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6e90668e 1# B::Deparse.pm
6f611a1a 2# Copyright (c) 1998, 1999, 2000 Stephen McCamant. All rights reserved.
6e90668e
SM
3# This module is free software; you can redistribute and/or modify
4# it under the same terms as Perl itself.
5
6# This is based on the module of the same name by Malcolm Beattie,
7# but essentially none of his code remains.
8
a798dbf2 9package B::Deparse;
f4a44678 10use Carp 'cluck', 'croak';
7a9b44b9 11use B qw(class main_root main_start main_cv svref_2object opnumber cstring
bd0865ec
GS
12 OPf_WANT OPf_WANT_VOID OPf_WANT_SCALAR OPf_WANT_LIST
13 OPf_KIDS OPf_REF OPf_STACKED OPf_SPECIAL
ce4e655d 14 OPpLVAL_INTRO OPpOUR_INTRO OPpENTERSUB_AMPER OPpSLICE OPpCONST_BARE
3ed82cfc 15 OPpTRANS_SQUASH OPpTRANS_DELETE OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT OPpTARGET_MY
7e80da18
RH
16 OPpCONST_ARYBASE OPpEXISTS_SUB OPpSORT_NUMERIC OPpSORT_INTEGER
17 OPpSORT_REVERSE
ce4e655d 18 SVf_IOK SVf_NOK SVf_ROK SVf_POK SVpad_OUR
6aaf4108 19 CVf_METHOD CVf_LOCKED CVf_LVALUE
fcd95d64 20 PMf_KEEP PMf_GLOBAL PMf_CONTINUE PMf_EVAL PMf_ONCE PMf_SKIPWHITE
bd0865ec 21 PMf_MULTILINE PMf_SINGLELINE PMf_FOLD PMf_EXTENDED);
58cccf98 22$VERSION = 0.60;
a798dbf2 23use strict;
34a48b4b 24use warnings ();
a798dbf2 25
6e90668e
SM
26# Changes between 0.50 and 0.51:
27# - fixed nulled leave with live enter in sort { }
28# - fixed reference constants (\"str")
29# - handle empty programs gracefully
30# - handle infinte loops (for (;;) {}, while (1) {})
31# - differentiate between `for my $x ...' and `my $x; for $x ...'
32# - various minor cleanups
33# - moved globals into an object
34# - added `-u', like B::C
35# - package declarations using cop_stash
36# - subs, formats and code sorted by cop_seq
f6f9bdb7
SM
37# Changes between 0.51 and 0.52:
38# - added pp_threadsv (special variables under USE_THREADS)
39# - added documentation
bd0865ec 40# Changes between 0.52 and 0.53:
9d2c6865
SM
41# - many changes adding precedence contexts and associativity
42# - added `-p' and `-s' output style options
43# - various other minor fixes
bd0865ec 44# Changes between 0.53 and 0.54:
d7f5b6da
SM
45# - added support for new `for (1..100)' optimization,
46# thanks to Gisle Aas
bd0865ec 47# Changes between 0.54 and 0.55:
90be192f
SM
48# - added support for new qr// construct
49# - added support for new pp_regcreset OP
bd0865ec 50# Changes between 0.55 and 0.56:
f5aa8f4e
SM
51# - tested on base/*.t, cmd/*.t, comp/*.t, io/*.t
52# - fixed $# on non-lexicals broken in last big rewrite
53# - added temporary fix for change in opcode of OP_STRINGIFY
54# - fixed problem in 0.54's for() patch in `for (@ary)'
55# - fixed precedence in conditional of ?:
56# - tweaked list paren elimination in `my($x) = @_'
57# - made continue-block detection trickier wrt. null ops
58# - fixed various prototype problems in pp_entersub
59# - added support for sub prototypes that never get GVs
60# - added unquoting for special filehandle first arg in truncate
61# - print doubled rv2gv (a bug) as `*{*GV}' instead of illegal `**GV'
62# - added semicolons at the ends of blocks
63# - added -l `#line' declaration option -- fixes cmd/subval.t 27,28
bd0865ec
GS
64# Changes between 0.56 and 0.561:
65# - fixed multiply-declared my var in pp_truncate (thanks to Sarathy)
66# - used new B.pm symbolic constants (done by Nick Ing-Simmons)
67# Changes between 0.561 and 0.57:
68# - stylistic changes to symbolic constant stuff
69# - handled scope in s///e replacement code
70# - added unquote option for expanding "" into concats, etc.
71# - split method and proto parts of pp_entersub into separate functions
72# - various minor cleanups
f4a44678
SM
73# Changes after 0.57:
74# - added parens in \&foo (patch by Albert Dvornik)
75# Changes between 0.57 and 0.58:
76# - fixed `0' statements that weren't being printed
77# - added methods for use from other programs
78# (based on patches from James Duncan and Hugo van der Sanden)
79# - added -si and -sT to control indenting (also based on a patch from Hugo)
80# - added -sv to print something else instead of '???'
81# - preliminary version of utf8 tr/// handling
3ed82cfc
GS
82# Changes after 0.58:
83# - uses of $op->ppaddr changed to new $op->name (done by Sarathy)
84# - added support for Hugo's new OP_SETSTATE (like nextstate)
85# Changes between 0.58 and 0.59
86# - added support for Chip's OP_METHOD_NAMED
87# - added support for Ilya's OPpTARGET_MY optimization
88# - elided arrows before `()' subscripts when possible
58cccf98
SM
89# Changes between 0.59 and 0.60
90# - support for method attribues was added
91# - some warnings fixed
92# - separate recognition of constant subs
93# - rewrote continue block handling, now recoginizing for loops
94# - added more control of expanding control structures
6e90668e
SM
95
96# Todo:
2a9e2f8a
RH
97# (See also BUGS section at the end of this file)
98#
f4a44678
SM
99# - finish tr/// changes
100# - add option for even more parens (generalize \&foo change)
90be192f 101# - left/right context
f4a44678 102# - treat top-level block specially for incremental output
58cccf98 103# - copy comments (look at real text with $^P?)
f5aa8f4e 104# - avoid semis in one-statement blocks
9d2c6865 105# - associativity of &&=, ||=, ?:
6e90668e
SM
106# - ',' => '=>' (auto-unquote?)
107# - break long lines ("\r" as discretionary break?)
f4a44678
SM
108# - configurable syntax highlighting: ANSI color, HTML, TeX, etc.
109# - more style options: brace style, hex vs. octal, quotes, ...
110# - print big ints as hex/octal instead of decimal (heuristic?)
3ed82cfc 111# - handle `my $x if 0'?
f5aa8f4e 112# - coordinate with Data::Dumper (both directions? see previous)
6e90668e
SM
113# - version using op_next instead of op_first/sibling?
114# - avoid string copies (pass arrays, one big join?)
9d2c6865 115# - here-docs?
6e90668e 116
f5aa8f4e 117# Tests that will always fail:
2a9e2f8a 118# (see t/TEST for the short list)
f5aa8f4e 119
6e90668e
SM
120# Object fields (were globals):
121#
122# avoid_local:
123# (local($a), local($b)) and local($a, $b) have the same internal
124# representation but the short form looks better. We notice we can
125# use a large-scale local when checking the list, but need to prevent
126# individual locals too. This hash holds the addresses of OPs that
127# have already had their local-ness accounted for. The same thing
128# is done with my().
129#
130# curcv:
131# CV for current sub (or main program) being deparsed
132#
8510e997
RH
133# curcvlex:
134# Cached hash of lexical variables for curcv: keys are names,
135# each value is an array of pairs, indicating the cop_seq of scopes
136# in which a var of that name is valid.
137#
34a48b4b
RH
138# curcop:
139# COP for statement being deparsed
140#
6e90668e
SM
141# curstash:
142# name of the current package for deparsed code
143#
144# subs_todo:
34a48b4b 145# array of [cop_seq, CV, is_format?] for subs and formats we still
6e90668e
SM
146# want to deparse
147#
f5aa8f4e
SM
148# protos_todo:
149# as above, but [name, prototype] for subs that never got a GV
150#
6e90668e
SM
151# subs_done, forms_done:
152# keys are addresses of GVs for subs and formats we've already
153# deparsed (or at least put into subs_todo)
9d2c6865 154#
0ca62a8e
RH
155# subs_declared
156# keys are names of subs for which we've printed declarations.
157# That means we can omit parentheses from the arguments.
158#
9d2c6865 159# parens: -p
f5aa8f4e 160# linenums: -l
bd0865ec 161# unquote: -q
9d2c6865 162# cuddle: ` ' or `\n', depending on -sC
f4a44678
SM
163# indent_size: -si
164# use_tabs: -sT
165# ex_const: -sv
9d2c6865
SM
166
167# A little explanation of how precedence contexts and associativity
168# work:
169#
170# deparse() calls each per-op subroutine with an argument $cx (short
171# for context, but not the same as the cx* in the perl core), which is
172# a number describing the op's parents in terms of precedence, whether
f5aa8f4e 173# they're inside an expression or at statement level, etc. (see
9d2c6865
SM
174# chart below). When ops with children call deparse on them, they pass
175# along their precedence. Fractional values are used to implement
176# associativity (`($x + $y) + $z' => `$x + $y + $y') and related
177# parentheses hacks. The major disadvantage of this scheme is that
178# it doesn't know about right sides and left sides, so say if you
179# assign a listop to a variable, it can't tell it's allowed to leave
180# the parens off the listop.
181
182# Precedences:
183# 26 [TODO] inside interpolation context ("")
184# 25 left terms and list operators (leftward)
185# 24 left ->
186# 23 nonassoc ++ --
187# 22 right **
188# 21 right ! ~ \ and unary + and -
189# 20 left =~ !~
190# 19 left * / % x
191# 18 left + - .
192# 17 left << >>
193# 16 nonassoc named unary operators
194# 15 nonassoc < > <= >= lt gt le ge
195# 14 nonassoc == != <=> eq ne cmp
196# 13 left &
197# 12 left | ^
198# 11 left &&
199# 10 left ||
200# 9 nonassoc .. ...
201# 8 right ?:
202# 7 right = += -= *= etc.
203# 6 left , =>
204# 5 nonassoc list operators (rightward)
205# 4 right not
206# 3 left and
207# 2 left or xor
208# 1 statement modifiers
209# 0 statement level
210
6ec152c3
RH
211# Also, lineseq may pass a fourth parameter to the pp_ routines:
212# if present, the fourth parameter is passed on by deparse.
213#
214# If present and true, it means that the op exists directly as
ce4e655d 215# part of a lineseq. Currently it's only used by scopeop to
6ec152c3
RH
216# decide whether its results need to be enclosed in a do {} block.
217
9d2c6865
SM
218# Nonprinting characters with special meaning:
219# \cS - steal parens (see maybe_parens_unop)
220# \n - newline and indent
221# \t - increase indent
222# \b - decrease indent (`outdent')
f5aa8f4e 223# \f - flush left (no indent)
9d2c6865 224# \cK - kill following semicolon, if any
6e90668e
SM
225
226sub null {
227 my $op = shift;
228 return class($op) eq "NULL";
229}
230
231sub todo {
232 my $self = shift;
34a48b4b 233 my($cv, $is_form) = @_;
e31885a0 234 return unless ($cv->FILE eq $0 || exists $self->{files}{$cv->FILE});
6e90668e
SM
235 my $seq;
236 if (!null($cv->START) and is_state($cv->START)) {
237 $seq = $cv->START->cop_seq;
238 } else {
239 $seq = 0;
240 }
34a48b4b 241 push @{$self->{'subs_todo'}}, [$seq, $cv, $is_form];
6e90668e
SM
242}
243
244sub next_todo {
245 my $self = shift;
246 my $ent = shift @{$self->{'subs_todo'}};
34a48b4b
RH
247 my $cv = $ent->[1];
248 my $gv = $cv->GV;
249 my $name = $self->gv_name($gv);
6e90668e
SM
250 if ($ent->[2]) {
251 return "format $name =\n"
e31885a0 252 . $self->deparse_format($ent->[1]). "\n";
6e90668e 253 } else {
0ca62a8e 254 $self->{'subs_declared'}{$name} = 1;
34a48b4b
RH
255 if ($name eq "BEGIN") {
256 my $use_dec = $self->begin_is_use($cv);
0e7fe0f0
RH
257 if (defined ($use_dec)) {
258 return () if 0 == length($use_dec);
259 return $use_dec;
260 }
34a48b4b 261 }
a0035eb8
RH
262 my $l = '';
263 if ($self->{'linenums'}) {
264 my $line = $gv->LINE;
265 my $file = $gv->FILE;
266 $l = "\n\f#line $line \"$file\"\n";
267 }
268 return "${l}sub $name " . $self->deparse_sub($cv);
34a48b4b
RH
269 }
270}
271
272# Return a "use" declaration for this BEGIN block, if appropriate
273sub begin_is_use {
274 my ($self, $cv) = @_;
275 my $root = $cv->ROOT;
80dc0729 276 local @$self{qw'curcv curcvlex'} = ($cv);
34a48b4b
RH
277#require B::Debug;
278#B::walkoptree($cv->ROOT, "debug");
279 my $lineseq = $root->first;
280 return if $lineseq->name ne "lineseq";
281
282 my $req_op = $lineseq->first->sibling;
283 return if $req_op->name ne "require";
284
285 my $module;
286 if ($req_op->first->private & OPpCONST_BARE) {
287 # Actually it should always be a bareword
288 $module = $self->const_sv($req_op->first)->PV;
289 $module =~ s[/][::]g;
290 $module =~ s/.pm$//;
291 }
292 else {
293 $module = const($self->const_sv($req_op->first));
294 }
295
296 my $version;
297 my $version_op = $req_op->sibling;
298 return if class($version_op) eq "NULL";
299 if ($version_op->name eq "lineseq") {
300 # We have a version parameter; skip nextstate & pushmark
301 my $constop = $version_op->first->next->next;
302
303 return unless $self->const_sv($constop)->PV eq $module;
304 $constop = $constop->sibling;
34a48b4b
RH
305 $version = $self->const_sv($constop)->int_value;
306 $constop = $constop->sibling;
307 return if $constop->name ne "method_named";
308 return if $self->const_sv($constop)->PV ne "VERSION";
309 }
310
311 $lineseq = $version_op->sibling;
312 return if $lineseq->name ne "lineseq";
313 my $entersub = $lineseq->first->sibling;
314 if ($entersub->name eq "stub") {
315 return "use $module $version ();\n" if defined $version;
316 return "use $module ();\n";
317 }
318 return if $entersub->name ne "entersub";
319
320 # See if there are import arguments
321 my $args = '';
322
6ec152c3
RH
323 my $svop = $entersub->first->sibling; # Skip over pushmark
324 return unless $self->const_sv($svop)->PV eq $module;
34a48b4b
RH
325
326 # Pull out the arguments
6ec152c3
RH
327 for ($svop=$svop->sibling; $svop->name ne "method_named";
328 $svop = $svop->sibling) {
34a48b4b 329 $args .= ", " if length($args);
6ec152c3 330 $args .= $self->deparse($svop, 6);
34a48b4b
RH
331 }
332
333 my $use = 'use';
6ec152c3 334 my $method_named = $svop;
34a48b4b
RH
335 return if $method_named->name ne "method_named";
336 my $method_name = $self->const_sv($method_named)->PV;
337
338 if ($method_name eq "unimport") {
339 $use = 'no';
340 }
341
342 # Certain pragmas are dealt with using hint bits,
343 # so we ignore them here
344 if ($module eq 'strict' || $module eq 'integer'
0e7fe0f0 345 || $module eq 'bytes' || $module eq 'warnings') {
34a48b4b
RH
346 return "";
347 }
348
349 if (defined $version && length $args) {
350 return "$use $module $version ($args);\n";
351 } elsif (defined $version) {
352 return "$use $module $version;\n";
353 } elsif (length $args) {
354 return "$use $module ($args);\n";
355 } else {
356 return "$use $module;\n";
6e90668e
SM
357 }
358}
359
6e90668e 360sub stash_subs {
34a48b4b
RH
361 my ($self, $pack) = @_;
362 my (@ret, $stash);
363 if (!defined $pack) {
364 $pack = '';
365 $stash = \%::;
f5aa8f4e 366 }
34a48b4b
RH
367 else {
368 $pack =~ s/(::)?$/::/;
369 no strict 'refs';
370 $stash = \%$pack;
371 }
372 my %stash = svref_2object($stash)->ARRAY;
373 while (my ($key, $val) = each %stash) {
374 next if $key eq 'main::'; # avoid infinite recursion
f5aa8f4e
SM
375 my $class = class($val);
376 if ($class eq "PV") {
a0035eb8
RH
377 # Just a prototype. As an ugly but fairly effective way
378 # to find out if it belongs here is to see if the AUTOLOAD
379 # (if any) for the stash was defined in one of our files.
380 my $A = $stash{"AUTOLOAD"};
381 if (defined ($A) && class($A) eq "GV" && defined($A->CV)
382 && class($A->CV) eq "CV") {
383 my $AF = $A->FILE;
384 next unless $AF eq $0 || exists $self->{'files'}{$AF};
385 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
386 push @{$self->{'protos_todo'}}, [$pack . $key, $val->PV];
387 } elsif ($class eq "IV") {
a0035eb8
RH
388 # Just a name. As above.
389 my $A = $stash{"AUTOLOAD"};
390 if (defined ($A) && class($A) eq "GV" && defined($A->CV)
391 && class($A->CV) eq "CV") {
392 my $AF = $A->FILE;
393 next unless $AF eq $0 || exists $self->{'files'}{$AF};
394 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
395 push @{$self->{'protos_todo'}}, [$pack . $key, undef];
396 } elsif ($class eq "GV") {
34a48b4b 397 if (class(my $cv = $val->CV) ne "SPECIAL") {
f5aa8f4e 398 next if $self->{'subs_done'}{$$val}++;
e31885a0 399 next if $$val != ${$cv->GV}; # Ignore imposters
8510e997 400 $self->todo($cv, 0);
f5aa8f4e 401 }
e31885a0 402 if (class(my $cv = $val->FORM) ne "SPECIAL") {
f5aa8f4e 403 next if $self->{'forms_done'}{$$val}++;
e31885a0
RH
404 next if $$val != ${$cv->GV}; # Ignore imposters
405 $self->todo($cv, 1);
f5aa8f4e 406 }
34a48b4b
RH
407 if (class($val->HV) ne "SPECIAL" && $key =~ /::$/) {
408 $self->stash_subs($pack . $key);
409 }
6e90668e
SM
410 }
411 }
412}
a798dbf2 413
f5aa8f4e
SM
414sub print_protos {
415 my $self = shift;
416 my $ar;
417 my @ret;
418 foreach $ar (@{$self->{'protos_todo'}}) {
419 my $proto = (defined $ar->[1] ? " (". $ar->[1] . ")" : "");
420 push @ret, "sub " . $ar->[0] . "$proto;\n";
421 }
422 delete $self->{'protos_todo'};
423 return @ret;
424}
425
9d2c6865
SM
426sub style_opts {
427 my $self = shift;
428 my $opts = shift;
429 my $opt;
430 while (length($opt = substr($opts, 0, 1))) {
431 if ($opt eq "C") {
432 $self->{'cuddle'} = " ";
f4a44678
SM
433 $opts = substr($opts, 1);
434 } elsif ($opt eq "i") {
435 $opts =~ s/^i(\d+)//;
436 $self->{'indent_size'} = $1;
437 } elsif ($opt eq "T") {
438 $self->{'use_tabs'} = 1;
439 $opts = substr($opts, 1);
440 } elsif ($opt eq "v") {
441 $opts =~ s/^v([^.]*)(.|$)//;
442 $self->{'ex_const'} = $1;
9d2c6865 443 }
9d2c6865
SM
444 }
445}
446
f4a44678
SM
447sub new {
448 my $class = shift;
449 my $self = bless {}, $class;
450 $self->{'subs_todo'} = [];
34a48b4b 451 $self->{'files'} = {};
f4a44678 452 $self->{'curstash'} = "main";
34a48b4b 453 $self->{'curcop'} = undef;
f4a44678
SM
454 $self->{'cuddle'} = "\n";
455 $self->{'indent_size'} = 4;
456 $self->{'use_tabs'} = 0;
793e2a70
RH
457 $self->{'expand'} = 0;
458 $self->{'unquote'} = 0;
459 $self->{'linenums'} = 0;
460 $self->{'parens'} = 0;
f4a44678 461 $self->{'ex_const'} = "'???'";
08c6f5ec
RH
462
463 $self->{'ambient_arybase'} = 0;
e31885a0 464 $self->{'ambient_warnings'} = undef; # Assume no lexical warnings
a0405c92 465 $self->{'ambient_hints'} = 0;
08c6f5ec
RH
466 $self->init();
467
f4a44678 468 while (my $arg = shift @_) {
34a48b4b
RH
469 if ($arg =~ /^-f(.*)/) {
470 $self->{'files'}{$1} = 1;
f4a44678
SM
471 } elsif ($arg eq "-p") {
472 $self->{'parens'} = 1;
473 } elsif ($arg eq "-l") {
474 $self->{'linenums'} = 1;
475 } elsif ($arg eq "-q") {
476 $self->{'unquote'} = 1;
477 } elsif (substr($arg, 0, 2) eq "-s") {
478 $self->style_opts(substr $arg, 2);
58cccf98
SM
479 } elsif ($arg =~ /^-x(\d)$/) {
480 $self->{'expand'} = $1;
f4a44678
SM
481 }
482 }
483 return $self;
484}
485
34a48b4b
RH
486sub WARN_MASK () {
487 # Mask out the bits that C<use vars> uses
488 $warnings::Bits{all} | $warnings::DeadBits{all};
489}
490
08c6f5ec
RH
491# Initialise the contextual information, either from
492# defaults provided with the ambient_pragmas method,
493# or from perl's own defaults otherwise.
494sub init {
495 my $self = shift;
496
497 $self->{'arybase'} = $self->{'ambient_arybase'};
e31885a0
RH
498 $self->{'warnings'} = defined ($self->{'ambient_warnings'})
499 ? $self->{'ambient_warnings'} & WARN_MASK
500 : undef;
a0405c92 501 $self->{'hints'} = $self->{'ambient_hints'} & 0xFF;
217aba5d
RH
502
503 # also a convenient place to clear out subs_declared
504 delete $self->{'subs_declared'};
08c6f5ec
RH
505}
506
a798dbf2 507sub compile {
6e90668e
SM
508 my(@args) = @_;
509 return sub {
f4a44678 510 my $self = B::Deparse->new(@args);
34a48b4b
RH
511 my @BEGINs = B::begin_av->isa("B::AV") ? B::begin_av->ARRAY : ();
512 my @INITs = B::init_av->isa("B::AV") ? B::init_av->ARRAY : ();
513 my @ENDs = B::end_av->isa("B::AV") ? B::end_av->ARRAY : ();
514 for my $block (@BEGINs, @INITs, @ENDs) {
e31885a0 515 $self->todo($block, 0);
34a48b4b
RH
516 }
517 $self->stash_subs();
6e90668e 518 $self->{'curcv'} = main_cv;
8510e997 519 $self->{'curcvlex'} = undef;
f5aa8f4e 520 print $self->print_protos;
6e90668e 521 @{$self->{'subs_todo'}} =
f4a44678
SM
522 sort {$a->[0] <=> $b->[0]} @{$self->{'subs_todo'}};
523 print $self->indent($self->deparse(main_root, 0)), "\n"
524 unless null main_root;
6e90668e
SM
525 my @text;
526 while (scalar(@{$self->{'subs_todo'}})) {
527 push @text, $self->next_todo;
528 }
6f611a1a 529 print $self->indent(join("", @text)), "\n" if @text;
e31885a0
RH
530
531 # Print __DATA__ section, if necessary
532 no strict 'refs';
533 if (defined *{$self->{'curstash'}."::DATA"}{IO}) {
534 print "__DATA__\n";
535 print readline(*{$self->{'curstash'}."::DATA"});
536 }
a798dbf2 537 }
a798dbf2
MB
538}
539
f4a44678
SM
540sub coderef2text {
541 my $self = shift;
542 my $sub = shift;
543 croak "Usage: ->coderef2text(CODEREF)" unless ref($sub) eq "CODE";
08c6f5ec
RH
544
545 $self->init();
f4a44678
SM
546 return $self->indent($self->deparse_sub(svref_2object($sub)));
547}
548
08c6f5ec
RH
549sub ambient_pragmas {
550 my $self = shift;
e31885a0 551 my ($arybase, $hint_bits, $warning_bits) = (0, 0);
08c6f5ec
RH
552
553 while (@_ > 1) {
554 my $name = shift();
555 my $val = shift();
556
557 if ($name eq 'strict') {
558 require strict;
559
560 if ($val eq 'none') {
561 $hint_bits &= ~strict::bits(qw/refs subs vars/);
562 next();
563 }
564
565 my @names;
566 if ($val eq "all") {
567 @names = qw/refs subs vars/;
568 }
569 elsif (ref $val) {
570 @names = @$val;
571 }
572 else {
a0405c92 573 @names = split' ', $val;
08c6f5ec
RH
574 }
575 $hint_bits |= strict::bits(@names);
576 }
577
578 elsif ($name eq '$[') {
579 $arybase = $val;
580 }
581
a0405c92
RH
582 elsif ($name eq 'integer'
583 || $name eq 'bytes'
584 || $name eq 'utf8') {
585 require "$name.pm";
08c6f5ec 586 if ($val) {
a0405c92
RH
587 $hint_bits |= ${$::{"${name}::"}{"hint_bits"}};
588 }
589 else {
590 $hint_bits &= ~${$::{"${name}::"}{"hint_bits"}};
591 }
592 }
593
594 elsif ($name eq 're') {
595 require re;
596 if ($val eq 'none') {
597 $hint_bits &= ~re::bits(qw/taint eval asciirange/);
598 next();
599 }
600
601 my @names;
602 if ($val eq 'all') {
603 @names = qw/taint eval asciirange/;
604 }
605 elsif (ref $val) {
606 @names = @$val;
08c6f5ec
RH
607 }
608 else {
a0405c92 609 @names = split' ',$val;
08c6f5ec 610 }
a0405c92 611 $hint_bits |= re::bits(@names);
08c6f5ec
RH
612 }
613
614 elsif ($name eq 'warnings') {
08c6f5ec
RH
615 if ($val eq 'none') {
616 $warning_bits = "\0"x12;
617 next();
618 }
619
620 my @names;
621 if (ref $val) {
622 @names = @$val;
623 }
624 else {
625 @names = split/\s+/, $val;
626 }
627
e31885a0 628 $warning_bits = "\0"x12 if !defined ($warning_bits);
08c6f5ec
RH
629 $warning_bits |= warnings::bits(@names);
630 }
631
632 elsif ($name eq 'warning_bits') {
633 $warning_bits = $val;
634 }
635
636 elsif ($name eq 'hint_bits') {
637 $hint_bits = $val;
638 }
639
640 else {
641 croak "Unknown pragma type: $name";
642 }
643 }
644 if (@_) {
645 croak "The ambient_pragmas method expects an even number of args";
646 }
647
648 $self->{'ambient_arybase'} = $arybase;
649 $self->{'ambient_warnings'} = $warning_bits;
a0405c92 650 $self->{'ambient_hints'} = $hint_bits;
08c6f5ec
RH
651}
652
6e90668e
SM
653sub deparse {
654 my $self = shift;
6ec152c3 655 my($op, $cx, $flags) = @_;
34a48b4b
RH
656
657 Carp::confess("Null op in deparse") if !defined($op)
658 || class($op) eq "NULL";
3f872cb9 659 my $meth = "pp_" . $op->name;
ce4e655d
RH
660 if (is_scope($op)) {
661 return $self->$meth($op, $cx, $flags);
6ec152c3 662 }
9d2c6865 663 return $self->$meth($op, $cx);
a798dbf2
MB
664}
665
6e90668e 666sub indent {
f4a44678 667 my $self = shift;
6e90668e
SM
668 my $txt = shift;
669 my @lines = split(/\n/, $txt);
670 my $leader = "";
f4a44678 671 my $level = 0;
6e90668e
SM
672 my $line;
673 for $line (@lines) {
f4a44678
SM
674 my $cmd = substr($line, 0, 1);
675 if ($cmd eq "\t" or $cmd eq "\b") {
676 $level += ($cmd eq "\t" ? 1 : -1) * $self->{'indent_size'};
677 if ($self->{'use_tabs'}) {
678 $leader = "\t" x ($level / 8) . " " x ($level % 8);
679 } else {
680 $leader = " " x $level;
681 }
6e90668e
SM
682 $line = substr($line, 1);
683 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
684 if (substr($line, 0, 1) eq "\f") {
685 $line = substr($line, 1); # no indent
686 } else {
687 $line = $leader . $line;
688 }
9d2c6865 689 $line =~ s/\cK;?//g;
6e90668e
SM
690 }
691 return join("\n", @lines);
692}
693
6e90668e
SM
694sub deparse_sub {
695 my $self = shift;
696 my $cv = shift;
697 my $proto = "";
ce4e655d 698Carp::confess("NULL in deparse_sub") if !defined($cv) || $cv->isa("B::NULL");
34a48b4b
RH
699Carp::confess("SPECIAL in deparse_sub") if $cv->isa("B::SPECIAL");
700 local $self->{'curcop'} = $self->{'curcop'};
6e90668e
SM
701 if ($cv->FLAGS & SVf_POK) {
702 $proto = "(". $cv->PV . ") ";
703 }
6aaf4108
SC
704 if ($cv->CvFLAGS & (CVf_METHOD|CVf_LOCKED|CVf_LVALUE)) {
705 $proto .= ": ";
706 $proto .= "lvalue " if $cv->CvFLAGS & CVf_LVALUE;
707 $proto .= "locked " if $cv->CvFLAGS & CVf_LOCKED;
708 $proto .= "method " if $cv->CvFLAGS & CVf_METHOD;
709 }
710
6e90668e 711 local($self->{'curcv'}) = $cv;
8510e997 712 local($self->{'curcvlex'});
a0405c92
RH
713 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
714 = @$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'};
ce4e655d 715 my $body;
6e90668e 716 if (not null $cv->ROOT) {
ce4e655d
RH
717 my $lineseq = $cv->ROOT->first;
718 if ($lineseq->name eq "lineseq") {
719 my @ops;
720 for(my$o=$lineseq->first; $$o; $o=$o->sibling) {
721 push @ops, $o;
722 }
723 $body = $self->lineseq(undef, @ops).";";
724 my $scope_en = $self->find_scope_en($lineseq);
725 if (defined $scope_en) {
726 my $subs = join"", $self->seq_subs($scope_en);
727 $body .= ";\n$subs" if length($subs);
728 }
729 }
730 else {
731 $body = $self->deparse($cv->ROOT->first, 0);
732 }
de3f1649 733 }
ce4e655d
RH
734 else {
735 my $sv = $cv->const_sv;
736 if ($$sv) {
737 # uh-oh. inlinable sub... format it differently
738 return $proto . "{ " . const($sv) . " }\n";
739 } else { # XSUB? (or just a declaration)
740 return "$proto;\n";
741 }
6e90668e 742 }
ce4e655d 743 return $proto ."{\n\t$body\n\b}" ."\n";
6e90668e
SM
744}
745
746sub deparse_format {
747 my $self = shift;
748 my $form = shift;
749 my @text;
750 local($self->{'curcv'}) = $form;
8510e997 751 local($self->{'curcvlex'});
a0405c92
RH
752 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
753 = @$self{'curstash warnings hints'};
6e90668e
SM
754 my $op = $form->ROOT;
755 my $kid;
756 $op = $op->first->first; # skip leavewrite, lineseq
757 while (not null $op) {
758 $op = $op->sibling; # skip nextstate
759 my @exprs;
760 $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
a5b0cd91 761 push @text, "\f".$self->const_sv($kid)->PV;
6e90668e
SM
762 $kid = $kid->sibling;
763 for (; not null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 764 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 0);
6e90668e 765 }
a5b0cd91 766 push @text, "\f".join(", ", @exprs)."\n" if @exprs;
6e90668e
SM
767 $op = $op->sibling;
768 }
a5b0cd91 769 return join("", @text) . "\f.";
6e90668e
SM
770}
771
6e90668e 772sub is_scope {
a798dbf2 773 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
774 return $op->name eq "leave" || $op->name eq "scope"
775 || $op->name eq "lineseq"
776 || ($op->name eq "null" && class($op) eq "UNOP"
777 && (is_scope($op->first) || $op->first->name eq "enter"));
6e90668e
SM
778}
779
780sub is_state {
3f872cb9
GS
781 my $name = $_[0]->name;
782 return $name eq "nextstate" || $name eq "dbstate" || $name eq "setstate";
6e90668e
SM
783}
784
785sub is_miniwhile { # check for one-line loop (`foo() while $y--')
786 my $op = shift;
787 return (!null($op) and null($op->sibling)
3f872cb9
GS
788 and $op->name eq "null" and class($op) eq "UNOP"
789 and (($op->first->name =~ /^(and|or)$/
790 and $op->first->first->sibling->name eq "lineseq")
791 or ($op->first->name eq "lineseq"
6e90668e 792 and not null $op->first->first->sibling
3f872cb9 793 and $op->first->first->sibling->name eq "unstack")
6e90668e
SM
794 ));
795}
796
797sub is_scalar {
798 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
799 return ($op->name eq "rv2sv" or
800 $op->name eq "padsv" or
801 $op->name eq "gv" or # only in array/hash constructs
bd0865ec 802 $op->flags & OPf_KIDS && !null($op->first)
3f872cb9 803 && $op->first->name eq "gvsv");
6e90668e
SM
804}
805
9d2c6865
SM
806sub maybe_parens {
807 my $self = shift;
808 my($text, $cx, $prec) = @_;
809 if ($prec < $cx # unary ops nest just fine
810 or $prec == $cx and $cx != 4 and $cx != 16 and $cx != 21
811 or $self->{'parens'})
812 {
813 $text = "($text)";
814 # In a unop, let parent reuse our parens; see maybe_parens_unop
815 $text = "\cS" . $text if $cx == 16;
816 return $text;
817 } else {
818 return $text;
819 }
820}
821
822# same as above, but get around the `if it looks like a function' rule
823sub maybe_parens_unop {
824 my $self = shift;
825 my($name, $kid, $cx) = @_;
826 if ($cx > 16 or $self->{'parens'}) {
a0035eb8
RH
827 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 1);
828 if ($name eq "umask" && $kid =~ /^\d+$/) {
829 $kid = sprintf("%#o", $kid);
830 }
831 return "$name($kid)";
9d2c6865
SM
832 } else {
833 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 16);
a0035eb8
RH
834 if ($name eq "umask" && $kid =~ /^\d+$/) {
835 $kid = sprintf("%#o", $kid);
836 }
9d2c6865
SM
837 if (substr($kid, 0, 1) eq "\cS") {
838 # use kid's parens
839 return $name . substr($kid, 1);
840 } elsif (substr($kid, 0, 1) eq "(") {
841 # avoid looks-like-a-function trap with extra parens
842 # (`+' can lead to ambiguities)
843 return "$name(" . $kid . ")";
844 } else {
845 return "$name $kid";
846 }
847 }
848}
849
850sub maybe_parens_func {
851 my $self = shift;
852 my($func, $text, $cx, $prec) = @_;
853 if ($prec <= $cx or substr($text, 0, 1) eq "(" or $self->{'parens'}) {
854 return "$func($text)";
855 } else {
856 return "$func $text";
857 }
858}
859
6e90668e
SM
860sub maybe_local {
861 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 862 my($op, $cx, $text) = @_;
ce4e655d
RH
863 my $our_intro = ($op->name =~ /^(gv|rv2)[ash]v$/) ? OPpOUR_INTRO : 0;
864 if ($op->private & (OPpLVAL_INTRO|$our_intro)
865 and not $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$op}) {
866 my $our_local = ($op->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) ? "local" : "our";
e8d3f51b 867 if (want_scalar($op)) {
ce4e655d 868 return "$our_local $text";
e8d3f51b 869 } else {
ce4e655d 870 return $self->maybe_parens_func("$our_local", $text, $cx, 16);
e8d3f51b 871 }
6e90668e
SM
872 } else {
873 return $text;
a798dbf2 874 }
a798dbf2
MB
875}
876
3ed82cfc
GS
877sub maybe_targmy {
878 my $self = shift;
879 my($op, $cx, $func, @args) = @_;
880 if ($op->private & OPpTARGET_MY) {
881 my $var = $self->padname($op->targ);
882 my $val = $func->($self, $op, 7, @args);
883 return $self->maybe_parens("$var = $val", $cx, 7);
884 } else {
885 return $func->($self, $op, $cx, @args);
886 }
887}
888
6e90668e
SM
889sub padname_sv {
890 my $self = shift;
891 my $targ = shift;
892 return (($self->{'curcv'}->PADLIST->ARRAY)[0]->ARRAY)[$targ];
893}
894
895sub maybe_my {
896 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 897 my($op, $cx, $text) = @_;
4c1f658f 898 if ($op->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO and not $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$op}) {
e8d3f51b
RH
899 if (want_scalar($op)) {
900 return "my $text";
901 } else {
902 return $self->maybe_parens_func("my", $text, $cx, 16);
903 }
6e90668e
SM
904 } else {
905 return $text;
906 }
907}
908
9d2c6865
SM
909# The following OPs don't have functions:
910
911# pp_padany -- does not exist after parsing
912# pp_rcatline -- does not exist
913
914sub pp_enter { # see also leave
915 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTER";
916 return "XXX";
917}
918
919sub pp_pushmark { # see also list
920 cluck "unexpected OP_PUSHMARK";
921 return "XXX";
922}
923
924sub pp_leavesub { # see also deparse_sub
925 cluck "unexpected OP_LEAVESUB";
926 return "XXX";
927}
928
929sub pp_leavewrite { # see also deparse_format
930 cluck "unexpected OP_LEAVEWRITE";
931 return "XXX";
932}
933
934sub pp_method { # see also entersub
935 cluck "unexpected OP_METHOD";
936 return "XXX";
937}
938
939sub pp_regcmaybe { # see also regcomp
940 cluck "unexpected OP_REGCMAYBE";
941 return "XXX";
942}
943
90be192f
SM
944sub pp_regcreset { # see also regcomp
945 cluck "unexpected OP_REGCRESET";
946 return "XXX";
947}
948
9d2c6865
SM
949sub pp_substcont { # see also subst
950 cluck "unexpected OP_SUBSTCONT";
951 return "XXX";
952}
953
954sub pp_grepstart { # see also grepwhile
955 cluck "unexpected OP_GREPSTART";
956 return "XXX";
957}
958
959sub pp_mapstart { # see also mapwhile
960 cluck "unexpected OP_MAPSTART";
961 return "XXX";
962}
963
964sub pp_flip { # see also flop
965 cluck "unexpected OP_FLIP";
966 return "XXX";
967}
968
969sub pp_iter { # see also leaveloop
970 cluck "unexpected OP_ITER";
971 return "XXX";
972}
973
974sub pp_enteriter { # see also leaveloop
975 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTERITER";
976 return "XXX";
977}
978
979sub pp_enterloop { # see also leaveloop
980 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTERLOOP";
981 return "XXX";
982}
983
984sub pp_leaveeval { # see also entereval
985 cluck "unexpected OP_LEAVEEVAL";
986 return "XXX";
987}
988
989sub pp_entertry { # see also leavetry
990 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTERTRY";
991 return "XXX";
992}
6e90668e 993
ce4e655d
RH
994# $root should be the op which represents the root of whatever
995# we're sequencing here. If it's undefined, then we don't append
996# any subroutine declarations to the deparsed ops, otherwise we
997# append appropriate declarations.
58cccf98 998sub lineseq {
ce4e655d 999 my($self, $root, @ops) = @_;
58cccf98 1000 my($expr, @exprs);
ce4e655d
RH
1001
1002 my $out_cop = $self->{'curcop'};
1003 my $out_seq = defined($out_cop) ? $out_cop->cop_seq : undef;
1004 my $limit_seq;
1005 if (defined $root) {
1006 $limit_seq = $out_seq;
1007 my $nseq = $self->find_scope_st($root->sibling) if ${$root->sibling};
1008 $limit_seq = $nseq if !defined($limit_seq)
1009 or defined($nseq) && $nseq < $limit_seq;
1010 }
1011 $limit_seq = $self->{'limit_seq'}
1012 if defined($self->{'limit_seq'})
1013 && (!defined($limit_seq) || $self->{'limit_seq'} < $limit_seq);
1014 local $self->{'limit_seq'} = $limit_seq;
58cccf98 1015 for (my $i = 0; $i < @ops; $i++) {
6e90668e 1016 $expr = "";
58cccf98
SM
1017 if (is_state $ops[$i]) {
1018 $expr = $self->deparse($ops[$i], 0);
1019 $i++;
e99ebc55
RH
1020 if ($i > $#ops) {
1021 push @exprs, $expr;
1022 last;
1023 }
58cccf98 1024 }
c73811ab
RH
1025 if (!is_state $ops[$i] and (my $ls = $ops[$i+1]) and
1026 !null($ops[$i+1]) and $ops[$i+1]->name eq "lineseq")
58cccf98 1027 {
c73811ab
RH
1028 if ($ls->first && !null($ls->first) && is_state($ls->first)
1029 && (my $sib = $ls->first->sibling)) {
1030 if (!null($sib) && $sib->name eq "leaveloop") {
1031 push @exprs, $expr . $self->for_loop($ops[$i], 0);
1032 $i++;
1033 next;
1034 }
1035 }
6e90668e 1036 }
6ec152c3 1037 $expr .= $self->deparse($ops[$i], 0, (@ops != 1));
e99ebc55 1038 $expr =~ s/;\n?\z//;
f99a63a2 1039 push @exprs, $expr;
6e90668e 1040 }
ce4e655d
RH
1041 my $body = join(";\n", grep {length} @exprs);
1042 my $subs = "";
1043 if (defined $root && defined $limit_seq) {
1044 $subs = join "\n", $self->seq_subs($limit_seq);
1045 }
1046 return join(";\n", grep {length} $body, $subs);
6e90668e
SM
1047}
1048
58cccf98 1049sub scopeop {
ce4e655d 1050 my($real_block, $self, $op, $cx, $flags) = @_;
58cccf98
SM
1051 my $kid;
1052 my @kids;
a0405c92
RH
1053
1054 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
1055 = @$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'} if $real_block;
58cccf98
SM
1056 if ($real_block) {
1057 $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip enter
1058 if (is_miniwhile($kid)) {
1059 my $top = $kid->first;
1060 my $name = $top->name;
1061 if ($name eq "and") {
1062 $name = "while";
1063 } elsif ($name eq "or") {
1064 $name = "until";
1065 } else { # no conditional -> while 1 or until 0
1066 return $self->deparse($top->first, 1) . " while 1";
1067 }
1068 my $cond = $top->first;
1069 my $body = $cond->sibling->first; # skip lineseq
1070 $cond = $self->deparse($cond, 1);
1071 $body = $self->deparse($body, 1);
1072 return "$body $name $cond";
6e90668e 1073 }
58cccf98
SM
1074 } else {
1075 $kid = $op->first;
1076 }
1077 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
1078 push @kids, $kid;
6e90668e 1079 }
ce4e655d
RH
1080 if ($flags || $cx > 0) { # inside an expression, (a do {} while for lineseq)
1081 return "do {\n\t" . $self->lineseq($op, @kids) . "\n\b}";
9d2c6865 1082 } else {
ce4e655d 1083 my $lineseq = $self->lineseq($op, @kids);
7a9b44b9 1084 return (length ($lineseq) ? "$lineseq;" : "");
6e90668e 1085 }
6e90668e
SM
1086}
1087
ce4e655d 1088sub pp_scope { scopeop(0, @_); }
58cccf98
SM
1089sub pp_lineseq { scopeop(0, @_); }
1090sub pp_leave { scopeop(1, @_); }
9d2c6865 1091
6e90668e
SM
1092# The BEGIN {} is used here because otherwise this code isn't executed
1093# when you run B::Deparse on itself.
1094my %globalnames;
1095BEGIN { map($globalnames{$_}++, "SIG", "STDIN", "STDOUT", "STDERR", "INC",
1096 "ENV", "ARGV", "ARGVOUT", "_"); }
1097
1098sub gv_name {
1099 my $self = shift;
1100 my $gv = shift;
34a48b4b 1101Carp::confess() if $gv->isa("B::CV");
6e90668e 1102 my $stash = $gv->STASH->NAME;
d9963e60 1103 my $name = $gv->SAFENAME;
9d2c6865
SM
1104 if ($stash eq $self->{'curstash'} or $globalnames{$name}
1105 or $name =~ /^[^A-Za-z_]/)
1106 {
6e90668e
SM
1107 $stash = "";
1108 } else {
1109 $stash = $stash . "::";
a798dbf2 1110 }
d9963e60
RH
1111 if ($name =~ /^\^../) {
1112 $name = "{$name}"; # ${^WARNING_BITS} etc
6e90668e
SM
1113 }
1114 return $stash . $name;
a798dbf2
MB
1115}
1116
8510e997
RH
1117# Return the name to use for a stash variable.
1118# If a lexical with the same name is in scope, it may need to be
1119# fully-qualified.
1120sub stash_variable {
1121 my ($self, $prefix, $name) = @_;
1122
1123 return "$prefix$name" if $name =~ /::/;
1124
1125 unless ($prefix eq '$' || $prefix eq '@' ||
1126 $prefix eq '%' || $prefix eq '$#') {
1127 return "$prefix$name";
1128 }
1129
1130 my $v = ($prefix eq '$#' ? '@' : $prefix) . $name;
1131 return $prefix .$self->{'curstash'}.'::'. $name if $self->lex_in_scope($v);
1132 return "$prefix$name";
1133}
1134
1135sub lex_in_scope {
1136 my ($self, $name) = @_;
1137 $self->populate_curcvlex() if !defined $self->{'curcvlex'};
1138
6ec152c3 1139 return 0 if !defined($self->{'curcop'});
8510e997
RH
1140 my $seq = $self->{'curcop'}->cop_seq;
1141 return 0 if !exists $self->{'curcvlex'}{$name};
1142 for my $a (@{$self->{'curcvlex'}{$name}}) {
1143 my ($st, $en) = @$a;
1144 return 1 if $seq > $st && $seq <= $en;
1145 }
1146 return 0;
1147}
1148
1149sub populate_curcvlex {
1150 my $self = shift;
ce4e655d 1151 for (my $cv = $self->{'curcv'}; class($cv) eq "CV"; $cv = $cv->OUTSIDE) {
8510e997
RH
1152 my @padlist = $cv->PADLIST->ARRAY;
1153 my @ns = $padlist[0]->ARRAY;
1154
1155 for (my $i=0; $i<@ns; ++$i) {
1156 next if class($ns[$i]) eq "SPECIAL";
ce4e655d 1157 next if $ns[$i]->FLAGS & SVpad_OUR; # Skip "our" vars
0f2fe21d
RH
1158 if (class($ns[$i]) eq "PV") {
1159 # Probably that pesky lexical @_
1160 next;
1161 }
8510e997
RH
1162 my $name = $ns[$i]->PVX;
1163 my $seq_st = $ns[$i]->NVX;
1164 my $seq_en = int($ns[$i]->IVX);
1165
1166 push @{$self->{'curcvlex'}{$name}}, [$seq_st, $seq_en];
1167 }
1168 }
1169}
1170
ce4e655d
RH
1171sub find_scope_st { ((find_scope(@_))[0]); }
1172sub find_scope_en { ((find_scope(@_))[1]); }
1173
1174# Recurses down the tree, looking for pad variable introductions and COPs
1175sub find_scope {
1176 my ($self, $op, $scope_st, $scope_en) = @_;
1177Carp::cluck() if !defined $op;
1178 return ($scope_st, $scope_en) unless $op->flags & OPf_KIDS;
1179
1180 for (my $o=$op->first; $$o; $o=$o->sibling) {
1181 if ($o->name =~ /^pad.v$/ && $o->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) {
1182 my $s = int($self->padname_sv($o->targ)->NVX);
1183 my $e = $self->padname_sv($o->targ)->IVX;
1184 $scope_st = $s if !defined($scope_st) || $s < $scope_st;
1185 $scope_en = $e if !defined($scope_en) || $e > $scope_en;
1186 }
1187 elsif (is_state($o)) {
1188 my $c = $o->cop_seq;
1189 $scope_st = $c if !defined($scope_st) || $c < $scope_st;
1190 $scope_en = $c if !defined($scope_en) || $c > $scope_en;
1191 }
1192 elsif ($o->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
1193 ($scope_st, $scope_en) =
1194 $self->find_scope($o, $scope_st, $scope_en)
34a48b4b
RH
1195 }
1196 }
ce4e655d
RH
1197
1198 return ($scope_st, $scope_en);
34a48b4b
RH
1199}
1200
1201# Returns a list of subs which should be inserted before the COP
1202sub cop_subs {
1203 my ($self, $op, $out_seq) = @_;
1204 my $seq = $op->cop_seq;
1205 # If we have nephews, then our sequence number indicates
1206 # the cop_seq of the end of some sort of scope.
1207 if (class($op->sibling) ne "NULL" && $op->sibling->flags & OPf_KIDS
ce4e655d
RH
1208 and my $nseq = $self->find_scope_st($op->sibling) ) {
1209 $seq = $nseq;
34a48b4b
RH
1210 }
1211 $seq = $out_seq if defined($out_seq) && $out_seq < $seq;
1212 return $self->seq_subs($seq);
1213}
1214
1215sub seq_subs {
1216 my ($self, $seq) = @_;
1217 my @text;
1218#push @text, "# ($seq)\n";
1219
ce4e655d 1220 return "" if !defined $seq;
34a48b4b
RH
1221 while (scalar(@{$self->{'subs_todo'}})
1222 and $seq > $self->{'subs_todo'}[0][0]) {
1223 push @text, $self->next_todo;
1224 }
1225 return @text;
1226}
1227
08c6f5ec 1228# Notice how subs and formats are inserted between statements here;
a0405c92 1229# also $[ assignments and pragmas.
6e90668e
SM
1230sub pp_nextstate {
1231 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1232 my($op, $cx) = @_;
34a48b4b 1233 $self->{'curcop'} = $op;
6e90668e 1234 my @text;
34a48b4b 1235 push @text, $self->cop_subs($op);
e99ebc55 1236 push @text, $op->label . ": " if $op->label;
11faa288 1237 my $stash = $op->stashpv;
6e90668e
SM
1238 if ($stash ne $self->{'curstash'}) {
1239 push @text, "package $stash;\n";
1240 $self->{'curstash'} = $stash;
1241 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
1242 if ($self->{'linenums'}) {
1243 push @text, "\f#line " . $op->line .
57843af0 1244 ' "' . $op->file, qq'"\n';
f5aa8f4e 1245 }
08c6f5ec 1246
7a9b44b9
RH
1247 if ($self->{'arybase'} != $op->arybase) {
1248 push @text, '$[ = '. $op->arybase .";\n";
1249 $self->{'arybase'} = $op->arybase;
1250 }
1251
1252 my $warnings = $op->warnings;
1253 my $warning_bits;
1254 if ($warnings->isa("B::SPECIAL") && $$warnings == 4) {
1255 $warning_bits = $warnings::Bits{"all"};
1256 }
e31885a0 1257 elsif ($warnings->isa("B::SPECIAL") && $$warnings == 5) {
7a9b44b9
RH
1258 $warning_bits = "\0"x12;
1259 }
e31885a0
RH
1260 elsif ($warnings->isa("B::SPECIAL")) {
1261 $warning_bits = undef;
1262 }
7a9b44b9 1263 else {
34a48b4b 1264 $warning_bits = $warnings->PV & WARN_MASK;
7a9b44b9
RH
1265 }
1266
e31885a0
RH
1267 if (defined ($warning_bits) and
1268 !defined($self->{warnings}) || $self->{'warnings'} ne $warning_bits) {
08c6f5ec 1269 push @text, declare_warnings($self->{'warnings'}, $warning_bits);
7a9b44b9
RH
1270 $self->{'warnings'} = $warning_bits;
1271 }
1272
a0405c92
RH
1273 if ($self->{'hints'} != $op->private) {
1274 push @text, declare_hints($self->{'hints'}, $op->private);
1275 $self->{'hints'} = $op->private;
1276 }
1277
6e90668e
SM
1278 return join("", @text);
1279}
1280
08c6f5ec
RH
1281sub declare_warnings {
1282 my ($from, $to) = @_;
6ec152c3 1283 if (($to & WARN_MASK) eq warnings::bits("all")) {
a0405c92
RH
1284 return "use warnings;\n";
1285 }
6ec152c3 1286 elsif (($to & WARN_MASK) eq "\0"x length($to)) {
a0405c92
RH
1287 return "no warnings;\n";
1288 }
1289 return "BEGIN {\${^WARNING_BITS} = ".cstring($to)."}\n";
1290}
1291
1292sub declare_hints {
1293 my ($from, $to) = @_;
a0035eb8
RH
1294 my $use = $to & ~$from;
1295 my $no = $from & ~$to;
1296 my $decls = "";
1297 for my $pragma (hint_pragmas($use)) {
1298 $decls .= "use $pragma;\n";
1299 }
1300 for my $pragma (hint_pragmas($no)) {
1301 $decls .= "no $pragma;\n";
1302 }
1303 return $decls;
1304}
1305
1306sub hint_pragmas {
1307 my ($bits) = @_;
1308 my @pragmas;
1309 push @pragmas, "integer" if $bits & 0x1;
1310 push @pragmas, "strict 'refs'" if $bits & 0x2;
1311 push @pragmas, "bytes" if $bits & 0x8;
1312 return @pragmas;
08c6f5ec
RH
1313}
1314
6e90668e 1315sub pp_dbstate { pp_nextstate(@_) }
3f872cb9 1316sub pp_setstate { pp_nextstate(@_) }
6e90668e
SM
1317
1318sub pp_unstack { return "" } # see also leaveloop
1319
1320sub baseop {
1321 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1322 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1323 return $name;
1324}
1325
e99ebc55
RH
1326sub pp_stub {
1327 my $self = shift;
1328 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
1329 if ($cx) {
1330 return "()";
1331 }
1332 else {
1333 return "();";
1334 }
1335}
6e90668e
SM
1336sub pp_wantarray { baseop(@_, "wantarray") }
1337sub pp_fork { baseop(@_, "fork") }
3ed82cfc
GS
1338sub pp_wait { maybe_targmy(@_, \&baseop, "wait") }
1339sub pp_getppid { maybe_targmy(@_, \&baseop, "getppid") }
1340sub pp_time { maybe_targmy(@_, \&baseop, "time") }
6e90668e
SM
1341sub pp_tms { baseop(@_, "times") }
1342sub pp_ghostent { baseop(@_, "gethostent") }
1343sub pp_gnetent { baseop(@_, "getnetent") }
1344sub pp_gprotoent { baseop(@_, "getprotoent") }
1345sub pp_gservent { baseop(@_, "getservent") }
1346sub pp_ehostent { baseop(@_, "endhostent") }
1347sub pp_enetent { baseop(@_, "endnetent") }
1348sub pp_eprotoent { baseop(@_, "endprotoent") }
1349sub pp_eservent { baseop(@_, "endservent") }
1350sub pp_gpwent { baseop(@_, "getpwent") }
1351sub pp_spwent { baseop(@_, "setpwent") }
1352sub pp_epwent { baseop(@_, "endpwent") }
1353sub pp_ggrent { baseop(@_, "getgrent") }
1354sub pp_sgrent { baseop(@_, "setgrent") }
1355sub pp_egrent { baseop(@_, "endgrent") }
1356sub pp_getlogin { baseop(@_, "getlogin") }
1357
1358sub POSTFIX () { 1 }
1359
9d2c6865
SM
1360# I couldn't think of a good short name, but this is the category of
1361# symbolic unary operators with interesting precedence
1362
1363sub pfixop {
1364 my $self = shift;
1365 my($op, $cx, $name, $prec, $flags) = (@_, 0);
1366 my $kid = $op->first;
1367 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, $prec);
1368 return $self->maybe_parens(($flags & POSTFIX) ? "$kid$name" : "$name$kid",
1369 $cx, $prec);
1370}
1371
1372sub pp_preinc { pfixop(@_, "++", 23) }
1373sub pp_predec { pfixop(@_, "--", 23) }
3ed82cfc
GS
1374sub pp_postinc { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "++", 23, POSTFIX) }
1375sub pp_postdec { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "--", 23, POSTFIX) }
9d2c6865
SM
1376sub pp_i_preinc { pfixop(@_, "++", 23) }
1377sub pp_i_predec { pfixop(@_, "--", 23) }
3ed82cfc
GS
1378sub pp_i_postinc { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "++", 23, POSTFIX) }
1379sub pp_i_postdec { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "--", 23, POSTFIX) }
68cc8748 1380sub pp_complement { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "~", 21) }
9d2c6865 1381
3ed82cfc
GS
1382sub pp_negate { maybe_targmy(@_, \&real_negate) }
1383sub real_negate {
9d2c6865
SM
1384 my $self = shift;
1385 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3f872cb9 1386 if ($op->first->name =~ /^(i_)?negate$/) {
9d2c6865
SM
1387 # avoid --$x
1388 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "-", 21.5);
1389 } else {
1390 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "-", 21);
1391 }
1392}
1393sub pp_i_negate { pp_negate(@_) }
1394
1395sub pp_not {
1396 my $self = shift;
1397 my($op, $cx) = @_;
1398 if ($cx <= 4) {
1399 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "not ", 4);
1400 } else {
1401 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "!", 21);
1402 }
1403}
1404
6e90668e
SM
1405sub unop {
1406 my $self = shift;
f4a44678 1407 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e 1408 my $kid;
9d2c6865 1409 if ($op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
6e90668e 1410 $kid = $op->first;
e31885a0
RH
1411 if (defined prototype("CORE::$name")
1412 && prototype("CORE::$name") =~ /^;?\*/
1413 && $kid->name eq "rv2gv") {
1414 $kid = $kid->first;
1415 }
1416
9d2c6865 1417 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $kid, $cx);
6e90668e 1418 } else {
9d2c6865 1419 return $name . ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL ? "()" : "");
6e90668e 1420 }
6e90668e
SM
1421}
1422
3ed82cfc
GS
1423sub pp_chop { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chop") }
1424sub pp_chomp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chomp") }
1425sub pp_schop { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chop") }
1426sub pp_schomp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chomp") }
6e90668e
SM
1427sub pp_defined { unop(@_, "defined") }
1428sub pp_undef { unop(@_, "undef") }
1429sub pp_study { unop(@_, "study") }
6e90668e
SM
1430sub pp_ref { unop(@_, "ref") }
1431sub pp_pos { maybe_local(@_, unop(@_, "pos")) }
1432
3ed82cfc
GS
1433sub pp_sin { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "sin") }
1434sub pp_cos { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "cos") }
1435sub pp_rand { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "rand") }
6e90668e 1436sub pp_srand { unop(@_, "srand") }
3ed82cfc
GS
1437sub pp_exp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "exp") }
1438sub pp_log { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "log") }
1439sub pp_sqrt { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "sqrt") }
1440sub pp_int { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "int") }
1441sub pp_hex { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "hex") }
1442sub pp_oct { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "oct") }
1443sub pp_abs { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "abs") }
1444
1445sub pp_length { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "length") }
1446sub pp_ord { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "ord") }
1447sub pp_chr { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chr") }
6e90668e
SM
1448
1449sub pp_each { unop(@_, "each") }
1450sub pp_values { unop(@_, "values") }
1451sub pp_keys { unop(@_, "keys") }
1452sub pp_pop { unop(@_, "pop") }
1453sub pp_shift { unop(@_, "shift") }
1454
1455sub pp_caller { unop(@_, "caller") }
1456sub pp_reset { unop(@_, "reset") }
1457sub pp_exit { unop(@_, "exit") }
1458sub pp_prototype { unop(@_, "prototype") }
1459
1460sub pp_close { unop(@_, "close") }
1461sub pp_fileno { unop(@_, "fileno") }
1462sub pp_umask { unop(@_, "umask") }
6e90668e
SM
1463sub pp_untie { unop(@_, "untie") }
1464sub pp_tied { unop(@_, "tied") }
1465sub pp_dbmclose { unop(@_, "dbmclose") }
1466sub pp_getc { unop(@_, "getc") }
1467sub pp_eof { unop(@_, "eof") }
1468sub pp_tell { unop(@_, "tell") }
1469sub pp_getsockname { unop(@_, "getsockname") }
1470sub pp_getpeername { unop(@_, "getpeername") }
1471
3ed82cfc
GS
1472sub pp_chdir { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chdir") }
1473sub pp_chroot { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chroot") }
6e90668e 1474sub pp_readlink { unop(@_, "readlink") }
3ed82cfc 1475sub pp_rmdir { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "rmdir") }
6e90668e
SM
1476sub pp_readdir { unop(@_, "readdir") }
1477sub pp_telldir { unop(@_, "telldir") }
1478sub pp_rewinddir { unop(@_, "rewinddir") }
1479sub pp_closedir { unop(@_, "closedir") }
3ed82cfc 1480sub pp_getpgrp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "getpgrp") }
6e90668e
SM
1481sub pp_localtime { unop(@_, "localtime") }
1482sub pp_gmtime { unop(@_, "gmtime") }
1483sub pp_alarm { unop(@_, "alarm") }
3ed82cfc 1484sub pp_sleep { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "sleep") }
6e90668e
SM
1485
1486sub pp_dofile { unop(@_, "do") }
1487sub pp_entereval { unop(@_, "eval") }
1488
1489sub pp_ghbyname { unop(@_, "gethostbyname") }
1490sub pp_gnbyname { unop(@_, "getnetbyname") }
1491sub pp_gpbyname { unop(@_, "getprotobyname") }
1492sub pp_shostent { unop(@_, "sethostent") }
1493sub pp_snetent { unop(@_, "setnetent") }
1494sub pp_sprotoent { unop(@_, "setprotoent") }
1495sub pp_sservent { unop(@_, "setservent") }
1496sub pp_gpwnam { unop(@_, "getpwnam") }
1497sub pp_gpwuid { unop(@_, "getpwuid") }
1498sub pp_ggrnam { unop(@_, "getgrnam") }
1499sub pp_ggrgid { unop(@_, "getgrgid") }
1500
1501sub pp_lock { unop(@_, "lock") }
1502
1503sub pp_exists {
1504 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1505 my($op, $cx) = @_;
34a48b4b
RH
1506 my $arg;
1507 if ($op->private & OPpEXISTS_SUB) {
1508 # Checking for the existence of a subroutine
1509 return $self->maybe_parens_func("exists",
1510 $self->pp_rv2cv($op->first, 16), $cx, 16);
1511 }
1512 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1513 # Array element, not hash element
1514 return $self->maybe_parens_func("exists",
1515 $self->pp_aelem($op->first, 16), $cx, 16);
1516 }
9d2c6865
SM
1517 return $self->maybe_parens_func("exists", $self->pp_helem($op->first, 16),
1518 $cx, 16);
6e90668e
SM
1519}
1520
6e90668e
SM
1521sub pp_delete {
1522 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1523 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1524 my $arg;
1525 if ($op->private & OPpSLICE) {
34a48b4b
RH
1526 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1527 # Deleting from an array, not a hash
1528 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1529 $self->pp_aslice($op->first, 16),
1530 $cx, 16);
1531 }
9d2c6865
SM
1532 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1533 $self->pp_hslice($op->first, 16),
1534 $cx, 16);
6e90668e 1535 } else {
34a48b4b
RH
1536 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1537 # Deleting from an array, not a hash
1538 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1539 $self->pp_aelem($op->first, 16),
1540 $cx, 16);
1541 }
9d2c6865
SM
1542 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1543 $self->pp_helem($op->first, 16),
1544 $cx, 16);
6e90668e 1545 }
6e90668e
SM
1546}
1547
6e90668e
SM
1548sub pp_require {
1549 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1550 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3f872cb9 1551 if (class($op) eq "UNOP" and $op->first->name eq "const"
4c1f658f 1552 and $op->first->private & OPpCONST_BARE)
6e90668e 1553 {
18228111 1554 my $name = $self->const_sv($op->first)->PV;
6e90668e
SM
1555 $name =~ s[/][::]g;
1556 $name =~ s/\.pm//g;
34a48b4b 1557 return "require $name";
6e90668e 1558 } else {
9d2c6865 1559 $self->unop($op, $cx, "require");
6e90668e
SM
1560 }
1561}
1562
9d2c6865
SM
1563sub pp_scalar {
1564 my $self = shift;
1565 my($op, $cv) = @_;
1566 my $kid = $op->first;
1567 if (not null $kid->sibling) {
1568 # XXX Was a here-doc
1569 return $self->dquote($op);
1570 }
1571 $self->unop(@_, "scalar");
1572}
1573
1574
6e90668e
SM
1575sub padval {
1576 my $self = shift;
1577 my $targ = shift;
18228111 1578 #cluck "curcv was undef" unless $self->{curcv};
6e90668e
SM
1579 return (($self->{'curcv'}->PADLIST->ARRAY)[1]->ARRAY)[$targ];
1580}
1581
1582sub pp_refgen {
1583 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1584 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 1585 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9 1586 if ($kid->name eq "null") {
6e90668e 1587 $kid = $kid->first;
3f872cb9
GS
1588 if ($kid->name eq "anonlist" || $kid->name eq "anonhash") {
1589 my($pre, $post) = @{{"anonlist" => ["[","]"],
1590 "anonhash" => ["{","}"]}->{$kid->name}};
6e90668e
SM
1591 my($expr, @exprs);
1592 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
1593 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 1594 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
1595 push @exprs, $expr;
1596 }
1597 return $pre . join(", ", @exprs) . $post;
1598 } elsif (!null($kid->sibling) and
3f872cb9 1599 $kid->sibling->name eq "anoncode") {
6e90668e
SM
1600 return "sub " .
1601 $self->deparse_sub($self->padval($kid->sibling->targ));
3f872cb9
GS
1602 } elsif ($kid->name eq "pushmark") {
1603 my $sib_name = $kid->sibling->name;
1604 if ($sib_name =~ /^(pad|rv2)[ah]v$/
c8c62db7
AD
1605 and not $kid->sibling->flags & OPf_REF)
1606 {
1607 # The @a in \(@a) isn't in ref context, but only when the
1608 # parens are there.
1609 return "\\(" . $self->deparse($kid->sibling, 1) . ")";
3f872cb9 1610 } elsif ($sib_name eq 'entersub') {
c8c62db7
AD
1611 my $text = $self->deparse($kid->sibling, 1);
1612 # Always show parens for \(&func()), but only with -p otherwise
1613 $text = "($text)" if $self->{'parens'}
1614 or $kid->sibling->private & OPpENTERSUB_AMPER;
1615 return "\\$text";
1616 }
1617 }
6e90668e 1618 }
9d2c6865 1619 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "\\", 20);
6e90668e
SM
1620}
1621
1622sub pp_srefgen { pp_refgen(@_) }
1623
1624sub pp_readline {
1625 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1626 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 1627 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9 1628 $kid = $kid->first if $kid->name eq "rv2gv"; # <$fh>
e31885a0
RH
1629 return "<" . $self->deparse($kid, 1) . ">" if is_scalar($kid);
1630 return $self->unop($op, $cx, "readline");
6e90668e
SM
1631}
1632
bd0865ec
GS
1633# Unary operators that can occur as pseudo-listops inside double quotes
1634sub dq_unop {
1635 my $self = shift;
1636 my($op, $cx, $name, $prec, $flags) = (@_, 0, 0);
1637 my $kid;
1638 if ($op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
1639 $kid = $op->first;
1640 # If there's more than one kid, the first is an ex-pushmark.
1641 $kid = $kid->sibling if not null $kid->sibling;
1642 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $kid, $cx);
1643 } else {
1644 return $name . ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL ? "()" : "");
1645 }
1646}
1647
1648sub pp_ucfirst { dq_unop(@_, "ucfirst") }
1649sub pp_lcfirst { dq_unop(@_, "lcfirst") }
1650sub pp_uc { dq_unop(@_, "uc") }
1651sub pp_lc { dq_unop(@_, "lc") }
3ed82cfc 1652sub pp_quotemeta { maybe_targmy(@_, \&dq_unop, "quotemeta") }
bd0865ec 1653
6e90668e
SM
1654sub loopex {
1655 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1656 my ($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e 1657 if (class($op) eq "PVOP") {
9d2c6865
SM
1658 return "$name " . $op->pv;
1659 } elsif (class($op) eq "OP") {
1660 return $name;
6e90668e 1661 } elsif (class($op) eq "UNOP") {
9d2c6865
SM
1662 # Note -- loop exits are actually exempt from the
1663 # looks-like-a-func rule, but a few extra parens won't hurt
1664 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $op->first, $cx);
6e90668e 1665 }
6e90668e
SM
1666}
1667
1668sub pp_last { loopex(@_, "last") }
1669sub pp_next { loopex(@_, "next") }
1670sub pp_redo { loopex(@_, "redo") }
1671sub pp_goto { loopex(@_, "goto") }
1672sub pp_dump { loopex(@_, "dump") }
1673
1674sub ftst {
1675 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1676 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e 1677 if (class($op) eq "UNOP") {
9d2c6865
SM
1678 # Genuine `-X' filetests are exempt from the LLAFR, but not
1679 # l?stat(); for the sake of clarity, give'em all parens
1680 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $op->first, $cx);
7934575e 1681 } elsif (class($op) eq "SVOP") {
9d2c6865 1682 return $self->maybe_parens_func($name, $self->pp_gv($op, 1), $cx, 16);
6e90668e 1683 } else { # I don't think baseop filetests ever survive ck_ftst, but...
9d2c6865 1684 return $name;
6e90668e 1685 }
6e90668e
SM
1686}
1687
1688sub pp_lstat { ftst(@_, "lstat") }
1689sub pp_stat { ftst(@_, "stat") }
1690sub pp_ftrread { ftst(@_, "-R") }
1691sub pp_ftrwrite { ftst(@_, "-W") }
1692sub pp_ftrexec { ftst(@_, "-X") }
1693sub pp_fteread { ftst(@_, "-r") }
e31885a0
RH
1694sub pp_ftewrite { ftst(@_, "-w") }
1695sub pp_fteexec { ftst(@_, "-x") }
6e90668e
SM
1696sub pp_ftis { ftst(@_, "-e") }
1697sub pp_fteowned { ftst(@_, "-O") }
1698sub pp_ftrowned { ftst(@_, "-o") }
1699sub pp_ftzero { ftst(@_, "-z") }
1700sub pp_ftsize { ftst(@_, "-s") }
1701sub pp_ftmtime { ftst(@_, "-M") }
1702sub pp_ftatime { ftst(@_, "-A") }
1703sub pp_ftctime { ftst(@_, "-C") }
1704sub pp_ftsock { ftst(@_, "-S") }
1705sub pp_ftchr { ftst(@_, "-c") }
1706sub pp_ftblk { ftst(@_, "-b") }
1707sub pp_ftfile { ftst(@_, "-f") }
1708sub pp_ftdir { ftst(@_, "-d") }
1709sub pp_ftpipe { ftst(@_, "-p") }
1710sub pp_ftlink { ftst(@_, "-l") }
1711sub pp_ftsuid { ftst(@_, "-u") }
1712sub pp_ftsgid { ftst(@_, "-g") }
1713sub pp_ftsvtx { ftst(@_, "-k") }
1714sub pp_fttty { ftst(@_, "-t") }
1715sub pp_fttext { ftst(@_, "-T") }
1716sub pp_ftbinary { ftst(@_, "-B") }
1717
a798dbf2 1718sub SWAP_CHILDREN () { 1 }
6e90668e 1719sub ASSIGN () { 2 } # has OP= variant
7013e6ae 1720sub LIST_CONTEXT () { 4 } # Assignment is in list context
6e90668e 1721
9d2c6865
SM
1722my(%left, %right);
1723
1724sub assoc_class {
1725 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
1726 my $name = $op->name;
1727 if ($name eq "concat" and $op->first->name eq "concat") {
9d2c6865 1728 # avoid spurious `=' -- see comment in pp_concat
3f872cb9 1729 return "concat";
9d2c6865 1730 }
3f872cb9
GS
1731 if ($name eq "null" and class($op) eq "UNOP"
1732 and $op->first->name =~ /^(and|x?or)$/
9d2c6865
SM
1733 and null $op->first->sibling)
1734 {
1735 # Like all conditional constructs, OP_ANDs and OP_ORs are topped
1736 # with a null that's used as the common end point of the two
1737 # flows of control. For precedence purposes, ignore it.
1738 # (COND_EXPRs have these too, but we don't bother with
1739 # their associativity).
1740 return assoc_class($op->first);
1741 }
1742 return $name . ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED ? "=" : "");
1743}
1744
1745# Left associative operators, like `+', for which
1746# $a + $b + $c is equivalent to ($a + $b) + $c
1747
1748BEGIN {
3f872cb9
GS
1749 %left = ('multiply' => 19, 'i_multiply' => 19,
1750 'divide' => 19, 'i_divide' => 19,
1751 'modulo' => 19, 'i_modulo' => 19,
1752 'repeat' => 19,
1753 'add' => 18, 'i_add' => 18,
1754 'subtract' => 18, 'i_subtract' => 18,
1755 'concat' => 18,
1756 'left_shift' => 17, 'right_shift' => 17,
1757 'bit_and' => 13,
1758 'bit_or' => 12, 'bit_xor' => 12,
1759 'and' => 3,
1760 'or' => 2, 'xor' => 2,
9d2c6865
SM
1761 );
1762}
1763
1764sub deparse_binop_left {
1765 my $self = shift;
1766 my($op, $left, $prec) = @_;
58231d39 1767 if ($left{assoc_class($op)} && $left{assoc_class($left)}
9d2c6865
SM
1768 and $left{assoc_class($op)} == $left{assoc_class($left)})
1769 {
1770 return $self->deparse($left, $prec - .00001);
1771 } else {
1772 return $self->deparse($left, $prec);
1773 }
1774}
1775
1776# Right associative operators, like `=', for which
1777# $a = $b = $c is equivalent to $a = ($b = $c)
1778
1779BEGIN {
3f872cb9
GS
1780 %right = ('pow' => 22,
1781 'sassign=' => 7, 'aassign=' => 7,
1782 'multiply=' => 7, 'i_multiply=' => 7,
1783 'divide=' => 7, 'i_divide=' => 7,
1784 'modulo=' => 7, 'i_modulo=' => 7,
1785 'repeat=' => 7,
1786 'add=' => 7, 'i_add=' => 7,
1787 'subtract=' => 7, 'i_subtract=' => 7,
1788 'concat=' => 7,
1789 'left_shift=' => 7, 'right_shift=' => 7,
1790 'bit_and=' => 7,
1791 'bit_or=' => 7, 'bit_xor=' => 7,
1792 'andassign' => 7,
1793 'orassign' => 7,
9d2c6865
SM
1794 );
1795}
1796
1797sub deparse_binop_right {
1798 my $self = shift;
1799 my($op, $right, $prec) = @_;
58231d39 1800 if ($right{assoc_class($op)} && $right{assoc_class($right)}
9d2c6865
SM
1801 and $right{assoc_class($op)} == $right{assoc_class($right)})
1802 {
1803 return $self->deparse($right, $prec - .00001);
1804 } else {
1805 return $self->deparse($right, $prec);
1806 }
1807}
1808
a798dbf2 1809sub binop {
6e90668e 1810 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1811 my ($op, $cx, $opname, $prec, $flags) = (@_, 0);
a798dbf2
MB
1812 my $left = $op->first;
1813 my $right = $op->last;
9d2c6865
SM
1814 my $eq = "";
1815 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED && $flags & ASSIGN) {
1816 $eq = "=";
1817 $prec = 7;
1818 }
a798dbf2
MB
1819 if ($flags & SWAP_CHILDREN) {
1820 ($left, $right) = ($right, $left);
1821 }
9d2c6865 1822 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $prec);
7013e6ae 1823 $left = "($left)" if $flags & LIST_CONTEXT && $left =~ /^\$/;
9d2c6865
SM
1824 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $prec);
1825 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $opname$eq $right", $cx, $prec);
1826}
1827
3ed82cfc
GS
1828sub pp_add { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "+", 18, ASSIGN) }
1829sub pp_multiply { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "*", 19, ASSIGN) }
1830sub pp_subtract { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "-",18, ASSIGN) }
1831sub pp_divide { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "/", 19, ASSIGN) }
1832sub pp_modulo { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "%", 19, ASSIGN) }
1833sub pp_i_add { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "+", 18, ASSIGN) }
1834sub pp_i_multiply { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "*", 19, ASSIGN) }
1835sub pp_i_subtract { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "-", 18, ASSIGN) }
1836sub pp_i_divide { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "/", 19, ASSIGN) }
1837sub pp_i_modulo { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "%", 19, ASSIGN) }
1838sub pp_pow { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "**", 22, ASSIGN) }
1839
1840sub pp_left_shift { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "<<", 17, ASSIGN) }
1841sub pp_right_shift { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, ">>", 17, ASSIGN) }
1842sub pp_bit_and { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "&", 13, ASSIGN) }
1843sub pp_bit_or { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "|", 12, ASSIGN) }
1844sub pp_bit_xor { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "^", 12, ASSIGN) }
9d2c6865
SM
1845
1846sub pp_eq { binop(@_, "==", 14) }
1847sub pp_ne { binop(@_, "!=", 14) }
1848sub pp_lt { binop(@_, "<", 15) }
1849sub pp_gt { binop(@_, ">", 15) }
1850sub pp_ge { binop(@_, ">=", 15) }
1851sub pp_le { binop(@_, "<=", 15) }
1852sub pp_ncmp { binop(@_, "<=>", 14) }
1853sub pp_i_eq { binop(@_, "==", 14) }
1854sub pp_i_ne { binop(@_, "!=", 14) }
1855sub pp_i_lt { binop(@_, "<", 15) }
1856sub pp_i_gt { binop(@_, ">", 15) }
1857sub pp_i_ge { binop(@_, ">=", 15) }
1858sub pp_i_le { binop(@_, "<=", 15) }
1859sub pp_i_ncmp { binop(@_, "<=>", 14) }
1860
1861sub pp_seq { binop(@_, "eq", 14) }
1862sub pp_sne { binop(@_, "ne", 14) }
1863sub pp_slt { binop(@_, "lt", 15) }
1864sub pp_sgt { binop(@_, "gt", 15) }
1865sub pp_sge { binop(@_, "ge", 15) }
1866sub pp_sle { binop(@_, "le", 15) }
1867sub pp_scmp { binop(@_, "cmp", 14) }
1868
1869sub pp_sassign { binop(@_, "=", 7, SWAP_CHILDREN) }
7013e6ae 1870sub pp_aassign { binop(@_, "=", 7, SWAP_CHILDREN | LIST_CONTEXT) }
6e90668e
SM
1871
1872# `.' is special because concats-of-concats are optimized to save copying
1873# by making all but the first concat stacked. The effect is as if the
1874# programmer had written `($a . $b) .= $c', except legal.
3ed82cfc
GS
1875sub pp_concat { maybe_targmy(@_, \&real_concat) }
1876sub real_concat {
6e90668e 1877 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1878 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1879 my $left = $op->first;
1880 my $right = $op->last;
1881 my $eq = "";
9d2c6865 1882 my $prec = 18;
3f872cb9 1883 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED and $op->first->name ne "concat") {
6e90668e 1884 $eq = "=";
9d2c6865 1885 $prec = 7;
6e90668e 1886 }
9d2c6865
SM
1887 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $prec);
1888 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $prec);
1889 return $self->maybe_parens("$left .$eq $right", $cx, $prec);
6e90668e
SM
1890}
1891
1892# `x' is weird when the left arg is a list
1893sub pp_repeat {
1894 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1895 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1896 my $left = $op->first;
1897 my $right = $op->last;
9d2c6865
SM
1898 my $eq = "";
1899 my $prec = 19;
1900 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
1901 $eq = "=";
1902 $prec = 7;
1903 }
6e90668e
SM
1904 if (null($right)) { # list repeat; count is inside left-side ex-list
1905 my $kid = $left->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
1906 my @exprs;
1907 for (; !null($kid->sibling); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 1908 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
1909 }
1910 $right = $kid;
1911 $left = "(" . join(", ", @exprs). ")";
1912 } else {
9d2c6865 1913 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $prec);
6e90668e 1914 }
9d2c6865
SM
1915 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $prec);
1916 return $self->maybe_parens("$left x$eq $right", $cx, $prec);
6e90668e
SM
1917}
1918
1919sub range {
1920 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1921 my ($op, $cx, $type) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1922 my $left = $op->first;
1923 my $right = $left->sibling;
9d2c6865
SM
1924 $left = $self->deparse($left, 9);
1925 $right = $self->deparse($right, 9);
1926 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $type $right", $cx, 9);
6e90668e
SM
1927}
1928
1929sub pp_flop {
1930 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1931 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1932 my $flip = $op->first;
1933 my $type = ($flip->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) ? "..." : "..";
9d2c6865 1934 return $self->range($flip->first, $cx, $type);
6e90668e
SM
1935}
1936
1937# one-line while/until is handled in pp_leave
1938
1939sub logop {
1940 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1941 my ($op, $cx, $lowop, $lowprec, $highop, $highprec, $blockname) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1942 my $left = $op->first;
1943 my $right = $op->first->sibling;
58cccf98
SM
1944 if ($cx == 0 and is_scope($right) and $blockname
1945 and $self->{'expand'} < 7)
1946 { # if ($a) {$b}
9d2c6865
SM
1947 $left = $self->deparse($left, 1);
1948 $right = $self->deparse($right, 0);
1949 return "$blockname ($left) {\n\t$right\n\b}\cK";
58cccf98
SM
1950 } elsif ($cx == 0 and $blockname and not $self->{'parens'}
1951 and $self->{'expand'} < 7) { # $b if $a
9d2c6865
SM
1952 $right = $self->deparse($right, 1);
1953 $left = $self->deparse($left, 1);
1954 return "$right $blockname $left";
1955 } elsif ($cx > $lowprec and $highop) { # $a && $b
1956 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $highprec);
1957 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $highprec);
1958 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $highop $right", $cx, $highprec);
1959 } else { # $a and $b
1960 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $lowprec);
1961 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $lowprec);
1962 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $lowop $right", $cx, $lowprec);
1963 }
1964}
1965
1966sub pp_and { logop(@_, "and", 3, "&&", 11, "if") }
f4a44678 1967sub pp_or { logop(@_, "or", 2, "||", 10, "unless") }
3ed82cfc
GS
1968
1969# xor is syntactically a logop, but it's really a binop (contrary to
1970# old versions of opcode.pl). Syntax is what matters here.
9d2c6865 1971sub pp_xor { logop(@_, "xor", 2, "", 0, "") }
6e90668e
SM
1972
1973sub logassignop {
1974 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1975 my ($op, $cx, $opname) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1976 my $left = $op->first;
1977 my $right = $op->first->sibling->first; # skip sassign
9d2c6865
SM
1978 $left = $self->deparse($left, 7);
1979 $right = $self->deparse($right, 7);
1980 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $opname $right", $cx, 7);
a798dbf2
MB
1981}
1982
6e90668e
SM
1983sub pp_andassign { logassignop(@_, "&&=") }
1984sub pp_orassign { logassignop(@_, "||=") }
1985
1986sub listop {
1987 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
1988 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
1989 my(@exprs);
1990 my $parens = ($cx >= 5) || $self->{'parens'};
1991 my $kid = $op->first->sibling;
1992 return $name if null $kid;
e31885a0
RH
1993 my $first;
1994 if (defined prototype("CORE::$name")
1995 && prototype("CORE::$name") =~ /^;?\*/
1996 && $kid->name eq "rv2gv") {
1997 $first = $self->deparse($kid->first, 6);
1998 }
1999 else {
2000 $first = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
2001 }
e99ebc55 2002 if ($name eq "chmod" && $first =~ /^\d+$/) {
a0035eb8 2003 $first = sprintf("%#o", $first);
e99ebc55 2004 }
9d2c6865
SM
2005 $first = "+$first" if not $parens and substr($first, 0, 1) eq "(";
2006 push @exprs, $first;
2007 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2008 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
2009 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
2010 }
2011 if ($parens) {
2012 return "$name(" . join(", ", @exprs) . ")";
2013 } else {
2014 return "$name " . join(", ", @exprs);
6e90668e 2015 }
6e90668e 2016}
a798dbf2 2017
6e90668e 2018sub pp_bless { listop(@_, "bless") }
3ed82cfc 2019sub pp_atan2 { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "atan2") }
6e90668e
SM
2020sub pp_substr { maybe_local(@_, listop(@_, "substr")) }
2021sub pp_vec { maybe_local(@_, listop(@_, "vec")) }
3ed82cfc
GS
2022sub pp_index { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "index") }
2023sub pp_rindex { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "rindex") }
2024sub pp_sprintf { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "sprintf") }
6e90668e 2025sub pp_formline { listop(@_, "formline") } # see also deparse_format
3ed82cfc 2026sub pp_crypt { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "crypt") }
6e90668e
SM
2027sub pp_unpack { listop(@_, "unpack") }
2028sub pp_pack { listop(@_, "pack") }
3ed82cfc 2029sub pp_join { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "join") }
6e90668e 2030sub pp_splice { listop(@_, "splice") }
3ed82cfc
GS
2031sub pp_push { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "push") }
2032sub pp_unshift { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "unshift") }
6e90668e
SM
2033sub pp_reverse { listop(@_, "reverse") }
2034sub pp_warn { listop(@_, "warn") }
2035sub pp_die { listop(@_, "die") }
9d2c6865
SM
2036# Actually, return is exempt from the LLAFR (see examples in this very
2037# module!), but for consistency's sake, ignore that fact
6e90668e
SM
2038sub pp_return { listop(@_, "return") }
2039sub pp_open { listop(@_, "open") }
2040sub pp_pipe_op { listop(@_, "pipe") }
2041sub pp_tie { listop(@_, "tie") }
82bafd27 2042sub pp_binmode { listop(@_, "binmode") }
6e90668e
SM
2043sub pp_dbmopen { listop(@_, "dbmopen") }
2044sub pp_sselect { listop(@_, "select") }
2045sub pp_select { listop(@_, "select") }
2046sub pp_read { listop(@_, "read") }
2047sub pp_sysopen { listop(@_, "sysopen") }
2048sub pp_sysseek { listop(@_, "sysseek") }
2049sub pp_sysread { listop(@_, "sysread") }
2050sub pp_syswrite { listop(@_, "syswrite") }
2051sub pp_send { listop(@_, "send") }
2052sub pp_recv { listop(@_, "recv") }
2053sub pp_seek { listop(@_, "seek") }
6e90668e
SM
2054sub pp_fcntl { listop(@_, "fcntl") }
2055sub pp_ioctl { listop(@_, "ioctl") }
3ed82cfc 2056sub pp_flock { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "flock") }
6e90668e
SM
2057sub pp_socket { listop(@_, "socket") }
2058sub pp_sockpair { listop(@_, "sockpair") }
2059sub pp_bind { listop(@_, "bind") }
2060sub pp_connect { listop(@_, "connect") }
2061sub pp_listen { listop(@_, "listen") }
2062sub pp_accept { listop(@_, "accept") }
2063sub pp_shutdown { listop(@_, "shutdown") }
2064sub pp_gsockopt { listop(@_, "getsockopt") }
2065sub pp_ssockopt { listop(@_, "setsockopt") }
3ed82cfc
GS
2066sub pp_chown { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "chown") }
2067sub pp_unlink { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "unlink") }
2068sub pp_chmod { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "chmod") }
2069sub pp_utime { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "utime") }
2070sub pp_rename { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "rename") }
2071sub pp_link { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "link") }
2072sub pp_symlink { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "symlink") }
2073sub pp_mkdir { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "mkdir") }
6e90668e
SM
2074sub pp_open_dir { listop(@_, "opendir") }
2075sub pp_seekdir { listop(@_, "seekdir") }
3ed82cfc
GS
2076sub pp_waitpid { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "waitpid") }
2077sub pp_system { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "system") }
2078sub pp_exec { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "exec") }
2079sub pp_kill { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "kill") }
2080sub pp_setpgrp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "setpgrp") }
2081sub pp_getpriority { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "getpriority") }
2082sub pp_setpriority { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "setpriority") }
6e90668e
SM
2083sub pp_shmget { listop(@_, "shmget") }
2084sub pp_shmctl { listop(@_, "shmctl") }
2085sub pp_shmread { listop(@_, "shmread") }
2086sub pp_shmwrite { listop(@_, "shmwrite") }
2087sub pp_msgget { listop(@_, "msgget") }
2088sub pp_msgctl { listop(@_, "msgctl") }
2089sub pp_msgsnd { listop(@_, "msgsnd") }
2090sub pp_msgrcv { listop(@_, "msgrcv") }
2091sub pp_semget { listop(@_, "semget") }
2092sub pp_semctl { listop(@_, "semctl") }
2093sub pp_semop { listop(@_, "semop") }
2094sub pp_ghbyaddr { listop(@_, "gethostbyaddr") }
2095sub pp_gnbyaddr { listop(@_, "getnetbyaddr") }
2096sub pp_gpbynumber { listop(@_, "getprotobynumber") }
2097sub pp_gsbyname { listop(@_, "getservbyname") }
2098sub pp_gsbyport { listop(@_, "getservbyport") }
2099sub pp_syscall { listop(@_, "syscall") }
2100
2101sub pp_glob {
2102 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2103 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2104 my $text = $self->dq($op->first->sibling); # skip pushmark
2105 if ($text =~ /^\$?(\w|::|\`)+$/ # could look like a readline
2106 or $text =~ /[<>]/) {
2107 return 'glob(' . single_delim('qq', '"', $text) . ')';
2108 } else {
2109 return '<' . $text . '>';
2110 }
2111}
2112
f5aa8f4e
SM
2113# Truncate is special because OPf_SPECIAL makes a bareword first arg
2114# be a filehandle. This could probably be better fixed in the core
2115# by moving the GV lookup into ck_truc.
2116
2117sub pp_truncate {
2118 my $self = shift;
2119 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2120 my(@exprs);
2121 my $parens = ($cx >= 5) || $self->{'parens'};
2122 my $kid = $op->first->sibling;
acba1d67 2123 my $fh;
f5aa8f4e
SM
2124 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
2125 # $kid is an OP_CONST
18228111 2126 $fh = $self->const_sv($kid)->PV;
f5aa8f4e
SM
2127 } else {
2128 $fh = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
2129 $fh = "+$fh" if not $parens and substr($fh, 0, 1) eq "(";
2130 }
2131 my $len = $self->deparse($kid->sibling, 6);
2132 if ($parens) {
2133 return "truncate($fh, $len)";
2134 } else {
2135 return "truncate $fh, $len";
2136 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
2137}
2138
6e90668e
SM
2139sub indirop {
2140 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2141 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2142 my($expr, @exprs);
2143 my $kid = $op->first->sibling;
2144 my $indir = "";
2145 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
2146 $indir = $kid;
2147 $indir = $indir->first; # skip rv2gv
2148 if (is_scope($indir)) {
9d2c6865 2149 $indir = "{" . $self->deparse($indir, 0) . "}";
c73811ab
RH
2150 } elsif ($indir->name eq "const" && $indir->private & OPpCONST_BARE) {
2151 $indir = $self->const_sv($indir)->PV;
6e90668e 2152 } else {
9d2c6865 2153 $indir = $self->deparse($indir, 24);
6e90668e
SM
2154 }
2155 $indir = $indir . " ";
2156 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2157 }
7e80da18
RH
2158 if ($name eq "sort" && $op->private & (OPpSORT_NUMERIC | OPpSORT_INTEGER)) {
2159 $indir = ($op->private & OPpSORT_REVERSE) ? '{$b <=> $a} '
2160 : '{$a <=> $b} ';
2161 }
2162 elsif ($name eq "sort" && $op->private & OPpSORT_REVERSE) {
2163 $indir = '{$b cmp $a} ';
2164 }
6e90668e 2165 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2166 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2167 push @exprs, $expr;
2168 }
3ed82cfc 2169 return $self->maybe_parens_func($name, $indir . join(", ", @exprs),
9d2c6865 2170 $cx, 5);
6e90668e
SM
2171}
2172
2173sub pp_prtf { indirop(@_, "printf") }
2174sub pp_print { indirop(@_, "print") }
2175sub pp_sort { indirop(@_, "sort") }
2176
2177sub mapop {
2178 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2179 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2180 my($expr, @exprs);
2181 my $kid = $op->first; # this is the (map|grep)start
2182 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip a pushmark
2183 my $code = $kid->first; # skip a null
2184 if (is_scope $code) {
f4a44678 2185 $code = "{" . $self->deparse($code, 0) . "} ";
6e90668e 2186 } else {
9d2c6865 2187 $code = $self->deparse($code, 24) . ", ";
6e90668e
SM
2188 }
2189 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2190 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2191 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2192 push @exprs, $expr if $expr;
2193 }
9d2c6865 2194 return $self->maybe_parens_func($name, $code . join(", ", @exprs), $cx, 5);
6e90668e
SM
2195}
2196
2197sub pp_mapwhile { mapop(@_, "map") }
2198sub pp_grepwhile { mapop(@_, "grep") }
2199
2200sub pp_list {
2201 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2202 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2203 my($expr, @exprs);
2204 my $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
2205 my $lop;
ce4e655d 2206 my $local = "either"; # could be local(...), my(...) or our(...)
6e90668e
SM
2207 for ($lop = $kid; !null($lop); $lop = $lop->sibling) {
2208 # This assumes that no other private flags equal 128, and that
2209 # OPs that store things other than flags in their op_private,
2210 # like OP_AELEMFAST, won't be immediate children of a list.
b8e103fc
RH
2211 #
2212 # OP_ENTERSUB can break this logic, so check for it.
2213 # I suspect that open and exit can too.
2214
2215 if (!($lop->private & (OPpLVAL_INTRO|OPpOUR_INTRO)
ce4e655d 2216 or $lop->name eq "undef")
b8e103fc
RH
2217 or $lop->name eq "entersub"
2218 or $lop->name eq "exit"
2219 or $lop->name eq "open")
6e90668e
SM
2220 {
2221 $local = ""; # or not
2222 last;
2223 }
3f872cb9 2224 if ($lop->name =~ /^pad[ash]v$/) { # my()
ce4e655d 2225 ($local = "", last) if $local eq "local" || $local eq "our";
6e90668e 2226 $local = "my";
b8e103fc
RH
2227 } elsif ($lop->name =~ /^(gv|rv2)[ash]v$/
2228 && $lop->private & OPpOUR_INTRO
2229 or $lop->name eq "null" && $lop->first->name eq "gvsv"
2230 && $lop->first->private & OPpOUR_INTRO) { # our()
ce4e655d
RH
2231 ($local = "", last) if $local eq "my" || $local eq "local";
2232 $local = "our";
3f872cb9 2233 } elsif ($lop->name ne "undef") { # local()
ce4e655d 2234 ($local = "", last) if $local eq "my" || $local eq "our";
6e90668e
SM
2235 $local = "local";
2236 }
2237 }
2238 $local = "" if $local eq "either"; # no point if it's all undefs
f5aa8f4e 2239 return $self->deparse($kid, $cx) if null $kid->sibling and not $local;
6e90668e
SM
2240 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
2241 if ($local) {
3f872cb9 2242 if (class($kid) eq "UNOP" and $kid->first->name eq "gvsv") {
6e90668e
SM
2243 $lop = $kid->first;
2244 } else {
2245 $lop = $kid;
2246 }
2247 $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$lop}++;
9d2c6865 2248 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2249 delete $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$lop};
2250 } else {
9d2c6865 2251 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2252 }
2253 push @exprs, $expr;
2254 }
9d2c6865
SM
2255 if ($local) {
2256 return "$local(" . join(", ", @exprs) . ")";
2257 } else {
2258 return $self->maybe_parens( join(", ", @exprs), $cx, 6);
2259 }
6e90668e
SM
2260}
2261
6f611a1a
GS
2262sub is_ifelse_cont {
2263 my $op = shift;
2264 return ($op->name eq "null" and class($op) eq "UNOP"
2265 and $op->first->name =~ /^(and|cond_expr)$/
2266 and is_scope($op->first->first->sibling));
2267}
2268
6e90668e
SM
2269sub pp_cond_expr {
2270 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2271 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2272 my $cond = $op->first;
2273 my $true = $cond->sibling;
2274 my $false = $true->sibling;
9d2c6865 2275 my $cuddle = $self->{'cuddle'};
6f611a1a 2276 unless ($cx == 0 and (is_scope($true) and $true->name ne "null") and
58cccf98
SM
2277 (is_scope($false) || is_ifelse_cont($false))
2278 and $self->{'expand'} < 7) {
f5aa8f4e 2279 $cond = $self->deparse($cond, 8);
9d2c6865
SM
2280 $true = $self->deparse($true, 8);
2281 $false = $self->deparse($false, 8);
2282 return $self->maybe_parens("$cond ? $true : $false", $cx, 8);
6f611a1a
GS
2283 }
2284
f5aa8f4e 2285 $cond = $self->deparse($cond, 1);
9d2c6865 2286 $true = $self->deparse($true, 0);
6f611a1a
GS
2287 my $head = "if ($cond) {\n\t$true\n\b}";
2288 my @elsifs;
2289 while (!null($false) and is_ifelse_cont($false)) {
2290 my $newop = $false->first;
2291 my $newcond = $newop->first;
2292 my $newtrue = $newcond->sibling;
2293 $false = $newtrue->sibling; # last in chain is OP_AND => no else
2294 $newcond = $self->deparse($newcond, 1);
2295 $newtrue = $self->deparse($newtrue, 0);
2296 push @elsifs, "elsif ($newcond) {\n\t$newtrue\n\b}";
2297 }
2298 if (!null($false)) {
2299 $false = $cuddle . "else {\n\t" .
2300 $self->deparse($false, 0) . "\n\b}\cK";
2301 } else {
2302 $false = "\cK";
6e90668e 2303 }
6f611a1a 2304 return $head . join($cuddle, "", @elsifs) . $false;
6e90668e
SM
2305}
2306
58cccf98 2307sub loop_common {
6e90668e 2308 my $self = shift;
58cccf98 2309 my($op, $cx, $init) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2310 my $enter = $op->first;
2311 my $kid = $enter->sibling;
a0405c92
RH
2312 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
2313 = @$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'};
6e90668e 2314 my $head = "";
9d2c6865 2315 my $bare = 0;
58cccf98
SM
2316 my $body;
2317 my $cond = undef;
3f872cb9 2318 if ($kid->name eq "lineseq") { # bare or infinite loop
6e90668e 2319 if (is_state $kid->last) { # infinite
e99ebc55 2320 $head = "while (1) "; # Can't use for(;;) if there's a continue
58cccf98 2321 $cond = "";
9d2c6865
SM
2322 } else {
2323 $bare = 1;
6e90668e 2324 }
58cccf98 2325 $body = $kid;
3f872cb9 2326 } elsif ($enter->name eq "enteriter") { # foreach
6e90668e
SM
2327 my $ary = $enter->first->sibling; # first was pushmark
2328 my $var = $ary->sibling;
f5aa8f4e
SM
2329 if ($enter->flags & OPf_STACKED
2330 and not null $ary->first->sibling->sibling)
2331 {
d7f5b6da
SM
2332 $ary = $self->deparse($ary->first->sibling, 9) . " .. " .
2333 $self->deparse($ary->first->sibling->sibling, 9);
d8d95777
GA
2334 } else {
2335 $ary = $self->deparse($ary, 1);
2336 }
6e90668e 2337 if (null $var) {
f6f9bdb7 2338 if ($enter->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) { # thread special var
9d2c6865 2339 $var = $self->pp_threadsv($enter, 1);
f6f9bdb7 2340 } else { # regular my() variable
9d2c6865 2341 $var = $self->pp_padsv($enter, 1);
f6f9bdb7
SM
2342 if ($self->padname_sv($enter->targ)->IVX ==
2343 $kid->first->first->sibling->last->cop_seq)
2344 {
2345 # If the scope of this variable closes at the last
2346 # statement of the loop, it must have been
2347 # declared here.
2348 $var = "my " . $var;
2349 }
6e90668e 2350 }
3f872cb9 2351 } elsif ($var->name eq "rv2gv") {
9d2c6865 2352 $var = $self->pp_rv2sv($var, 1);
3f872cb9 2353 } elsif ($var->name eq "gv") {
9d2c6865 2354 $var = "\$" . $self->deparse($var, 1);
6e90668e 2355 }
9d2c6865 2356 $head = "foreach $var ($ary) ";
58cccf98 2357 $body = $kid->first->first->sibling; # skip OP_AND and OP_ITER
3f872cb9 2358 } elsif ($kid->name eq "null") { # while/until
6e90668e 2359 $kid = $kid->first;
58cccf98
SM
2360 my $name = {"and" => "while", "or" => "until"}->{$kid->name};
2361 $cond = $self->deparse($kid->first, 1);
2362 $head = "$name ($cond) ";
2363 $body = $kid->first->sibling;
3f872cb9 2364 } elsif ($kid->name eq "stub") { # bare and empty
9d2c6865 2365 return "{;}"; # {} could be a hashref
6e90668e 2366 }
58cccf98
SM
2367 # If there isn't a continue block, then the next pointer for the loop
2368 # will point to the unstack, which is kid's penultimate child, except
2369 # in a bare loop, when it will point to the leaveloop. When neither of
2370 # these conditions hold, then the third-to-last child in the continue
2371 # block (or the last in a bare loop).
2372 my $cont_start = $enter->nextop;
2373 my $cont;
c73811ab 2374 if ($$cont_start != $$op && ${$cont_start->sibling} != ${$body->last}) {
58cccf98
SM
2375 if ($bare) {
2376 $cont = $body->last;
2377 } else {
2378 $cont = $body->first;
2379 while (!null($cont->sibling->sibling->sibling)) {
2380 $cont = $cont->sibling;
2381 }
2382 }
2383 my $state = $body->first;
2384 my $cuddle = $self->{'cuddle'};
2385 my @states;
2386 for (; $$state != $$cont; $state = $state->sibling) {
2387 push @states, $state;
2388 }
ce4e655d 2389 $body = $self->lineseq(undef, @states);
58cccf98
SM
2390 if (defined $cond and not is_scope $cont and $self->{'expand'} < 3) {
2391 $head = "for ($init; $cond; " . $self->deparse($cont, 1) .") ";
2392 $cont = "\cK";
2393 } else {
2394 $cont = $cuddle . "continue {\n\t" .
2395 $self->deparse($cont, 0) . "\n\b}\cK";
6e90668e 2396 }
6e90668e 2397 } else {
7a9b44b9 2398 return "" if !defined $body;
c73811ab
RH
2399 if (length $init) {
2400 $head = "for ($init; $cond;) ";
2401 }
9d2c6865 2402 $cont = "\cK";
58cccf98 2403 $body = $self->deparse($body, 0);
6e90668e 2404 }
ce4e655d 2405 $body =~ s/;?$/;\n/;
34a48b4b
RH
2406
2407 return $head . "{\n\t" . $body . "\b}" . $cont;
58cccf98
SM
2408}
2409
2410sub pp_leaveloop { loop_common(@_, "") }
2411
2412sub for_loop {
2413 my $self = shift;
2414 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2415 my $init = $self->deparse($op, 1);
c73811ab 2416 return $self->loop_common($op->sibling->first->sibling, $cx, $init);
6e90668e
SM
2417}
2418
2419sub pp_leavetry {
2420 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2421 return "eval {\n\t" . $self->pp_leave(@_) . "\n\b}";
bd0865ec 2422}
6e90668e 2423
bd0865ec
GS
2424BEGIN { eval "sub OP_CONST () {" . opnumber("const") . "}" }
2425BEGIN { eval "sub OP_STRINGIFY () {" . opnumber("stringify") . "}" }
a9760014 2426BEGIN { eval "sub OP_RV2SV () {" . opnumber("rv2sv") . "}" }
f5aa8f4e 2427
a798dbf2 2428sub pp_null {
6e90668e 2429 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2430 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 2431 if (class($op) eq "OP") {
f4a44678
SM
2432 # old value is lost
2433 return $self->{'ex_const'} if $op->targ == OP_CONST;
3f872cb9 2434 } elsif ($op->first->name eq "pushmark") {
9d2c6865 2435 return $self->pp_list($op, $cx);
3f872cb9 2436 } elsif ($op->first->name eq "enter") {
9d2c6865 2437 return $self->pp_leave($op, $cx);
bd0865ec 2438 } elsif ($op->targ == OP_STRINGIFY) {
6f611a1a 2439 return $self->dquote($op, $cx);
6e90668e 2440 } elsif (!null($op->first->sibling) and
3f872cb9 2441 $op->first->sibling->name eq "readline" and
6e90668e 2442 $op->first->sibling->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
2443 return $self->maybe_parens($self->deparse($op->first, 7) . " = "
2444 . $self->deparse($op->first->sibling, 7),
2445 $cx, 7);
6e90668e 2446 } elsif (!null($op->first->sibling) and
3f872cb9 2447 $op->first->sibling->name eq "trans" and
6e90668e 2448 $op->first->sibling->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
2449 return $self->maybe_parens($self->deparse($op->first, 20) . " =~ "
2450 . $self->deparse($op->first->sibling, 20),
2451 $cx, 20);
c102638c
RH
2452 } elsif ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL && $cx == 0 && !$op->targ) {
2453 return "do {\n\t". $self->deparse($op->first, $cx) ."\n\b};";
6e90668e 2454 } else {
9d2c6865 2455 return $self->deparse($op->first, $cx);
6e90668e 2456 }
a798dbf2
MB
2457}
2458
6e90668e
SM
2459sub padname {
2460 my $self = shift;
2461 my $targ = shift;
68223ea3 2462 return $self->padname_sv($targ)->PVX;
6e90668e
SM
2463}
2464
2465sub padany {
2466 my $self = shift;
2467 my $op = shift;
2468 return substr($self->padname($op->targ), 1); # skip $/@/%
2469}
2470
2471sub pp_padsv {
2472 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
2473 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2474 return $self->maybe_my($op, $cx, $self->padname($op->targ));
6e90668e
SM
2475}
2476
2477sub pp_padav { pp_padsv(@_) }
2478sub pp_padhv { pp_padsv(@_) }
2479
9d2c6865
SM
2480my @threadsv_names;
2481
2482BEGIN {
2483 @threadsv_names = ("_", "1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8", "9",
2484 "&", "`", "'", "+", "/", ".", ",", "\\", '"', ";",
2485 "^", "-", "%", "=", "|", "~", ":", "^A", "^E",
2486 "!", "@");
2487}
f6f9bdb7
SM
2488
2489sub pp_threadsv {
2490 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
2491 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2492 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, "\$" . $threadsv_names[$op->targ]);
f6f9bdb7
SM
2493}
2494
6f611a1a 2495sub gv_or_padgv {
18228111
GS
2496 my $self = shift;
2497 my $op = shift;
6f611a1a
GS
2498 if (class($op) eq "PADOP") {
2499 return $self->padval($op->padix);
2500 } else { # class($op) eq "SVOP"
2501 return $op->gv;
18228111 2502 }
18228111
GS
2503}
2504
6e90668e
SM
2505sub pp_gvsv {
2506 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2507 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6f611a1a 2508 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($op);
8510e997
RH
2509 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, $self->stash_variable("\$",
2510 $self->gv_name($gv)));
6e90668e
SM
2511}
2512
2513sub pp_gv {
2514 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2515 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6f611a1a 2516 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($op);
18228111 2517 return $self->gv_name($gv);
6e90668e
SM
2518}
2519
2520sub pp_aelemfast {
2521 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2522 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6f611a1a 2523 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($op);
ce4e655d
RH
2524 my $name = $self->gv_name($gv);
2525 $name = $self->{'curstash'}."::$name"
2526 if $name !~ /::/ && $self->lex_in_scope('@'.$name);
2527
2528 return "\$" . $name . "[" .
7a9b44b9 2529 ($op->private + $self->{'arybase'}) . "]";
6e90668e
SM
2530}
2531
2532sub rv2x {
2533 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2534 my($op, $cx, $type) = @_;
6e90668e 2535 my $kid = $op->first;
f5aa8f4e 2536 my $str = $self->deparse($kid, 0);
8510e997
RH
2537 return $self->stash_variable($type, $str) if is_scalar($kid);
2538 return $type ."{$str}";
6e90668e
SM
2539}
2540
2541sub pp_rv2sv { maybe_local(@_, rv2x(@_, "\$")) }
2542sub pp_rv2hv { maybe_local(@_, rv2x(@_, "%")) }
2543sub pp_rv2gv { maybe_local(@_, rv2x(@_, "*")) }
2544
2545# skip rv2av
2546sub pp_av2arylen {
2547 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2548 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3f872cb9 2549 if ($op->first->name eq "padav") {
9d2c6865 2550 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, '$#' . $self->padany($op->first));
6e90668e 2551 } else {
f5aa8f4e
SM
2552 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx,
2553 $self->rv2x($op->first, $cx, '$#'));
6e90668e
SM
2554 }
2555}
2556
2557# skip down to the old, ex-rv2cv
9d2c6865 2558sub pp_rv2cv { $_[0]->rv2x($_[1]->first->first->sibling, $_[2], "&") }
6e90668e
SM
2559
2560sub pp_rv2av {
2561 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2562 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 2563 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9 2564 if ($kid->name eq "const") { # constant list
18228111 2565 my $av = $self->const_sv($kid);
6e90668e
SM
2566 return "(" . join(", ", map(const($_), $av->ARRAY)) . ")";
2567 } else {
9d2c6865 2568 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, $self->rv2x($op, $cx, "\@"));
6e90668e
SM
2569 }
2570 }
2571
3ed82cfc
GS
2572sub is_subscriptable {
2573 my $op = shift;
2574 if ($op->name =~ /^[ahg]elem/) {
2575 return 1;
2576 } elsif ($op->name eq "entersub") {
2577 my $kid = $op->first;
2578 return 0 unless null $kid->sibling;
2579 $kid = $kid->first;
2580 $kid = $kid->sibling until null $kid->sibling;
2581 return 0 if is_scope($kid);
2582 $kid = $kid->first;
2583 return 0 if $kid->name eq "gv";
2584 return 0 if is_scalar($kid);
2585 return is_subscriptable($kid);
2586 } else {
2587 return 0;
2588 }
2589}
6e90668e
SM
2590
2591sub elem {
2592 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2593 my ($op, $cx, $left, $right, $padname) = @_;
6e90668e 2594 my($array, $idx) = ($op->first, $op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 2595 unless ($array->name eq $padname) { # Maybe this has been fixed
6e90668e
SM
2596 $array = $array->first; # skip rv2av (or ex-rv2av in _53+)
2597 }
3f872cb9 2598 if ($array->name eq $padname) {
6e90668e
SM
2599 $array = $self->padany($array);
2600 } elsif (is_scope($array)) { # ${expr}[0]
9d2c6865 2601 $array = "{" . $self->deparse($array, 0) . "}";
ce4e655d
RH
2602 } elsif ($array->name eq "gv") {
2603 $array = $self->gv_name($self->gv_or_padgv($array));
2604 if ($array !~ /::/) {
2605 my $prefix = ($left eq '[' ? '@' : '%');
2606 $array = $self->{curstash}.'::'.$array
2607 if $self->lex_in_scope($prefix . $array);
2608 }
6e90668e 2609 } elsif (is_scalar $array) { # $x[0], $$x[0], ...
9d2c6865 2610 $array = $self->deparse($array, 24);
6e90668e
SM
2611 } else {
2612 # $x[20][3]{hi} or expr->[20]
3ed82cfc 2613 my $arrow = is_subscriptable($array) ? "" : "->";
9d2c6865
SM
2614 return $self->deparse($array, 24) . $arrow .
2615 $left . $self->deparse($idx, 1) . $right;
6e90668e 2616 }
9d2c6865 2617 $idx = $self->deparse($idx, 1);
7a9b44b9
RH
2618
2619 # Outer parens in an array index will confuse perl
2620 # if we're interpolating in a regular expression, i.e.
2621 # /$x$foo[(-1)]/ is *not* the same as /$x$foo[-1]/
2622 #
2623 # If $self->{parens}, then an initial '(' will
2624 # definitely be paired with a final ')'. If
2625 # !$self->{parens}, the misleading parens won't
2626 # have been added in the first place.
2627 #
2628 # [You might think that we could get "(...)...(...)"
2629 # where the initial and final parens do not match
2630 # each other. But we can't, because the above would
2631 # only happen if there's an infix binop between the
2632 # two pairs of parens, and *that* means that the whole
2633 # expression would be parenthesized as well.]
2634 #
2635 $idx =~ s/^\((.*)\)$/$1/ if $self->{'parens'};
2636
6e90668e
SM
2637 return "\$" . $array . $left . $idx . $right;
2638}
2639
3f872cb9
GS
2640sub pp_aelem { maybe_local(@_, elem(@_, "[", "]", "padav")) }
2641sub pp_helem { maybe_local(@_, elem(@_, "{", "}", "padhv")) }
6e90668e
SM
2642
2643sub pp_gelem {
2644 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2645 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2646 my($glob, $part) = ($op->first, $op->last);
2647 $glob = $glob->first; # skip rv2gv
3f872cb9 2648 $glob = $glob->first if $glob->name eq "rv2gv"; # this one's a bug
9d2c6865
SM
2649 my $scope = is_scope($glob);
2650 $glob = $self->deparse($glob, 0);
2651 $part = $self->deparse($part, 1);
6e90668e
SM
2652 return "*" . ($scope ? "{$glob}" : $glob) . "{$part}";
2653}
2654
2655sub slice {
2656 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2657 my ($op, $cx, $left, $right, $regname, $padname) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2658 my $last;
2659 my(@elems, $kid, $array, $list);
2660 if (class($op) eq "LISTOP") {
2661 $last = $op->last;
2662 } else { # ex-hslice inside delete()
2663 for ($kid = $op->first; !null $kid->sibling; $kid = $kid->sibling) {}
2664 $last = $kid;
2665 }
2666 $array = $last;
2667 $array = $array->first
3f872cb9 2668 if $array->name eq $regname or $array->name eq "null";
6e90668e 2669 if (is_scope($array)) {
9d2c6865 2670 $array = "{" . $self->deparse($array, 0) . "}";
3f872cb9 2671 } elsif ($array->name eq $padname) {
6e90668e
SM
2672 $array = $self->padany($array);
2673 } else {
9d2c6865 2674 $array = $self->deparse($array, 24);
6e90668e
SM
2675 }
2676 $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
3f872cb9 2677 if ($kid->name eq "list") {
6e90668e
SM
2678 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip list, pushmark
2679 for (; !null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2680 push @elems, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2681 }
2682 $list = join(", ", @elems);
2683 } else {
9d2c6865 2684 $list = $self->deparse($kid, 1);
6e90668e
SM
2685 }
2686 return "\@" . $array . $left . $list . $right;
2687}
2688
3ed82cfc
GS
2689sub pp_aslice { maybe_local(@_, slice(@_, "[", "]", "rv2av", "padav")) }
2690sub pp_hslice { maybe_local(@_, slice(@_, "{", "}", "rv2hv", "padhv")) }
6e90668e
SM
2691
2692sub pp_lslice {
2693 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2694 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2695 my $idx = $op->first;
2696 my $list = $op->last;
2697 my(@elems, $kid);
9d2c6865
SM
2698 $list = $self->deparse($list, 1);
2699 $idx = $self->deparse($idx, 1);
2700 return "($list)" . "[$idx]";
6e90668e
SM
2701}
2702
6e90668e
SM
2703sub want_scalar {
2704 my $op = shift;
2705 return ($op->flags & OPf_WANT) == OPf_WANT_SCALAR;
2706}
2707
bd0865ec
GS
2708sub want_list {
2709 my $op = shift;
2710 return ($op->flags & OPf_WANT) == OPf_WANT_LIST;
2711}
2712
2713sub method {
6e90668e 2714 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2715 my($op, $cx) = @_;
bd0865ec
GS
2716 my $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
2717 my($meth, $obj, @exprs);
3f872cb9 2718 if ($kid->name eq "list" and want_list $kid) {
bd0865ec
GS
2719 # When an indirect object isn't a bareword but the args are in
2720 # parens, the parens aren't part of the method syntax (the LLAFR
2721 # doesn't apply), but they make a list with OPf_PARENS set that
2722 # doesn't get flattened by the append_elem that adds the method,
2723 # making a (object, arg1, arg2, ...) list where the object
2724 # usually is. This can be distinguished from
2725 # `($obj, $arg1, $arg2)->meth()' (which is legal if $arg2 is an
2726 # object) because in the later the list is in scalar context
2727 # as the left side of -> always is, while in the former
2728 # the list is in list context as method arguments always are.
2729 # (Good thing there aren't method prototypes!)
3ed82cfc 2730 $meth = $kid->sibling;
bd0865ec
GS
2731 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
2732 $obj = $kid;
6e90668e 2733 $kid = $kid->sibling;
bd0865ec 2734 for (; not null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2735 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e 2736 }
bd0865ec
GS
2737 } else {
2738 $obj = $kid;
2739 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2740 for (; not null $kid->sibling; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
2741 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e 2742 }
3ed82cfc 2743 $meth = $kid;
bd0865ec
GS
2744 }
2745 $obj = $self->deparse($obj, 24);
3ed82cfc 2746 if ($meth->name eq "method_named") {
18228111 2747 $meth = $self->const_sv($meth)->PV;
bd0865ec 2748 } else {
3ed82cfc
GS
2749 $meth = $meth->first;
2750 if ($meth->name eq "const") {
2751 # As of 5.005_58, this case is probably obsoleted by the
2752 # method_named case above
18228111 2753 $meth = $self->const_sv($meth)->PV; # needs to be bare
3ed82cfc
GS
2754 } else {
2755 $meth = $self->deparse($meth, 1);
2756 }
bd0865ec
GS
2757 }
2758 my $args = join(", ", @exprs);
2759 $kid = $obj . "->" . $meth;
145eb477 2760 if (length $args) {
bd0865ec
GS
2761 return $kid . "(" . $args . ")"; # parens mandatory
2762 } else {
2763 return $kid;
2764 }
2765}
2766
2767# returns "&" if the prototype doesn't match the args,
2768# or ("", $args_after_prototype_demunging) if it does.
2769sub check_proto {
2770 my $self = shift;
2771 my($proto, @args) = @_;
2772 my($arg, $real);
2773 my $doneok = 0;
2774 my @reals;
2775 # An unbackslashed @ or % gobbles up the rest of the args
2776 $proto =~ s/([^\\]|^)([@%])(.*)$/$1$2/;
2777 while ($proto) {
2778 $proto =~ s/^ *([\\]?[\$\@&%*]|;)//;
2779 my $chr = $1;
2780 if ($chr eq "") {
2781 return "&" if @args;
2782 } elsif ($chr eq ";") {
2783 $doneok = 1;
2784 } elsif ($chr eq "@" or $chr eq "%") {
2785 push @reals, map($self->deparse($_, 6), @args);
2786 @args = ();
6e90668e 2787 } else {
bd0865ec
GS
2788 $arg = shift @args;
2789 last unless $arg;
2790 if ($chr eq "\$") {
2791 if (want_scalar $arg) {
2792 push @reals, $self->deparse($arg, 6);
2793 } else {
2794 return "&";
2795 }
2796 } elsif ($chr eq "&") {
3f872cb9 2797 if ($arg->name =~ /^(s?refgen|undef)$/) {
bd0865ec
GS
2798 push @reals, $self->deparse($arg, 6);
2799 } else {
2800 return "&";
2801 }
2802 } elsif ($chr eq "*") {
3f872cb9
GS
2803 if ($arg->name =~ /^s?refgen$/
2804 and $arg->first->first->name eq "rv2gv")
bd0865ec
GS
2805 {
2806 $real = $arg->first->first; # skip refgen, null
3f872cb9 2807 if ($real->first->name eq "gv") {
bd0865ec
GS
2808 push @reals, $self->deparse($real, 6);
2809 } else {
2810 push @reals, $self->deparse($real->first, 6);
2811 }
2812 } else {
2813 return "&";
2814 }
2815 } elsif (substr($chr, 0, 1) eq "\\") {
2816 $chr = substr($chr, 1);
3f872cb9 2817 if ($arg->name =~ /^s?refgen$/ and
bd0865ec
GS
2818 !null($real = $arg->first) and
2819 ($chr eq "\$" && is_scalar($real->first)
2820 or ($chr eq "\@"
3f872cb9
GS
2821 && $real->first->sibling->name
2822 =~ /^(rv2|pad)av$/)
bd0865ec 2823 or ($chr eq "%"
3f872cb9
GS
2824 && $real->first->sibling->name
2825 =~ /^(rv2|pad)hv$/)
bd0865ec 2826 #or ($chr eq "&" # This doesn't work
3f872cb9 2827 # && $real->first->name eq "rv2cv")
bd0865ec 2828 or ($chr eq "*"
3f872cb9 2829 && $real->first->name eq "rv2gv")))
bd0865ec
GS
2830 {
2831 push @reals, $self->deparse($real, 6);
2832 } else {
2833 return "&";
2834 }
2835 }
2836 }
9d2c6865 2837 }
bd0865ec
GS
2838 return "&" if $proto and !$doneok; # too few args and no `;'
2839 return "&" if @args; # too many args
2840 return ("", join ", ", @reals);
2841}
2842
2843sub pp_entersub {
2844 my $self = shift;
2845 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2846 return $self->method($op, $cx) unless null $op->first->sibling;
2847 my $prefix = "";
2848 my $amper = "";
2849 my($kid, @exprs);
9d2c6865
SM
2850 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
2851 $prefix = "do ";
2852 } elsif ($op->private & OPpENTERSUB_AMPER) {
2853 $amper = "&";
2854 }
2855 $kid = $op->first;
2856 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip ex-list, pushmark
2857 for (; not null $kid->sibling; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
2858 push @exprs, $kid;
2859 }
bd0865ec
GS
2860 my $simple = 0;
2861 my $proto = undef;
9d2c6865
SM
2862 if (is_scope($kid)) {
2863 $amper = "&";
2864 $kid = "{" . $self->deparse($kid, 0) . "}";
3f872cb9 2865 } elsif ($kid->first->name eq "gv") {
6f611a1a 2866 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($kid->first);
9d2c6865
SM
2867 if (class($gv->CV) ne "SPECIAL") {
2868 $proto = $gv->CV->PV if $gv->CV->FLAGS & SVf_POK;
2869 }
bd0865ec 2870 $simple = 1; # only calls of named functions can be prototyped
9d2c6865
SM
2871 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 24);
2872 } elsif (is_scalar $kid->first) {
2873 $amper = "&";
2874 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 24);
2875 } else {
2876 $prefix = "";
3ed82cfc
GS
2877 my $arrow = is_subscriptable($kid->first) ? "" : "->";
2878 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 24) . $arrow;
9d2c6865 2879 }
0ca62a8e
RH
2880
2881 # Doesn't matter how many prototypes there are, if
2882 # they haven't happened yet!
2883 my $declared = exists $self->{'subs_declared'}{$kid};
e99ebc55
RH
2884 if (!$declared && defined($proto)) {
2885 # Avoid "too early to check prototype" warning
2886 ($amper, $proto) = ('&');
2887 }
0ca62a8e 2888
bd0865ec 2889 my $args;
0ca62a8e 2890 if ($declared and defined $proto and not $amper) {
bd0865ec
GS
2891 ($amper, $args) = $self->check_proto($proto, @exprs);
2892 if ($amper eq "&") {
9d2c6865
SM
2893 $args = join(", ", map($self->deparse($_, 6), @exprs));
2894 }
2895 } else {
2896 $args = join(", ", map($self->deparse($_, 6), @exprs));
6e90668e 2897 }
9d2c6865
SM
2898 if ($prefix or $amper) {
2899 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
2900 return $prefix . $amper . $kid . "(" . $args . ")";
2901 } else {
2902 return $prefix . $amper. $kid;
2903 }
6e90668e 2904 } else {
34a48b4b
RH
2905 # glob() invocations can be translated into calls of
2906 # CORE::GLOBAL::glob with an second parameter, a number.
2907 # Reverse this.
2908 if ($kid eq "CORE::GLOBAL::glob") {
2909 $kid = "glob";
2910 $args =~ s/\s*,[^,]+$//;
2911 }
2912
2913 # It's a syntax error to call CORE::GLOBAL::foo without a prefix,
2914 # so it must have been translated from a keyword call. Translate
2915 # it back.
2916 $kid =~ s/^CORE::GLOBAL:://;
2917
0ca62a8e
RH
2918 if (!$declared) {
2919 return "$kid(" . $args . ")";
2920 } elsif (defined $proto and $proto eq "") {
9d2c6865 2921 return $kid;
ce4e655d 2922 } elsif (defined $proto and $proto eq "\$" and is_scalar($exprs[0])) {
9d2c6865 2923 return $self->maybe_parens_func($kid, $args, $cx, 16);
6f611a1a 2924 } elsif (defined($proto) && $proto or $simple) {
9d2c6865
SM
2925 return $self->maybe_parens_func($kid, $args, $cx, 5);
2926 } else {
2927 return "$kid(" . $args . ")";
2928 }
6e90668e
SM
2929 }
2930}
2931
2932sub pp_enterwrite { unop(@_, "write") }
2933
2934# escape things that cause interpolation in double quotes,
2935# but not character escapes
2936sub uninterp {
2937 my($str) = @_;
3f766ba3 2938 $str =~ s/(^|\G|[^\\])((?:\\\\)*)([\$\@]|\\[uUlLQE])/$1$2\\$3/g;
9d2c6865
SM
2939 return $str;
2940}
2941
4682a7ac 2942# the same, but treat $|, $), $( and $ at the end of the string differently
9d2c6865
SM
2943sub re_uninterp {
2944 my($str) = @_;
cdf8218f
RH
2945
2946 use re "eval";
2947 # Matches any string which is balanced with respect to {braces}
2948 my $bal = qr(
2949 (?:
2950 [^\\{}]
2951 | \\\\
2952 | \\[{}]
2953 | \{(??{$bal})\}
2954 )*
2955 )x;
2956
2957 $str =~ s/
2958 ( ^|\G # $1
2959 | [^\\]
2960 )
2961
2962 ( # $2
2963 (?:\\\\)*
2964 )
2965
2966 ( # $3
2967 (\(\?\??\{$bal\}\)) # $4
2968 | [\$\@]
2969 (?!\||\)|\(|$)
2970 | \\[uUlLQE]
2971 )
2972
2973 /length($4) ? "$1$2$4" : "$1$2\\$3"/xeg;
2974
6e90668e
SM
2975 return $str;
2976}
2977
a9760014
RH
2978sub re_uninterp_extended {
2979 my ($str) = @_;
2980 $str =~ s/^([^#]*)/re_uninterp($1)/emg;
2981 return $str;
2982}
2983
6e90668e 2984# character escapes, but not delimiters that might need to be escaped
746698c5 2985sub escape_str { # ASCII, UTF8
6e90668e 2986 my($str) = @_;
746698c5 2987 $str =~ s/(.)/ord($1)>255 ? sprintf("\\x{%x}", ord($1)) : $1/eg;
6e90668e
SM
2988 $str =~ s/\a/\\a/g;
2989# $str =~ s/\cH/\\b/g; # \b means someting different in a regex
2990 $str =~ s/\t/\\t/g;
2991 $str =~ s/\n/\\n/g;
2992 $str =~ s/\e/\\e/g;
2993 $str =~ s/\f/\\f/g;
2994 $str =~ s/\r/\\r/g;
2995 $str =~ s/([\cA-\cZ])/'\\c' . chr(ord('@') + ord($1))/ge;
2996 $str =~ s/([\0\033-\037\177-\377])/'\\' . sprintf("%03o", ord($1))/ge;
2997 return $str;
2998}
2999
a9760014
RH
3000sub escape_extended_re {
3001 my($str) = @_;
3002 $str =~ s/(.)/ord($1)>255 ? sprintf("\\x{%x}", ord($1)) : $1/eg;
3003 $str =~ s/([\0\033-\037\177-\377])/'\\' . sprintf("%03o", ord($1))/ge;
3004 $str =~ s/\n/\n\f/g;
3005 return $str;
3006}
3007
9d2c6865
SM
3008# Don't do this for regexen
3009sub unback {
3010 my($str) = @_;
3011 $str =~ s/\\/\\\\/g;
3012 return $str;
3013}
3014
08c6f5ec
RH
3015# Remove backslashes which precede literal control characters,
3016# to avoid creating ambiguity when we escape the latter.
3017sub re_unback {
3018 my($str) = @_;
3019
3020 # the insane complexity here is due to the behaviour of "\c\"
3021 $str =~ s/(^|[^\\]|\\c\\)(?<!\\c)\\(\\\\)*(?=[\0-\031\177-\377])/$1$2/g;
3022 return $str;
3023}
3024
6e90668e
SM
3025sub balanced_delim {
3026 my($str) = @_;
3027 my @str = split //, $str;
3028 my($ar, $open, $close, $fail, $c, $cnt);
3029 for $ar (['[',']'], ['(',')'], ['<','>'], ['{','}']) {
3030 ($open, $close) = @$ar;
3031 $fail = 0; $cnt = 0;
3032 for $c (@str) {
3033 if ($c eq $open) {
3034 $cnt++;
3035 } elsif ($c eq $close) {
3036 $cnt--;
3037 if ($cnt < 0) {
bd0865ec 3038 # qq()() isn't ")("
6e90668e
SM
3039 $fail = 1;
3040 last;
3041 }
3042 }
3043 }
3044 $fail = 1 if $cnt != 0;
3045 return ($open, "$open$str$close") if not $fail;
3046 }
3047 return ("", $str);
3048}
3049
3050sub single_delim {
3051 my($q, $default, $str) = @_;
90be192f 3052 return "$default$str$default" if $default and index($str, $default) == -1;
6e90668e
SM
3053 my($succeed, $delim);
3054 ($succeed, $str) = balanced_delim($str);
3055 return "$q$str" if $succeed;
3056 for $delim ('/', '"', '#') {
3057 return "$q$delim" . $str . $delim if index($str, $delim) == -1;
3058 }
90be192f
SM
3059 if ($default) {
3060 $str =~ s/$default/\\$default/g;
3061 return "$default$str$default";
3062 } else {
3063 $str =~ s[/][\\/]g;
3064 return "$q/$str/";
3065 }
6e90668e
SM
3066}
3067
6e90668e
SM
3068sub const {
3069 my $sv = shift;
3070 if (class($sv) eq "SPECIAL") {
bd0865ec 3071 return ('undef', '1', '0')[$$sv-1]; # sv_undef, sv_yes, sv_no
7a9b44b9
RH
3072 } elsif (class($sv) eq "NULL") {
3073 return 'undef';
6e90668e 3074 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_IOK) {
d9963e60 3075 return $sv->int_value;
6e90668e 3076 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_NOK) {
fecea806
RH
3077 # try the default stringification
3078 my $r = "".$sv->NV;
3079 if ($r =~ /e/) {
3080 # If it's in scientific notation, we might have lost information
3081 return sprintf("%.20e", $sv->NV);
3082 }
3083 return $r;
7a9b44b9 3084 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_ROK && $sv->can("RV")) {
6e90668e 3085 return "\\(" . const($sv->RV) . ")"; # constant folded
34768ba5 3086 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_POK) {
6e90668e 3087 my $str = $sv->PV;
bd0865ec 3088 if ($str =~ /[^ -~]/) { # ASCII for non-printing
9d2c6865 3089 return single_delim("qq", '"', uninterp escape_str unback $str);
6e90668e 3090 } else {
bd0865ec 3091 return single_delim("q", "'", unback $str);
6e90668e 3092 }
34768ba5
RH
3093 } else {
3094 return "undef";
a798dbf2
MB
3095 }
3096}
3097
18228111
GS
3098sub const_sv {
3099 my $self = shift;
3100 my $op = shift;
3101 my $sv = $op->sv;
3102 # the constant could be in the pad (under useithreads)
3103 $sv = $self->padval($op->targ) unless $$sv;
3104 return $sv;
3105}
3106
6e90668e
SM
3107sub pp_const {
3108 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 3109 my($op, $cx) = @_;
7e40138b
RH
3110 if ($op->private & OPpCONST_ARYBASE) {
3111 return '$[';
3112 }
4c1f658f 3113# if ($op->private & OPpCONST_BARE) { # trouble with `=>' autoquoting
18228111 3114# return $self->const_sv($op)->PV;
6e90668e 3115# }
18228111 3116 my $sv = $self->const_sv($op);
d5ae42cc
JM
3117# return const($sv);
3118 my $c = const $sv;
76ef7183 3119 return $c =~ /^-\d/ ? $self->maybe_parens($c, $cx, 21) : $c;
6e90668e
SM
3120}
3121
3122sub dq {
3123 my $self = shift;
3124 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
3125 my $type = $op->name;
3126 if ($type eq "const") {
f3402b25
RH
3127 return '$[' if $op->private & OPpCONST_ARYBASE;
3128 return uninterp(escape_str(unback($self->const_sv($op)->as_string)));
3f872cb9 3129 } elsif ($type eq "concat") {
8fed1104
RH
3130 my $first = $self->dq($op->first);
3131 my $last = $self->dq($op->last);
44c6d2a1
RH
3132
3133 # Disambiguate "${foo}bar", "${foo}{bar}", "${foo}[1]"
3134 ($last =~ /^[A-Z\\\^\[\]_?]/ &&
3135 $first =~ s/([\$@])\^$/${1}{^}/) # "${^}W" etc
3136 || ($last =~ /^[{\[\w_]/ &&
3137 $first =~ s/([\$@])([A-Za-z_]\w*)$/${1}{$2}/);
3138
8fed1104 3139 return $first . $last;
3f872cb9 3140 } elsif ($type eq "uc") {
6e90668e 3141 return '\U' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3142 } elsif ($type eq "lc") {
6e90668e 3143 return '\L' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3144 } elsif ($type eq "ucfirst") {
6e90668e 3145 return '\u' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 3146 } elsif ($type eq "lcfirst") {
6e90668e 3147 return '\l' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 3148 } elsif ($type eq "quotemeta") {
6e90668e 3149 return '\Q' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3150 } elsif ($type eq "join") {
9d2c6865 3151 return $self->deparse($op->last, 26); # was join($", @ary)
a798dbf2 3152 } else {
9d2c6865 3153 return $self->deparse($op, 26);
6e90668e
SM
3154 }
3155}
3156
3157sub pp_backtick {
3158 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 3159 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
3160 # skip pushmark
3161 return single_delim("qx", '`', $self->dq($op->first->sibling));
3162}
3163
3164sub dquote {
3165 my $self = shift;
6f611a1a 3166 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3ed82cfc
GS
3167 my $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip ex-stringify, pushmark
3168 return $self->deparse($kid, $cx) if $self->{'unquote'};
3169 $self->maybe_targmy($kid, $cx,
3170 sub {single_delim("qq", '"', $self->dq($_[1]))});
6e90668e
SM
3171}
3172
bd0865ec 3173# OP_STRINGIFY is a listop, but it only ever has one arg
3ed82cfc 3174sub pp_stringify { maybe_targmy(@_, \&dquote) }
6e90668e
SM
3175
3176# tr/// and s/// (and tr[][], tr[]//, tr###, etc)
3177# note that tr(from)/to/ is OK, but not tr/from/(to)
3178sub double_delim {
3179 my($from, $to) = @_;
3180 my($succeed, $delim);
3181 if ($from !~ m[/] and $to !~ m[/]) {
3182 return "/$from/$to/";
3183 } elsif (($succeed, $from) = balanced_delim($from) and $succeed) {
3184 if (($succeed, $to) = balanced_delim($to) and $succeed) {
3185 return "$from$to";
3186 } else {
3187 for $delim ('/', '"', '#') { # note no `'' -- s''' is special
3188 return "$from$delim$to$delim" if index($to, $delim) == -1;
3189 }
3190 $to =~ s[/][\\/]g;
3191 return "$from/$to/";
3192 }
3193 } else {
3194 for $delim ('/', '"', '#') { # note no '
3195 return "$delim$from$delim$to$delim"
3196 if index($to . $from, $delim) == -1;
3197 }
3198 $from =~ s[/][\\/]g;
3199 $to =~ s[/][\\/]g;
3200 return "/$from/$to/";
3201 }
3202}
3203
2a9e2f8a 3204# Only used by tr///, so backslashes hyphens
6e90668e
SM
3205sub pchr { # ASCII
3206 my($n) = @_;
3207 if ($n == ord '\\') {
3208 return '\\\\';
2a9e2f8a
RH
3209 } elsif ($n == ord "-") {
3210 return "\\-";
6e90668e
SM
3211 } elsif ($n >= ord(' ') and $n <= ord('~')) {
3212 return chr($n);
3213 } elsif ($n == ord "\a") {
3214 return '\\a';
3215 } elsif ($n == ord "\b") {
3216 return '\\b';
3217 } elsif ($n == ord "\t") {
3218 return '\\t';
3219 } elsif ($n == ord "\n") {
3220 return '\\n';
3221 } elsif ($n == ord "\e") {
3222 return '\\e';
3223 } elsif ($n == ord "\f") {
3224 return '\\f';
3225 } elsif ($n == ord "\r") {
3226 return '\\r';
3227 } elsif ($n >= ord("\cA") and $n <= ord("\cZ")) {
3228 return '\\c' . chr(ord("@") + $n);
3229 } else {
3230# return '\x' . sprintf("%02x", $n);
3231 return '\\' . sprintf("%03o", $n);
3232 }
3233}
3234
3235sub collapse {
3236 my(@chars) = @_;
23db111c 3237 my($str, $c, $tr) = ("");
6e90668e
SM
3238 for ($c = 0; $c < @chars; $c++) {
3239 $tr = $chars[$c];
3240 $str .= pchr($tr);
3241 if ($c <= $#chars - 2 and $chars[$c + 1] == $tr + 1 and
3242 $chars[$c + 2] == $tr + 2)
3243 {
f4a44678
SM
3244 for (; $c <= $#chars-1 and $chars[$c + 1] == $chars[$c] + 1; $c++)
3245 {}
6e90668e
SM
3246 $str .= "-";
3247 $str .= pchr($chars[$c]);
3248 }
3249 }
3250 return $str;
3251}
3252
f4a44678
SM
3253sub tr_decode_byte {
3254 my($table, $flags) = @_;
2a9e2f8a 3255 my(@table) = unpack("s*", $table);
bec89253 3256 splice @table, 0x100, 1; # Number of subsequent elements
6e90668e
SM
3257 my($c, $tr, @from, @to, @delfrom, $delhyphen);
3258 if ($table[ord "-"] != -1 and
3259 $table[ord("-") - 1] == -1 || $table[ord("-") + 1] == -1)
3260 {
3261 $tr = $table[ord "-"];
3262 $table[ord "-"] = -1;
3263 if ($tr >= 0) {
3264 @from = ord("-");
3265 @to = $tr;
3266 } else { # -2 ==> delete
3267 $delhyphen = 1;
3268 }
3269 }
2a9e2f8a 3270 for ($c = 0; $c < @table; $c++) {
6e90668e
SM
3271 $tr = $table[$c];
3272 if ($tr >= 0) {
3273 push @from, $c; push @to, $tr;
3274 } elsif ($tr == -2) {
3275 push @delfrom, $c;
3276 }
3277 }
6e90668e 3278 @from = (@from, @delfrom);
f4a44678 3279 if ($flags & OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT) {
6e90668e
SM
3280 my @newfrom = ();
3281 my %from;
3282 @from{@from} = (1) x @from;
3283 for ($c = 0; $c < 256; $c++) {
3284 push @newfrom, $c unless $from{$c};
3285 }
3286 @from = @newfrom;
3287 }
56d8b52c 3288 unless ($flags & OPpTRANS_DELETE || !@to) {
6e90668e
SM
3289 pop @to while $#to and $to[$#to] == $to[$#to -1];
3290 }
6e90668e
SM
3291 my($from, $to);
3292 $from = collapse(@from);
3293 $to = collapse(@to);
3294 $from .= "-" if $delhyphen;
f4a44678
SM
3295 return ($from, $to);
3296}
3297
3298sub tr_chr {
3299 my $x = shift;
3300 if ($x == ord "-") {
3301 return "\\-";
2a9e2f8a
RH
3302 } elsif ($x == ord "\\") {
3303 return "\\\\";
f4a44678
SM
3304 } else {
3305 return chr $x;
3306 }
3307}
3308
3309# XXX This doesn't yet handle all cases correctly either
3310
3311sub tr_decode_utf8 {
3312 my($swash_hv, $flags) = @_;
3313 my %swash = $swash_hv->ARRAY;
3314 my $final = undef;
3315 $final = $swash{'FINAL'}->IV if exists $swash{'FINAL'};
3316 my $none = $swash{"NONE"}->IV;
3317 my $extra = $none + 1;
3318 my(@from, @delfrom, @to);
3319 my $line;
3320 foreach $line (split /\n/, $swash{'LIST'}->PV) {
3321 my($min, $max, $result) = split(/\t/, $line);
3322 $min = hex $min;
3323 if (length $max) {
3324 $max = hex $max;
3325 } else {
3326 $max = $min;
3327 }
3328 $result = hex $result;
3329 if ($result == $extra) {
3330 push @delfrom, [$min, $max];
3331 } else {
3332 push @from, [$min, $max];
3333 push @to, [$result, $result + $max - $min];
3334 }
3335 }
3336 for my $i (0 .. $#from) {
3337 if ($from[$i][0] == ord '-') {
3338 unshift @from, splice(@from, $i, 1);
3339 unshift @to, splice(@to, $i, 1);
3340 last;
3341 } elsif ($from[$i][1] == ord '-') {
3342 $from[$i][1]--;
3343 $to[$i][1]--;
3344 unshift @from, ord '-';
3345 unshift @to, ord '-';
3346 last;
3347 }
3348 }
3349 for my $i (0 .. $#delfrom) {
3350 if ($delfrom[$i][0] == ord '-') {
3351 push @delfrom, splice(@delfrom, $i, 1);
3352 last;
3353 } elsif ($delfrom[$i][1] == ord '-') {
3354 $delfrom[$i][1]--;
3355 push @delfrom, ord '-';
3356 last;
3357 }
3358 }
3359 if (defined $final and $to[$#to][1] != $final) {
3360 push @to, [$final, $final];
3361 }
3362 push @from, @delfrom;
3363 if ($flags & OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT) {
3364 my @newfrom;
3365 my $next = 0;
3366 for my $i (0 .. $#from) {
3367 push @newfrom, [$next, $from[$i][0] - 1];
3368 $next = $from[$i][1] + 1;
3369 }
3370 @from = ();
3371 for my $range (@newfrom) {
3372 if ($range->[0] <= $range->[1]) {
3373 push @from, $range;
3374 }
3375 }
3376 }
3377 my($from, $to, $diff);
3378 for my $chunk (@from) {
3379 $diff = $chunk->[1] - $chunk->[0];
3380 if ($diff > 1) {
3381 $from .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . "-" . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
3382 } elsif ($diff == 1) {
3383 $from .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
3384 } else {
3385 $from .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]);
3386 }
3387 }
3388 for my $chunk (@to) {
3389 $diff = $chunk->[1] - $chunk->[0];
3390 if ($diff > 1) {
3391 $to .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . "-" . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
3392 } elsif ($diff == 1) {
3393 $to .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
3394 } else {
3395 $to .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]);
3396 }
3397 }
3398 #$final = sprintf("%04x", $final) if defined $final;
3399 #$none = sprintf("%04x", $none) if defined $none;
3400 #$extra = sprintf("%04x", $extra) if defined $extra;
3401 #print STDERR "final: $final\n none: $none\nextra: $extra\n";
3402 #print STDERR $swash{'LIST'}->PV;
3403 return (escape_str($from), escape_str($to));
3404}
3405
3406sub pp_trans {
3407 my $self = shift;
3408 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3409 my($from, $to);
3410 if (class($op) eq "PVOP") {
3411 ($from, $to) = tr_decode_byte($op->pv, $op->private);
3412 } else { # class($op) eq "SVOP"
3413 ($from, $to) = tr_decode_utf8($op->sv->RV, $op->private);
3414 }
3415 my $flags = "";
3416 $flags .= "c" if $op->private & OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT;
3417 $flags .= "d" if $op->private & OPpTRANS_DELETE;
3418 $to = "" if $from eq $to and $flags eq "";
3419 $flags .= "s" if $op->private & OPpTRANS_SQUASH;
6e90668e
SM
3420 return "tr" . double_delim($from, $to) . $flags;
3421}
3422
3423# Like dq(), but different
3424sub re_dq {
3425 my $self = shift;
a9760014
RH
3426 my ($op, $extended) = @_;
3427
3f872cb9
GS
3428 my $type = $op->name;
3429 if ($type eq "const") {
f3402b25 3430 return '$[' if $op->private & OPpCONST_ARYBASE;
a9760014
RH
3431 my $unbacked = re_unback($self->const_sv($op)->as_string);
3432 return re_uninterp_extended(escape_extended_re($unbacked))
3433 if $extended;
3434 return re_uninterp(escape_str($unbacked));
3f872cb9 3435 } elsif ($type eq "concat") {
a9760014
RH
3436 my $first = $self->re_dq($op->first, $extended);
3437 my $last = $self->re_dq($op->last, $extended);
a0e66df8 3438 # Disambiguate "${foo}bar", "${foo}{bar}", "${foo}[1]"
f3402b25
RH
3439 if ($last =~ /^[A-Z\\\^\[\]_?]/) {
3440 $first =~ s/([\$@])\^$/${1}{^}/;
3441 }
3442 elsif ($last =~ /^[{\[\w]/) {
3443 $first =~ s/([\$@])([A-Za-z_]\w*)$/${1}{$2}/;
a0e66df8
RH
3444 }
3445 return $first . $last;
3f872cb9 3446 } elsif ($type eq "uc") {
a9760014 3447 return '\U' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling, $extended) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3448 } elsif ($type eq "lc") {
a9760014 3449 return '\L' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling, $extended) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3450 } elsif ($type eq "ucfirst") {
a9760014 3451 return '\u' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling, $extended);
3f872cb9 3452 } elsif ($type eq "lcfirst") {
a9760014 3453 return '\l' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling, $extended);
3f872cb9 3454 } elsif ($type eq "quotemeta") {
a9760014 3455 return '\Q' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling, $extended) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3456 } elsif ($type eq "join") {
9d2c6865 3457 return $self->deparse($op->last, 26); # was join($", @ary)
6e90668e 3458 } else {
9d2c6865 3459 return $self->deparse($op, 26);
6e90668e
SM
3460 }
3461}
3462
a9760014
RH
3463sub pure_string {
3464 my ($self, $op) = @_;
3465 my $type = $op->name;
3466
3467 if ($type eq 'const') {
3468 return 1;
3469 }
3470 elsif ($type =~ /^[ul]c(first)?$/ || $type eq 'quotemeta') {
3471 return $self->pure_string($op->first->sibling);
3472 }
3473 elsif ($type eq 'join') {
3474 my $join_op = $op->first->sibling; # Skip pushmark
3475 return 0 unless $join_op->name eq 'null' && $join_op->targ eq OP_RV2SV;
3476
3477 my $gvop = $join_op->first;
3478 return 0 unless $gvop->name eq 'gvsv';
3479 return 0 unless '"' eq $self->gv_name($self->gv_or_padgv($gvop));
3480
3481 return 0 unless ${$join_op->sibling} eq ${$op->last};
3482 return 0 unless $op->last->name =~ /^(rv2|pad)av$/;
3483 }
3484 elsif ($type eq 'concat') {
3485 return $self->pure_string($op->first)
3486 && $self->pure_string($op->last);
3487 }
3488 elsif (is_scalar($op) || $type =~ /^[ah]elem(fast)?$/) {
3489 return 1;
3490 }
3491 else {
3492 return 0;
3493 }
3494
3495 return 1;
3496}
3497
3498sub regcomp {
6e90668e 3499 my $self = shift;
a9760014 3500 my($op, $cx, $extended) = @_;
6e90668e 3501 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9
GS
3502 $kid = $kid->first if $kid->name eq "regcmaybe";
3503 $kid = $kid->first if $kid->name eq "regcreset";
a9760014
RH
3504 return ($self->re_dq($kid, $extended), 1) if $self->pure_string($kid);
3505 return ($self->deparse($kid, $cx), 0);
3506}
3507
3508sub pp_regcomp {
3509 my ($self, $op, $cx) = @_;
3510 return (($self->regcomp($op, $cx, 0))[0]);
6e90668e
SM
3511}
3512
6e90668e
SM
3513# osmic acid -- see osmium tetroxide
3514
3515my %matchwords;
3516map($matchwords{join "", sort split //, $_} = $_, 'cig', 'cog', 'cos', 'cogs',
3517 'cox', 'go', 'is', 'ism', 'iso', 'mig', 'mix', 'osmic', 'ox', 'sic',
3518 'sig', 'six', 'smog', 'so', 'soc', 'sog', 'xi');
3519
90be192f 3520sub matchop {
6e90668e 3521 my $self = shift;
90be192f 3522 my($op, $cx, $name, $delim) = @_;
6e90668e 3523 my $kid = $op->first;
9d2c6865 3524 my ($binop, $var, $re) = ("", "", "");
6e90668e 3525 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
3526 $binop = 1;
3527 $var = $self->deparse($kid, 20);
6e90668e
SM
3528 $kid = $kid->sibling;
3529 }
a9760014
RH
3530 my $quote = 1;
3531 my $extended = ($op->pmflags & PMf_EXTENDED);
6e90668e 3532 if (null $kid) {
a9760014
RH
3533 my $unbacked = re_unback($op->precomp);
3534 if ($extended) {
3535 $re = re_uninterp_extended(escape_extended_re($unbacked));
3536 } else {
3537 $re = re_uninterp(escape_str(re_unback($op->precomp)));
3538 }
3539 } elsif ($kid->name ne 'regcomp') {
3540 Carp::cluck("found ".$kid->name." where regcomp expected");
6e90668e 3541 } else {
a9760014 3542 ($re, $quote) = $self->regcomp($kid, 1, $extended);
6e90668e
SM
3543 }
3544 my $flags = "";
3545 $flags .= "c" if $op->pmflags & PMf_CONTINUE;
3546 $flags .= "g" if $op->pmflags & PMf_GLOBAL;
3547 $flags .= "i" if $op->pmflags & PMf_FOLD;
3548 $flags .= "m" if $op->pmflags & PMf_MULTILINE;
3549 $flags .= "o" if $op->pmflags & PMf_KEEP;
3550 $flags .= "s" if $op->pmflags & PMf_SINGLELINE;
3551 $flags .= "x" if $op->pmflags & PMf_EXTENDED;
3552 $flags = $matchwords{$flags} if $matchwords{$flags};
3553 if ($op->pmflags & PMf_ONCE) { # only one kind of delimiter works here
3554 $re =~ s/\?/\\?/g;
9d2c6865 3555 $re = "?$re?";
a9760014 3556 } elsif ($quote) {
90be192f 3557 $re = single_delim($name, $delim, $re);
9d2c6865 3558 }
a9760014 3559 $re = $re . $flags if $quote;
9d2c6865
SM
3560 if ($binop) {
3561 return $self->maybe_parens("$var =~ $re", $cx, 20);
3562 } else {
3563 return $re;
6e90668e 3564 }
6e90668e
SM
3565}
3566
90be192f
SM
3567sub pp_match { matchop(@_, "m", "/") }
3568sub pp_pushre { matchop(@_, "m", "/") }
3569sub pp_qr { matchop(@_, "qr", "") }
6e90668e
SM
3570
3571sub pp_split {
3572 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 3573 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
3574 my($kid, @exprs, $ary, $expr);
3575 $kid = $op->first;
3576 if ($ {$kid->pmreplroot}) {
ce4e655d 3577 $ary = $self->stash_variable('@', $self->gv_name($kid->pmreplroot));
6e90668e
SM
3578 }
3579 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 3580 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e 3581 }
fcd95d64
DD
3582
3583 # handle special case of split(), and split(" ") that compiles to /\s+/
3584 $kid = $op->first;
3585 if ($kid->flags & OPf_SPECIAL
3586 && $exprs[0] eq '/\\s+/'
3587 && $kid->pmflags & PMf_SKIPWHITE ) {
3588 $exprs[0] = '" "';
3589 }
3590
6e90668e
SM
3591 $expr = "split(" . join(", ", @exprs) . ")";
3592 if ($ary) {
9d2c6865 3593 return $self->maybe_parens("$ary = $expr", $cx, 7);
6e90668e
SM
3594 } else {
3595 return $expr;
3596 }
3597}
3598
3599# oxime -- any of various compounds obtained chiefly by the action of
3600# hydroxylamine on aldehydes and ketones and characterized by the
3601# bivalent grouping C=NOH [Webster's Tenth]
3602
3603my %substwords;
3604map($substwords{join "", sort split //, $_} = $_, 'ego', 'egoism', 'em',
3605 'es', 'ex', 'exes', 'gee', 'go', 'goes', 'ie', 'ism', 'iso', 'me',
3606 'meese', 'meso', 'mig', 'mix', 'os', 'ox', 'oxime', 'see', 'seem',
3607 'seg', 'sex', 'sig', 'six', 'smog', 'sog', 'some', 'xi');
3608
3609sub pp_subst {
3610 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 3611 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 3612 my $kid = $op->first;
9d2c6865 3613 my($binop, $var, $re, $repl) = ("", "", "", "");
6e90668e 3614 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
3615 $binop = 1;
3616 $var = $self->deparse($kid, 20);
6e90668e
SM
3617 $kid = $kid->sibling;
3618 }
3619 my $flags = "";
3620 if (null($op->pmreplroot)) {
3621 $repl = $self->dq($kid);
3622 $kid = $kid->sibling;
3623 } else {
3624 $repl = $op->pmreplroot->first; # skip substcont
3f872cb9 3625 while ($repl->name eq "entereval") {
6e90668e
SM
3626 $repl = $repl->first;
3627 $flags .= "e";
3628 }
bd0865ec
GS
3629 if ($op->pmflags & PMf_EVAL) {
3630 $repl = $self->deparse($repl, 0);
3631 } else {
3632 $repl = $self->dq($repl);
3633 }
6e90668e
SM
3634 }
3635 if (null $kid) {
08c6f5ec 3636 $re = re_uninterp(escape_str(re_unback($op->precomp)));
6e90668e 3637 } else {
9d2c6865 3638 $re = $self->deparse($kid, 1);
a798dbf2 3639 }