This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
Be more careful about non-existent files.
[perl5.git] / lib / File / Copy.pm
CommitLineData
f716a1dd 1# File/Copy.pm. Written in 1994 by Aaron Sherman <ajs@ajs.com>. This
2# source code has been placed in the public domain by the author.
3# Please be kind and preserve the documentation.
4#
71be2cbc 5# Additions copyright 1996 by Charles Bailey. Permission is granted
6# to distribute the revised code under the same terms as Perl itself.
f716a1dd 7
8package File::Copy;
9
b395063c 10use 5.6.0;
71be2cbc 11use strict;
b395063c 12use warnings;
f716a1dd 13use Carp;
6c254d95 14use File::Spec;
96a91e01 15use Config;
17f410f9
GS
16our(@ISA, @EXPORT, @EXPORT_OK, $VERSION, $Too_Big, $Syscopy_is_copy);
17sub copy;
18sub syscopy;
19sub cp;
20sub mv;
71be2cbc 21
22# Note that this module implements only *part* of the API defined by
23# the File/Copy.pm module of the File-Tools-2.0 package. However, that
24# package has not yet been updated to work with Perl 5.004, and so it
25# would be a Bad Thing for the CPAN module to grab it and replace this
26# module. Therefore, we set this module's version higher than 2.0.
6c254d95 27$VERSION = '2.04';
f716a1dd 28
71be2cbc 29require Exporter;
30@ISA = qw(Exporter);
31@EXPORT = qw(copy move);
32@EXPORT_OK = qw(cp mv);
f716a1dd 33
441496b2 34$Too_Big = 1024 * 1024 * 2;
f716a1dd 35
6c254d95 36sub _catname {
71be2cbc 37 my($from, $to) = @_;
38 if (not defined &basename) {
39 require File::Basename;
40 import File::Basename 'basename';
41 }
6c254d95
CN
42
43 if ($^O eq 'MacOS') {
44 # a partial dir name that's valid only in the cwd (e.g. 'tmp')
45 $to = ':' . $to if $to !~ /:/;
46 }
47
48 return File::Spec->catfile($to, basename($from));
f716a1dd 49}
50
51sub copy {
71be2cbc 52 croak("Usage: copy(FROM, TO [, BUFFERSIZE]) ")
f716a1dd 53 unless(@_ == 2 || @_ == 3);
54
55 my $from = shift;
56 my $to = shift;
71be2cbc 57
58 my $from_a_handle = (ref($from)
59 ? (ref($from) eq 'GLOB'
d704f39a
MG
60 || UNIVERSAL::isa($from, 'GLOB')
61 || UNIVERSAL::isa($from, 'IO::Handle'))
71be2cbc 62 : (ref(\$from) eq 'GLOB'));
63 my $to_a_handle = (ref($to)
64 ? (ref($to) eq 'GLOB'
d704f39a
MG
65 || UNIVERSAL::isa($to, 'GLOB')
66 || UNIVERSAL::isa($to, 'IO::Handle'))
71be2cbc 67 : (ref(\$to) eq 'GLOB'));
68
96a91e01 69 if ($from eq $to) { # works for references, too
70 croak("'$from' and '$to' are identical (not copied)");
71 }
72
73 if ($Config{d_symlink} && $Config{d_readlink} &&
74 !($^O eq 'Win32' || $^O eq 'os2' || $^O eq 'vms')) {
a93b80c9 75 if ((-e $from && -l $from) || (-e $to && -l $to)) {
96a91e01 76 my @fs = stat($from);
77 my @ts = stat($to);
a93b80c9 78 if (@fs && @ts && $fs[0] == $ts[0] && $fs[1] == $ts[1]) {
96a91e01 79 croak("'$from' and '$to' are identical (not copied)");
80 }
81 }
82 }
83
71be2cbc 84 if (!$from_a_handle && !$to_a_handle && -d $to && ! -d $from) {
85 $to = _catname($from, $to);
86 }
87
1a04d035 88 if (defined &syscopy && !$Syscopy_is_copy
e6434134 89 && !$to_a_handle
1d84e8df
JH
90 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'os2' ) # OS/2 cannot handle handles
91 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'mpeix') # and neither can MPE/iX.
7509b657 92 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'MSWin32')
fa648be5 93 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'MacOS')
2986a63f 94 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'NetWare')
1a04d035 95 )
71be2cbc 96 {
97 return syscopy($from, $to);
98 }
99
100 my $closefrom = 0;
101 my $closeto = 0;
f716a1dd 102 my ($size, $status, $r, $buf);
48a5c399 103 local($\) = '';
f716a1dd 104
23ba2776 105 my $from_h;
71be2cbc 106 if ($from_a_handle) {
23ba2776 107 $from_h = $from;
f716a1dd 108 } else {
fa648be5 109 $from = _protect($from) if $from =~ /^\s/s;
23ba2776
DW
110 $from_h = \do { local *FH };
111 open($from_h, "< $from\0") or goto fail_open1;
112 binmode $from_h or die "($!,$^E)";
f716a1dd 113 $closefrom = 1;
1a04d035
A
114 }
115
23ba2776 116 my $to_h;
71be2cbc 117 if ($to_a_handle) {
23ba2776 118 $to_h = $to;
1a04d035 119 } else {
fa648be5 120 $to = _protect($to) if $to =~ /^\s/s;
23ba2776
DW
121 $to_h = \do { local *FH };
122 open($to_h,"> $to\0") or goto fail_open2;
123 binmode $to_h or die "($!,$^E)";
71be2cbc 124 $closeto = 1;
1a04d035 125 }
f716a1dd 126
127 if (@_) {
128 $size = shift(@_) + 0;
129 croak("Bad buffer size for copy: $size\n") unless ($size > 0);
130 } else {
23ba2776
DW
131 no warnings 'uninitialized';
132 $size = -s $from_h;
f716a1dd 133 $size = 1024 if ($size < 512);
441496b2 134 $size = $Too_Big if ($size > $Too_Big);
f716a1dd 135 }
136
71be2cbc 137 $! = 0;
138 for (;;) {
139 my ($r, $w, $t);
23ba2776 140 defined($r = sysread($from_h, $buf, $size))
71be2cbc 141 or goto fail_inner;
142 last unless $r;
143 for ($w = 0; $w < $r; $w += $t) {
23ba2776 144 $t = syswrite($to_h, $buf, $r - $w, $w)
71be2cbc 145 or goto fail_inner;
f716a1dd 146 }
147 }
71be2cbc 148
23ba2776
DW
149 close($to_h) || goto fail_open2 if $closeto;
150 close($from_h) || goto fail_open1 if $closefrom;
71be2cbc 151
48a5c399 152 # Use this idiom to avoid uninitialized value warning.
f716a1dd 153 return 1;
1a04d035 154
f716a1dd 155 # All of these contortions try to preserve error messages...
156 fail_inner:
157 if ($closeto) {
158 $status = $!;
159 $! = 0;
23ba2776 160 close $to_h;
f716a1dd 161 $! = $status unless $!;
162 }
163 fail_open2:
164 if ($closefrom) {
165 $status = $!;
166 $! = 0;
23ba2776 167 close $from_h;
f716a1dd 168 $! = $status unless $!;
169 }
170 fail_open1:
f716a1dd 171 return 0;
172}
9b957b78 173
441496b2 174sub move {
71be2cbc 175 my($from,$to) = @_;
176 my($copied,$fromsz,$tosz1,$tomt1,$tosz2,$tomt2,$sts,$ossts);
441496b2 177
71be2cbc 178 if (-d $to && ! -d $from) {
179 $to = _catname($from, $to);
180 }
181
182 ($tosz1,$tomt1) = (stat($to))[7,9];
183 $fromsz = -s $from;
e6434134
IZ
184 if ($^O eq 'os2' and defined $tosz1 and defined $fromsz) {
185 # will not rename with overwrite
186 unlink $to;
187 }
71be2cbc 188 return 1 if rename $from, $to;
189
190 ($sts,$ossts) = ($! + 0, $^E + 0);
191 # Did rename return an error even though it succeeded, because $to
192 # is on a remote NFS file system, and NFS lost the server's ack?
193 return 1 if defined($fromsz) && !-e $from && # $from disappeared
194 (($tosz2,$tomt2) = (stat($to))[7,9]) && # $to's there
195 ($tosz1 != $tosz2 or $tomt1 != $tomt2) && # and changed
196 $tosz2 == $fromsz; # it's all there
1a04d035 197
71be2cbc 198 ($tosz1,$tomt1) = (stat($to))[7,9]; # just in case rename did something
199 return 1 if ($copied = copy($from,$to)) && unlink($from);
1a04d035 200
71be2cbc 201 ($tosz2,$tomt2) = ((stat($to))[7,9],0,0) if defined $tomt1;
202 unlink($to) if !defined($tomt1) or $tomt1 != $tomt2 or $tosz1 != $tosz2;
203 ($!,$^E) = ($sts,$ossts);
204 return 0;
441496b2 205}
9b957b78 206
71be2cbc 207*cp = \&copy;
208*mv = \&move;
209
fa648be5
CN
210
211if ($^O eq 'MacOS') {
212 *_protect = sub { MacPerl::MakeFSSpec($_[0]) };
213} else {
214 *_protect = sub { "./$_[0]" };
215}
216
9b957b78 217# &syscopy is an XSUB under OS/2
1d84e8df
JH
218unless (defined &syscopy) {
219 if ($^O eq 'VMS') {
220 *syscopy = \&rmscopy;
221 } elsif ($^O eq 'mpeix') {
222 *syscopy = sub {
3f5ee302 223 return 0 unless @_ == 2;
1d84e8df
JH
224 # Use the MPE cp program in order to
225 # preserve MPE file attributes.
226 return system('/bin/cp', '-f', $_[0], $_[1]) == 0;
227 };
7509b657
GS
228 } elsif ($^O eq 'MSWin32') {
229 *syscopy = sub {
230 return 0 unless @_ == 2;
231 return Win32::CopyFile(@_, 1);
232 };
fa648be5
CN
233 } elsif ($^O eq 'MacOS') {
234 require Mac::MoreFiles;
235 *syscopy = sub {
236 my($from, $to) = @_;
237 my($dir, $toname);
238
239 return 0 unless -e $from;
240
241 if ($to =~ /(.*:)([^:]+):?$/) {
242 ($dir, $toname) = ($1, $2);
243 } else {
244 ($dir, $toname) = (":", $to);
245 }
246
247 unlink($to);
248 Mac::MoreFiles::FSpFileCopy($from, $dir, $toname, 1);
249 };
1d84e8df 250 } else {
1a04d035 251 $Syscopy_is_copy = 1;
1d84e8df
JH
252 *syscopy = \&copy;
253 }
254}
f716a1dd 255
2561;
257
258__END__
a5f75d66 259
f716a1dd 260=head1 NAME
261
262File::Copy - Copy files or filehandles
263
a5f75d66 264=head1 SYNOPSIS
f716a1dd 265
266 use File::Copy;
267
268 copy("file1","file2");
269 copy("Copy.pm",\*STDOUT);'
441496b2 270 move("/dev1/fileA","/dev2/fileB");
f716a1dd 271
272 use POSIX;
273 use File::Copy cp;
274
23f3aea0 275 $n = FileHandle->new("/a/file","r");
f716a1dd 276 cp($n,"x");'
277
278=head1 DESCRIPTION
279
441496b2
CB
280The File::Copy module provides two basic functions, C<copy> and
281C<move>, which are useful for getting the contents of a file from
282one place to another.
283
284=over 4
285
286=item *
287
288The C<copy> function takes two
f716a1dd 289parameters: a file to copy from and a file to copy to. Either
290argument may be a string, a FileHandle reference or a FileHandle
291glob. Obviously, if the first argument is a filehandle of some
292sort, it will be read from, and if it is a file I<name> it will
293be opened for reading. Likewise, the second argument will be
96a91e01 294written to (and created if need be). Trying to copy a file on top
295of itself is a fatal error.
71be2cbc 296
297B<Note that passing in
9b957b78 298files as handles instead of names may lead to loss of information
299on some operating systems; it is recommended that you use file
e6434134 300names whenever possible.> Files are opened in binary mode where
8dcee03e 301applicable. To get a consistent behaviour when copying from a
e6434134 302filehandle to a file, use C<binmode> on the filehandle.
f716a1dd 303
304An optional third parameter can be used to specify the buffer
305size used for copying. This is the number of bytes from the
306first file, that wil be held in memory at any given time, before
307being written to the second file. The default buffer size depends
308upon the file, but will generally be the whole file (up to 2Mb), or
3091k for filehandles that do not reference files (eg. sockets).
310
311You may use the syntax C<use File::Copy "cp"> to get at the
312"cp" alias for this function. The syntax is I<exactly> the same.
313
441496b2
CB
314=item *
315
316The C<move> function also takes two parameters: the current name
71be2cbc 317and the intended name of the file to be moved. If the destination
318already exists and is a directory, and the source is not a
319directory, then the source file will be renamed into the directory
320specified by the destination.
321
322If possible, move() will simply rename the file. Otherwise, it copies
323the file to the new location and deletes the original. If an error occurs
324during this copy-and-delete process, you may be left with a (possibly partial)
441496b2
CB
325copy of the file under the destination name.
326
327You may use the "mv" alias for this function in the same way that
328you may use the "cp" alias for C<copy>.
329
330=back
331
9b957b78 332File::Copy also provides the C<syscopy> routine, which copies the
333file specified in the first parameter to the file specified in the
334second parameter, preserving OS-specific attributes and file
335structure. For Unix systems, this is equivalent to the simple
336C<copy> routine. For VMS systems, this calls the C<rmscopy>
337routine (see below). For OS/2 systems, this calls the C<syscopy>
7509b657 338XSUB directly. For Win32 systems, this calls C<Win32::CopyFile>.
9b957b78 339
7509b657 340=head2 Special behaviour if C<syscopy> is defined (OS/2, VMS and Win32)
9b957b78 341
71be2cbc 342If both arguments to C<copy> are not file handles,
343then C<copy> will perform a "system copy" of
9b957b78 344the input file to a new output file, in order to preserve file
345attributes, indexed file structure, I<etc.> The buffer size
71be2cbc 346parameter is ignored. If either argument to C<copy> is a
347handle to an opened file, then data is copied using Perl
9b957b78 348operators, and no effort is made to preserve file attributes
349or record structure.
350
55497cff 351The system copy routine may also be called directly under VMS and OS/2
352as C<File::Copy::syscopy> (or under VMS as C<File::Copy::rmscopy>, which
71be2cbc 353is the routine that does the actual work for syscopy).
9b957b78 354
441496b2 355=over 4
55497cff 356
9b957b78 357=item rmscopy($from,$to[,$date_flag])
358
71be2cbc 359The first and second arguments may be strings, typeglobs, typeglob
360references, or objects inheriting from IO::Handle;
361they are used in all cases to obtain the
9b957b78 362I<filespec> of the input and output files, respectively. The
363name and type of the input file are used as defaults for the
364output file, if necessary.
365
366A new version of the output file is always created, which
367inherits the structure and RMS attributes of the input file,
368except for owner and protections (and possibly timestamps;
369see below). All data from the input file is copied to the
370output file; if either of the first two parameters to C<rmscopy>
371is a file handle, its position is unchanged. (Note that this
372means a file handle pointing to the output file will be
373associated with an old version of that file after C<rmscopy>
374returns, not the newly created version.)
375
376The third parameter is an integer flag, which tells C<rmscopy>
1fef88e7
JM
377how to handle timestamps. If it is E<lt> 0, none of the input file's
378timestamps are propagated to the output file. If it is E<gt> 0, then
9b957b78 379it is interpreted as a bitmask: if bit 0 (the LSB) is set, then
380timestamps other than the revision date are propagated; if bit 1
381is set, the revision date is propagated. If the third parameter
382to C<rmscopy> is 0, then it behaves much like the DCL COPY command:
383if the name or type of the output file was explicitly specified,
384then no timestamps are propagated, but if they were taken implicitly
385from the input filespec, then all timestamps other than the
386revision date are propagated. If this parameter is not supplied,
387it defaults to 0.
388
389Like C<copy>, C<rmscopy> returns 1 on success. If an error occurs,
390it sets C<$!>, deletes the output file, and returns 0.
391
55497cff 392=back
393
f716a1dd 394=head1 RETURN
395
441496b2
CB
396All functions return 1 on success, 0 on failure.
397$! will be set if an error was encountered.
f716a1dd 398
6c254d95
CN
399=head1 NOTES
400
401=over 4
402
403=item *
404
405On Mac OS (Classic), the path separator is ':', not '/', and the
406current directory is denoted as ':', not '.'. You should be careful
407about specifying relative pathnames. While a full path always begins
408with a volume name, a relative pathname should always begin with a
409':'. If specifying a volume name only, a trailing ':' is required.
410
411E.g.
412
413 copy("file1", "tmp"); # creates the file 'tmp' in the current directory
414 copy("file1", ":tmp:"); # creates :tmp:file1
415 copy("file1", ":tmp"); # same as above
416 copy("file1", "tmp"); # same as above, if 'tmp' is a directory (but don't do
417 # that, since it may cause confusion, see example #1)
418 copy("file1", "tmp:file1"); # error, since 'tmp:' is not a volume
419 copy("file1", ":tmp:file1"); # ok, partial path
420 copy("file1", "DataHD:"); # creates DataHD:file1
421
422 move("MacintoshHD:fileA", "DataHD:fileB"); # moves (don't copies) files from one
423 # volume to another
424
425=back
426
f716a1dd 427=head1 AUTHOR
428
441496b2 429File::Copy was written by Aaron Sherman I<E<lt>ajs@ajs.comE<gt>> in 1995,
bd3fa61c 430and updated by Charles Bailey I<E<lt>bailey@newman.upenn.eduE<gt>> in 1996.
f716a1dd 431
432=cut
441496b2 433