1008
1009To disable certain extensions so that they are not built, use the
1010-Dnoextensions=... and -Donlyextensions=... options. They both accept
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1011a space-separated list of extensions, such as C<IPC/SysV>. The extensions
1012listed in
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1013C<noextensions> are removed from the list of extensions to build, while
1014the C<onlyextensions> is rather more severe and builds only the listed
1015extensions. The latter should be used with extreme caution since
1016certain extensions are used by many other extensions and modules:
1017examples of such modules include Fcntl and IO. The order of processing
1018these options is first C<only> (if present), then C<no> (if present).
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1019
1020Of course, you may always run Configure interactively and select only
1021the extensions you want.
1022
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1023If you unpack any additional extensions in the ext/ directory before
1024running Configure, then Configure will offer to build those additional
1025extensions as well. Most users probably shouldn't have to do this --
1026it is usually easier to build additional extensions later after perl
1027has been installed. However, if you wish to have those additional
1028extensions statically linked into the perl binary, then this offers a
1029convenient way to do that in one step. (It is not necessary, however;
1030you can build and install extensions just fine even if you don't have
1031dynamic loading. See lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm for more details.)
1032Another way of specifying extra modules is described in
1033L<"Adding extra modules to the build"> below.
8d74ce1c 1034
dd3196cd 1035If you re-use an old config.sh but change your system (e.g. by
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1036adding libgdbm) Configure will still offer your old choices of extensions
1037for the default answer, but it will also point out the discrepancy to
1038you.
1039
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1040=head2 Including locally-installed libraries
1041
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1042Perl comes with interfaces to number of libraries, including threads,
1043dbm, ndbm, gdbm, and Berkeley db. For the *db* extension, if
8d74ce1c 1044Configure can find the appropriate header files and libraries, it will
7df75831 1045automatically include that extension. The threading extension needs
27021420 1046to be specified explicitly (see L</Threads>).
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1047
1048Those libraries are not distributed with perl. If your header (.h) files
1049for those libraries are not in a directory normally searched by your C
1050compiler, then you will need to include the appropriate -I/your/directory
1051option when prompted by Configure. If your libraries are not in a
1052directory normally searched by your C compiler and linker, then you will
1053need to include the appropriate -L/your/directory option when prompted
1054by Configure. See the examples below.
8d74ce1c 1055
ce80d64e 1056=head3 Examples
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1057
1058=over 4
1059
1060=item gdbm in /usr/local
1061
1062Suppose you have gdbm and want Configure to find it and build the
d6baa268 1063GDBM_File extension. This example assumes you have gdbm.h
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1064installed in /usr/local/include/gdbm.h and libgdbm.a installed in
1065/usr/local/lib/libgdbm.a. Configure should figure all the
1066necessary steps out automatically.
1067
1068Specifically, when Configure prompts you for flags for
7df75831
RGS
1069your C compiler, you should include -I/usr/local/include, if it's
1070not here yet. Similarly, when Configure prompts you for linker flags,
1071you should include -L/usr/local/lib.
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1072
1073If you are using dynamic loading, then when Configure prompts you for
1074linker flags for dynamic loading, you should again include
1075-L/usr/local/lib.
1076
d6baa268
JH
1077Again, this should all happen automatically. This should also work if
1078you have gdbm installed in any of (/usr/local, /opt/local, /usr/gnu,
1079/opt/gnu, /usr/GNU, or /opt/GNU).
8d74ce1c 1080
e8b9ce60
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1081=item BerkeleyDB in /usr/local/BerkeleyDB
1082
668cbedd 1083The version of BerkeleyDB distributed by Oracle installs in a
e8b9ce60
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1084version-specific directory by default, typically something like
1085/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7. To have Configure find that, you need to add
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1086-I/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/include to cc flags, as in the previous
1087example, and you will also have to take extra steps to help Configure
1088find -ldb. Specifically, when Configure prompts you for library
1089directories, add /usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/lib to the list. Also, you
1090will need to add appropriate linker flags to tell the runtime linker
1091where to find the BerkeleyDB shared libraries.
e8b9ce60
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1092
1093It is possible to specify this from the command line (all on one
8d74ce1c
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1094line):
1095
979b4168
KW
1096 sh Configure -de \
1097 -Dlocincpth='/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/include \
1098 /usr/local/include' \
1099 -Dloclibpth='/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/lib /usr/local/lib' \
1100 -Aldflags='-R/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/lib'
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1101
1102locincpth is a space-separated list of include directories to search.
1103Configure will automatically add the appropriate -I directives.
1104
1105loclibpth is a space-separated list of library directories to search.
e8b9ce60 1106Configure will automatically add the appropriate -L directives.
8d74ce1c 1107
e8b9ce60
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1108The addition to ldflags is so that the dynamic linker knows where to find
1109the BerkeleyDB libraries. For Linux and Solaris, the -R option does that.
1110Other systems may use different flags. Use the appropriate flag for your
1111system.
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1112
1113=back
1114
b76ca5cc
BF
1115=head2 Specifying a logical root directory
1116
1117If you are cross-compiling, or are using a compiler which has it's own
1118headers and libraries in a nonstandard location, and your compiler
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1119understands the C<--sysroot> option, you can use the C<-Dsysroot> option
1120to specify the logical root directory under which all libraries and
1121headers are searched for. This patch adjusts Configure to search under
1122$sysroot, instead of /.
1123
b76ca5cc
BF
1124--sysroot is added to ccflags and friends so that make in
1125ExtUtils::MakeMaker, and other extensions, will use it.
1126
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1127=head2 Overriding an old config.sh
1128
dd3196cd
RGS
1129If you want to use an old config.sh produced by a previous run of
1130Configure, but override some of the items with command line options, you
1131need to use B<Configure -O>.
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1132
1133=head2 GNU-style configure
1134
1135If you prefer the GNU-style configure command line interface, you can
1136use the supplied configure.gnu command, e.g.
1137
1138 CC=gcc ./configure.gnu
1139
1140The configure.gnu script emulates a few of the more common configure
1141options. Try
1142
1143 ./configure.gnu --help
1144
1145for a listing.
1146
1147(The file is called configure.gnu to avoid problems on systems
1148that would not distinguish the files "Configure" and "configure".)
1149
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1150=head2 Malloc Issues
1151
1152Perl relies heavily on malloc(3) to grow data structures as needed,
1153so perl's performance can be noticeably affected by the performance of
1154the malloc function on your system. The perl source is shipped with a
1155version of malloc that has been optimized for the typical requests from
1156perl, so there's a chance that it may be both faster and use less memory
1157than your system malloc.
1158
1159However, if your system already has an excellent malloc, or if you are
1160experiencing difficulties with extensions that use third-party libraries
1161that call malloc, then you should probably use your system's malloc.
1162(Or, you might wish to explore the malloc flags discussed below.)
1163
1164=over 4
1165
1166=item Using the system malloc
1167
1168To build without perl's malloc, you can use the Configure command
1169
1170 sh Configure -Uusemymalloc
1171
1172or you can answer 'n' at the appropriate interactive Configure prompt.
1173
73d6d1b0
RGS
1174Note that Perl's malloc isn't always used by default; that actually
1175depends on your system. For example, on Linux and FreeBSD (and many more
1176systems), Configure chooses to use the system's malloc by default.
1177See the appropriate file in the F<hints/> directory to see how the
1178default is set.
1179
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1180=item -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC
1181
1182NOTE: This flag is enabled automatically on some platforms if you just
7df75831 1183run Configure to accept all the defaults.
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1184
1185Perl's malloc family of functions are normally called Perl_malloc(),
1186Perl_realloc(), Perl_calloc() and Perl_mfree().
1187These names do not clash with the system versions of these functions.
1188
1189If this flag is enabled, however, Perl's malloc family of functions
1190will have the same names as the system versions. This may be required
1191sometimes if you have libraries that like to free() data that may have
1192been allocated by Perl_malloc() and vice versa.
1193
1194Note that enabling this option may sometimes lead to duplicate symbols
1195from the linker for malloc et al. In such cases, the system probably
1196does not allow its malloc functions to be fully replaced with custom
1197versions.
1198
1199=item -DPERL_DEBUGGING_MSTATS
1200
1201This flag enables debugging mstats, which is required to use the
1202Devel::Peek::mstat() function. You cannot enable this unless you are
1203using Perl's malloc, so a typical Configure command would be
1204
7df75831 1205 sh Configure -Accflags=-DPERL_DEBUGGING_MSTATS -Dusemymalloc
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1206
1207to enable this option.
1208
1209=back
1210
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1211=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1212
8d74ce1c 1213If you run into problems, try some of the following ideas.
ff52061e 1214If none of them help, then see L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
8d74ce1c 1215
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1216=over 4
1217
25f94b33
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1218=item Running Configure Interactively
1219
1220If Configure runs into trouble, remember that you can always run
1221Configure interactively so that you can check (and correct) its
1222guesses.
1223
1224All the installation questions have been moved to the top, so you don't
aa689395 1225have to wait for them. Once you've handled them (and your C compiler and
1ec51d55 1226flags) you can type &-d at the next Configure prompt and Configure
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1227will use the defaults from then on.
1228
1229If you find yourself trying obscure command line incantations and
1230config.over tricks, I recommend you run Configure interactively
1231instead. You'll probably save yourself time in the long run.
1232
aa689395 1233=item Hint files
8e07c86e 1234
a0a8d9d3
DD
1235Hint files tell Configure about a number of things:
1236
1237=over 4
1238
1239=item o
1240
1241The peculiarities or conventions of particular platforms -- non-standard
1242library locations and names, default installation locations for binaries,
1243and so on.
1244
1245=item o
1246
1247The deficiencies of the platform -- for example, library functions that,
1248although present, are too badly broken to be usable; or limits on
1249resources that are generously available on most platforms.
1250
1251=item o
1252
ab97e755
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1253How best to optimize for the platform, both in terms of binary size
1254and/or speed, and for Perl feature support. Because of wide variations in
1255the implementation of shared libraries and of threading, for example,
1256Configure often needs hints in order to be able to use these features.
a0a8d9d3
DD
1257
1258=back
1259
1260The perl distribution includes many system-specific hints files
1261in the hints/ directory. If one of them matches your system, Configure
1262will offer to use that hint file. Unless you have a very good reason
1263not to, you should accept its offer.
8e07c86e
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1264
1265Several of the hint files contain additional important information.
ab97e755
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1266If you have any problems, it is a good idea to read the relevant hint
1267file for further information. See hints/solaris_2.sh for an extensive
1268example. More information about writing good hints is in the
1269hints/README.hints file, which also explains hint files known as
1270callback-units.
a0a8d9d3
DD
1271
1272Note that any hint file is read before any Policy file, meaning that
1273Policy overrides hints -- see L</Site-wide Policy settings>.
8e07c86e 1274
73d6d1b0 1275=item WHOA THERE!!!
edb1cbcb 1276
ab97e755
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1277If you are re-using an old config.sh, it's possible that Configure
1278detects different values from the ones specified in this file. You will
1279almost always want to keep the previous value, unless you have changed
1280something on your system.
edb1cbcb 1281
1282For example, suppose you have added libgdbm.a to your system
1283and you decide to reconfigure perl to use GDBM_File. When you run
1284Configure again, you will need to add -lgdbm to the list of libraries.
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1285Now, Configure will find your gdbm include file and library and will
1286issue a message:
edb1cbcb 1287
1288 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1289 The previous value for $i_gdbm on this machine was "undef"!
1290 Keep the previous value? [y]
1291
1ec51d55 1292In this case, you do not want to keep the previous value, so you
c3edaffb 1293should answer 'n'. (You'll also have to manually add GDBM_File to
edb1cbcb 1294the list of dynamic extensions to build.)
1295
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1296=item Changing Compilers
1297
1298If you change compilers or make other significant changes, you should
1ec51d55 1299probably not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or
dd3196cd 1300rename it, then rerun Configure with the options you want to use.
8e07c86e 1301
c3edaffb 1302=item Propagating your changes to config.sh
8e07c86e 1303
1ec51d55
CS
1304If you make any changes to config.sh, you should propagate
1305them to all the .SH files by running
1306
1307 sh Configure -S
1308
1309You will then have to rebuild by running
9d67150a 1310
1311 make depend
1312 make
8e07c86e 1313
48370efc
JH
1314=item config.over and config.arch
1315
668cbedd 1316You can also supply a shell script config.over to override
48370efc
JH
1317Configure's guesses. It will get loaded up at the very end, just
1318before config.sh is created. You have to be careful with this,
1319however, as Configure does no checking that your changes make sense.
1320This file is usually good for site-specific customizations.
1321
1322There is also another file that, if it exists, is loaded before the
1323config.over, called config.arch. This file is intended to be per
1324architecture, not per site, and usually it's the architecture-specific
1325hints file that creates the config.arch.
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1326
1327=item config.h
1328
1ec51d55
CS
1329Many of the system dependencies are contained in config.h.
1330Configure builds config.h by running the config_h.SH script.
1331The values for the variables are taken from config.sh.
8e07c86e 1332
1ec51d55
CS
1333If there are any problems, you can edit config.h directly. Beware,
1334though, that the next time you run Configure, your changes will be
8e07c86e
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1335lost.
1336
1337=item cflags
1338
1339If you have any additional changes to make to the C compiler command
1ec51d55 1340line, they can be made in cflags.SH. For instance, to turn off the
5729ffdd
NC
1341optimizer on toke.c, find the switch structure marked 'or customize here',
1342and add a line for toke.c ahead of the catch-all *) so that it now reads:
1343
1344 : or customize here
1345
1346 case "$file" in
1347 toke) optimize='-g' ;;
1348 *) ;;
1349
ab97e755
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1350You should not edit the generated file cflags directly, as your changes
1351will be lost the next time you run Configure, or if you edit config.sh.
8e07c86e 1352
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1353To explore various ways of changing ccflags from within a hint file,
1354see the file hints/README.hints.
1355
1356To change the C flags for all the files, edit config.sh and change either
1357$ccflags or $optimize, and then re-run
1ec51d55
CS
1358
1359 sh Configure -S
1360 make depend
8e07c86e 1361
aa689395 1362=item No sh
8e07c86e 1363
c42e3e15
GS
1364If you don't have sh, you'll have to copy the sample file
1365Porting/config.sh to config.sh and edit your config.sh to reflect your
1366system's peculiarities. See Porting/pumpkin.pod for more information.
8e07c86e
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1367You'll probably also have to extensively modify the extension building
1368mechanism.
1369
c3edaffb 1370=item Porting information
1371
e6f03d26 1372Specific information for the OS/2, Plan 9, VMS and Win32 ports is in the
1ec51d55
CS
1373corresponding README files and subdirectories. Additional information,
1374including a glossary of all those config.sh variables, is in the Porting
ce80d64e 1375subdirectory. Porting/Glossary should especially come in handy.
c3edaffb 1376
7f678428 1377Ports for other systems may also be available. You should check out
468f45d5 1378http://www.cpan.org/ports for current information on ports to
7f678428 1379various other operating systems.
1380
ce80d64e 1381If you plan to port Perl to a new architecture, study carefully the
491517e0 1382section titled "Philosophical Issues in Patching and Porting Perl"
c222ef46 1383in the file Porting/pumpkin.pod and the file pod/perlgit.pod.
491517e0
JA
1384Study also how other non-UNIX ports have solved problems.
1385
8e07c86e
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1386=back
1387
ce80d64e 1388=head2 Adding extra modules to the build
fadf0ef5
JH
1389
1390You can specify extra modules or module bundles to be fetched from the
1391CPAN and installed as part of the Perl build. Either use the -Dextras=...
1392command line parameter to Configure, for example like this:
1393
d3df0cfd 1394 Configure -Dextras="Bundle::LWP DBI"
fadf0ef5
JH
1395
1396or answer first 'y' to the question 'Install any extra modules?' and
d3df0cfd 1397then answer "Bundle::LWP DBI" to the 'Extras?' question.
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1398The module or the bundle names are as for the CPAN module 'install'
1399command. This will only work if those modules are to be built as dynamic
a522f097
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1400extensions. If you wish to include those extra modules as static
1401extensions, see L<"Extensions"> above.
fadf0ef5
JH
1402
1403Notice that because the CPAN module will be used to fetch the extra
1404modules, you will need access to the CPAN, either via the Internet,
1405or via a local copy such as a CD-ROM or a local CPAN mirror. If you
1406do not, using the extra modules option will die horribly.
1407
1408Also notice that you yourself are responsible for satisfying any extra
ab97e755
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1409dependencies such as external headers or libraries BEFORE trying the
1410build. For example: you will need to have the Foo database specific
fadf0ef5
JH
1411headers and libraries installed for the DBD::Foo module. The Configure
1412process or the Perl build process will not help you with these.
1413
ce80d64e 1414=head2 suidperl
03739d21 1415
172dd959
JV
1416suidperl was an optional component of earlier releases of perl. It is no
1417longer available. Instead, use a tool specifically designed to handle
1418changes in privileges, such as B<sudo>.
03739d21 1419
8e07c86e
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1420=head1 make depend
1421
bfb7748a
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1422This will look for all the includes. The output is stored in makefile.
1423The only difference between Makefile and makefile is the dependencies at
1424the bottom of makefile. If you have to make any changes, you should edit
ce80d64e 1425makefile, not Makefile, since the Unix make command reads makefile first.
bfb7748a
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1426(On non-Unix systems, the output may be stored in a different file.
1427Check the value of $firstmakefile in your config.sh if in doubt.)
8e07c86e
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1428
1429Configure will offer to do this step for you, so it isn't listed
1430explicitly above.
1431
1432=head1 make
1433
1434This will attempt to make perl in the current directory.
1435
8d410bc4
YST
1436=head2 Expected errors
1437
f5b5f377 1438These error reports are normal, and can be ignored:
8d410bc4
YST
1439
1440 ...
1441 make: [extra.pods] Error 1 (ignored)
1442 ...
1443 make: [extras.make] Error 1 (ignored)
1444
8d74ce1c
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1445=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1446
8e07c86e 1447If you can't compile successfully, try some of the following ideas.
7f678428 1448If none of them help, and careful reading of the error message and
8d74ce1c 1449the relevant manual pages on your system doesn't help,
ff52061e 1450then see L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
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1451
1452=over 4
1453
1ec51d55 1454=item hints
8e07c86e
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1455
1456If you used a hint file, try reading the comments in the hint file
1457for further tips and information.
1458
1ec51d55 1459=item extensions
8e07c86e 1460
1ec51d55 1461If you can successfully build miniperl, but the process crashes
ce80d64e 1462during the building of extensions, run
c3edaffb 1463
3a6175e1 1464 make minitest
c3edaffb 1465
1466to test your version of miniperl.
1467
e57fd563 1468=item locale
1469
bfb7748a
AD
1470If you have any locale-related environment variables set, try unsetting
1471them. I have some reports that some versions of IRIX hang while
1472running B<./miniperl configpm> with locales other than the C locale.
1473See the discussion under L<"make test"> below about locales and the
ab97e755
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1474whole L<perllocale/"LOCALE PROBLEMS"> section in the file
1475pod/perllocale.pod. The latter is especially useful if you see something
1476like this
3e6e419a
JH
1477
1478 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
1479 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
1480 LC_ALL = "En_US",
1481 LANG = (unset)
1482 are supported and installed on your system.
1483 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
1484
1485at Perl startup.
e57fd563 1486
06aa495b
DM
1487=item other environment variables
1488
1489Configure does not check for environment variables that can sometimes
1490have a major influence on how perl is built or tested. For example,
1491OBJECT_MODE on AIX determines the way the compiler and linker deal with
1492their objects, but this is a variable that only influences build-time
1493behaviour, and should not affect the perl scripts that are eventually
1494executed by the perl binary. Other variables, like PERL_UNICODE,
adbb55c0 1495PERL5LIB, and PERL5OPT will influence the behaviour of the test suite.
06aa495b
DM
1496So if you are getting strange test failures, you may want to try
1497retesting with the various PERL variables unset.
1498
7f678428 1499=item varargs
c3edaffb 1500
1501If you get varargs problems with gcc, be sure that gcc is installed
bfb7748a
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1502correctly and that you are not passing -I/usr/include to gcc. When using
1503gcc, you should probably have i_stdarg='define' and i_varargs='undef'
ce80d64e 1504in config.sh. The problem is usually solved by installing gcc
bfb7748a
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1505correctly. If you do change config.sh, don't forget to propagate
1506your changes (see L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below).
7f678428 1507See also the L<"vsprintf"> item below.
c3edaffb 1508
bfb7748a 1509=item util.c
c3edaffb 1510
1511If you get error messages such as the following (the exact line
bfb7748a 1512numbers and function name may vary in different versions of perl):
c3edaffb 1513
19f4563d 1514 util.c: In function 'Perl_form':
bfb7748a
AD
1515 util.c:1107: number of arguments doesn't match prototype
1516 proto.h:125: prototype declaration
c3edaffb 1517
1518it might well be a symptom of the gcc "varargs problem". See the
7f678428 1519previous L<"varargs"> item.
c3edaffb 1520
1ec51d55 1521=item LD_LIBRARY_PATH
c3edaffb 1522
1523If you run into dynamic loading problems, check your setting of
aa689395 1524the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable. If you're creating a static
1525Perl library (libperl.a rather than libperl.so) it should build
c3edaffb 1526fine with LD_LIBRARY_PATH unset, though that may depend on details
668cbedd 1527of your local setup.
c3edaffb 1528
aa689395 1529=item nm extraction
c3edaffb 1530
1531If Configure seems to be having trouble finding library functions,
1532try not using nm extraction. You can do this from the command line
1533with
1534
1535 sh Configure -Uusenm
1536
1537or by answering the nm extraction question interactively.
1ec51d55 1538If you have previously run Configure, you should not reuse your old
c3edaffb 1539config.sh.
1540
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1541=item umask not found
1542
1543If the build processes encounters errors relating to umask(), the problem
1544is probably that Configure couldn't find your umask() system call.
1545Check your config.sh. You should have d_umask='define'. If you don't,
1546this is probably the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above. Also,
1547try reading the hints file for your system for further information.
1548
7f678428 1549=item vsprintf
c3edaffb 1550
1551If you run into problems with vsprintf in compiling util.c, the
1552problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
1553version of vsprintf(). Check whether your system has vprintf().
1554(Virtually all modern Unix systems do.) Then, check the variable
1555d_vprintf in config.sh. If your system has vprintf, it should be:
1556
1557 d_vprintf='define'
1558
1559If Configure guessed wrong, it is likely that Configure guessed wrong
bfb7748a
AD
1560on a number of other common functions too. This is probably
1561the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
c3edaffb 1562
3fe9a6f1 1563=item do_aspawn
1564
1565If you run into problems relating to do_aspawn or do_spawn, the
1566problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
bfb7748a
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1567fork() function. Follow the procedure in the previous item
1568on L<"nm extraction">.
3fe9a6f1 1569
84902520
TB
1570=item __inet_* errors
1571
1572If you receive unresolved symbol errors during Perl build and/or test
1573referring to __inet_* symbols, check to see whether BIND 8.1 is
1574installed. It installs a /usr/local/include/arpa/inet.h that refers to
1575these symbols. Versions of BIND later than 8.1 do not install inet.h
1576in that location and avoid the errors. You should probably update to a
6d240721 1577newer version of BIND (and remove the files the old one left behind).
ab97e755
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1578If you can't, you can either link with the updated resolver library
1579provided with BIND 8.1 or rename /usr/local/bin/arpa/inet.h during the
1580Perl build and test process to avoid the problem.
6d240721 1581
73d6d1b0 1582=item .*_r() prototype NOT found
6d240721
JH
1583
1584On a related note, if you see a bunch of complaints like the above about
ab97e755
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1585reentrant functions -- specifically networking-related ones -- being
1586present but without prototypes available, check to see if BIND 8.1 (or
1587possibly other BIND 8 versions) is (or has been) installed. They install
1588header files such as netdb.h into places such as /usr/local/include (or
1589into another directory as specified at build/install time), at least
1590optionally. Remove them or put them in someplace that isn't in the C
1591preprocessor's header file include search path (determined by -I options
1592plus defaults, normally /usr/include).
84902520 1593
d6baa268
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1594=item #error "No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified"
1595
1596This is a common error when trying to build perl on Solaris 2.6 with a
1597gcc installation from Solaris 2.5 or 2.5.1. The Solaris header files
1598changed, so you need to update your gcc installation. You can either
1599rerun the fixincludes script from gcc or take the opportunity to
1600update your gcc installation.
1601
aa689395 1602=item Optimizer
c3edaffb 1603
9d67150a 1604If you can't compile successfully, try turning off your compiler's
aa689395 1605optimizer. Edit config.sh and change the line
9d67150a 1606
1607 optimize='-O'
1608
bfb7748a 1609to
9d67150a 1610
1611 optimize=' '
1612
1613then propagate your changes with B<sh Configure -S> and rebuild
1614with B<make depend; make>.
1615
4bbc1586 1616=item Missing functions and Undefined symbols
9d67150a 1617
4bbc1586
AD
1618If the build of miniperl fails with a long list of missing functions or
1619undefined symbols, check the libs variable in the config.sh file. It
1620should look something like
1621
1622 libs='-lsocket -lnsl -ldl -lm -lc'
1623
1624The exact libraries will vary from system to system, but you typically
1625need to include at least the math library -lm. Normally, Configure
1626will suggest the correct defaults. If the libs variable is empty, you
1627need to start all over again. Run
1628
1629 make distclean
1630
1631and start from the very beginning. This time, unless you are sure of
1632what you are doing, accept the default list of libraries suggested by
1633Configure.
1634
0ff780f4
MB
1635If the libs variable is missing -lm, there is a chance that libm.so.1
1636is available, but the required (symbolic) link to libm.so is missing.
1637(same could be the case for other libraries like libcrypt.so). You
1638should check your installation for packages that create that link, and
1639if no package is installed that supplies that link or you cannot install
1640them, make the symbolic link yourself e.g.:
1641
c7121961
FC
1642 $ rpm -qf /usr/lib64/libm.so
1643 glibc-devel-2.15-22.17.1.x86_64
1644 $ ls -lgo /usr/lib64/libm.so
1645 lrwxrwxrwx 1 16 Jan 7 2013 /usr/lib64/libm.so -> /lib64/libm.so.6
0ff780f4 1646
c7121961 1647 or
0ff780f4 1648
c7121961 1649 $ sudo ln -s /lib64/libm.so.6 /lib64/libm.so
0ff780f4 1650
4bbc1586
AD
1651If the libs variable looks correct, you might have the
1652L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
1653
668cbedd 1654If you still have missing routines or undefined symbols, you probably
0ff780f4
MB
1655need to add some library or other, make a symbolic link like described
1656above, or you need to undefine some feature that Configure thought was
1657there but is defective or incomplete. If you used a hint file, see if
1658it has any relevant advice. You can also look through through config.h
1659for likely suspects.
8e07c86e 1660
1ec51d55 1661=item toke.c
8e07c86e 1662
1ec51d55
CS
1663Some compilers will not compile or optimize the larger files (such as
1664toke.c) without some extra switches to use larger jump offsets or
1665allocate larger internal tables. You can customize the switches for
ab97e755
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1666each file in cflags.SH. It's okay to insert rules for specific files
1667into makefile since a default rule only takes effect in the absence of a
8e07c86e
AD
1668specific rule.
1669
7f678428 1670=item Missing dbmclose
8e07c86e 1671
c3edaffb 1672SCO prior to 3.2.4 may be missing dbmclose(). An upgrade to 3.2.4
1673that includes libdbm.nfs (which includes dbmclose()) may be available.
8e07c86e 1674
1bb125e2
MB
1675=item error: too few arguments to function 'dbmclose'
1676
1677Building ODBM_File on some (Open)SUSE distributions might run into this
1678error, as the header file is broken. There are two ways to deal with this
1679
1680 1. Disable the use of ODBM_FILE
1681
1682 Configure ... -Dnoextensions=ODBM_File
1683
1684 2. Fix the header file, somewhat like this:
1685
1686 --- a/usr/include/dbm.h 2010-03-24 08:54:59.000000000 +0100
1687 +++ b/usr/include/dbm.h 2010-03-24 08:55:15.000000000 +0100
1688 @@ -59,4 +59,4 @@ extern datum firstkey __P((void));
1689
1690 extern datum nextkey __P((datum key));
1691
1692 -extern int dbmclose __P((DBM *));
1693 +extern int dbmclose __P((void));
1694
44666fef 1695=item Warning (mostly harmless): No library found for -lsomething
7f678428 1696
1697If you see such a message during the building of an extension, but
1698the extension passes its tests anyway (see L<"make test"> below),
1699then don't worry about the warning message. The extension
1700Makefile.PL goes looking for various libraries needed on various
aa689395 1701systems; few systems will need all the possible libraries listed.
74b7c41f 1702Most users will see warnings for the ones they don't have. The
44666fef 1703phrase 'mostly harmless' is intended to reassure you that nothing
74b7c41f 1704unusual is happening, and the build process is continuing.
7f678428 1705
1706On the other hand, if you are building GDBM_File and you get the
1707message
1708
44666fef 1709 Warning (mostly harmless): No library found for -lgdbm
7f678428 1710
1711then it's likely you're going to run into trouble somewhere along
1712the line, since it's hard to see how you can use the GDBM_File
1713extension without the -lgdbm library.
1714
1715It is true that, in principle, Configure could have figured all of
1716this out, but Configure and the extension building process are not
1717quite that tightly coordinated.
1718
aa689395 1719=item sh: ar: not found
1720
1721This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar'
1722was not found. You need to check your PATH environment variable to
1723make sure that it includes the directory with the 'ar' command. This
1ec51d55 1724is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the /usr/ccs/bin
aa689395 1725directory.
1726
1727=item db-recno failure on tests 51, 53 and 55
1728
1729Old versions of the DB library (including the DB library which comes
1730with FreeBSD 2.1) had broken handling of recno databases with modified
1731bval settings. Upgrade your DB library or OS.
1732
6087ac44
JH
1733=item Bad arg length for semctl, is XX, should be ZZZ
1734
ab97e755
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1735If you get this error message from the ext/IPC/SysV/t/sem test, your
1736System V IPC may be broken. The XX typically is 20, and that is what ZZZ
6087ac44
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1737also should be. Consider upgrading your OS, or reconfiguring your OS
1738to include the System V semaphores.
1739
11906ba0 1740=item ext/IPC/SysV/t/sem........semget: No space left on device
220f3621
GS
1741
1742Either your account or the whole system has run out of semaphores. Or
1743both. Either list the semaphores with "ipcs" and remove the unneeded
1744ones (which ones these are depends on your system and applications)
1745with "ipcrm -s SEMAPHORE_ID_HERE" or configure more semaphores to your
1746system.
1747
d6baa268
JH
1748=item GNU binutils
1749
1750If you mix GNU binutils (nm, ld, ar) with equivalent vendor-supplied
1751tools you may be in for some trouble. For example creating archives
1752with an old GNU 'ar' and then using a new current vendor-supplied 'ld'
1753may lead into linking problems. Either recompile your GNU binutils
1754under your current operating system release, or modify your PATH not
1755to include the GNU utils before running Configure, or specify the
1756vendor-supplied utilities explicitly to Configure, for example by
1757Configure -Dar=/bin/ar.
1758
16dc217a
GS
1759=item THIS PACKAGE SEEMS TO BE INCOMPLETE
1760
1761The F<Configure> program has not been able to find all the files which
1762make up the complete Perl distribution. You may have a damaged source
1763archive file (in which case you may also have seen messages such as
1764C<gzip: stdin: unexpected end of file> and C<tar: Unexpected EOF on
1765archive file>), or you may have obtained a structurally-sound but
1766incomplete archive. In either case, try downloading again from the
1767official site named at the start of this document. If you do find
1768that any site is carrying a corrupted or incomplete source code
1769archive, please report it to the site's maintainer.
1770
16dc217a
GS
1771=item invalid token: ##
1772
ce80d64e
AD
1773You are using a non-ANSI-compliant C compiler. To compile Perl, you
1774need to use a compiler that supports ANSI C. If there is a README
1775file for your system, it may have further details on your compiler
1776options.
16dc217a 1777
1ec51d55 1778=item Miscellaneous
8e07c86e 1779
7df75831 1780Some additional things that have been reported:
8e07c86e
AD
1781
1782Genix may need to use libc rather than libc_s, or #undef VARARGS.
1783
1784NCR Tower 32 (OS 2.01.01) may need -W2,-Sl,2000 and #undef MKDIR.
1785
668cbedd 1786UTS may need one or more of -K or -g, and #undef LSTAT.
8e07c86e 1787
11906ba0 1788FreeBSD can fail the ext/IPC/SysV/t/sem.t test if SysV IPC has not been
5cda700b 1789configured in the kernel. Perl tries to detect this, though, and
ce80d64e 1790you will get a message telling you what to do.
6087ac44 1791
6c8d78fb
HS
1792Building Perl on a system that has also BIND (headers and libraries)
1793installed may run into troubles because BIND installs its own netdb.h
1794and socket.h, which may not agree with the operating system's ideas of
1795the same files. Similarly, including -lbind may conflict with libc's
1796view of the world. You may have to tweak -Dlocincpth and -Dloclibpth
1797to avoid the BIND.
1798
8e07c86e
AD
1799=back
1800
58a21a9b
JH
1801=head2 Cross-compilation
1802
e7a3c61b 1803Perl can be cross-compiled. It is just not trivial, cross-compilation
30bba555 1804rarely is. Perl is routinely cross-compiled for several platforms: as of
f36edc68 1805January 2014, these include Android, Blackberry 10, PocketPC aka
30bba555
BF
1806WinCE, ARM Linux, and Solaris. Previous versions of
1807Perl also provided support for Open Zaurus, Symbian, and
1808the IBM OS/400, but it's unknown if those ports are still functional.
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1809These platforms are known as the B<target> platforms, while the systems
1810where the compilation takes place are the B<host> platforms.
e7a3c61b
JH
1811
1812What makes the situation difficult is that first of all,
1813cross-compilation environments vary significantly in how they are set
1814up and used, and secondly because the primary way of configuring Perl
1815(using the rather large Unix-tool-dependent Configure script) is not
1816awfully well suited for cross-compilation. However, starting from
30bba555
BF
1817version 5.18.0, the Configure script also knows two ways of supporting
1818cross-compilation, so please keep reading.
e7a3c61b
JH
1819
1820See the following files for more information about compiling Perl for
1821the particular platforms:
1822
1823=over 4
1824
1825=item WinCE/PocketPC
1826
30bba555 1827L<README.ce or perlce|perlce>
e7a3c61b 1828
30bba555 1829=item Android
e7a3c61b 1830
ab97e755
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1831L<"Cross-compilation" in README.android or
1832perlandroid|perlandroid/Cross-compilation>
e7a3c61b 1833
30bba555 1834=item Blackberry
e7a3c61b 1835
30bba555 1836L<"Cross-compilation" in README.qnx or perlqnx|perlqnx/Cross-compilation>
e7a3c61b 1837
30bba555 1838=item Solaris
e7a3c61b 1839
ab97e755
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1840L<"CROSS-COMPILATION" in README.solaris or
1841perlsolaris|perlsolaris/CROSS-COMPILATION>
30bba555
BF
1842
1843=item Linux
1844
1845This document; See below.
e7a3c61b
JH
1846
1847=back
1848
1849Packaging and transferring either the core Perl modules or CPAN
1850modules to the target platform is also left up to the each
1851cross-compilation environment. Often the cross-compilation target
1852platforms are somewhat limited in diskspace: see the section
1853L<Minimizing the Perl installation> to learn more of the minimal set
1854of files required for a functional Perl installation.
1855
1856For some cross-compilation environments the Configure option
1857C<-Dinstallprefix=...> might be handy, see L<Changing the installation
1858directory>.
1859
30bba555 1860About the cross-compilation support of Configure: There's two forms.
ab97e755
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1861The more common one requires some way of transferring and running
1862executables in the target system, such as an ssh connection; this is the
1863C<./Configure -Dusecrosscompile -Dtargethost=...> route. The second
1864method doesn't need access to the target system, but requires you to
1865provide a config.sh, and and a canned Makefile; the rest of this section
1866describes the former.
e7a3c61b 1867
30bba555 1868This cross-compilation setup of Configure has successfully been used in
ab97e755
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1869a wide variety of setups, such as a 64-bit OS X host for an Android ARM
1870target, or an amd64 Linux host targeting x86 Solaris, or even Windows.
e7a3c61b
JH
1871
1872To run Configure in cross-compilation mode the basic switch that
30bba555 1873has to be used is C<-Dusecrosscompile>:
58a21a9b
JH
1874
1875 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile -D...
1876
1877This will make the cpp symbol USE_CROSS_COMPILE and the %Config
30bba555 1878symbol C<usecrosscompile> available.
58a21a9b
JH
1879
1880During the Configure and build, certain helper scripts will be created
1881into the Cross/ subdirectory. The scripts are used to execute a
1882cross-compiled executable, and to transfer files to and from the
1883target host. The execution scripts are named F<run-*> and the
1884transfer scripts F<to-*> and F<from-*>. The part after the dash is
1885the method to use for remote execution and transfer: by default the
1886methods are B<ssh> and B<scp>, thus making the scripts F<run-ssh>,
1887F<to-scp>, and F<from-scp>.
1888
1889To configure the scripts for a target host and a directory (in which
1890the execution will happen and which is to and from where the transfer
1891happens), supply Configure with
1892
1893 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st -Dtargetdir=/tar/get/dir
1894
1895The targethost is what e.g. ssh will use as the hostname, the targetdir
93bc48fa
JH
1896must exist (the scripts won't create it), the targetdir defaults to /tmp.
1897You can also specify a username to use for ssh/rsh logins
58a21a9b
JH
1898
1899 -Dtargetuser=luser
1900
30bba555 1901but in case you don't, "root" will be used. Similarly, you can specify
ab97e755
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1902a non-standard (i.e. not 22) port for the connection, if applicable,
1903through
30bba555
BF
1904
1905 -Dtargetport=2222
58a21a9b 1906
30bba555
BF
1907If the name of C<cc> has the usual GNU C semantics for cross
1908compilers, that is, CPU-OS-gcc, the target architecture (C<targetarch>),
1909plus names of the C<ar>, C<nm>, and C<ranlib> will also be automatically
1910chosen to be CPU-OS-ar and so on.
1911(The C<ld> requires more thought and will be chosen later by Configure
1912as appropriate). This will also aid in guessing the proper
1913operating system name for the target, which has other repercussions, like
ab97e755
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1914better defaults and possibly critical fixes for the platform. If
1915Configure isn't guessing the OS name properly, you may need to either add
1916a hint file redirecting Configure's guess, or modify Configure to make
1917the correct choice.
30bba555
BF
1918
1919If your compiler doesn't follow that convention, you will also need to
1920specify which target environment to use, as well as C<ar> and friends:
58a21a9b
JH
1921
1922 -Dtargetarch=arm-linux
30bba555
BF
1923 -Dcc=mycrossgcc
1924 -Dar=...
1925
1926Additionally, a cross-compilation toolchain will usually install it's own
ab97e755
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1927logical system root somewhere -- that is, it'll create a directory
1928somewhere which includes subdirectories like 'include' or 'lib'. For
1929example, you may end up with C</skiff/local/arm-linux>, where
30bba555 1930C</skiff/local/arm-linux/bin> holds the binaries for cross-compilation,
ab97e755 1931C</skiff/local/arm-linux/include> has the headers, and
30bba555
BF
1932C</skiff/local/arm-linux/lib> has the library files.
1933If this is the case, and you are using a compiler that understands
1934C<--sysroot>, like gcc or clang, you'll want to specify the
1935C<-Dsysroot> option for Configure:
1936
1937 -Dsysroot=/skiff/local/arm-linux
1938
1939However, if your don't have a suitable directory to pass to C<-Dsysroot>,
1940you will also need to specify which target environment to use:
1941
58a21a9b
JH
1942 -Dusrinc=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include
1943 -Dincpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include
1944 -Dlibpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/lib
1945
58a21a9b
JH
1946In addition to the default execution/transfer methods you can also
1947choose B<rsh> for execution, and B<rcp> or B<cp> for transfer,
1948for example:
1949
1950 -Dtargetrun=rsh -Dtargetto=rcp -Dtargetfrom=cp
1951
1952Putting it all together:
1953
1954 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
93bc48fa 1955 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st \
30bba555 1956 -Dtargetdir=/tar/get/dir \
58a21a9b
JH
1957 -Dtargetuser=root \
1958 -Dtargetarch=arm-linux \
1959 -Dcc=arm-linux-gcc \
30bba555 1960 -Dsysroot=/skiff/local/arm-linux \
58a21a9b
JH
1961 -D...
1962
e7a3c61b 1963or if you are happy with the defaults:
93bc48fa
JH
1964
1965 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
1966 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st \
1967 -Dcc=arm-linux-gcc \
1968 -D...
1969
e7a3c61b
JH
1970Another example where the cross-compiler has been installed under
1971F</usr/local/arm/2.95.5>:
1972
1973 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
1974 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st \
1975 -Dcc=/usr/local/arm/2.95.5/bin/arm-linux-gcc \
30bba555
BF
1976 -Dsysroot=/usr/local/arm/2.95.5
1977
1978There is also a C<targetenv> option for Configure which can be used
1979to modify the environment of the target just before testing begins
1980during 'make test'. For example, if the target system has a nonstandard
1981/tmp location, you could do this:
1982
1983 -Dtargetenv="export TMPDIR=/other/tmp;"
1984
ab97e755
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1985If you are planning on cross-compiling to several platforms, or some
1986other thing that would involve running Configure several times, there are
1987two options that can be used to speed things up considerably.
30bba555
BF
1988As a bit of background, when you
1989call Configure with C<-Dusecrosscompile>, it begins by actually partially
1990building a miniperl on the host machine, as well as the generate_uudmap
1991binary, and we end up using that during the build.
ab97e755
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1992So instead of building that new perl every single time, you can build it
1993just once in a separate directory, and then pass the resulting binaries
1994to Configure like this:
30bba555
BF
1995
1996 -Dhostperl=/path/to/second/build/dir/miniperl
1997 -Dhostgenerate=/path/to/second/build/dir/generate_uudmap
1998
1999Much less commonly, if you are cross-compiling from an ASCII host to an
2000EBCDIC target, or vise versa, you'll have to pass C<-Uhostgenerate> to
2001Configure, to signify that you want to build a generate_uudmap binary
2002that, during make, will be run on the target system.
e7a3c61b 2003
8e07c86e
AD
2004=head1 make test
2005
d6baa268
JH
2006This will run the regression tests on the perl you just made. If
2007'make test' doesn't say "All tests successful" then something went
36bded94 2008wrong.
84902520 2009
84902520 2010Note that you can't run the tests in background if this disables
fb73857a 2011opening of /dev/tty. You can use 'make test-notty' in that case but
2012a few tty tests will be skipped.
c3edaffb 2013
c4f23d77
AD
2014=head2 What if make test doesn't work?
2015
1ec51d55 2016If make test bombs out, just cd to the t directory and run ./TEST
36bded94 2017by hand to see if it makes any difference.
8e07c86e 2018
36bded94
AD
2019One way to get more detailed information about failed tests and
2020individual subtests is to run the harness from the t directory:
aa689395 2021
785aa5e3 2022 cd t ; ./perl harness <list of tests>
aa689395 2023
fb73857a 2024(this assumes that most basic tests succeed, since harness uses
785aa5e3
RGS
2025complicated constructs). If no list of tests is provided, harness
2026will run all tests.
10c7e831 2027
36bded94
AD
2028If individual tests fail, you can often run them by hand (from the main
2029perl directory), e.g.,
2030
2031 ./perl -MTestInit t/op/groups.t
2032
fb73857a 2033You should also read the individual tests to see if there are any helpful
10c7e831
JH
2034comments that apply to your system. You may also need to setup your
2035shared library path if you get errors like:
2036
2037 /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
2038
36bded94
AD
2039The file t/README in the t subdirectory contains more information about
2040running and modifying tests.
2041
10c7e831 2042See L</"Building a shared Perl library"> earlier in this document.
c3edaffb 2043
c4f23d77
AD
2044=over 4
2045
2046=item locale
2047
1ec51d55 2048Note: One possible reason for errors is that some external programs
c07a80fd 2049may be broken due to the combination of your environment and the way
785aa5e3 2050'make test' exercises them. For example, this may happen if you have
1ec51d55
CS
2051one or more of these environment variables set: LC_ALL LC_CTYPE
2052LC_COLLATE LANG. In some versions of UNIX, the non-English locales
e57fd563 2053are known to cause programs to exhibit mysterious errors.
2054
2055If you have any of the above environment variables set, please try
aa689395 2056
2057 setenv LC_ALL C
2058
2059(for C shell) or
2060
2061 LC_ALL=C;export LC_ALL
2062
1ec51d55
CS
2063for Bourne or Korn shell) from the command line and then retry
2064make test. If the tests then succeed, you may have a broken program that
aa689395 2065is confusing the testing. Please run the troublesome test by hand as
e57fd563 2066shown above and see whether you can locate the program. Look for
1ec51d55
CS
2067things like: exec, `backquoted command`, system, open("|...") or
2068open("...|"). All these mean that Perl is trying to run some
e57fd563 2069external program.
eed2e782 2070
0740bb5b
AD
2071=item Timing problems
2072
c29923ff
JH
2073Several tests in the test suite check timing functions, such as
2074sleep(), and see if they return in a reasonable amount of time.
9341413f
JH
2075If your system is quite busy and doesn't respond quickly enough,
2076these tests might fail. If possible, try running the tests again
2077with the system under a lighter load. These timing-sensitive
2078and load-sensitive tests include F<t/op/alarm.t>,
3831a787
NC
2079F<ext/Time-HiRes/t/HiRes.t>, F<ext/threads-shared/t/waithires.t>,
2080F<ext/threads-shared/t/stress.t>, F<lib/Benchmark.t>,
9341413f 2081F<lib/Memoize/t/expmod_t.t>, and F<lib/Memoize/t/speed.t>.
0740bb5b 2082
f89caa8d
RGS
2083You might also experience some failures in F<t/op/stat.t> if you build
2084perl on an NFS filesystem, if the remote clock and the system clock are
2085different.
2086
c4f23d77
AD
2087=item Out of memory
2088
2089On some systems, particularly those with smaller amounts of RAM, some
2090of the tests in t/op/pat.t may fail with an "Out of memory" message.
7970f296
GS
2091For example, on my SparcStation IPC with 12 MB of RAM, in perl5.5.670,
2092test 85 will fail if run under either t/TEST or t/harness.
c4f23d77
AD
2093
2094Try stopping other jobs on the system and then running the test by itself:
2095
04bd6448 2096 ./perl -MTestInit t/op/pat.t
c4f23d77
AD
2097
2098to see if you have any better luck. If your perl still fails this
2099test, it does not necessarily mean you have a broken perl. This test
2100tries to exercise the regular expression subsystem quite thoroughly,
2101and may well be far more demanding than your normal usage.
2102
a55bb48b
AD
2103=item libgcc_s.so.1: cannot open shared object file
2104
2105This message has been reported on gcc-3.2.3 and earlier installed with
2106a non-standard prefix. Setting the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable
2107(or equivalent) to include gcc's lib/ directory with the libgcc_s.so.1
2108shared library should fix the problem.
2109
4f76e5ba
AD
2110=item Failures from lib/File/Temp/t/security saying "system possibly insecure"
2111
2112First, such warnings are not necessarily serious or indicative of a
2113real security threat. That being said, they bear investigating.
2114
2115Note that each of the tests is run twice. The first time is in the
2116directory returned by File::Spec->tmpdir() (often /tmp on Unix
2117systems), and the second time in the directory from which the test was
2118run (usually the 't' directory, if the test was run as part of 'make
2119test').
2120
2121The tests may fail for the following reasons:
2122
2123(1) If the directory the tests are being run in is owned by somebody
2124other than the user running the tests, or by root (uid 0).
2125
2126This failure can happen if the Perl source code distribution is
668cbedd 2127unpacked in such a way that the user IDs in the distribution package
4f76e5ba
AD
2128are used as-is. Some tar programs do this.
2129
2130(2) If the directory the tests are being run in is writable by group or
2131by others, and there is no sticky bit set for the directory. (With
2132UNIX/POSIX semantics, write access to a directory means the right to
2133add or remove files in that directory. The 'sticky bit' is a feature
2134used in some UNIXes to give extra protection to files: if the bit is
2135set for a directory, no one but the owner (or root) can remove that
2136file even if the permissions would otherwise allow file removal by
2137others.)
2138
2139This failure may or may not be a real problem: it depends on the
2140permissions policy used on this particular system. This failure can
2141also happen if the system either doesn't support the sticky bit (this
2142is the case with many non-UNIX platforms: in principle File::Temp
2143should know about these platforms and skip the tests), or if the system
2144supports the sticky bit but for some reason or reasons it is not being
2145used. This is, for example, the case with HP-UX: as of HP-UX release
214611.00, the sticky bit is very much supported, but HP-UX doesn't use it
2147on its /tmp directory as shipped. Also, as with the permissions, some
2148local policy might dictate that the stickiness is not used.
781948c1 2149
b2b23189
JH
2150(3) If the system supports the POSIX 'chown giveaway' feature and if
2151any of the parent directories of the temporary file back to the root
2152directory are 'unsafe', using the definitions given above in (1) and
4f76e5ba
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2153(2). For Unix systems, this is usually not an issue if you are
2154building on a local disk. See the documentation for the File::Temp
2155module for more information about 'chown giveaway'.
781948c1
JH
2156
2157See the documentation for the File::Temp module for more information
4f76e5ba 2158about the various security aspects of temporary files.
781948c1 2159
c4f23d77
AD
2160=back
2161
5ee651a9 2162The core distribution can now run its regression tests in parallel on
ab97e755
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2163Unix-like platforms. Instead of running C<make test>, set C<TEST_JOBS>
2164in your environment to the number of tests to run in parallel, and run
5ee651a9
NC
2165C<make test_harness>. On a Bourne-like shell, this can be done as
2166
2167 TEST_JOBS=3 make test_harness # Run 3 tests in parallel
2168
ab97e755
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2169An environment variable is used, rather than parallel make itself,
2170because L<TAP::Harness> needs to be able to schedule individual
2171non-conflicting test scripts itself, and there is no standard interface
2172to C<make> utilities to interact with their job schedulers.
5ee651a9 2173
8e07c86e
AD
2174=head1 make install
2175
2176This will put perl into the public directory you specified to
ab97e755
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2177Configure; by default this is /usr/local/bin. It will also try to put
2178the man pages in a reasonable place. It will not nroff the man pages,
2179however. You may need to be root to run B<make install>. If you are not
2180root, you must still have permission to install into the directories
ce80d64e
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2181in question and you should ignore any messages about chown not working.
2182
19f4563d 2183If "make install" just says "'install' is up to date" or something
ce80d64e
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2184similar, you may be on a case-insensitive filesystems such as Mac's HFS+,
2185and you should say "make install-all". (This confusion is brought to you
2186by the Perl distribution having a file called INSTALL.)
8e07c86e 2187
dd64f1c3
AD
2188=head2 Installing perl under different names
2189
2190If you want to install perl under a name other than "perl" (for example,
2191when installing perl with special features enabled, such as debugging),
2192indicate the alternate name on the "make install" line, such as:
2193
2194 make install PERLNAME=myperl
2195
beb13193 2196You can separately change the base used for versioned names (like
be8498a1 2197"perl5.8.9") by setting PERLNAME_VERBASE, like
beb13193
RS
2198
2199 make install PERLNAME=perl5 PERLNAME_VERBASE=perl
2200
ab97e755
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2201This can be useful if you have to install perl as "perl5" (e.g. to avoid
2202conflicts with an ancient version in /usr/bin supplied by your vendor).
be8498a1 2203Without this the versioned binary would be called "perl55.8.8".
beb13193 2204
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2205=head2 Installing perl under a different directory
2206
2207You can install perl under a different destination directory by using
2208the DESTDIR variable during C<make install>, with a command like
2209
2210 make install DESTDIR=/tmp/perl5
2211
2212DESTDIR is automatically prepended to all the installation paths. See
7df75831 2213the example in L<"DESTDIR"> above.
ce80d64e 2214
dd64f1c3
AD
2215=head2 Installed files
2216
8e07c86e
AD
2217If you want to see exactly what will happen without installing
2218anything, you can run
4633a7c4 2219
8e07c86e
AD
2220 ./perl installperl -n
2221 ./perl installman -n
2222
1ec51d55 2223make install will install the following:
8e07c86e 2224
d56c5707
JH
2225 binaries
2226
8e07c86e 2227 perl,
be8498a1 2228 perl5.n.n where 5.n.n is the current release number. This
8e07c86e 2229 will be a link to perl.
d56c5707
JH
2230
2231 scripts
2232
979b4168
KW
2233 cppstdin This is used by the deprecated switch perl -P,
2234 if your cc -E can't read from stdin.
2235 c2ph, pstruct Scripts for handling C structures in header
2236 files.
979b4168
KW
2237 corelist Shows versions of modules that come with
2238 different
668cbedd
KW
2239 versions of perl.
2240 cpan The CPAN shell.
668cbedd 2241 enc2xs Encoding module generator.
979b4168
KW
2242 h2ph Extract constants and simple macros from C
2243 headers.
8e07c86e 2244 h2xs Converts C .h header files to Perl extensions.
73d6d1b0
RGS
2245 instmodsh A shell to examine installed modules.
2246 libnetcfg Configure libnet.
24b3df7f 2247 perlbug Tool to report bugs in Perl.
8e07c86e 2248 perldoc Tool to read perl's pod documentation.
668cbedd 2249 perlivp Perl Installation Verification Procedure.
73d6d1b0 2250 piconv A Perl implementation of the encoding conversion
668cbedd
KW
2251 utility iconv.
2252 pl2pm Convert Perl 4 .pl files to Perl 5 .pm modules.
8e07c86e 2253 pod2html, Converters from perl's pod documentation format
d56c5707
JH
2254 pod2man,
2255 pod2text,
d56c5707 2256 pod2usage
668cbedd
KW
2257 podchecker POD syntax checker.
2258 podselect Prints sections of POD documentation.
2259 prove A command-line tool for running tests.
2260 psed A Perl implementation of sed.
2261 ptar A Perl implementation of tar.
2262 ptardiff A diff for tar archives.
2263 ptargrep A grep for tar archives.
668cbedd
KW
2264 shasum A tool to print or check SHA checksums.
2265 splain Describe Perl warnings and errors.
2266 xsubpp Compiler to convert Perl XS code into C code.
979b4168 2267 zipdetails display the internal structure of zip files
8e07c86e 2268
d56c5707
JH
2269 library files
2270
2271 in $privlib and $archlib specified to
8e07c86e 2272 Configure, usually under /usr/local/lib/perl5/.
d56c5707
JH
2273
2274 documentation
2275
d6baa268
JH
2276 man pages in $man1dir, usually /usr/local/man/man1.
2277 module man
2278 pages in $man3dir, usually /usr/local/man/man3.
8e07c86e
AD
2279 pod/*.pod in $privlib/pod/.
2280
33cceb07 2281installperl will also create the directories listed above
d6baa268 2282in L<"Installation Directories">.
4633a7c4 2283
d56c5707 2284Perl's *.h header files and the libperl library are also installed
d6baa268 2285under $archlib so that any user may later build new modules, run the
56c6f531
JH
2286optional Perl compiler, or embed the perl interpreter into another
2287program even if the Perl source is no longer available.
8e07c86e 2288
33cceb07
RGS
2289=head2 Installing only version-specific parts
2290
d56c5707
JH
2291Sometimes you only want to install the version-specific parts of the perl
2292installation. For example, you may wish to install a newer version of
33cceb07 2293perl alongside an already installed production version without
d56c5707
JH
2294disabling installation of new modules for the production version.
2295To only install the version-specific parts of the perl installation, run
2296
2297 Configure -Dversiononly
2298
2299or answer 'y' to the appropriate Configure prompt. Alternatively,
2300you can just manually run
2301
2302 ./perl installperl -v
2303
2304and skip installman altogether.
33cceb07 2305
d56c5707
JH
2306See also L<"Maintaining completely separate versions"> for another
2307approach.
2308
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2309=head1 cd /usr/include; h2ph *.h sys/*.h
2310
2311Some perl scripts need to be able to obtain information from the
2312system header files. This command will convert the most commonly used
2313header files in /usr/include into files that can be easily interpreted
2314by perl. These files will be placed in the architecture-dependent
2315library ($archlib) directory you specified to Configure.
2316
668cbedd 2317Note: Due to differences in the C and perl languages, the conversion
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2318of the header files is not perfect. You will probably have to
2319hand-edit some of the converted files to get them to parse correctly.
2320For example, h2ph breaks spectacularly on type casting and certain
2321structures.
2322
2323=head1 installhtml --help
2324
2325Some sites may wish to make perl documentation available in HTML
2326format. The installhtml utility can be used to convert pod
2327documentation into linked HTML files and install them.
2328
2329Currently, the supplied ./installhtml script does not make use of the
2330html Configure variables. This should be fixed in a future release.
2331
2332The following command-line is an example of one used to convert
2333perl documentation:
2334
2335 ./installhtml \
2336 --podroot=. \
2337 --podpath=lib:ext:pod:vms \
2338 --recurse \
2339 --htmldir=/perl/nmanual \
2340 --htmlroot=/perl/nmanual \
2341 --splithead=pod/perlipc \
2342 --splititem=pod/perlfunc \
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2343 --verbose
2344
2345See the documentation in installhtml for more details. It can take
2346many minutes to execute a large installation and you should expect to
2347see warnings like "no title", "unexpected directive" and "cannot
2348resolve" as the files are processed. We are aware of these problems
2349(and would welcome patches for them).
2350
2351You may find it helpful to run installhtml twice. That should reduce
2352the number of "cannot resolve" warnings.
2353
2354=head1 cd pod && make tex && (process the latex files)
2355
2356Some sites may also wish to make the documentation in the pod/ directory
2357available in TeX format. Type
2358
2359 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
2360
2361=head1 Starting all over again
2362
668cbedd 2363If you wish to rebuild perl from the same build directory, you should
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2364clean it out with the command
2365
2366 make distclean
2367
2368or
2369
2370 make realclean
2371
2372The only difference between the two is that make distclean also removes
dd8235d9
TC
2373your old config.sh and Policy.sh files. (A plain 'make clean' is now
2374eqivalent to 'make realclean'.)
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2375
2376If you are upgrading from a previous version of perl, or if you
2377change systems or compilers or make other significant changes, or if
668cbedd 2378you are experiencing difficulties building perl, you should not reuse
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2379your old config.sh.
2380
2381If your reason to reuse your old config.sh is to save your particular
2382installation choices, then you can probably achieve the same effect by
2383using the Policy.sh file. See the section on L<"Site-wide Policy
2384settings"> above.
2385
ff52061e
RGS
2386=head1 Reporting Problems
2387
2388Wherever possible please use the perlbug tool supplied with this Perl
2389to report problems, as it automatically includes summary configuration
2390information about your perl, which may help us track down problems far
2391more quickly. But first you should read the advice in this file,
2392carefully re-read the error message and check the relevant manual pages
2393on your system, as these may help you find an immediate solution. If
2394you are not sure whether what you are seeing is a bug, you can send a
2395message describing the problem to the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup to
2396get advice.
2397
2398The perlbug tool is installed along with perl, so after you have
2399completed C<make install> it should be possible to run it with plain
2400C<perlbug>. If the install fails, or you want to report problems with
2401C<make test> without installing perl, then you can use C<make nok> to
2402run perlbug to report the problem, or run it by hand from this source
2403directory with C<./perl -Ilib utils/perlbug>
2404
2405If the build fails too early to run perlbug uninstalled, then please
2406B<run> the C<./myconfig> shell script, and mail its output along with
2407an accurate description of your problem to perlbug@perl.org
2408
2409If Configure itself fails, and does not generate a config.sh file
2410(needed to run C<./myconfig>), then please mail perlbug@perl.org the
2411description of how Configure fails along with details of your system
668cbedd 2412-- for example the output from running C<uname -a>
ff52061e
RGS
2413
2414Please try to make your message brief but clear. Brief, clear bug
2415reports tend to get answered more quickly. Please don't worry if your
668cbedd 2416written English is not great -- what matters is how well you describe
ff52061e
RGS
2417the important technical details of the problem you have encountered,
2418not whether your grammar and spelling is flawless.
2419
2420Trim out unnecessary information. Do not include large files (such as
2421config.sh or a complete Configure or make log) unless absolutely
2422necessary. Do not include a complete transcript of your build
2423session. Just include the failing commands, the relevant error
2424messages, and whatever preceding commands are necessary to give the
668cbedd 2425appropriate context. Plain text should usually be sufficient -- fancy
ff52061e
RGS
2426attachments or encodings may actually reduce the number of people who
2427read your message. Your message will get relayed to over 400
2428subscribers around the world so please try to keep it brief but clear.
2429
5acb7768 2430If the bug you are reporting has security implications, which make it
ab97e755
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2431inappropriate to send to a publicly archived mailing list, then please
2432send it to perl5-security-report@perl.org. This points to a closed
2433subscription unarchived mailing list, which includes all the core
2434committers, who be able to help assess the impact of issues, figure out
2435a resolution, and help co-ordinate the release of patches to mitigate or
2436fix the problem across all platforms on which Perl is supported. Please
2437only use this address for security issues in the Perl core, not for
2438modules independently distributed on CPAN.
5acb7768 2439
ff52061e
RGS
2440If you are unsure what makes a good bug report please read "How to
2441report Bugs Effectively" by Simon Tatham:
2442http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/bugs.html
2443
7df75831 2444=head1 Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5
4633a7c4 2445
0516fbdf 2446Perl 5.21.10 is not binary compatible with earlier versions of Perl.
cc65bb49 2447In other words, you will have to recompile your XS modules.
14eee2f1 2448
ab97e755
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2449In general, you can usually safely upgrade from one version of Perl
2450(e.g. 5.X.Y) to another similar minor version (e.g. 5.X.(Y+1))) without
33cceb07 2451re-compiling all of your extensions. You can also safely leave the old
ab97e755
MB
2452version around in case the new version causes you problems for some
2453reason.
693762b4 2454
be8498a1
RGS
2455Usually, most extensions will probably not need to be recompiled to be
2456used with a newer version of Perl. Here is how it is supposed to work.
ce80d64e 2457(These examples assume you accept all the Configure defaults.)
693762b4 2458
33cceb07
RGS
2459Suppose you already have version 5.8.7 installed. The directories
2460searched by 5.8.7 are typically like:
d6baa268 2461
33cceb07
RGS
2462 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.7/$archname
2463 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.7
2464 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7/$archname
2465 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7
d6baa268 2466
33cceb07
RGS
2467Now, suppose you install version 5.8.8. The directories
2468searched by version 5.8.8 will be:
d6baa268 2469
33cceb07
RGS
2470 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.8/$archname
2471 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.8
2472 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8/$archname
2473 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8
d6baa268 2474
33cceb07
RGS
2475 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7/$archname
2476 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7
c42e3e15 2477 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
bfb7748a 2478
c42e3e15 2479Notice the last three entries -- Perl understands the default structure
d6baa268 2480of the $sitelib directories and will look back in older, compatible
33cceb07
RGS
2481directories. This way, modules installed under 5.8.7 will continue
2482to be usable by 5.8.7 but will also accessible to 5.8.8. Further,
d6baa268 2483suppose that you upgrade a module to one which requires features
33cceb07
RGS
2484present only in 5.8.8. That new module will get installed into
2485/usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8 and will be available to 5.8.8,
2486but will not interfere with the 5.8.7 version.
bfb7748a 2487
c42e3e15 2488The last entry, /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/, is there so that
fe23a901 24895.6.0 and above will look for 5.004-era pure perl modules.
d6baa268 2490
33cceb07
RGS
2491Lastly, suppose you now install 5.10.0, which is not binary compatible
2492with 5.8.x. The directories searched by 5.10.0 (if you don't change the
fe23a901
RF
2493Configure defaults) will be:
2494
33cceb07
RGS
2495 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.10.0/$archname
2496 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.10.0
2497 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.10.0/$archname
2498 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.10.0
d6baa268 2499
33cceb07 2500 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8
d6baa268 2501
33cceb07 2502 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7
fe23a901 2503
d6baa268 2504 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
bfb7748a 2505
cc65bb49
AD
2506Note that the earlier $archname entries are now gone, but pure perl
2507modules from earlier versions will still be found.
2508
0a08c020
GS
2509This way, you can choose to share compatible extensions, but also upgrade
2510to a newer version of an extension that may be incompatible with earlier
2511versions, without breaking the earlier versions' installations.
693762b4
AD
2512
2513=head2 Maintaining completely separate versions
4633a7c4 2514
1ec51d55 2515Many users prefer to keep all versions of perl in completely
d6baa268 2516separate directories. This guarantees that an update to one version
0a08c020
GS
2517won't interfere with another version. (The defaults guarantee this for
2518libraries after 5.6.0, but not for executables. TODO?) One convenient
2519way to do this is by using a separate prefix for each version, such as
d52d4e46 2520
0516fbdf 2521 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl5.21.10
d52d4e46 2522
0516fbdf 2523and adding /opt/perl5.21.10/bin to the shell PATH variable. Such users
d52d4e46 2524may also wish to add a symbolic link /usr/local/bin/perl so that
2525scripts can still start with #!/usr/local/bin/perl.
2526
693762b4 2527Others might share a common directory for maintenance sub-versions
33cceb07 2528(e.g. 5.10 for all 5.10.x versions), but change directory with
693762b4
AD
2529each major version.
2530
6877a1cf
AD
2531If you are installing a development subversion, you probably ought to
2532seriously consider using a separate directory, since development
2533subversions may not have all the compatibility wrinkles ironed out
2534yet.
2535
2e3866c3 2536=head2 Upgrading from 5.21.8 or earlier
693762b4 2537
0516fbdf 2538B<Perl 5.21.10 may not be binary compatible with Perl 5.21.9 or
4683a5d7 2539earlier Perl releases.> Perl modules having binary parts
e655887d 2540(meaning that a C compiler is used) will have to be recompiled to be
0516fbdf
S
2541used with 5.21.10. If you find you do need to rebuild an extension with
25425.21.10, you may safely do so without disturbing the older
7df75831 2543installations. (See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5">
e655887d 2544above.)
c42e3e15
GS
2545
2546See your installed copy of the perllocal.pod file for a (possibly
2547incomplete) list of locally installed modules. Note that you want
cc65bb49 2548perllocal.pod, not perllocale.pod, for installed module information.
693762b4 2549
8ebf57cf
JH
2550=head1 Minimizing the Perl installation
2551
2552The following section is meant for people worrying about squeezing the
2553Perl installation into minimal systems (for example when installing
2554operating systems, or in really small filesystems).
2555
c8214fdf 2556Leaving out as many extensions as possible is an obvious way:
5cda700b
AD
2557Encode, with its big conversion tables, consumes a lot of
2558space. On the other hand, you cannot throw away everything. The
2559Fcntl module is pretty essential. If you need to do network
c8214fdf
JH
2560programming, you'll appreciate the Socket module, and so forth: it all
2561depends on what do you need to do.
2562
8ebf57cf
JH
2563In the following we offer two different slimmed down installation
2564recipes. They are informative, not normative: the choice of files
2565depends on what you need.
2566
2567Firstly, the bare minimum to run this script
2568
2569 use strict;
2570 use warnings;
2571 foreach my $f (</*>) {
2572 print("$f\n");
2573 }
2574
0516fbdf 2575in Linux with perl-5.21.10 is as follows (under $Config{prefix}):
8ebf57cf
JH
2576
2577 ./bin/perl
0516fbdf
S
2578 ./lib/perl5/5.21.10/strict.pm
2579 ./lib/perl5/5.21.10/warnings.pm
2580 ./lib/perl5/5.21.10/i686-linux/File/Glob.pm
2581 ./lib/perl5/5.21.10/feature.pm
2582 ./lib/perl5/5.21.10/XSLoader.pm
2583 ./lib/perl5/5.21.10/i686-linux/auto/File/Glob/Glob.so
8ebf57cf 2584
ab97e755
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2585Secondly, for perl-5.10.1, the Debian perl-base package contains 591
2586files, (of which 510 are for lib/unicore) totaling about 3.5MB in its
2587i386 version. Omitting the lib/unicore/* files for brevity, the
2588remaining files are:
8ebf57cf 2589
bfe08c74 2590 /usr/bin/perl
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2591 /usr/bin/perl5.10.1
2592 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Config.pm
2593 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Config_git.pl
2594 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Config_heavy.pl
2595 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Cwd.pm
2596 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/DynaLoader.pm
2597 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Errno.pm
2598 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Fcntl.pm
2599 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/File/Glob.pm
2600 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Hash/Util.pm
2601 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO.pm
2602 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/File.pm
2603 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Handle.pm
2604 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Pipe.pm
2605 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Seekable.pm
2606 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Select.pm
2607 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Socket.pm
2608 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Socket/INET.pm
2609 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Socket/UNIX.pm
2610 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/List/Util.pm
2611 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/POSIX.pm
2612 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Scalar/Util.pm
2613 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Socket.pm
2614 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/XSLoader.pm
2615 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/Cwd/Cwd.so
2616 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/DynaLoader/autosplit.ix
2617 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_expandspec.al
2618 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_find_symbol_anywhere.al
2619 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_findfile.al
2620 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/Fcntl/Fcntl.so
2621 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/File/Glob/Glob.so
2622 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/Hash/Util/Util.so
2623 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/IO/IO.so
2624 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/List/Util/Util.so
2625 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/POSIX/POSIX.so
2626 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/POSIX/autosplit.ix
2627 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/POSIX/load_imports.al
2628 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/Socket/Socket.so
2629 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/lib.pm
2630 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/re.pm
8ebf57cf 2631 /usr/share/doc/perl/AUTHORS.gz
bfe08c74 2632 /usr/share/doc/perl/Documentation
00930d57 2633 /usr/share/doc/perl/README.Debian
8ebf57cf 2634 /usr/share/doc/perl/changelog.Debian.gz
bfe08c74 2635 /usr/share/doc/perl/copyright
00930d57 2636 /usr/share/lintian/overrides/perl-base
8ebf57cf 2637 /usr/share/man/man1/perl.1.gz
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2638 /usr/share/man/man1/perl5.10.1.1.gz
2639 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/AutoLoader.pm
2640 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Carp.pm
2641 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Carp/Heavy.pm
2642 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Exporter.pm
2643 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Exporter/Heavy.pm
2644 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/File/Spec.pm
2645 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/File/Spec/Unix.pm
2646 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/FileHandle.pm
2647 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Getopt/Long.pm
2648 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/IPC/Open2.pm
2649 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/IPC/Open3.pm
2650 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/SelectSaver.pm
2651 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Symbol.pm
2652 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Text/ParseWords.pm
2653 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Text/Tabs.pm
2654 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Text/Wrap.pm
2655 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Tie/Hash.pm
2656 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/attributes.pm
2657 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/base.pm
2658 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/bytes.pm
2659 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/bytes_heavy.pl
2660 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/constant.pm
2661 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/fields.pm
2662 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/integer.pm
2663 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/locale.pm
2664 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/overload.pm
2665 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/strict.pm
2666 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/unicore/*
2667 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/utf8.pm
2668 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/utf8_heavy.pl
2669 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/vars.pm
2670 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/warnings.pm
2671 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/warnings/register.pm
8ebf57cf 2672
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2673A nice trick to find out the minimal set of Perl library files you will
2674need to run a Perl program is
2675
a0a8d9d3 2676 perl -e 'do "prog.pl"; END { print "$_\n" for sort keys %INC }'
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2677
2678(this will not find libraries required in runtime, unfortunately, but
2679it's a minimal set) and if you want to find out all the files you can
2680use something like the below
2681
979b4168
KW
2682 strace perl -le 'do "x.pl"' 2>&1 \
2683 | perl -nle '/^open\(\"(.+?)"/ && print $1'
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2684
2685(The 'strace' is Linux-specific, other similar utilities include 'truss'
2686and 'ktrace'.)
2687
c19ccd8c
RGS
2688=head2 C<-DNO_MATHOMS>
2689
2690If you configure perl with C<-Accflags=-DNO_MATHOMS>, the functions from
2691F<mathoms.c> will not be compiled in. Those functions are no longer used
2692by perl itself; for source compatibility reasons, though, they weren't
2693completely removed.
2694
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2695=head1 DOCUMENTATION
2696
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2697Read the manual entries before running perl. The main documentation
2698is in the pod/ subdirectory and should have been installed during the
8e07c86e 2699build process. Type B<man perl> to get started. Alternatively, you
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2700can type B<perldoc perl> to use the supplied perldoc script. This is
2701sometimes useful for finding things in the library modules.
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2702
2703=head1 AUTHOR
2704
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2705Original author: Andy Dougherty doughera@lafayette.edu , borrowing very
2706heavily from the original README by Larry Wall, with lots of helpful
2707feedback and additions from the perl5-porters@perl.org folks.
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2709If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
2710L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
2711
2712=head1 REDISTRIBUTION
2713
2714This document is part of the Perl package and may be distributed under
d6baa268 2715the same terms as perl itself, with the following additional request:
f5b3b617 2716If you are distributing a modified version of perl (perhaps as part of
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2717a larger package) please B<do> modify these installation instructions
2718and the contact information to match your distribution.