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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
466416ed 23below. E.g. C<(W closed)> means a warning in the C<closed> category.
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24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
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27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
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53=item Aliasing via reference is experimental
54
55(S experimental::refaliasing) This warning is emitted if you use
56a reference constructor on the left-hand side of an assignment to
57alias one variable to another. Simply suppress the warning if you
58want to use the feature, but know that in doing so you are taking
59the risk of using an experimental feature which may change or be
60removed in a future Perl version:
61
62 no warnings "experimental::refaliasing";
63 use feature "refaliasing";
64 \$x = \$y;
65
de42a5a9 66=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 67
6df41af2 68(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 69
04f74579 70=item '%c' allowed only after types %s in %s
ef54e1a4 71
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72(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
73after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 74
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75=item alpha->numify() is lossy
76
77(W numeric) An alpha version can not be numified without losing
78information.
79
6df41af2 80=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 81
75b44862 82(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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83keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
84one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
85subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 86
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87To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
88before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
89Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
90imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 91
6df41af2 92To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 93on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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94to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
95L<attributes>).
43192e07 96
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97=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
98
99(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
100all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
101first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
102C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
103
6df41af2 104=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 105
7c7af292 106(S ambiguous) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
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107you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
108a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 109
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110=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
111
112(S ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
113string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
114the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
115write C<-foo()>.
116
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117=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
118
7c7af292 119(S ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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120bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
121(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
122like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
123assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
124clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
125really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 126
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127=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
128
129(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
130asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
131named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 132the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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133function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
134and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
135
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136=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
137
138=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 139
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140(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
141the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1422 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
143might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
144foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
145that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
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146
147In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
148to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
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149C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
150by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
151want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
152unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
153that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
154off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 155
6df41af2 156=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 157
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158(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
159redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
160redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 161
6df41af2 162=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 163
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164(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
165redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
166into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
167though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
168which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 169
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170 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
171 while (<STDIN>) {
172 print;
173 print OUT;
174 }
175 close OUT;
c9f97d15 176
6df41af2 177=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 178
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179(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
180transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 181one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 182a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
183hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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184you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
185alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 186
6df41af2 187=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 188
6df41af2 189(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 190
f86702cc 191=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 192
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193(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
194that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
195will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 196
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197Note that for the C<Inf> and C<NaN> (infinity and not-a-number) the
198definition of "numeric" is somewhat unusual: the strings themselves
199(like "Inf") are considered numeric, and anything following them is
200considered non-numeric.
201
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202=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
203
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204(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
205system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
206take care of transforming data between external and internal
207representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
208point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
209didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
210result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 211
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212=item Argument "%s" treated as 0 in increment (++)
213
214(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to the C<++>
215operator which expects either a number or a string matching
216C</^[a-zA-Z]*[0-9]*\z/>. See L<perlop/Auto-increment and
217Auto-decrement> for details.
218
637494ac 219=item Array passed to stat will be coerced to a scalar%s
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220
221(W syntax) You called stat() on an array, but the array will be
222coerced to a scalar - the number of elements in the array.
223
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224=item A signature parameter must start with '$', '@' or '%'
225
226(F) Each subroutine signature parameter declaration must start with a valid
227sigil; for example:
228
229 sub foo ($a, $, $b = 1, @c) {}
230
231=item A slurpy parameter may not have a default value
232
233(F) Only scalar subroutine signature parameters may have a default value;
234for example:
235
236 sub foo ($a = 1) {} # legal
237 sub foo (@a = (1)) {} # invalid
238 sub foo (%a = (a => b)) {} # invalid
239
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240=item assertion botched: %s
241
21b5e840 242(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
a0d0e21e 243
0eacef8e 244=item Assertion %s failed: file "%s", line %d
a0d0e21e 245
21b5e840 246(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 247
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248=item Assigned value is not a reference
249
250(F) You tried to assign something that was not a reference to an lvalue
251reference (e.g., C<\$x = $y>). If you meant to make $x an alias to $y, use
252C<\$x = \$y>.
253
254=item Assigned value is not %s reference
255
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256(F) You tried to assign a reference to a reference constructor, but the
257two references were not of the same type. You cannot alias a scalar to
258an array, or an array to a hash; the two types must match.
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259
260 \$x = \@y; # error
261 \@x = \%y; # error
262 $y = [];
263 \$x = $y; # error; did you mean \$y?
264
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265=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
266
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267(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
268the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 269
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270=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
271
272(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
273must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
274know which context to supply to the right side.
275
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276=item Assuming NOT a POSIX class since %s in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
277
278(W regexp) You had something like these:
279
280 [[:alnum]]
281 [[:digit:xyz]
282
283They look like they might have been meant to be the POSIX classes
284C<[:alnum:]> or C<[:digit:]>. If so, they should be written:
285
286 [[:alnum:]]
287 [[:digit:]xyz]
288
289Since these aren't legal POSIX class specifications, but are legal
290bracketed character classes, Perl treats them as the latter. In the
291first example, it matches the characters C<":">, C<"[">, C<"a">, C<"l">,
292C<"m">, C<"n">, and C<"u">.
293
294If these weren't meant to be POSIX classes, this warning message is
295spurious, and can be suppressed by reordering things, such as
296
297 [[al:num]]
298
299or
300
301 [[:munla]]
302
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303=item <> at require-statement should be quotes
304
305(F) You wrote C<< require <file> >> when you should have written
306C<require 'file'>.
307
2393f1b9 308=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 309
49293501 310(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 311the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 312
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313=item Attempt to bless into a freed package
314
315(F) You wrote C<bless $foo> with one argument after somehow causing
316the current package to be freed. Perl cannot figure out what to
317do, so it throws up in hands in despair.
318
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319=item Attempt to bless into a reference
320
321(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 322the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
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323supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
324
325 bless $self, $proto;
326
327when you intended
328
329 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
330
331If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
332of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
333example by:
334
335 bless $self, "$proto";
336
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337=item Attempt to clear deleted array
338
339(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
340Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
341can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
342callback on the array.
343
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344=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
345
346(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
347which is not in its key set.
348
349=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
350
351(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
352declared readonly from a restricted hash.
353
de42a5a9 354=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 355
f84fe999 356(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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357that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
358outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 359
12578ffb 360=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 361
f84fe999 362(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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363strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
364strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
365of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 366
7d5b40b4 367=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 368
f84fe999 369(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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370free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
371SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
372free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
373try to free it.
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374
375=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
376
f84fe999 377(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 378
7d5b40b4 379=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 380
8f7e4d2c 381(S internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
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382see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
383earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
384This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
385that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
386mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
387corrupted.
a0d0e21e 388
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389=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
390
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391(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
392function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
393means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
394invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
395literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
396avoid this warning.
84902520 397
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398=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
399
400(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
401compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
402unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
403L<perlvar/%INC>.
404
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405=item Attempt to set length of freed array
406
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407(W misc) You tried to set the length of an array which has
408been freed. You can do this by storing a reference to the
409scalar representing the last index of an array and later
410assigning through that reference. For example
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411
412 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
413 $$r = 503
414
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415=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
416
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417(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
418used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
419dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 420
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421=item Attribute prototype(%s) discards earlier prototype attribute in same sub
422
423(W misc) A sub was declared as sub foo : prototype(A) : prototype(B) {}, for
424example. Since each sub can only have one prototype, the earlier
425declaration(s) are discarded while the last one is applied.
426
ccce04a4
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427=item av_reify called on tied array
428
429(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
430confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
431
de42a5a9 432=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 433
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434(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
435or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 436S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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437S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
438
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439=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
440
496a33f5 441(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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442substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
443most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
444
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445=item Bad filehandle: %s
446
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447(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
448symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
449open(), or did it in another package.
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450
451=item Bad free() ignored
452
be771a83 453(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 454been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 455setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 456
9ea8bc6d 457This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 458dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 459which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 460
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461=item Bad hash
462
463(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
464
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465=item Badly placed ()'s
466
467(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
468of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
469Perl yourself.
470
a7cb8dae 471=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 472
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473(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
474didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
475of quotes, so
a0d0e21e
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476
477 $var = 'myvar';
478 $sym = mypack::$var;
479
480is not the same as
481
482 $var = 'myvar';
483 $sym = "mypack::$var";
484
88e1f1a2
JV
485=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
486
487(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
488plugin API.
489
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490=item Bad realloc() ignored
491
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492(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
493had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
494be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 495
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496=item Bad symbol for array
497
498(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
499wasn't a symbol table entry.
500
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501=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
502
503(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
504that wasn't a symbol table entry.
505
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506=item Bad symbol for filehandle
507
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508(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
509that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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510
511=item Bad symbol for hash
512
513(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
514wasn't a symbol table entry.
515
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516=item Bad symbol for scalar
517
518(P) An internal request asked to add a scalar entry to something that
519wasn't a symbol table entry.
520
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521=item Bareword found in conditional
522
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523(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
524conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
525of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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526
527 open FOO || die;
528
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529It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
530a bareword:
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531
532 use constant TYPO => 1;
533 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
534
535The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
536
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537=item Bareword in require contains "%s"
538
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539=item Bareword in require maps to disallowed filename "%s"
540
09eb1f39 541=item Bareword in require maps to empty filename
5bad2b39 542
a52f2cce 543(F) The bareword form of require has been invoked with a filename which could
d4e5761f 544not have been generated by a valid bareword permitted by the parser. You
a52f2cce
NC
545shouldn't be able to get this error from Perl code, but XS code may throw it
546if it passes an invalid module name to C<Perl_load_module>.
547
5bad2b39
DM
548=item Bareword in require must not start with a double-colon: "%s"
549
550(F) In C<require Bare::Word>, the bareword is not allowed to start with a
d4e5761f 551double-colon. Write C<require ::Foo::Bar> as C<require Foo::Bar> instead.
5bad2b39 552
6df41af2
GS
553=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
554
555(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
be771a83
GS
556subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
557symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
558
559=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
560
be771a83
GS
561(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
562compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
563you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 564
a0d0e21e
LW
565=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
566
be771a83
GS
567(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
568subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
569exited.
a0d0e21e 570
68dc0745
PP
571=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
572
573(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
be771a83
GS
574implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
575occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
576be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
577depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 578
c782d7ee 579=item \%d better written as $%d
6df41af2 580
be771a83
GS
581(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
582The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
583substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
584because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
585there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 586
252aa082
JH
587=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
588
e476b1b5 589(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
590(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
591L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 592
69282e91 593=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 594
be771a83
GS
595(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
596check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 597
c289d2f7
JH
598=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
599
600(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 601Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 602
c5a0f51a
JH
603=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
604
e476b1b5 605(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 606
043c750c 607=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 608
be771a83 609(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
ab830aa0 610copiable.
4633a7c4 611
5a25739d
FC
612=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
613
434f489b 614(P) When starting a new thread or returning values from a thread, Perl
5a25739d
FC
615encountered an invalid data type.
616
b927b7e9 617=item Both or neither range ends should be Unicode in regex; marked by
6e8a73f2 618S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
b927b7e9
KW
619
620(W regexp) (only under C<S<use re 'strict'>> or within C<(?[...])>)
621
622In a bracketed character class in a regular expression pattern, you
623had a range which has exactly one end of it specified using C<\N{}>, and
624the other end is specified using a non-portable mechanism. Perl treats
625the range as a Unicode range, that is, all the characters in it are
626considered to be the Unicode characters, and which may be different code
627points on some platforms Perl runs on. For example, C<[\N{U+06}-\x08]>
628is treated as if you had instead said C<[\N{U+06}-\N{U+08}]>, that is it
629matches the characters whose code points in Unicode are 6, 7, and 8.
630But that C<\x08> might indicate that you meant something different, so
631the warning gets raised.
632
f675dbe5
CB
633=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
634
be771a83
GS
635(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
636iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
637which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 638
a0d0e21e
LW
639=item Callback called exit
640
4929bf7b 641(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
642exited by calling exit.
643
6df41af2 644=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 645
be771a83
GS
646(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
647parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
648that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
649early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
650subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
651checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
652function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
653the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 654
0c7df902
JH
655=item Cannot chr %f
656
657(F) You passed an invalid number (like an infinity or not-a-number) to C<chr>.
658
1b4d0d79
TC
659=item Cannot complete in-place edit of %s: %s
660
661(F) Your perl script appears to have changed directory while
662performing an in-place edit of a file specified by a relative path,
663and your system doesn't include the directory relative POSIX functions
664needed to handle that.
665
5dee29d4 666=item Cannot compress %f in pack
0c7df902 667
5dee29d4
JH
668(F) You tried compressing an infinity or not-a-number as an unsigned
669integer with BER, which makes no sense.
0c7df902 670
49704364 671=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b 672
717feafc
JH
673(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress.
674The BER compressed integer format can only be used with positive
675integers, and you attempted to compress a very large number (> 1e308).
676See L<perlfunc/pack>.
0258719b 677
49704364 678=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
679
680(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
681format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
682
5c1f4d79
NC
683=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
684
6903afa2
FC
685(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
686in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
687The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
688no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 689
4040665a 690=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
691
692(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 693be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 694
b5d97229
RGS
695=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
696
697(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
698either with open() or binmode().
699
714f94d1
FC
700=item Cannot open %s as a dirhandle: it is already open as a filehandle
701
702(F) You tried to use opendir() to associate a dirhandle to a symbol (glob
703or scalar) that already holds a filehandle. Since this idiom might render
704your code confusing, it was deprecated in Perl 5.10. As of Perl 5.28, it
705is a fatal error.
706
707=item Cannot open %s as a filehandle: it is already open as a dirhandle
708
709(F) You tried to use open() to associate a filehandle to a symbol (glob
710or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle. Since this idiom might render
711your code confusing, it was deprecated in Perl 5.10. As of Perl 5.28, it
712is a fatal error.
713
0c7df902
JH
714=item Cannot pack %f with '%c'
715
5dee29d4 716(F) You tried converting an infinity or not-a-number to an integer,
0c7df902
JH
717which makes no sense.
718
719=item Cannot printf %f with '%c'
720
721(F) You tried printing an infinity or not-a-number as a character (%c),
722which makes no sense. Maybe you meant '%s', or just stringifying it?
723
7355df7e
FC
724=item Cannot set tied @DB::args
725
726(F) C<caller> tried to set C<@DB::args>, but found it tied. Tying C<@DB::args>
727is not supported. (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)
728
ce65bc73
FC
729=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
730
731(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
732keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
733do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
734Perl code, but are only used internally.
735
46e58bd2
AC
736=item Cannot yet reorder sv_catpvfn() arguments from va_list
737
738(F) Some XS code tried to use C<sv_catpvfn()> or a related function with a
739format string that specifies explicit indexes for some of the elements, and
d4e5761f
FC
740using a C-style variable-argument list (a C<va_list>). This is not currently
741supported. XS authors wanting to do this must instead construct a C array
742of C<SV*> scalars containing the arguments.
46e58bd2 743
96ebfdd7
RK
744=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
745
746(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
747integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
748to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
749
a0d0e21e
LW
750=item Can't bless non-reference value
751
752(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
753encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
754
7896dde7
Z
755=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
756
757(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
758a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
759
760=item Can't "break" outside a given block
761
762(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
763
6df41af2
GS
764=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
765
766(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
767object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
768like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
769
770 $BADREF = undef;
771 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
772 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
773
a0d0e21e
LW
774=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
775
54310121 776(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
777ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
778didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
779object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
780
781=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
782
783(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
784object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
785defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
786Something like this will reproduce the error:
787
788 $BADREF = 42;
789 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
790 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
791
dfe378f1
FC
792=item Can't call mro_isa_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
793
794(P) Perl got confused as to whether a hash was a plain hash or a
795symbol table hash when trying to update @ISA caches.
796
2bf7e7b2
FC
797=item Can't call mro_method_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
798
799(F) An XS module tried to call C<mro_method_changed_in> on a hash that was
800not attached to the symbol table.
801
a0d0e21e
LW
802=item Can't chdir to %s
803
f703fc96 804(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but F</foo/bar> is not a directory
a0d0e21e
LW
805that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
806
0545a864 807=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 808
be771a83
GS
809(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
810nosuid.
104d25b7 811
22e74366 812=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
813
814(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 815(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
816say things like:
817
818 *foo += 1;
819
820You CAN say
821
822 $foo = *foo;
823 $foo += 1;
824
825but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
826
7896dde7 827=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 828
7896dde7
Z
829(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
830or C<default> block.
0d863452 831
a0d0e21e
LW
832=item Can't create pipe mailbox
833
be771a83
GS
834(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
835quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 836
eb64745e
GS
837=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
838
30c282f6
NC
839(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
840"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 841
7896dde7
Z
842=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
843
844(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
845C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
846issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
847error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
848
1e85b658
DM
849=item Can't determine class of operator %s, assuming BASEOP
850
851(S) This warning indicates something wrong in the internals of perl.
852Perl was trying to find the class (e.g. LISTOP) of a particular OP,
853and was unable to do so. This is likely to be due to a bug in the perl
854internals, or due to a bug in XS code which manipulates perl optrees.
855
a2162cd9
FC
856=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
857
858(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
859a file in /dev, a FIFO or an uneditable directory. The file was ignored.
860
861=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
862
863(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
864reason.
865
866=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
867
868(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
869reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
870C<-i.bak>, or some such.
871
872=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
873
874(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
875characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
876inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
877
ab0b796c
KW
878=item Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s".
879
880(W locale) You are 1) running under "C<use locale>"; 2) the current
881locale is not a UTF-8 one; 3) you tried to do the designated case-change
882operation on the specified Unicode character; and 4) the result of this
883operation would mix Unicode and locale rules, which likely conflict.
884Mixing of different rule types is forbidden, so the operation was not
885done; instead the result is the indicated value, which is the best
886available that uses entirely Unicode rules. That turns out to almost
887always be the original character, unchanged.
888
889It is generally a bad idea to mix non-UTF-8 locales and Unicode, and
890this issue is one of the reasons why. This warning is raised when
891Unicode rules would normally cause the result of this operation to
892contain a character that is in the range specified by the locale,
8930..255, and hence is subject to the locale's rules, not Unicode's.
894
895If you are using locale purely for its characteristics related to things
896like its numeric and time formatting (and not C<LC_CTYPE>), consider
897using a restricted form of the locale pragma (see L<perllocale/The "use
898locale" pragma>) like "S<C<use locale ':not_characters'>>".
899
900Note that failed case-changing operations done as a result of
901case-insensitive C</i> regular expression matching will show up in this
902warning as having the C<fc> operation (as that is what the regular
903expression engine calls behind the scenes.)
904
a0d0e21e
LW
905=item Can't do waitpid with flags
906
be771a83
GS
907(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
908waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 909
a0d0e21e
LW
910=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
911
be771a83
GS
912(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
913point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
914line.
a0d0e21e 915
1109a392
MHM
916=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
917
918(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
919or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
920little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
921See L<perlfunc/pack>.
922
a0d0e21e
LW
923=item Can't exec "%s": %s
924
d1be9408 925(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
926named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
927permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
928C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
929architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
930can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
931#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
932
933=item Can't exec %s
934
be771a83
GS
935(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
936that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
937need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
938
939=item Can't execute %s
940
be771a83
GS
941(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
942found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 943
6df41af2 944=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 945
be771a83
GS
946(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
947is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2
GS
948
949=item Can't find label %s
950
be771a83
GS
951(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
952possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
953
954=item Can't find %s on PATH
955
be771a83
GS
956(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
957found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 958
6df41af2 959=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 960
be771a83
GS
961(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
962found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
963script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
964
965=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
966
be771a83
GS
967(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
968that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
969nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 970
fb73857a
PP
971 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
972
97b3d10f 973If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
974included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
975may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
976a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
977L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 978
660a4616
ST
979=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
980
29f52644
KW
981=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
982
983(F) The named property which you specified via C<\p> or C<\P> is not one
984known to Perl. Perhaps you misspelled the name? See
e1b711da 985L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
29f52644
KW
986for a complete list of available official
987properties. If it is a
988L<user-defined property|perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties>
989it must have been defined by the time the regular expression is
990matched.
991
992If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
993by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 994until C<\E>).
660a4616 995
b3647a36 996=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 997
be771a83
GS
998(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
999pipeline.
a0d0e21e 1000
b3647a36
SR
1001=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
1002
c973c02e 1003(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
1004after five seconds.
1005
748a9306
LW
1006=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
1007
be771a83
GS
1008(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
1009between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
1010Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
1011the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
1012account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
1013the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 1014the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
1015the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
1016if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
1017because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
1018appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
1019and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
1020routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
1021shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
1022only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 1023
a0d0e21e
LW
1024=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
1025
be771a83
GS
1026(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
1027pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
1028
1029=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
1030
748a9306
LW
1031(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
1032mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 1033
6d90e983
FC
1034=item Can't "goto" into a binary or list expression
1035
1036(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a binary
1037or list expression. You can't get there from here. The reason for this
1038restriction is that the interpreter would get confused as to how many
1039arguments there are, resulting in stack corruption or crashes. This
1040error occurs in cases such as these:
1041
1042 goto F;
1043 print do { F: }; # Can't jump into the arguments to print
1044
1045 goto G;
1046 $x + do { G: $y }; # How is + supposed to get its first operand?
1047
a01f4640
FC
1048=item Can't "goto" into a "given" block
1049
1050(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a C<given>
1051block. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1052
6df41af2 1053=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 1054
be771a83
GS
1055(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
1056loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
1057
1058=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
1059
be771a83
GS
1060(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
1061a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
1062you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
1063See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 1064
5a25739d
FC
1065=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
1066
1067(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
1068"string" or block.
1069
9850bf21 1070=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 1071
9850bf21
RH
1072(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
1073comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
1074as the reduce() function in List::Util).
1075
6df41af2
GS
1076=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
1077
be771a83
GS
1078(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
1079subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
1080cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
1081routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 1082
0b5b802d
GS
1083=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
1084
be771a83
GS
1085(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
1086signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
1087signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
1088processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
1089situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
1090may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 1091
e2c0f81f
DG
1092=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
1093
1094(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
1095attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
1096process identifier.
1097
6df41af2 1098=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 1099
6df41af2 1100(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
1101except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
1102block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
1103block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
1104usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
1105inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
1106L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 1107
2c7d6b9c
RGS
1108=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
1109
1110(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
1111package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
1112
b8170e59
JB
1113=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
1114
6903afa2
FC
1115(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
1116This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
1117that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
1118to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
1119dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
1120that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
1121dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 1122
748a9306
LW
1123=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
1124
2ba9eb46 1125(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
1126lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
1127want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
1128the package name.
748a9306 1129
6df41af2 1130=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 1131
6df41af2
GS
1132(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
1133handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 1134pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 1135that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 1136
ea071790 1137=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 1138
fa816bf3
FC
1139(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
1140Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
1141the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
1142to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
1143extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
1144to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
1145L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 1146
6df41af2
GS
1147=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
1148
be771a83
GS
1149(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
1150autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
1151are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
1152the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 1153
b8170e59
JB
1154=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
1155
1156(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 1157for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
1158unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
1159
a0d0e21e
LW
1160=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
1161
1162(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
1163functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 1164method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e 1165
8af56b9d
FC
1166=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s" (perhaps you forgot
1167to load "%s"?)
1168
1169(F) You called a method on a class that did not exist, and the method
1170could not be found in UNIVERSAL. This often means that a method
1171requires a package that has not been loaded.
1172
a0d0e21e
LW
1173=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
1174
be771a83
GS
1175(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
1176doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 1177
2f7da168
RK
1178=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
1179
1180(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
1181e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
1182
f4ad53f4 1183=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 1184
be771a83
GS
1185(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
1186VMS.
3e3baf6d 1187
cd40cd58
NC
1188=item Can't make loaded symbols global on this platform while loading %s
1189
ff9c1ae8 1190(S) A module passed the flag 0x01 to DynaLoader::dl_load_file() to request
cd40cd58
NC
1191that symbols from the stated file are made available globally within the
1192process, but that functionality is not available on this platform. Whilst
1193the module likely will still work, this may prevent the perl interpreter
1194from loading other XS-based extensions which need to link directly to
1195functions defined in the C or XS code in the stated file.
1196
a0d0e21e
LW
1197=item Can't modify %s in %s
1198
be771a83
GS
1199(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
1200to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 1201
54310121 1202=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
1203
1204(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
1205a NULL.
1206
0f948285 1207=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call of &%s
6df41af2 1208
8d9d0498
FC
1209=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call of &%s in %s
1210
6df41af2 1211(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1212such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1213
cf6e1fa1
FC
1214=item Can't modify reference to %s in %s assignment
1215
1216(F) Only a limited number of constructs can be used as the argument to a
1217reference constructor on the left-hand side of an assignment, and what
1218you used was not one of them. See L<perlref/Assigning to References>.
1219
1220=item Can't modify reference to localized parenthesized array in list
1221assignment
1222
1223(F) Assigning to C<\local(@array)> or C<\(local @array)> is not supported, as
1224it is not clear exactly what it should do. If you meant to make @array
1225refer to some other array, use C<\@array = \@other_array>. If you want to
1226make the elements of @array aliases of the scalars referenced on the
1227right-hand side, use C<\(@array) = @scalar_refs>.
1228
1229=item Can't modify reference to parenthesized hash in list assignment
1230
1231(F) Assigning to C<\(%hash)> is not supported. If you meant to make %hash
1232refer to some other hash, use C<\%hash = \%other_hash>. If you want to
1233make the elements of %hash into aliases of the scalars referenced on the
1234right-hand side, use a hash slice: C<\@hash{@keys} = @those_scalar_refs>.
1235
5f05dabc 1236=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1237
5f05dabc 1238(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1239buffer.
1240
6df41af2
GS
1241=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1242
1243(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1244there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1245count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1246grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1247though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1248once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1249
a0d0e21e
LW
1250=item Can't open %s: %s
1251
c47ff5f1 1252(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1253filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1254switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1255this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1256you named on the command line.
1257
1258(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1259your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1260
9a869a14
RGS
1261=item Can't open a reference
1262
1263(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1264using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1265
1266 open FH, '>', $ref;
1267
1268but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1269open is not supported.
1270
a0d0e21e
LW
1271=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1272
be771a83
GS
1273(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1274You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1275as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1276">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1277
748a9306
LW
1278=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1279
be771a83
GS
1280(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1281redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1282the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1283
1284=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1285
be771a83
GS
1286(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1287redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1288command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1289
1290=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1291
be771a83
GS
1292(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1293redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1294the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1295
1296=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1297
be771a83
GS
1298(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1299redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1300for stdout.
748a9306 1301
3b1cf97d 1302=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1303
1304(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1305
fa3aa65a
JC
1306If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1307shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1308you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1309
6df41af2
GS
1310=item Can't read CRTL environ
1311
1312(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1313from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1314missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1315or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1316searched.
6df41af2 1317
f3106bc8
LM
1318=item Can't redeclare "%s" in "%s"
1319
1320(F) A "my", "our" or "state" declaration was found within another declaration,
1321such as C<my ($x, my($y), $z)> or C<our (my $x)>.
1322
6df41af2
GS
1323=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1324
1325(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1326there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1327count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1328or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1329though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1330loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1331
64977eb6 1332=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1333
be771a83
GS
1334(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1335file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1336the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1337
e0d4aead
TC
1338=item Can't rename in-place work file '%s' to '%s': %s
1339
1340(F) When closed implicitly, the temporary file for in-place editing
1341couldn't be renamed to the original filename.
1342
ecc6274e
FC
1343=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1344
1345(F) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
1346probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
1347
748a9306
LW
1348=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1349
be771a83
GS
1350(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1351to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1352
9415f659
KW
1353=item Can't represent character for Ox%X on this platform
1354
1355(F) There is a hard limit to how big a character code point can be due
1356to the fundamental properties of UTF-8, especially on EBCDIC
1357platforms. The given code point exceeds that. The only work-around is
1358to not use such a large code point.
1359
4f12ec0e
FC
1360=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1361
1362(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1363all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1364the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1365supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1366
fe13d51d 1367=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1368
1fa582fa
FC
1369(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1370opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1371package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1372
cd06dffe
GS
1373=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1374
be771a83
GS
1375(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1376temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1377is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1378
96ebfdd7
RK
1379=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1380
1381(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1382there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1383
78f9721b
SM
1384=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1385
6903afa2
FC
1386(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1387subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1388think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1389write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1390Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1391
a0d0e21e
LW
1392=item Can't stat script "%s"
1393
be771a83
GS
1394(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1395open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1396
a0d0e21e
LW
1397=item Can't take log of %g
1398
fb73857a 1399(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1400negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1401standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1402negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1403
1404=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1405
1406(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1407negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1408with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1409
1410=item Can't undef active subroutine
1411
1412(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1413however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1414redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1415
ecc6274e
FC
1416=item Can't unweaken a nonreference
1417
1418(F) You attempted to unweaken something that was not a reference. Only
1419references can be unweakened.
1420
c81225bc 1421=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1422
be771a83
GS
1423(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1424into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1425specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1426indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1427
6651ba0b
FC
1428=item Can't use '%c' after -mname
1429
1430(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-m> switch, but you put something
1431other than "=" after the module name.
1432
1f1ec7b5
KW
1433=item Can't use a hash as a reference
1434
1435(F) You tried to use a hash as a reference, as in
66a1f5ec
FC
1436C<< %foo->{"bar"} >> or C<< %$ref->{"hello"} >>. Versions of perl
1437<= 5.22.0 used to allow this syntax, but shouldn't
1438have. This was deprecated in perl 5.6.1.
1f1ec7b5
KW
1439
1440=item Can't use an array as a reference
1441
1442(F) You tried to use an array as a reference, as in
66a1f5ec
FC
1443C<< @foo->[23] >> or C<< @$ref->[99] >>. Versions of perl <= 5.22.0
1444used to allow this syntax, but shouldn't have. This
1445was deprecated in perl 5.6.1.
1f1ec7b5 1446
1db89ea5
BS
1447=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1448
e27ad1f2 1449(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1450table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1451for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1452
96ebfdd7
RK
1453=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1454
1455(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1456be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1457
6df41af2
GS
1458=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1459
be771a83
GS
1460(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1461references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1462
90b75b61 1463=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1464
20561843 1465(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1466Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1467provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1468
1109a392
MHM
1469=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1470
1471(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1472byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1473allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1474
e35475de
KW
1475=item Can't use 'defined(@array)' (Maybe you should just omit the defined()?)
1476
1477(F) defined() is not useful on arrays because it
1478checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
1479array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
1480
1481=item Can't use 'defined(%hash)' (Maybe you should just omit the defined()?)
1482
1483(F) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes.
1484
1485Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1486becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1487weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1488These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice, so it now
1489generates a fatal error.
1490
1491If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1492context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
1493
1494 if (%hash) {
1495 # not empty
1496 }
1497
1498If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1499variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1500a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1501it's loaded, etc.
1502
6df41af2
GS
1503=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1504
c1f06047 1505(P) The parser got confused when trying to parse a C<foreach> loop.
6df41af2 1506
aab6a793 1507=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1508
be771a83
GS
1509(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1510is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1511(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1512have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1513weren't.
1514
6d3b25aa
RGS
1515=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1516
1517(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1518that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1519For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1520is inside a big-endian group.
1521
c07a80fd
PP
1522=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1523
1524(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1525You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1526and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1527Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1528lexical variable.
1529
a0d0e21e
LW
1530=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1531
1532(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1533reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1534test the type of the reference, if need be.
1535
748a9306 1536=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1537
5e634d20
FC
1538=item Can't use string ("%s"...) as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1539
b41bf23f
FC
1540(F) You've told Perl to dereference a string, something which
1541C<use strict> blocks to prevent it happening accidentally. See
1542L<perlref/"Symbolic references">. This can be triggered by an C<@> or C<$>
1543in a double-quoted string immediately before interpolating a variable,
1544for example in C<"user @$twitter_id">, which says to treat the contents
1545of C<$twitter_id> as an array reference; use a C<\> to have a literal C<@>
1546symbol followed by the contents of C<$twitter_id>: C<"user \@$twitter_id">.
a0d0e21e 1547
748a9306
LW
1548=item Can't use subscript on %s
1549
1550(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1551subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1552didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1553
6df41af2
GS
1554=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1555
75b44862
GS
1556(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1557creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1558backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1559expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1560value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1561instead.
6df41af2 1562
810b8aa5
GS
1563=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1564
1565(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1566references can be weakened.
1567
7896dde7
Z
1568=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1569
1570(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1571loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1572from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1573or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1574
5f05dabc 1575=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1576
be771a83
GS
1577(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1578with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1579Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1580
a04e6aad 1581=item Character following "\c" must be printable ASCII
f9d13529 1582
7357bd17 1583(F) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be a printable (non-control) ASCII character.
17a3df4c 1584
727b6379 1585Note that ASCII characters that don't map to control characters are
7357bd17 1586discouraged, and will generate the warning (when enabled)
d4360efa 1587L</""\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"">.
f9d13529 1588
163a633c
KW
1589=item Character following \%c must be '{' or a single-character Unicode property name in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1590
1591(F) (In the above the C<%c> is replaced by either C<p> or C<P>.) You
1592specified something that isn't a legal Unicode property name. Most
1593Unicode properties are specified by C<\p{...}>. But if the name is a
1594single character one, the braces may be omitted.
1595
f337b084 1596=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1597
1598(W pack) You said
1599
1600 pack("C", $x)
1601
1602where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1603only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1604and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1605
1606 pack("C", $x & 255)
1607
1608If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1609instead.
1610
f337b084 1611=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1612
1613(W pack) You said
1614
1615 pack("c", $x)
1616
1617where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1618is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1619and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1620
1621 pack("c", $x & 255);
1622
1623If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1624instead.
1625
f337b084
TH
1626=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1627
1628(W unpack) You tried something like
1629
1630 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1631
1a147d38 1632where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1633below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1634value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1635
1636 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1637
5a25739d
FC
1638=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1639
1640(W pack) You said
1641
1642 pack("U0W", $x)
1643
1644where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1645expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1646as if you meant:
1647
1648 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1649
f337b084
TH
1650=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1651
1652(W pack) You tried something like
1653
1654 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1655
1a147d38 1656where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1657value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1658uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1659
1660 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1661
1662=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1663
1664(W unpack) You tried something like
1665
1666 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1667
1a147d38 1668where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1669value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1670uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1671
1672 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1673
8d9d0498
FC
1674=item charnames alias definitions may not contain a sequence of multiple
1675spaces; marked by S<<-- HERE> in %s
f51551f7
FC
1676
1677(F) You defined a character name which had multiple space characters
1678in a row. Change them to single spaces. Usually these names are
1679defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but they
1680could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>. See
1681L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
1682
8d9d0498
FC
1683=item charnames alias definitions may not contain trailing white-space;
1684marked by S<<-- HERE> in %s
f51551f7
FC
1685
1686(F) You defined a character name which ended in a space
1687character. Remove the trailing space(s). Usually these names are
1688defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but they
1689could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>.
1690See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
1691
60121127
TC
1692=item chdir() on unopened filehandle %s
1693
1694(W unopened) You tried chdir() on a filehandle that was never opened.
1695
d4360efa 1696=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
f866a7cd 1697
d4360efa
S
1698(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1699non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which
1700is better written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash
1701for non-word characters. Doing it the way you did is not portable
1702between ASCII and EBCDIC platforms.
f866a7cd 1703
6651ba0b
FC
1704=item Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
1705
1706(F) Creating a new thread inside the C<s///> operator is not supported.
1707
abc7ecad
SP
1708=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1709
1710(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1711a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1712
5a25739d
FC
1713=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1714
1715(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1716
541ed3a9
FC
1717=item Closure prototype called
1718
1719(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1720handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1721This subroutine cannot be called.
1722
74d1b2e4
FC
1723=item \C no longer supported in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1724
1725(F) The \C character class used to allow a match of single byte
1726within a multi-byte utf-8 character, but was removed in v5.24 as
1727it broke encapsulation and its implementation was extremely buggy.
1728If you really need to process the individual bytes, you probably
1729want to convert your string to one where each underlying byte is
1730stored as a character, with utf8::encode().
1731
49704364
LW
1732=item Code missing after '/'
1733
6903afa2
FC
1734(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1735another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1736
c0236afe
KW
1737=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, and not portable
1738
1739(S non_unicode) You had a code point that has never been in any
1740standard, so it is likely that languages other than Perl will NOT
1741understand it. At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code
1742points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher, and this code point is higher.
1743
1744Acceptance of these code points is a Perl extension, and you should
1745expect that nothing other than Perl can handle them; Perl itself on
1746EBCDIC platforms before v5.24 does not handle them.
1747
1748Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a 32 bit word.
1749
1750Perl also makes no guarantees that the representation of these code
1751points won't change at some point in the future, say when machines
1752become available that have larger than a 64-bit word. At that time,
1753files written by an older Perl would require conversion before being
1754readable by a newer Perl.
1755
5a25739d
FC
1756=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1757
2d88a86a 1758(S non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1b64326b
FC
1759of U+10FFFF.
1760
c0236afe
KW
1761Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, but
1762these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. Further, even if
1763these languages/systems accept these large code points, they may have
1764chosen a different representation for them than the UTF-8-like one that
1765Perl has, which would mean files are not exchangeable between them and
1766Perl.
1767
1768On EBCDIC platforms, code points above 0x3FFF_FFFF have a different
1769representation in Perl v5.24 than before, so any file containing these
1770that was written before that version will require conversion before
1771being readable by a later Perl.
0876b9a0 1772
6df41af2
GS
1773=item %s: Command not found
1774
a892b81a 1775(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> or another shell
66a1f5ec
FC
1776instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
1777Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
8f721816 1778
3bcfc7b3
LM
1779 #!/usr/bin/perl
1780
1781=item %s: command not found
1782
1783(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<bash> or another shell
1784instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
1785Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
1786
1787 #!/usr/bin/perl
1788
1789=item %s: command not found: %s
1790
1791(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<zsh> or another shell
1792instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
1793Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
1794
1795 #!/usr/bin/perl
6df41af2 1796
7a2e2cd6
PP
1797=item Compilation failed in require
1798
1799(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1800Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1801encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1802
c3464db5
DD
1803=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1804
be771a83
GS
1805(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1806situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1807to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1808arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1809recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1810under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1811in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1812that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1813on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1814
69282e91 1815=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1816
be771a83
GS
1817(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1818to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1819L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1820
e21e7c6a
FC
1821=item Constant(%s): Call to &{$^H{%s}} did not return a defined value
1822
1823(F) The subroutine registered to handle constant overloading
1824(see L<overload>) or a custom charnames handler (see
1825L<charnames/CUSTOM TRANSLATORS>) returned an undefined value.
1826
1827=item Constant(%s): $^H{%s} is not defined
1828
1829(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to define an
1830overloaded constant. Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding
f738a371 1831L<overload> pragma?
e21e7c6a 1832
779c5bc9
GS
1833=item Constant is not %s reference
1834
1835(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1836is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1837The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1838usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1839See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1840
0ac016fc 1841=item Constants from lexical variables potentially modified elsewhere are
9840d1d6 1842deprecated. This will not be allowed in Perl 5.32
0ac016fc
FC
1843
1844(D deprecated) You wrote something like
1845
1846 my $var;
1847 $sub = sub () { $var };
1848
1849but $var is referenced elsewhere and could be modified after the C<sub>
1850expression is evaluated. Either it is explicitly modified elsewhere
1851(C<$var = 3>) or it is passed to a subroutine or to an operator like
1852C<printf> or C<map>, which may or may not modify the variable.
1853
1854Traditionally, Perl has captured the value of the variable at that
1855point and turned the subroutine into a constant eligible for inlining.
1856In those cases where the variable can be modified elsewhere, this
1857breaks the behavior of closures, in which the subroutine captures
1858the variable itself, rather than its value, so future changes to the
1859variable are reflected in the subroutine's return value.
1860
9840d1d6
A
1861This usage is deprecated, and will no longer be allowed in Perl 5.32,
1862making it possible to change the behavior in the future.
0ac016fc
FC
1863
1864If you intended for the subroutine to be eligible for inlining, then
1865make sure the variable is not referenced elsewhere, possibly by
1866copying it:
1867
1868 my $var2 = $var;
1869 $sub = sub () { $var2 };
1870
1871If you do want this subroutine to be a closure that reflects future
1872changes to the variable that it closes over, add an explicit C<return>:
1873
1874 my $var;
1875 $sub = sub () { return $var };
1876
4cee8e80
CS
1877=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1878
aeb94125
FC
1879(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1880been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1881for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1882
9607fc9c
PP
1883=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1884
be771a83
GS
1885(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1886for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1887workarounds.
9607fc9c 1888
5a25739d
FC
1889=item Constant(%s) unknown
1890
1891(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting
1892to define an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the
1893character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
3ee1a09c 1894forgot to load the corresponding L<overload> pragma?
5a25739d 1895
4a873d7a
FC
1896=item :const is experimental
1897
1898(S experimental::const_attr) The "const" attribute is experimental.
1899If you want to use the feature, disable the warning with C<no warnings
1900'experimental::const_attr'>, but know that in doing so you are taking
1901the risk that your code may break in a future Perl version.
1902
b77472f9
FC
1903=item :const is not permitted on named subroutines
1904
1905(F) The "const" attribute causes an anonymous subroutine to be run and
465068b9 1906its value captured at the time that it is cloned. Named subroutines are
b77472f9
FC
1907not cloned like this, so the attribute does not make sense on them.
1908
e7ea3e70
IZ
1909=item Copy method did not return a reference
1910
6903afa2 1911(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1912L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1913
4aaa4757
FC
1914=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1915
1916(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1917with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1918in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1919called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1920
1921 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1922 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1923
6798c92b
GS
1924=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1925
1926(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1927
675fa9ff
FC
1928=item Corrupted regexp opcode %d > %d
1929
1930(P) This is either an error in Perl, or, if you're using
1931one, your L<custom regular expression engine|perlreapi>. If not the
1932latter, report the problem through the L<perlbug> utility.
1933
a0d0e21e
LW
1934=item corrupted regexp pointers
1935
1936(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1937expression compiler gave it.
1938
1939=item corrupted regexp program
1940
be771a83
GS
1941(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1942valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1943
de42a5a9 1944=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1945
1946(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1947
49704364
LW
1948=item Count after length/code in unpack
1949
1950(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1951you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1952L<perlfunc/pack>.
1953
3f645a4e
FC
1954=item Declaring references is experimental
1955
1956(S experimental::declared_refs) This warning is emitted if you use
1957a reference constructor on the right-hand side of C<my>, C<state>, C<our>, or
1958C<local>. Simply suppress the warning if you want to use the feature, but
1959know that in doing so you are taking the risk of using an experimental
1960feature which may change or be removed in a future Perl version:
1961
1962 no warnings "experimental::declared_refs";
1963 use feature "declared_refs";
1964 $fooref = my \$foo;
1965
f2cccb4c
KW
1966=for comment
1967The following are used in lib/diagnostics.t for testing two =items that
1968share the same description. Changes here need to be propagated to there
1969
6651ba0b
FC
1970=item Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
1971
a0d0e21e
LW
1972=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1973
be771a83
GS
1974(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1975100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1976infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1977which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1978
aad1d01f
NC
1979This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1980setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1981
e0e4a6e3
FC
1982=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by
1983S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
bcb95744 1984
6903afa2 1985(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1986most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1987of the C<....> part.
1988
6e8a73f2 1989The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
bcb95744
FC
1990discovered.
1991
62658f4d
PM
1992=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1993
1994(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1995there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1996
0ffcbc25
FC
1997=item delete argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
1998
4a0af295 1999(F) The argument to C<delete> must be either a hash or array element,
0ffcbc25
FC
2000such as:
2001
2002 $foo{$bar}
2003 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
2004
2005or a hash or array slice, such as:
2006
2007 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
2008 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
2009
cc0776d6
DIM
2010or a hash key/value or array index/value slice, such as:
2011
2012 %foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
2013 %{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
2014
fc36a67e
PP
2015=item Delimiter for here document is too long
2016
be771a83
GS
2017(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
2018long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
2019that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 2020
c437f7ac 2021=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional. This will be a fatal error in Perl 5.30
6d3b25aa 2022
fa816bf3
FC
2023(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
2024has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 2025not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 2026conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 2027static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 2028relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 2029declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 2030
6d3b25aa
RGS
2031 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
2032
2033becomes
2034
2035 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
2036
ea9d9ebc 2037Beginning with perl 5.10.0, you can also use C<state> variables to have
fa816bf3 2038lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
2039
2040 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
2041
c437f7ac
A
2042This use of C<my()> in a false conditional has been deprecated since
2043Perl 5.10, and it will become a fatal error in Perl 5.30.
2044
500ab966
RGS
2045=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
2046
2047(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
2048just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
2049than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 2050
3cdd684c
TP
2051=item Did not produce a valid header
2052
3de20fbe 2053See L</500 Server error>.
3cdd684c 2054
6df41af2
GS
2055=item %s did not return a true value
2056
2057(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
2058it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
2059traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
2060do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
2061
cc507455 2062=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 2063
413ff9f6
FC
2064(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
2065some such.
4633a7c4 2066
cc507455 2067=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 2068
52e3acf8 2069(W shadow) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
be771a83
GS
2070variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
2071seems superfluous.
33633739 2072
cc507455 2073=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 2074
be771a83
GS
2075(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
2076@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
2077carried away.
748a9306 2078
7e1af8bc 2079=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
2080
2081(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 2082you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 2083
3cdd684c
TP
2084=item Document contains no data
2085
3de20fbe 2086See L</500 Server error>.
3cdd684c 2087
62658f4d
PM
2088=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
2089
2090(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
943fc58e 2091define a C<$VERSION>.
62658f4d 2092
49704364
LW
2093=item '/' does not take a repeat count
2094
2095(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
2096See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2097
1c99110e 2098=item do "%s" failed, '.' is no longer in @INC; did you mean do "./%s"?
2a0461a3 2099
b28683c9 2100(D deprecated) Previously C< do "somefile"; > would search the current
1c99110e
DM
2101directory for the specified file. Since perl v5.26.0, F<.> has been
2102removed from C<@INC> by default, so this is no longer true. To search the
2103current directory (and only the current directory) you can write
2104C< do "./somefile"; >.
2a0461a3 2105
95cb0d72
FC
2106=item Don't know how to get file name
2107
2108(P) C<PerlIO_getname>, a perl internal I/O function specific to VMS, was
2109somehow called on another platform. This should not happen.
2110
4021c788 2111=item Don't know how to handle magic of type \%o
a0d0e21e
LW
2112
2113(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
2114
2115=item do_study: out of memory
2116
2117(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
2118
6df41af2
GS
2119=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
2120
56da5a46
RGS
2121(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2122"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
2123name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
2124because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
2125"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
2126something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
2127subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
2128"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 2129
30b17cc1 2130=item dump() better written as CORE::dump(). dump() will no longer be available in Perl 5.30
ac206dc8 2131
30b17cc1
A
2132(D deprecated, misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function,
2133without fully qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo.
2134
4fa40147 2135Use of a unqualified C<dump()> was deprecated in Perl 5.8.0, and this
30b17cc1
A
2136will not be available in Perl 5.30.
2137
2138See L<perlfunc/dump>.
ac206dc8 2139
84d78eb7
YO
2140=item dump is not supported
2141
2142(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
2143
a0d0e21e
LW
2144=item Duplicate free() ignored
2145
be771a83
GS
2146(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
2147already been freed.
a0d0e21e 2148
1109a392
MHM
2149=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
2150
35f0cd76
FC
2151(W unpack) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a
2152type in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1109a392 2153
4633a7c4
LW
2154=item elseif should be elsif
2155
fa816bf3
FC
2156(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
2157it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
2158named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
2159unlikely to be what you want.
2160
c30c479a
KW
2161=item Empty \%c in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
2162
e0e4a6e3 2163=item Empty \%c{} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 2164
af6f566e 2165(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 2166described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 2167a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 2168
fd503f5c 2169=item ${^ENCODING} is no longer supported
a15a3d9b 2170
fd503f5c 2171(F) The special variable C<${^ENCODING}>, formerly used to implement
a15a3d9b
FC
2172the C<encoding> pragma, is no longer supported as of Perl 5.26.0.
2173
fd503f5c
DIM
2174Setting it to anything other than C<undef> is a fatal error as of Perl
21755.28.
ac641426 2176
85ab1d1d 2177=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2178
85ab1d1d 2179(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2180effective uids or gids failed.
2181
c038024b
RGS
2182=item %ENV is aliased to %s
2183
2184(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
2185aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 2186program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 2187
748a9306
LW
2188=item Error converting file specification %s
2189
5f05dabc 2190(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 2191specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
2192single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
2193an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
2194conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 2195
ad19ef22 2196=item Eval-group in insecure regular expression
e4d48cc9 2197
be771a83
GS
2198(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2199expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
2200is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 2201
ad19ef22 2202=item Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
e4d48cc9 2203
be771a83
GS
2204(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
2205C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
2206pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
2207it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
2208C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
2209interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
2210L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 2211
ad19ef22 2212=item Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
6df41af2 2213
be771a83
GS
2214(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
2215assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
2216pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 2217
e0e4a6e3
FC
2218=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by
2219S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1a147d38
YO
2220
2221(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 2222any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38 2223
6e8a73f2 2224The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
2225discovered.
2226
fc36a67e
PP
2227=item Excessively long <> operator
2228
2229(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
2230Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
2231filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
2232variable and glob that.
2233
ed9aa3b7
SG
2234=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
2235
af8bb25a 2236(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 2237OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 2238
c77da5ff 2239=item %sExecution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
2240
2241(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
2242
0ffcbc25
FC
2243=item exists argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
2244
4a0af295 2245(F) The argument to C<exists> must be a hash or array element or a
0ffcbc25
FC
2246subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
2247
2248 $foo{$bar}
2249 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
2250 &do_something
2251
2252=item exists argument is not a subroutine name
2253
ccfc2567
FC
2254(F) The argument to C<exists> for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine name,
2255and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this error.
0ffcbc25 2256
a0d0e21e
LW
2257=item Exiting eval via %s
2258
be771a83
GS
2259(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
2260goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
2261
2262=item Exiting format via %s
2263
9a2ff54b 2264(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 2265goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 2266
0a753a76
PP
2267=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
2268
be771a83
GS
2269(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
2270sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
2271loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 2272
a0d0e21e
LW
2273=item Exiting subroutine via %s
2274
be771a83
GS
2275(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
2276as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2277
2278=item Exiting substitution via %s
2279
be771a83
GS
2280(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
2281as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 2282
e0e4a6e3 2283=item Expecting close bracket in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
c608e803 2284
675fa9ff 2285(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2286
2287 (?13
2288
2289to denote a capturing group of the form
2290L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>,
2291but omitted the C<")">.
2292
c9ffefcc
FC
2293=item Expecting close paren for nested extended charclass in regex; marked
2294by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2295
2296(F) While parsing a nested extended character class like:
2297
2298 (?[ ... (?flags:(?[ ... ])) ... ])
2299 ^
2300
2301we expected to see a close paren ')' (marked by ^) but did not.
2302
2303=item Expecting close paren for wrapper for nested extended charclass in
2304regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2305
2306(F) While parsing a nested extended character class like:
2307
2308 (?[ ... (?flags:(?[ ... ])) ... ])
2309 ^
2310
2311we expected to see a close paren ')' (marked by ^) but did not.
2312
e0e4a6e3 2313=item Expecting '(?flags:(?[...' in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
27350048 2314
8b6fbf55
FC
2315(F) The C<(?[...])> extended character class regular expression construct
2316only allows character classes (including character class escapes like
2317C<\d>), operators, and parentheses. The one exception is C<(?flags:...)>
2318containing at least one flag and exactly one C<(?[...])> construct.
27350048
FC
2319This allows a regular expression containing just C<(?[...])> to be
2320interpolated. If you see this error message, then you probably
2321have some other C<(?...)> construct inside your character class. See
2322L<perlrecharclass/Extended Bracketed Character Classes>.
2323
baabe3fb 2324=item Experimental aliasing via reference not enabled
1f8155a2 2325
baabe3fb 2326(F) To do aliasing via references, you must first enable the feature:
1f8155a2 2327
baabe3fb
FC
2328 no warnings "experimental::refaliasing";
2329 use feature "refaliasing";
1f8155a2
FC
2330 \$x = \$y;
2331
74d1b2e4
FC
2332=item Experimental %s on scalar is now forbidden
2333
2334(F) An experimental feature added in Perl 5.14 allowed C<each>, C<keys>,
2335C<push>, C<pop>, C<shift>, C<splice>, C<unshift>, and C<values> to be called with a
2336scalar argument. This experiment is considered unsuccessful, and
2337has been removed. The C<postderef> feature may meet your needs better.
2338
30d9c59b
Z
2339=item Experimental subroutine signatures not enabled
2340
2341(F) To use subroutine signatures, you must first enable them:
2342
caa35032 2343 no warnings "experimental::signatures";
30d9c59b
Z
2344 use feature "signatures";
2345 sub foo ($left, $right) { ... }
2346
7b8d334a
GS
2347=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
2348
be771a83
GS
2349(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
2350the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
2351usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
2352e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 2353
6df41af2
GS
2354=item %s: Expression syntax
2355
be771a83
GS
2356(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
2357Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2358
2359=item %s failed--call queue aborted
2360
3c10abe3
AG
2361(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
2362CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
2363queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 2364
e0d4aead 2365=item Failed to close in-place work file %s: %s
502aca56
TC
2366
2367(F) Closing an output file from in-place editing, as with the C<-i>
2368command-line switch, failed.
2369
e0e4a6e3 2370=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
73b437c8 2371
98d31c73 2372(W regexp)(F) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3 2373character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
3c6ca74a
FC
2374in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". In a C<(?[...])>
2375construct, this is an error, rather than a warning. Consider quoting
e0e4a6e3 2376the "-", "\-". The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression
3c6ca74a 2377the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 2378
1b1ee2ef 2379=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 2380
be771a83
GS
2381(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
2382system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
2383details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
2384you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2385
2386=item fcntl is not implemented
2387
2388(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
2389PDP-11 or something?
2390
22846ab4
AB
2391=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
2392
2393(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
2394is not possible.
2395
f337b084
TH
2396=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
2397
d8b5cc61 2398(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string starts with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
2399which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
2400a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 2401C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 2402
a0e213fc
A
2403=item File::Glob::glob() will disappear in perl 5.30. Use File::Glob::bsd_glob() instead.
2404
2405(D deprecated) C<< File::Glob >> has a function called C<< glob >>, which
2406just calls C<< bsd_glob >>. However, its prototype is different from the
2407prototype of C<< CORE::glob >>, and hence, C<< File::Glob::glob >> should
2408not be used.
2409
2410C<< File::Glob::glob() >> was deprecated in perl 5.8.0. A deprecation
2411message was issued from perl 5.26.0 onwards, and the function will
2412disappear in perl 5.30.0.
2413
2414Code using C<< File::Glob::glob() >> should call
2415C<< File::Glob::bsd_glob() >> instead.
2416
af8c498a 2417=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 2418
6c8d78fb
HS
2419(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
2420it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
2421"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
2422write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 2423
af8c498a 2424=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 2425
6c8d78fb
HS
2426(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
2427you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
2428with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
2429read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
2430is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
2431output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
2432
2433=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
2434
2435(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 2436as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
2437previously.
2438
2439=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
2440
2441(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 2442as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
2443
2444=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
2445
2446(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
2447a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
2448happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
2449name.
a0d0e21e 2450
56e90b21
GS
2451=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
2452
be771a83 2453(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 2454some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
2455filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
2456same name?
56e90b21 2457
6df41af2
GS
2458=item Format not terminated
2459
2460(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
2461to the end of your file without finding such a line.
2462
a0d0e21e
LW
2463=item Format %s redefined
2464
e476b1b5 2465(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
2466
2467 {
271595cc 2468 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
2469 eval "format NAME =...";
2470 }
2471
a0d0e21e
LW
2472=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
2473
e476b1b5 2474(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
2475
2476 if ($foo = 123)
2477
2478when you meant
2479
2480 if ($foo == 123)
2481
2482(or something like that).
2483
6df41af2
GS
2484=item %s found where operator expected
2485
56da5a46
RGS
2486(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
2487If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
2488operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
2489operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 2490
a0d0e21e
LW
2491=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
2492
2493(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
2494
2495=item gethostent not implemented
2496
2497(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
2498because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
2499on the Internet.
2500
69282e91 2501=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2502
be771a83
GS
2503(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
2504socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 2505
748a9306
LW
2506=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
2507
2508(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2509C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2510
6df41af2
GS
2511=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2512
be771a83
GS
2513(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2514forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2515L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2516
0f539b13
BF
2517=item given is experimental
2518
7896dde7
Z
2519(S experimental::smartmatch) C<given> depends on smartmatch, which
2520is experimental, so its behavior may change or even be removed
2521in any future release of perl. See the explanation under
2522L<perlsyn/Experimental Details on given and when>.
0f539b13 2523
68567d27
FC
2524=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name (did you forget to
2525declare "my %s"?)
6df41af2 2526
a4edf47d 2527(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2528that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2529declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2530which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2531
e476b1b5
GS
2532=item glob failed (%s)
2533
5ead438e 2534(S glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
73c4e9dc
FC
2535for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2536pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2537nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2538resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2539is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2540in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2541if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2542all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2543think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2544C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2545
a0d0e21e
LW
2546=item Glob not terminated
2547
2548(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2549a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2550not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2551earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2552
b35b96b6
JH
2553=item gmtime(%f) failed
2554
2555(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that it could not handle:
2556too large, too small, or NaN. The returned value is C<undef>.
2557
bcd05b94 2558=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2559
e9200be3 2560(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2561it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2562date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2563not-a-number value).
2564
bcd05b94 2565=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2566
e9200be3 2567(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2568it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2569
6df41af2 2570=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2571
6df41af2
GS
2572(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2573version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2574
2575=item goto must have label
2576
2577(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2578unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2579
6651ba0b
FC
2580=item Goto undefined subroutine%s
2581
2582(F) You tried to call a subroutine with C<goto &sub> syntax, but
2583the indicated subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2584has since been undefined.
2585
6fbc9859 2586=item Group name must start with a non-digit word character in regex; marked by
e0e4a6e3 2587S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1f4f6bf1
YO
2588
2589(F) Group names must follow the rules for perl identifiers, meaning
f26c79ba
FC
2590they must start with a non-digit word character. A common cause of
2591this error is using (?&0) instead of (?0). See L<perlre>.
1f4f6bf1 2592
5a25739d
FC
2593=item ()-group starts with a count
2594
2595(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2596something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2597
fe13d51d 2598=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2599
2600(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2601
a0d0e21e
LW
2602=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2603
be771a83
GS
2604(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2605to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2606created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e 2607
6df41af2
GS
2608=item %s has too many errors
2609
2610(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2611Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2612
61e61fbc
JH
2613=item Hexadecimal float: exponent overflow
2614
d8f2b442 2615(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point has a larger exponent
61e61fbc
JH
2616than the floating point supports.
2617
2618=item Hexadecimal float: exponent underflow
2619
d8f2b442 2620(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point has a smaller exponent
b6d9b423
JH
2621than the floating point supports. With the IEEE 754 floating point,
2622this may also mean that the subnormals (formerly known as denormals)
2623are being used, which may or may not be an error.
61e61fbc 2624
5488d373 2625=item Hexadecimal float: internal error (%s)
cf4f6003
JH
2626
2627(F) Something went horribly bad in hexadecimal float handling.
2628
61e61fbc
JH
2629=item Hexadecimal float: mantissa overflow
2630
2631(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point literal had more bits in
2632the mantissa (the part between the 0x and the exponent, also known as
2633the fraction or the significand) than the floating point supports.
2634
40bca5ae
JH
2635=item Hexadecimal float: precision loss
2636
2637(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point had internally more
2638digits than could be output. This can be caused by unsupported
2639long double formats, or by 64-bit integers not being available
2640(needed to retrieve the digits under some configurations).
2641
2642=item Hexadecimal float: unsupported long double format
2643
2644(F) You have configured Perl to use long doubles but
d8f2b442 2645the internals of the long double format are unknown;
40bca5ae
JH
2646therefore the hexadecimal float output is impossible.
2647
252aa082
JH
2648=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2649
e476b1b5 2650(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2651(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2652L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2653
8903cb82
PP
2654=item Identifier too long
2655
2656(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2657about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2658names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2659of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2660
e0e4a6e3
FC
2661=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class in regex; marked by
2662S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
fc8cd66c 2663
f3ba6905 2664(W regexp) Named Unicode character escapes (C<\N{...}>) may return a
0f44b2a5
FC
2665zero-length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character
2666class its behavior is not well defined. Check that the correct
2667escape has been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
fc8cd66c 2668
283151b7 2669=item Illegal binary digit '%c'
f675dbe5 2670
6df41af2 2671(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2672
6df41af2 2673=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2674
be771a83
GS
2675(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2676binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2677offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2678
6597eb22
FC
2679=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2680
e4d150f1
FC
2681(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype
2682declaration. The '_' in a prototype must be followed by a ';',
2683indicating the rest of the parameters are optional, or one of '@'
2684or '%', since those two will accept 0 or more final parameters.
6597eb22 2685
b913d0b8
FC
2686=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
2687
2688(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as
2689it would any other whitespace, which means you should never see
2690this error when Perl was built using standard options. For some
2691reason, your version of Perl appears to have been built without
2692this support. Talk to your Perl administrator.
2693
bb6b75cd 2694=item Illegal character following sigil in a subroutine signature
d3d9da4a
DM
2695
2696(F) A parameter in a subroutine signature contained an unexpected character
d4e5761f
FC
2697following the C<$>, C<@> or C<%> sigil character. Normally the sigil
2698should be followed by the variable name or C<=> etc. Perhaps you are
d3d9da4a
DM
2699trying use a prototype while in the scope of C<use feature 'signatures'>?
2700For example:
2701
2702 sub foo ($$) {} # legal - a prototype
2703
2704 use feature 'signatures;
2705 sub foo ($$) {} # illegal - was expecting a signature
2706 sub foo ($a, $b)
2707 :prototype($$) {} # legal
2708
2709
d37a9538
ST
2710=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2711
197afce1 2712(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2713Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
30d9c59b
Z
2714Perhaps you were trying to write a subroutine signature but didn't enable
2715that feature first (C<use feature 'signatures'>), so your signature was
2716instead interpreted as a bad prototype.
d37a9538 2717
904d85c5
RGS
2718=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2719
2720(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2721you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2722
8e742a20
MHM
2723=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2724
6903afa2 2725(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2726
a0d0e21e
LW
2727=item Illegal division by zero
2728
be771a83
GS
2729(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2730your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2731meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2732
6df41af2
GS
2733=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2734
be771a83
GS
2735(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2736A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2737number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2738
a0d0e21e
LW
2739=item Illegal modulus zero
2740
be771a83
GS
2741(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2742numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2743
6df41af2 2744=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2745
6df41af2
GS
2746(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2747two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4 2748
283151b7 2749=item Illegal octal digit '%c'
a0d0e21e 2750
d1be9408 2751(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2752
399388f4 2753=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2754
d1be9408 2755(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2756Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2757
ecc6274e
FC
2758=item Illegal operator following parameter in a subroutine signature
2759
2760(F) A parameter in a subroutine signature, was followed by something
2761other than C<=> introducing a default, C<,> or C<)>.
2762
2763 use feature 'signatures';
2764 sub foo ($=1) {} # legal
2765 sub foo ($a = 1) {} # legal
2766 sub foo ($a += 1) {} # illegal
2767 sub foo ($a == 1) {} # illegal
2768
e0e4a6e3 2769=item Illegal pattern in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
c608e803 2770
675fa9ff 2771(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2772
2773 (?+foo)
2774
2775The C<"+"> is valid only when followed by digits, indicating a
2776capturing group. See
2777L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>.
2778
375ed12a
JH
2779=item Illegal suidscript
2780
2781(F) The script run under suidperl was somehow illegal.
2782
fe13d51d 2783=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2784
6df41af2 2785(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2786following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2787
4003ea29
KW
2788=item Illegal user-defined property name
2789
2790(F) You specified a Unicode-like property name in a regular expression
2791pattern (using C<\p{}> or C<\P{}>) that Perl knows isn't an official
2792Unicode property, and was likely meant to be a user-defined property
2793name, but it can't be one of those, as they must begin with either C<In>
2794or C<Is>. Check the spelling. See also
2795L</Can't find Unicode property definition "%s">.
2796
6df41af2 2797=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2798
75b44862 2799(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2800internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2801delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2802
6df41af2 2803=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2804
be771a83
GS
2805(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2806name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2807didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2808ignored.
54310121 2809
6df41af2 2810=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2811
be771a83
GS
2812(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2813the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2814system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2815times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2816would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2817
be771a83
GS
2818Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2819also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2820
e0e4a6e3
FC
2821=item Incomplete expression within '(?[ ])' in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE>
2822in m/%s/
0d0b4b3b 2823
675fa9ff 2824(F) There was a syntax error within the C<(?[ ])>. This can happen if the
0d0b4b3b
KW
2825expression inside the construct was completely empty, or if there are
2826too many or few operands for the number of operators. Perl is not smart
2827enough to give you a more precise indication as to what is wrong.
2828
6fbc9859
MH
2829=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on
2830parent '%s'
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2831
2832(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2833C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2834documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2835
cdd6375d
MH
2836=item Indentation on line %d of here-doc doesn't match delimiter
2837
2838(F) You have an indented here-document where one or more of its lines
2839have whitespace at the beginning that does not match the closing
2840delimiter.
2841
2842For example, line 2 below is wrong because it does not have at least
28432 spaces, but lines 1 and 3 are fine because they have at least 2:
2844
2845 if ($something) {
2846 print <<~EOF;
2847 Line 1
2848 Line 2 not
2849 Line 3
2850 EOF
2851 }
2852
2853Note that tabs and spaces are compared strictly, meaning 1 tab will
2854not match 8 spaces.
2855
6a2ed79a 2856=item Infinite recursion in regex
1a147d38
YO
2857
2858(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2859text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2860either consume text or fail.
2861
714f94d1
FC
2862=item Infinite recursion via empty pattern
2863
2864(F) You tried to use the empty pattern inside of a regex code block,
2865for instance C</(?{ s!!! })/>, which resulted in re-executing
2866the same pattern, which is an infinite loop which is broken by
2867throwing an exception.
2868
f99042c8 2869=item Initialization of state variables in list currently forbidden
6dbe9451 2870
f99042c8
Z
2871(F) C<state> only permits initializing a single variable, specified
2872without parentheses. So C<state $a = 42> and C<state @a = qw(a b c)> are
2873allowed, but not C<state ($a) = 42> or C<(state $a) = 42>. To initialize
2874more than one C<state> variable, initialize them one at a time.
6dbe9451 2875
2186f873
FC
2876=item %%s[%s] in scalar context better written as $%s[%s]
2877
2878(W syntax) In scalar context, you've used an array index/value slice
2879(indicated by %) to select a single element of an array. Generally
2880it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $). The difference
2881is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both in the value it
2882returns and when evaluating its argument, while C<%foo[&bar]> provides
2883a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things if you're
2884expecting only one subscript. When called in list context, it also
2885returns the index (what C<&bar> returns) in addition to the value.
2886
2887=item %%s{%s} in scalar context better written as $%s{%s}
2888
2889(W syntax) In scalar context, you've used a hash key/value slice
2890(indicated by %) to select a single element of a hash. Generally it's
2891better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $). The difference
2892is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both in the value
2893it returns and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> and
2894provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2895if you're expecting only one subscript. When called in list context,
2896it also returns the key in addition to the value.
2897
a0d0e21e
LW
2898=item Insecure dependency in %s
2899
8b1a09fc 2900(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2901The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2902setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2903tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2904from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2905such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2906L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2907
2908=item Insecure directory in %s
2909
be771a83
GS
2910(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2911setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2912the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2913See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2914
62f468fc 2915=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2916
2917(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2918setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2919C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2920supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2921the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2922
0e9be77f
DM
2923=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2924
2925(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2926expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2927function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2928See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2929
b9ef414d
FC
2930=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2931
2932(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2933or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2934integers for your architecture.
2935
a7ae9550
GS
2936=item Integer overflow in %s number
2937
35928bc5 2938(S overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2939either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2940your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2941On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2942representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
29430b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2944transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2945internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2946operations.
bbce6d69 2947
fc89ca81
FC
2948=item Integer overflow in srand
2949
2950(S overflow) The number you have passed to srand is too big to fit
2951in your architecture's integer representation. The number has been
2952replaced with the largest integer supported (0xFFFFFFFF on 32-bit
2953architectures). This means you may be getting less randomness than
2954you expect, because different random seeds above the maximum will
2955return the same sequence of random numbers.
2956
46314c13
JP
2957=item Integer overflow in version
2958
18da5252
FC
2959=item Integer overflow in version %d
2960
784d71ed
FC
2961(W overflow) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for
2962the size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
f084e84f 2963because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use an
784d71ed
FC
2964element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by trying
2965to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like 100/9.
46314c13 2966
e0e4a6e3 2967=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2968
2969(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
e0e4a6e3 2970The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2971discovered.
2972
748a9306
LW
2973=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2974
be771a83
GS
2975(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2976you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2977to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2978L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2979Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2980terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2981
870978ae
FC
2982=item internal %<num>p might conflict with future printf extensions
2983
2984(S internal) Perl's internal routine that handles C<printf> and C<sprintf>
2985formatting follows a slightly different set of rules when called from
2986C or XS code. Specifically, formats consisting of digits followed
2987by "p" (e.g., "%7p") are reserved for future use. If you see this
2988message, then an XS module tried to call that routine with one such
2989reserved format.
2990
e0e4a6e3 2991=item Internal urp in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
b45f050a 2992
fa816bf3 2993(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
e0e4a6e3 2994S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
7253e4e3 2995discovered.
a0d0e21e 2996
6df41af2
GS
2997=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2998
75b44862 2999(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 3000followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 3001operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 3002L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 3003
f51551f7
FC
3004=item In '(?...)', the '(' and '?' must be adjacent in regex;
3005marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
3006
3007(F) The two-character sequence C<"(?"> in this context in a regular
3008expression pattern should be an indivisible token, with nothing
3009intervening between the C<"("> and the C<"?">, but you separated them
3010with whitespace.
3011
d9790612 3012=item In '(*...)', the '(' and '*' must be adjacent in regex;
edf23316
FC
3013marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
3014
d9790612 3015(F) The two-character sequence C<"(*"> in this context in a regular
edf23316 3016expression pattern should be an indivisible token, with nothing
d9790612
KW
3017intervening between the C<"("> and the C<"*">, but you separated them.
3018Fix the pattern and retry.
edf23316 3019
09bef843
SB
3020=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
3021
a4a4c9e2 3022(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
3023by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
3024
3025=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
3026
a4a4c9e2 3027(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 3028recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 3029
e0e4a6e3
FC
3030=item Invalid character in charnames alias definition; marked by
3031S<<-- HERE> in '%s
225fb84f
KW
3032
3033(F) You tried to create a custom alias for a character name, with
3034the C<:alias> option to C<use charnames> and the specified character in
3035the indicated name isn't valid. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
3036
c8028aa6
TC
3037=item Invalid \0 character in %s for %s: %s\0%s
3038
fa3234e3
FC
3039(W syscalls) Embedded \0 characters in pathnames or other system call
3040arguments produce a warning as of 5.20. The parts after the \0 were
3041formerly ignored by system calls.
c8028aa6 3042
e0e4a6e3 3043=item Invalid character in \N{...}; marked by S<<-- HERE> in \N{%s}
a690c7c4
FC
3044
3045(F) Only certain characters are valid for character names. The
3046indicated one isn't. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
3047
c635e13b
PP
3048=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
3049
be771a83
GS
3050(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
3051L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 3052
e0e4a6e3
FC
3053=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by
3054S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
9e08bc66 3055
98d31c73 3056(W regexp)(F) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
9e08bc66
ST
3057didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
3058from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
98d31c73
FC
3059The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD)
3060instead, except within S<C<(?[ ])>>, where it is a fatal error.
e0e4a6e3 3061The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
9e08bc66
ST
3062escape was discovered.
3063
8149aa9f
FC
3064=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
3065
e0e4a6e3
FC
3066=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...} in regex; marked by
3067S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
aec0ef10 3068
8149aa9f 3069(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
3070number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
30710 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 3072
6651ba0b
FC
3073=item Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
3074
3075(F) The module argument to perl's B<-m> and B<-M> command-line options
3076cannot contain single colons in the module name, but only in the
3077arguments after "=". In other words, B<-MFoo::Bar=:baz> is ok, but
3078B<-MFoo:Bar=baz> is not.
3079
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3080=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
3081
162a3e34
FC
3082(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
3083where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
3084the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
3085a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 3086
40e4140b
FC
3087=item Invalid negative number (%s) in chr
3088
3089(W utf8) You passed a negative number to C<chr>. Negative numbers are
abc0aa9d 3090not valid character numbers, so it returns the Unicode replacement
40e4140b
FC
3091character (U+FFFD).
3092
74d1b2e4
FC
3093=item Invalid number '%s' for -C option.
3094
3095(F) You supplied a number to the -C option that either has extra leading
3096zeroes or overflows perl's unsigned integer representation.
3097
6651ba0b
FC
3098=item invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
3099
8ff21bfe
FC
3100(S debugging) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags. Call perl
3101with the B<-D> option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.
982c4ecb 3102See also L<perlrun/-Dletters>.
6651ba0b 3103
6e8a73f2 3104=item Invalid quantifier in {,} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
35cd12d1
HS
3105
3106(F) The pattern looks like a {min,max} quantifier, but the min or max
3107could not be parsed as a valid number - either it has leading zeroes,
3108or it represents too big a number to cope with. The S<<-- HERE> shows
3109where in the regular expression the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
3110
e0e4a6e3 3111=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
3112
3113(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
3114greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
3115C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
e0e4a6e3 3116up to C<ff>. The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 3117problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 3118
d1573ac7 3119=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
3120
3121(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
3122character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
3123
09bef843
SB
3124=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
3125
0120eecf 3126(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
3127elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
3128parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
3129See L<attributes>.
09bef843 3130
b4581f09
JH
3131=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
3132
2bfc5f71
FC
3133(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
3134than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
3135If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
3136list was terminated too soon.
3137
2c86d456
DG
3138=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
3139
fa816bf3 3140(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
3141A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
3142decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
3143v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 3144The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
3145See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
3146
49704364 3147=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 3148
49704364
LW
3149(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
3150See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 3151
49704364 3152(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 3153silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 3154
2c86d456
DG
3155=item Invalid version format (%s)
3156
fa816bf3 3157(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
3158A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
3159decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
3160v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
3161must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
3162optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
3163trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
3164after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
3165text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
3166for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 3167
798ae1b7
DG
3168=item Invalid version object
3169
fa816bf3
FC
3170(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
3171Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
3172an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 3173
cd209d9d 3174=item In '(*VERB...)', the '(' and '*' must be adjacent in regex;
e0e4a6e3 3175marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
675fa9ff 3176
edf23316
FC
3177(F) The two-character sequence C<"(*"> in this context in a regular
3178expression pattern should be an indivisible token, with nothing
3179intervening between the C<"("> and the C<"*">, but you separated them.
675fa9ff 3180
a0d0e21e
LW
3181=item ioctl is not implemented
3182
3183(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
3184strange for a machine that supports C.
3185
c289d2f7
JH
3186=item ioctl() on unopened %s
3187
3188(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 3189Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 3190
fe13d51d 3191=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
3192
3193(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 3194you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
3195with 'useperlio'.
3196
80cbd5ad
JH
3197=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
3198
3199(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 3200neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 3201
6e8a73f2 3202=item '%s' is an unknown bound type in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
64935bc6
KW
3203
3204(F) You used C<\b{...}> or C<\B{...}> and the C<...> is not known to
3205Perl. The current valid ones are given in
3206L<perlrebackslash/\b{}, \b, \B{}, \B>.
3207
1972ac5c 3208=item %s() is deprecated on :utf8 handles. This will be a fatal error in Perl 5.30
74d1b2e4 3209
dd6d5da4 3210(D deprecated) The sysread(), recv(), syswrite() and send() operators are
74d1b2e4
FC
3211deprecated on handles that have the C<:utf8> layer, either explicitly, or
3212implicitly, eg., with the C<:encoding(UTF-16LE)> layer.
3213
3214Both sysread() and recv() currently use only the C<:utf8> flag for the stream,
3215ignoring the actual layers. Since sysread() and recv() do no UTF-8
3216validation they can end up creating invalidly encoded scalars.
3217
3218Similarly, syswrite() and send() use only the C<:utf8> flag, otherwise ignoring
3219any layers. If the flag is set, both write the value UTF-8 encoded, even if
3220the layer is some different encoding, such as the example above.
3221
3222Ideally, all of these operators would completely ignore the C<:utf8> state,
3223working only with bytes, but this would result in silently breaking existing
1972ac5c
A
3224code.
3225
3226In Perl 5.30, it will no longer be possible to use sysread(), recv(),
3227syswrite() or send() to read or send bytes from/to :utf8 handles.
74d1b2e4 3228
d4360efa 3229=item "%s" is more clearly written simply as "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
acdfc3b6 3230
d4360efa 3231(W regexp) (only under C<S<use re 'strict'>> or within C<(?[...])>)
30b17cc1 3232
3f673807
FC
3233You specified a character that has the given plainer way of writing it, and
3234which is also portable to platforms running with different character sets.
acdfc3b6 3235
37398dc1 3236=item $* is no longer supported. Its use will be fatal in Perl 5.30
a678626e
A
3237
3238(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
3239perls, has been removed as of 5.10.0 and is no longer supported. In
3240previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
3241matching within a string.
3242
3243Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
3244modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
3245with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
3246then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
3247
37398dc1
A
3248Use of this variable will be a fatal error in Perl 5.30.
3249
3250=item $# is no longer supported. Its use will be fatal in Perl 5.30
a678626e
A
3251
3252(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
3253perls, has been removed as of 5.10.0 and is no longer supported. You
3254should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
3255
37398dc1
A
3256Use of this variable will be a fatal error in Perl 5.30.
3257
ccf3535a 3258=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 3259
6903afa2
FC
3260(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
3261overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
3262an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 3263
ccf3535a 3264=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 3265
04a80ee0
RGS
3266(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
3267unaware of.
6ad11d81 3268
5a25739d
FC
3269=item -i used with no filenames on the command line, reading from STDIN
3270
3271(S inplace) The C<-i> option was passed on the command line, indicating
3272that the script is intended to edit files in place, but no files were
3273given. This is usually a mistake, since editing STDIN in place doesn't
3274make sense, and can be confusing because it can make perl look like
3275it is hanging when it is really just trying to read from STDIN. You
3276should either pass a filename to edit, or remove C<-i> from the command
3277line. See L<perlrun> for more details.
3278
aec0ef10 3279=item Junk on end of regexp in regex m/%s/
a0d0e21e
LW
3280
3281(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
3282
3283=item Label not found for "last %s"
3284
be771a83
GS
3285(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
3286of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
3287L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3288
3289=item Label not found for "next %s"
3290
3291(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
3292that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
3293L<perlfunc/last>.
3294
3295=item Label not found for "redo %s"
3296
3297(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
3298that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
3299L<perlfunc/last>.
3300
85ab1d1d 3301=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 3302
85ab1d1d 3303(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
3304effective uids or gids failed.
3305
49704364
LW
3306=item length/code after end of string in unpack
3307
d7f8936a 3308(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
3309length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
3310an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 3311
25e26107 3312=item length() used on %s (did you mean "scalar(%s)"?)
e508c8a4 3313
0d46a4e7
FC
3314(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
3315probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
3316
3317Array size can be obtained by doing:
3318
3319 scalar(@array);
3320
3321The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
3322
3323 scalar(keys %hash);
3324
f0e67a1d
Z
3325=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
3326
d4fe7078
RS
3327(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
3328(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
3329couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
3330of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
6903afa2 3331it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
3332
3333=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
3334
3335(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
3336detectable way.
3337
69282e91 3338=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 3339
be771a83
GS
3340(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
3341to check the return value of your socket() call? See
3342L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 3343
6651ba0b
FC
3344=item List form of piped open not implemented
3345
3346(F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments
3347form of C<open> does not support pipes, such as C<open($pipe, '|-', @args)>.
3348Use the two-argument C<open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')> form instead.
3349
2a6971a9
KW
3350=item Literal vertical space in [] is illegal except under /x in regex;
3351marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
3352
3353(F) (only under C<S<use re 'strict'>> or within C<(?[...])>)
3354
3355Likely you forgot the C</x> modifier or there was a typo in the pattern.
3356For example, did you really mean to match a form-feed? If so, all the
3357ASCII vertical space control characters are representable by escape
3358sequences which won't present such a jarring appearance as your pattern
3359does when displayed.
3360
3361 \r carriage return
3362 \f form feed
3363 \n line feed
3364 \cK vertical tab
3365
dc6bb7ba
FC
3366=item %s: loadable library and perl binaries are mismatched (got handshake key %p, needed %p)
3367
3368(P) A dynamic loading library C<.so> or C<.dll> was being loaded into the
3369process that was built against a different build of perl than the
3370said library was compiled against. Reinstalling the XS module will
3371likely fix this error.
3372
8b7358b9
KW
3373=item Locale '%s' contains (at least) the following characters which
3374have non-standard meanings: %s The Perl program will use the standard
3375meanings
3376
3377(W locale) You are using the named UTF-8 locale. UTF-8 locales are
3378expected to adhere to the Unicode standard. This message arises when
3379perl found some anomalies in the locale, and is notifying you that there
3380are potential problems.
3381
3382The most common cause of this warning is that, contrary to the claims,
3383Unicode is not completely locale insensitive. Turkish and some related
3384languages have two types of C<"I"> characters. One is dotted in both
3385upper- and lowercase, and the other is dotless in both cases. Unicode
3386allows a locale to use either these rules, or the rules used in all
3387other instances, where there is only one type of C<"I">, which is
3388dotless in the uppercase, and dotted in the lower. The perl core does
3389not (yet) handle the Turkish case, and this warns you of that. Instead,
3390the L<Unicode::Casing> module allows you to mostly implement the Turkish
3391casing rules.
3392
3393But there are other locales which are defective in not following the
3394Unicode standard, and this message is raised if one of these is
3395detected.
3396
8c6180a9
KW
3397=item Locale '%s' may not work well.%s
3398
780fcc9f 3399(W locale) You are using the named locale, which is a non-UTF-8 one, and
dae67c56
KW
3400which perl has determined is not fully compatible with what it can
3401handle. The second C<%s> gives a reason.