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Correct perldiag/Ambiguous use of -%s
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous overloaded argument to %s resolved as %s
80
81(W ambiguous) You called C<keys>, C<values> or C<each> on an object that had
82overloading of C<%{}> or C<@{}> or both. In such a case, the object is
83dereferenced according to its overloading, not its underlying reference type.
84The warning is issued when C<%{}> overloading exists on a blessed arrayref,
85when C<@{}> overloading exists on a blessed hashref, or when both overloadings
86are defined (in which case C<%{}> is used). You can force the interpretation
c69ca1d4 87of the object by explicitly dereferencing it as an array or hash instead of
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88passing the object itself to C<keys>, C<values> or C<each>.
89
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90=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
91
92(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
93all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
94first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
95C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
96
6df41af2 97=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 98
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99(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
100you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
101a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 102
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103=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
104
105(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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106bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
107(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
108like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
109assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
110clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
111really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 112
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113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
114
115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
116asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
117named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
118the varable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
119function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
120and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
121
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122=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s%s} resolved to %c%s%s
123
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124(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo
125represents the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for
126element number 2 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write
127C<$foo[2]>, or you might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to
128the function named foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it
129returns. If you meant that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
130
131In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
132to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
133C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length>
134followed by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what
135you want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/>
136to the unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to
137something that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by
138simply turning off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 139
bdac9d71 140=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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141
142(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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143string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
144the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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145write C<-foo()>.
146
6df41af2 147=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 148
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149(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
150redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
151redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 152
6df41af2 153=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 154
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155(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
156redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
157into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
158though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
159which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 160
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161 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
162 while (<STDIN>) {
163 print;
164 print OUT;
165 }
166 close OUT;
c9f97d15 167
6df41af2 168=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 169
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170(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
171transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 172one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 173a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
174hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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175you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
176alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 177
6df41af2 178=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 179
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180(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
181with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
182impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
183for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 184
6df41af2 185=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 186
6df41af2 187(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 188
b0fdf69e 189=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 190
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191(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
192subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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193
194 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 195 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 196 &do_something
a0d0e21e 197
8ea97a1e 198=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 199
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200(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
201such as:
5f05dabc 202
203 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 204 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 205
8ea97a1e 206or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 207
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208 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
209 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 210
6df41af2 211=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 212
6df41af2 213(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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214name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
215error.
a0d0e21e 216
f86702cc 217=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 218
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219(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
220that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
221will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 222
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223=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
224
225(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
226forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
227data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
228the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
229If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
230the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
231
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232=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
233
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234(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
235spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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236
237=item assertion botched: %s
238
239(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
240
241=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
242
243(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
244
245=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
246
247(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
248must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
249know which context to supply to the right side.
250
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251=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
252
4447dfc1 253(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
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254thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
255Usually it's a good idea to first collect the return values of the
256created threads by joining them, and only then exit from the main
257thread. See L<threads>.
258
2393f1b9 259=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 260
49293501 261(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 262the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 263
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264=item Attempt to bless into a reference
265
266(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
267the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
268supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
269
270 bless $self, $proto;
271
272when you intended
273
274 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
275
276If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
277of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
278example by:
279
280 bless $self, "$proto";
281
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282=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
283
284(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
285which is not in its key set.
286
287=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
288
289(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
290declared readonly from a restricted hash.
291
de42a5a9 292=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 293
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294(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
295that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
296outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 297
54310121 298=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 299
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300(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
301strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
302strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
303of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 304
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305=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
306
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307(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
308free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
309SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
310free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
311try to free it.
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312
313=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
314
e476b1b5 315(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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316
317=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
318
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319(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
320see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
321earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
322This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
323that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
324mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
325corrupted.
a0d0e21e 326
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327=item Attempt to join self
328
329(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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330impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
331to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 332
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333=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
334
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335(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
336function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
337means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
338invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
339literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
340avoid this warning.
84902520 341
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342=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
343
344(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
345compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
346unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
347L<perlvar/%INC>.
348
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349=item Attempt to set length of freed array
350
351(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
352can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
353of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
354
355 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
356 $$r = 503
357
b7a902f4 358=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
359
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360(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
361used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
362dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 363
c32124fe
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364=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
365
366(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "locked"
367attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
368effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in the next major
369release of Perl 5.
370
f1a3ce43
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371=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
372
373(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 374attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
259976bd 375had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in the next major
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376release of Perl 5.
377
de42a5a9 378=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 379
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380(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
381or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 382S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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383S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
384
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385=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
386
496a33f5 387(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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388substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
389most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
390
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391=item Bad filehandle: %s
392
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393(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
394symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
395open(), or did it in another package.
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396
397=item Bad free() ignored
398
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399(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
400been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 401setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 402
9ea8bc6d 403This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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404dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
405which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 406
aa689395 407=item Bad hash
408
409(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
410
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411=item Badly placed ()'s
412
413(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
414of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
415Perl yourself.
416
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417=item Bad name after %s::
418
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419(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
420didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
421of quotes, so
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422
423 $var = 'myvar';
424 $sym = mypack::$var;
425
426is not the same as
427
428 $var = 'myvar';
429 $sym = "mypack::$var";
430
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431=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
432
433(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
434plugin API.
435
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436=item Bad realloc() ignored
437
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438(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
439never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
440by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 441
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442=item Bad symbol for array
443
444(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
445wasn't a symbol table entry.
446
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447=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
448
449(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
450that wasn't a symbol table entry.
451
452
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453=item Bad symbol for filehandle
454
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455(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
456that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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457
458=item Bad symbol for hash
459
460(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
461wasn't a symbol table entry.
462
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463=item Bareword found in conditional
464
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465(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
466conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
467of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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468
469 open FOO || die;
470
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471It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
472a bareword:
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473
474 use constant TYPO => 1;
475 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
476
477The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
478
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479=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
480
481(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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482subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
483symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
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484
485=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
486
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487(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
488compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
489you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 490
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491=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
492
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493(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
494subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
495exited.
a0d0e21e 496
68dc0745 497=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
498
499(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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500implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
501occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
502be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
503depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 504
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505=item \1 better written as $1
506
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507(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
508The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
509substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
510because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
511there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 512
252aa082
JH
513=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
514
e476b1b5 515(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
516(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
517L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 518
69282e91 519=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 520
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521(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
522check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 523
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JH
524=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
525
526(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
527Check you control flow and number of arguments.
528
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JH
529=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
530
e476b1b5 531(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 532
4633a7c4
LW
533=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
534
be771a83 535(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
b45f050a 536copyable.
4633a7c4 537
f675dbe5
CB
538=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
539
be771a83
GS
540(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
541iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
542which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 543
a0d0e21e
LW
544=item Callback called exit
545
4929bf7b 546(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
547exited by calling exit.
548
6df41af2 549=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 550
be771a83
GS
551(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
552parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
553that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
554early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
555subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
556checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
557function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
558the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 559
49704364 560=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
561
562(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
563compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
564attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
565See L<perlfunc/pack>.
566
49704364 567=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
568
569(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
570format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
571
5c1f4d79
NC
572=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
573
574(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
575then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
576triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
577from that type of reference to a typeglob.
578
ba2fdce6
NC
579=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
580
581(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
582be directly assigned not.
583
b5d97229
RGS
584=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
585
586(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
587either with open() or binmode().
588
96ebfdd7
RK
589=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
590
591(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
592integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
593to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
594
a0d0e21e
LW
595=item Can't bless non-reference value
596
597(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
598encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
599
dc57907a
RGS
600=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
601
0d863452
RH
602(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
603a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
604
605=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 606
0d863452
RH
607(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
608
a0d0e21e
LW
609=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
610
611(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
612functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
613in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
614
6df41af2
GS
615=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
616
617(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
618object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
619like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
620
621 $BADREF = undef;
622 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
623 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
624
a0d0e21e
LW
625=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
626
54310121 627(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
628ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
629didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
630object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
631
632=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
633
634(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
635object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
636defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
637Something like this will reproduce the error:
638
639 $BADREF = 42;
640 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
641 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
642
a0d0e21e
LW
643=item Can't chdir to %s
644
645(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
646that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
647
0545a864 648=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 649
be771a83
GS
650(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
651nosuid.
104d25b7 652
6df41af2
GS
653=item Can't coerce array into hash
654
655(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
656information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
657only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
658
a0d0e21e
LW
659=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
660
661(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 662(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
663say things like:
664
665 *foo += 1;
666
667You CAN say
668
669 $foo = *foo;
670 $foo += 1;
671
672but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
673
674=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
675
676(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 677(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
678
679=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
680
681(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 682(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 683
0d863452 684=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 685
0d863452
RH
686(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
687or C<default> block.
688
a0d0e21e
LW
689=item Can't create pipe mailbox
690
be771a83
GS
691(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
692quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 693
eb64745e 694=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 695
2f7e735d 696(F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared with a specific
30c282f6 697class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration. The semantics may be
2f7e735d 698extended for other types of variables in future.
eb64745e
GS
699
700=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
701
30c282f6
NC
702(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
703"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 704
6df41af2
GS
705=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
706
be771a83
GS
707(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
708a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 709
a0d0e21e
LW
710=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
711
be771a83
GS
712(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
713reason.
a0d0e21e 714
54310121 715=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 716
be771a83
GS
717(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
718reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
719C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 720
10f9c03d 721=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 722
e476b1b5 723(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
724characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
725inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 726
7253e4e3 727=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 728
b45f050a 729(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 730regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 731regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 732
a0d0e21e
LW
733=item Can't do waitpid with flags
734
be771a83
GS
735(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
736waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 737
a0d0e21e
LW
738=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
739
be771a83
GS
740(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
741point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
742line.
a0d0e21e 743
1109a392
MHM
744=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
745
746(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
747or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
748little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
749See L<perlfunc/pack>.
750
a0d0e21e
LW
751=item Can't exec "%s": %s
752
d1be9408 753(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
754named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
755permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
756C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
757architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
758can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
759#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
760
761=item Can't exec %s
762
be771a83
GS
763(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
764that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
765need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
766
767=item Can't execute %s
768
be771a83
GS
769(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
770found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 771
6df41af2 772=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 773
be771a83
GS
774(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
775is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 776
56ca2fc0
JH
777=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
778
779(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
780could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
781See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
782for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 783
6df41af2
GS
784=item Can't find label %s
785
be771a83
GS
786(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
787possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
788
789=item Can't find %s on PATH
790
be771a83
GS
791(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
792found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 793
6df41af2 794=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 795
be771a83
GS
796(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
797found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
798script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
799
800=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
801
be771a83
GS
802(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
803that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
804nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 805
fb73857a 806 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
807
be771a83
GS
808If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
809unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
810editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 811
660a4616
TS
812=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
813
814(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property (for
e1b711da
KW
815example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase letters). If you did mean to use a
816Unicode property, see
817L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
818for a complete list of available properties.
660a4616
TS
819If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
820by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
821possible C<\E>).
822
b3647a36 823=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 824
be771a83
GS
825(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
826pipeline.
a0d0e21e 827
b3647a36
SR
828=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
829
c973c02e 830(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
831after five seconds.
832
748a9306
LW
833=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
834
be771a83
GS
835(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
836between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
837Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
838the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
839account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
840the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
841the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
842the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
843if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
844because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
845appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
846and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
847routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
848shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
849only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 850
a0d0e21e
LW
851=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
852
be771a83
GS
853(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
854pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
855
856=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
857
748a9306
LW
858(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
859mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 860
6df41af2 861=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 862
be771a83
GS
863(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
864loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
865
866=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
867
be771a83
GS
868(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
869a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
870you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
871See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 872
9850bf21 873=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 874
9850bf21
RH
875(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
876comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
877as the reduce() function in List::Util).
878
c74ace89 879=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 880
be771a83 881(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 882"string" or block.
b150fb22 883
6df41af2
GS
884=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
885
be771a83
GS
886(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
887subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
888cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
889routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 890
0b5b802d
GS
891=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
892
be771a83
GS
893(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
894signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
895signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
896processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
897situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
898may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 899
e2c0f81f
DG
900=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
901
902(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
903attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
904process identifier.
905
6df41af2 906=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 907
6df41af2 908(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
909except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
910block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
911block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
912usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
913inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
914L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 915
2c7d6b9c
RGS
916=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
917
918(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
919package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
920
b8170e59
JB
921=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
922
923(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
924may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
925incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
926between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 927extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
928installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
929extensions.
930
748a9306
LW
931=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
932
2ba9eb46 933(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 934lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
935localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
936package name.
937
6df41af2 938=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 939
6df41af2
GS
940(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
941handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 942pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 943that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 944
ea071790 945=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
946
947(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
948found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
949unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
950need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
951the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
952to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
953L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 954
6df41af2
GS
955=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
956
be771a83
GS
957(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
958autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
959are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
960the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 961
b8170e59
JB
962=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
963
964(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
965for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
966unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
967
a0d0e21e
LW
968=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
969
970(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
971functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 972method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
973
974=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
975
be771a83
GS
976(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
977doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 978
2f7da168
RK
979=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
980
981(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
982e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
983
3e3baf6d
TB
984=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
985
be771a83
GS
986(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
987VMS.
3e3baf6d 988
a0d0e21e
LW
989=item Can't modify %s in %s
990
be771a83
GS
991(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
992to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 993
54310121 994=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
995
996(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
997a NULL.
998
6df41af2
GS
999=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
1000
1001(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
1002such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
1003
5f05dabc 1004=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1005
5f05dabc 1006(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1007buffer.
1008
6df41af2
GS
1009=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1010
1011(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1012there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1013count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1014grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1015though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1016once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1017
a0d0e21e
LW
1018=item Can't open %s: %s
1019
c47ff5f1 1020(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
1021filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
1022switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
1023is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
1024the command line.
a0d0e21e 1025
9a869a14
RGS
1026=item Can't open a reference
1027
1028(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
1029using the 3-arg open() syntax :
1030
1031 open FH, '>', $ref;
1032
1033but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1034open is not supported.
1035
a0d0e21e
LW
1036=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1037
be771a83
GS
1038(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1039You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1040as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1041">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1042
748a9306
LW
1043=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1044
be771a83
GS
1045(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1046redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1047the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1048
1049=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1050
be771a83
GS
1051(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1052redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1053command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1054
1055=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1056
be771a83
GS
1057(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1058redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1059the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1060
1061=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1062
be771a83
GS
1063(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1064redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1065for stdout.
748a9306 1066
2b8ca739 1067=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1068
1069(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1070
fa3aa65a
JC
1071If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1072shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1073you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1074
6df41af2
GS
1075=item Can't read CRTL environ
1076
1077(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1078from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1079missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1080or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1081searched.
6df41af2 1082
6df41af2
GS
1083=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1084
1085(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1086there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1087count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1088or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1089though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1090loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1091
64977eb6 1092=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1093
be771a83
GS
1094(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1095file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1096the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1097
a0d0e21e
LW
1098=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1099
e476b1b5 1100(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1101probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1102
748a9306
LW
1103=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1104
be771a83
GS
1105(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1106to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1107
fe13d51d 1108=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1109
be771a83
GS
1110(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1111to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
1112method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1113
cd06dffe
GS
1114=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1115
be771a83
GS
1116(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1117temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1118is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1119
96ebfdd7
RK
1120=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1121
1122(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1123there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1124
78f9721b
SM
1125=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1126
1127(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1128but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1129to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1130the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1131list context.
1132
a0d0e21e
LW
1133=item Can't stat script "%s"
1134
be771a83
GS
1135(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1136open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1137
a0d0e21e
LW
1138=item Can't take log of %g
1139
fb73857a 1140(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1141negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1142standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1143negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1144
1145=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1146
1147(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a 1148negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1149with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1150
1151=item Can't undef active subroutine
1152
1153(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1154however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1155redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1156
1157=item Can't unshift
1158
1159(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1160as the main Perl stack.
1161
c81225bc 1162=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1163
be771a83
GS
1164(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1165into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1166specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1167indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1168
1db89ea5
BS
1169=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1170
e27ad1f2 1171(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1172table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1173for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1174
96ebfdd7
RK
1175=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1176
1177(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1178be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1179
6df41af2
GS
1180=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1181
be771a83
GS
1182(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1183references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1184
90b75b61 1185=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1186
1187(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1188Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1189provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1190
1109a392
MHM
1191=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1192
1193(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1194byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1195allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1196
6df41af2
GS
1197=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1198
be771a83
GS
1199(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1200foreach.
6df41af2 1201
aab6a793 1202=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1203
be771a83
GS
1204(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1205is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1206(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1207have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1208weren't.
1209
6d3b25aa
RGS
1210=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1211
1212(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1213that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1214For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1215is inside a big-endian group.
1216
c07a80fd 1217=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1218
1219(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1220You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd 1221and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1222Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1223lexical variable.
1224
a0d0e21e
LW
1225=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1226
1227(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1228reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1229test the type of the reference, if need be.
1230
748a9306 1231=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1232
be771a83
GS
1233(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1234references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1235
748a9306
LW
1236=item Can't use subscript on %s
1237
1238(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1239subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1240didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1241
6df41af2
GS
1242=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1243
75b44862
GS
1244(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1245creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1246backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1247expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1248value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1249instead.
6df41af2 1250
0d863452 1251=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1252
0d863452
RH
1253(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1254loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1255from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1256or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1257
810b8aa5
GS
1258=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1259
1260(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1261references can be weakened.
1262
5f05dabc 1263=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1264
be771a83
GS
1265(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1266with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1267Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1268
4a68bf9d 1269=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1270
17a3df4c
KW
1271(F|W deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
1272It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl 5.16. In the
1273cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
1274derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1275
1276Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well.
f9d13529 1277
f337b084 1278=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1279
1280(W pack) You said
1281
1282 pack("C", $x)
1283
1284where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1285only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1286and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1287
1288 pack("C", $x & 255)
1289
1290If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1291instead.
1292
f337b084
TH
1293=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1294
1295(W pack) You said
1296
1297 pack("U0W", $x)
1298
1299where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1300all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1301meant:
1302
1303 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1304
1305=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1306
1307(W pack) You said
1308
1309 pack("c", $x)
1310
1311where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1312is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1313and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1314
1315 pack("c", $x & 255);
1316
1317If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1318instead.
1319
f337b084
TH
1320=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1321
1322(W unpack) You tried something like
1323
1324 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1325
1a147d38 1326where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1327below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1328modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1329
1330 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1331
1332=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1333
1334(W pack) You tried something like
1335
1336 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1337
1a147d38
YO
1338where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1339value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1340uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1341
1342 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1343
1344=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1345
1346(W unpack) You tried something like
1347
1348 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1349
1a147d38
YO
1350where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1351value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1352uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1353
1354 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1355
96ebfdd7
RK
1356=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1357
1358(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1359
abc7ecad
SP
1360=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1361
1362(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1363a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1364
541ed3a9
FC
1365=item Closure prototype called
1366
1367(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1368handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1369This subroutine cannot be called.
1370
49704364
WL
1371=item Code missing after '/'
1372
1373(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1374template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1375
0876b9a0
KW
1376=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1377
9ae3ac1a
KW
1378=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, no properties match it; all inverse properties do
1379
0876b9a0
KW
1380(W utf8) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum of U+10FFFF.
1381
1382Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code
1383points, up to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on
1384your system, but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems.
1385At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code points up to
13860x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require
1387larger than a 32 bit word.
1388
9ae3ac1a
KW
1389None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1390code point. For example,
1391
1392 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1393
1394will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1395
1396 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1397
1398will match.
1399
6df41af2
GS
1400=item %s: Command not found
1401
be771a83
GS
1402(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1403Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1404
7a2e2cd6 1405=item Compilation failed in require
1406
1407(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1408Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1409encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1410
c3464db5
DD
1411=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1412
be771a83
GS
1413(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1414situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1415to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1416arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1417recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1418under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1419in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1420that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1421on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1422
38875929
DM
1423=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1424
1425(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1426cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
1427function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1428cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1429has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1430first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1431after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1432lock.
1433
38875929
DM
1434=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1435
1436(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1437cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
1438function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1439cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1440has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1441first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1442after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1443lock.
1444
69282e91 1445=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1446
be771a83
GS
1447(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1448to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1449L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1450
41ab332f 1451=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1452
be771a83
GS
1453(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1454an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1455specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1456corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1457L<overload>.
6df41af2 1458
fc8cd66c
YO
1459=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1460
1a147d38
YO
1461(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1462the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1463forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1464See L<charnames>.
1465
1466
779c5bc9
GS
1467=item Constant is not %s reference
1468
1469(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1470is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1471The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1472usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1473See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1474
4cee8e80
CS
1475=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1476
bb028877 1477(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1478eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1479commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1480
9607fc9c 1481=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1482
be771a83
GS
1483(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1484for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1485workarounds.
9607fc9c 1486
e7ea3e70
IZ
1487=item Copy method did not return a reference
1488
64977eb6 1489(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1490L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1491
6798c92b
GS
1492=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1493
1494(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1495
a0d0e21e
LW
1496=item corrupted regexp pointers
1497
1498(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1499expression compiler gave it.
1500
1501=item corrupted regexp program
1502
be771a83
GS
1503(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1504valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1505
de42a5a9 1506=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1507
1508(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1509
49704364
WL
1510=item Count after length/code in unpack
1511
1512(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1513you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1514L<perlfunc/pack>.
1515
17a3df4c
KW
1516=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1517
1518(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1519to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1520evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
1521ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.16. Just use a
1522semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1523
1524=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
f9d13529 1525
17a3df4c 1526(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
f9d13529 1527non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1408fb84 1528written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
17a3df4c 1529characters.
f9d13529 1530
a0d0e21e
LW
1531=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1532
be771a83
GS
1533(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1534100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1535infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1536which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1537
aad1d01f
NC
1538This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1539setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1540
f10b0346 1541=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1542
be771a83
GS
1543(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1544checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1545array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1546
f10b0346 1547=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1548
be771a83
GS
1549(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1550checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1551is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1552
62658f4d
PM
1553=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1554
1555(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1556there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1557
fc36a67e 1558=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1559
be771a83
GS
1560(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1561long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1562that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1563
4a68bf9d 1564=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1565
1566(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
1567But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names are
1568deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character and
1569continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces, parentheses or
1570colons.
1571
6d3b25aa
RGS
1572=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1573
1574(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1575There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1576not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1577conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1578static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1579relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1580declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1581
6d3b25aa
RGS
1582 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1583
1584becomes
1585
1586 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1587
36fb85f3
RGS
1588Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1589have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1590
1591 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1592
500ab966
RGS
1593=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1594
1595(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1596just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1597to create a dangling reference.
1598
3cdd684c
TP
1599=item Did not produce a valid header
1600
1601See Server error.
1602
6df41af2
GS
1603=item %s did not return a true value
1604
1605(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1606it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1607traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1608do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1609
cc507455 1610=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1611
413ff9f6
FC
1612(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1613some such.
4633a7c4 1614
cc507455 1615=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1616
be771a83
GS
1617(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1618variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1619seems superfluous.
33633739 1620
cc507455 1621=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1622
be771a83
GS
1623(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1624@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1625carried away.
748a9306 1626
7e1af8bc 1627=item Died
5f05dabc 1628
1629(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1630you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1631
3cdd684c
TP
1632=item Document contains no data
1633
1634See Server error.
1635
62658f4d
PM
1636=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1637
1638(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1639define a C<$VERSION.>
1640
49704364
WL
1641=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1642
1643(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1644See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1645
a0d0e21e
LW
1646=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1647
1648(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1649
1650=item do_study: out of memory
1651
1652(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1653
6df41af2
GS
1654=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1655
56da5a46
RGS
1656(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1657"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1658name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1659because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1660"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1661something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1662subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1663"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1664
ac206dc8
RGS
1665=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1666
1667(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1668qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1669
84d78eb7
YO
1670=item dump is not supported
1671
1672(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1673
a0d0e21e
LW
1674=item Duplicate free() ignored
1675
be771a83
GS
1676(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1677already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1678
1109a392
MHM
1679=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1680
1681(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1682in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1683
4633a7c4
LW
1684=item elseif should be elsif
1685
56da5a46
RGS
1686(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1687ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1688"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1689unlikely to be what you want.
1690
ab13f0c7
JH
1691=item Empty %s
1692
af6f566e
HS
1693(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1694described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1695a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1696
85ab1d1d 1697=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1698
85ab1d1d 1699(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1700effective uids or gids failed.
1701
c038024b
RGS
1702=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1703
1704(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1705aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1706program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1707
748a9306
LW
1708=item Error converting file specification %s
1709
5f05dabc 1710(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1711specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1712single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1713an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1714conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1715
e4d48cc9
GS
1716=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1717
be771a83
GS
1718(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1719expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1720is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1721
fc8f615e 1722=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1723
be771a83
GS
1724(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1725C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1726pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1727is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1728building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1729that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1730
6df41af2
GS
1731=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1732
be771a83
GS
1733(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1734assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1735pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1736
1a147d38
YO
1737=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1738
1739(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1740any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1741
1742The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1743discovered.
1744
fc36a67e 1745=item Excessively long <> operator
1746
1747(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1748Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1749filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1750variable and glob that.
1751
ed9aa3b7
SG
1752=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1753
1754(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented in MacPerl. See L<perlport>.
1755
fe13d51d 1756=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1757
1758(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1759
1760=item Exiting eval via %s
1761
be771a83
GS
1762(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1763goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1764
1765=item Exiting format via %s
1766
9a2ff54b 1767(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1768goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1769
0a753a76 1770=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1771
be771a83
GS
1772(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1773sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1774loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1775
a0d0e21e
LW
1776=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1777
be771a83
GS
1778(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1779as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1780
1781=item Exiting substitution via %s
1782
be771a83
GS
1783(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1784as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1785
7b8d334a
GS
1786=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1787
be771a83
GS
1788(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1789the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1790usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1791e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1792
6df41af2
GS
1793=item %s: Expression syntax
1794
be771a83
GS
1795(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1796Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1797
1798=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1799
3c10abe3
AG
1800(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1801CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1802queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1803
7253e4e3 1804=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1805
be771a83 1806(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1807character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1808in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1809"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1810problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1811
1b1ee2ef 1812=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1813
be771a83
GS
1814(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1815system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1816details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1817you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1818
1819=item fcntl is not implemented
1820
1821(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1822PDP-11 or something?
1823
22846ab4
AB
1824=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1825
1826(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1827is not possible.
1828
f337b084
TH
1829=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1830
1831(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1832which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1833a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
1834C<u63> as format.
1835
af8c498a 1836=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1837
6c8d78fb
HS
1838(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1839it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1840"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1841write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1842
af8c498a 1843=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1844
6c8d78fb
HS
1845(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1846you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
be771a83
GS
1847with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1848intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
6c8d78fb
HS
1849Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0
1850(also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1851
1852=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1853
1854(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1855as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1856previously.
1857
1858=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1859
1860(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1861as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1862
1863=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1864
1865(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1866a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1867happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1868name.
a0d0e21e 1869
56e90b21
GS
1870=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1871
be771a83 1872(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1873some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1874filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1875same name?
56e90b21 1876
6df41af2
GS
1877=item Format not terminated
1878
1879(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1880to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1881
a0d0e21e
LW
1882=item Format %s redefined
1883
e476b1b5 1884(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1885
1886 {
271595cc 1887 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1888 eval "format NAME =...";
1889 }
1890
a0d0e21e
LW
1891=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1892
e476b1b5 1893(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1894
1895 if ($foo = 123)
1896
1897when you meant
1898
1899 if ($foo == 123)
1900
1901(or something like that).
1902
6df41af2
GS
1903=item %s found where operator expected
1904
56da5a46
RGS
1905(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1906If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1907operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1908operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1909
a0d0e21e
LW
1910=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1911
1912(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1913
1914=item gethostent not implemented
1915
1916(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1917because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1918on the Internet.
1919
69282e91 1920=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1921
be771a83
GS
1922(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1923socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1924
748a9306
LW
1925=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1926
1927(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1928C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1929
6df41af2
GS
1930=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1931
be771a83
GS
1932(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1933forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1934L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1935
1936=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1937
a4edf47d 1938(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1939that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1940declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1941which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1942
e476b1b5
GS
1943=item glob failed (%s)
1944
be771a83
GS
1945(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1946C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1947C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1948nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1949resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1950broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1951config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1952were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1953empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1954think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1955C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1956
a0d0e21e
LW
1957=item Glob not terminated
1958
1959(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1960a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1961not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1962earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1963
bcd05b94 1964=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 1965
fc003d4b
MS
1966(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was larger than
1967it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1968date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1969not-a-number value).
1970
bcd05b94 1971=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b
MS
1972
1973(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was smaller than
1974it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1975date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1976not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 1977
6df41af2 1978=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1979
6df41af2
GS
1980(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1981version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1982
1983=item goto must have label
1984
1985(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1986unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1987
49704364 1988=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1989
49704364 1990(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is
18529408 1991supposed to follow something: a template character or a ()-group.
49704364 1992 See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1993
fe13d51d 1994=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
1995
1996(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1997
a0d0e21e
LW
1998=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1999
be771a83
GS
2000(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2001to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2002created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
2003
2004=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
2005
be771a83
GS
2006(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
2007spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 2008
6df41af2
GS
2009=item %s has too many errors
2010
2011(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2012Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2013
e6897b1a
KW
2014=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
2015
2016(D syntax)
2017
2018You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following a pattern
2019without an intervening space. For example, the two constructs:
2020
2021 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
2022 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
2023
2024both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow the first form
2025in Perl 5.16. And,
2026
2027 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
2028
2029will be disallowed too.
2030
252aa082
JH
2031=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2032
e476b1b5 2033(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2034(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2035L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2036
8903cb82 2037=item Identifier too long
2038
2039(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2040about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2041names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2042of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2043
c3c41406 2044=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 2045
ff3f963a
KW
2046(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return a
2047zero length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 2048its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2049been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2050
6df41af2 2051=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2052
6df41af2 2053(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2054
6df41af2 2055=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2056
be771a83
GS
2057(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2058binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2059offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2060
78d0fecf 2061=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2062
d5898338 2063(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2064would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2065when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2066version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2067to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2068
d37a9538
ST
2069=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2070
197afce1
MT
2071(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2072Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
d37a9538 2073
904d85c5
RGS
2074=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2075
2076(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
2077you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
2078
8e742a20
MHM
2079=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2080
2081(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
2082
a0d0e21e
LW
2083=item Illegal division by zero
2084
be771a83
GS
2085(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2086your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2087meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2088
6df41af2
GS
2089=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2090
be771a83
GS
2091(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2092A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2093number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2094
a0d0e21e
LW
2095=item Illegal modulus zero
2096
be771a83
GS
2097(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2098numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2099
6df41af2 2100=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2101
6df41af2
GS
2102(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2103two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2104
2105=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2106
d1be9408 2107(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2108
399388f4 2109=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2110
d1be9408 2111(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2112Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2113
fe13d51d 2114=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2115
6df41af2 2116(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2117following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2118
6df41af2 2119=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2120
75b44862 2121(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2122internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2123delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2124
6df41af2 2125=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2126
be771a83
GS
2127(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2128name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2129didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2130ignored.
54310121 2131
6df41af2 2132=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2133
be771a83
GS
2134(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2135the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2136system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2137times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2138would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2139
be771a83
GS
2140Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2141also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2142
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2143=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2144
2145(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2146C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2147documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2148
979699d9
JH
2149=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2150
2151(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2152Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2153encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2154
1a147d38
YO
2155=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2156
2157(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2158text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2159either consume text or fail.
2160
2161The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2162discovered.
2163
6dbe9451
NC
2164=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2165
2166(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2167of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2168C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2169as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2170
a0d0e21e
LW
2171=item Insecure dependency in %s
2172
8b1a09fc 2173(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2174The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2175setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2176tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2177from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2178such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2179L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2180
2181=item Insecure directory in %s
2182
be771a83
GS
2183(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2184setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2185the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2186See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2187
62f468fc 2188=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2189
2190(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2191setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2192C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2193supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2194the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2195
a7ae9550
GS
2196=item Integer overflow in %s number
2197
75b44862 2198(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2199either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2200your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2201On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2202representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
22030b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2204transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2205internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2206operations.
bbce6d69 2207
2fba7546
GA
2208=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2209
0be96356
AL
2210(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2211or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2fba7546
GA
2212integers for your architecture.
2213
46314c13
JP
2214=item Integer overflow in version
2215
2216(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2217size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2218because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2219element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2220trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2221100/9.
2222
7253e4e3 2223=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2224
2225(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2226The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2227discovered.
2228
748a9306
LW
2229=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2230
be771a83
GS
2231(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2232you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2233to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2234L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2235Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2236terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2237
7253e4e3 2238=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2239
7253e4e3
RK
2240(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2241<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2242discovered.
a0d0e21e 2243
6df41af2
GS
2244=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2245
75b44862 2246(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2247followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2248operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2249L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2250
09bef843
SB
2251=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2252
a4a4c9e2 2253(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2254by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2255
2256=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2257
a4a4c9e2 2258(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2259recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2260
c635e13b 2261=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2262
be771a83
GS
2263(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2264L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2265
9e08bc66
TS
2266=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2267
2268(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2269didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2270from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2271The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2272The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2273escape was discovered.
2274
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2275=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2276
2277(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")>
2278or C<use mro 'foo'>, where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO).
2279(Currently, the only valid ones are C<dfs> and C<c3>). See L<mro>.
2280
7253e4e3 2281=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2282
2283(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2284greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2285C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2286up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2287problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2288
d1573ac7 2289=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2290
2291(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2292character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2293
09bef843
SB
2294=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2295
0120eecf 2296(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2297elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2298parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2299See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2300
b4581f09
JH
2301=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2302
2303(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2304colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
2305If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2306list was terminated too soon.
2307
2c86d456
DG
2308=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2309
2310(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2311A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2312decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2313v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2314The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2315See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2316
49704364 2317=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2318
49704364
WL
2319(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2320See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2321(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2322silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2323
2c86d456
DG
2324=item Invalid version format (%s)
2325
2326(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2327A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2328decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2329v-string. If the v-string has less than three components, it must have a
2330leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is optional. Both
2331decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a trailing "alpha"
2332component separated by an underscore character after a fractional or
2333dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized text indicates which
a6485a24 2334criteria were not met. See the L<version> module for more details on
2c86d456 2335allowed version formats.
46314c13 2336
798ae1b7
DG
2337=item Invalid version object
2338
2339(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid. Perhaps
2340the internals were modified directly in some way or an arbitrary reference
2341was blessed into the "version" class.
2342
a0d0e21e
LW
2343=item ioctl is not implemented
2344
2345(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2346strange for a machine that supports C.
2347
c289d2f7
JH
2348=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2349
2350(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
2351Check you control flow and number of arguments.
2352
fe13d51d 2353=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2354
2355(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
2356you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO Perl must be configured
2357with 'useperlio'.
2358
80cbd5ad
JH
2359=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2360
2361(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
2362neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
2363
b4581f09
JH
2364=item $* is no longer supported
2365
d1d15184 2366(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older perls, has
4fd19576
B
2367been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In previous versions of perl the use of
2368C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line matching within a string.
2369
2370Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
2371modifiers. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value then all regular
2372expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2373
8ae1fe26
RGS
2374=item $# is no longer supported
2375
d1d15184 2376(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older perls, has
8ae1fe26
RGS
2377been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2378printf/sprintf functions instead.
2379
6ad11d81
JH
2380=item `%s' is not a code reference
2381
04a80ee0
RGS
2382(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2383needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2384to a subroutine.
2385
2386=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2387
04a80ee0
RGS
2388(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2389unaware of.
6ad11d81 2390
a0d0e21e
LW
2391=item junk on end of regexp
2392
2393(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2394
2395=item Label not found for "last %s"
2396
be771a83
GS
2397(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2398of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2399L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2400
2401=item Label not found for "next %s"
2402
2403(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2404that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2405L<perlfunc/last>.
2406
2407=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2408
2409(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2410that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2411L<perlfunc/last>.
2412
85ab1d1d 2413=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2414
85ab1d1d 2415(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2416effective uids or gids failed.
2417
49704364
WL
2418=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2419
d7f8936a 2420(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
WL
2421length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2422an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2423
f0e67a1d
Z
2424=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2425
2426(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2427(using L<lex_stuff_pvn_flags|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn_flags> or similar), but
2428tried to insert a character that couldn't be part of the current input.
2429This is an inherent pitfall of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the
2430reasons to avoid it. Where it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only
2431plain ASCII is recommended.
2432
2433=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2434
2435(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2436detectable way.
2437
69282e91 2438=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2439
be771a83
GS
2440(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2441to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2442L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2443
bcd05b94 2444=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2445
fc003d4b
MS
2446(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was larger
2447than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2448wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2449not-a-number value).
2450
bcd05b94 2451=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b
MS
2452
2453(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was smaller
2454than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2455wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2456not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2457
58e23c8d 2458=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2459
2460(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2461handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2462
b88df990
NC
2463=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2464
2465(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2466for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2467hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2468because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2469are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2470You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2471
2f7da168
RK
2472=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2473
2474(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2475by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2476instead on the filehandle.)
2477
885ef6f5
GG
2478=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2479
963d9ce9 2480(W misc) Making a subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined
d9159685
RS
2481by declaring the subroutine with an lvalue attribute is not
2482possible. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine add the
e2bd2e2b 2483lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the declaration before
885ef6f5
GG
2484the definition.
2485
96ebfdd7
RK
2486=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2487
2488(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2489values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2490L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2491
49704364
WL
2492=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
2493
2494(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2495are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2496
2497=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2498
2499(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2500are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2501
6df41af2
GS
2502=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2503
2504(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2505
2506 prefix1;prefix2
2507
2508or
6df41af2
GS
2509 prefix1 prefix2
2510
be771a83
GS
2511with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2512a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2513appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2514"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2515
2f758a16
ST
2516=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2517
d37a9538
ST
2518(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2519syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2520obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2521when the function is called.
2f758a16 2522
ba210ebe
JH
2523=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2524
2575c402
JW
2525(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2526encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2527
2575c402
JW
2528One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2529you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
25308-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2531
2532If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2533sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2534set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2535message.
2536
2537See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2538
dea0fc0b
JH
2539=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
2540
183097aa 2541(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
dea0fc0b
JH
2542doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2543
ff3f963a
KW
2544=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2545
2546(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2547
f337b084
TH
2548=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2549
2550(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2551rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2552
2553=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2554
2555(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2556rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2557
2558=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2559
2560(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2561rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2562
de42a5a9 2563=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2564
fe13d51d 2565(F) Perl aborted due to a too high number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2566usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2567too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2568resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2569safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2570
49704364 2571=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2572
2573(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
2574regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2575shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2576See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2577
25f58aea
PN
2578=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2579
2580(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2581interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2582"use" or "my".
2583
49704364 2584=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2585
2586(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2587checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2588See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2589
a0d0e21e
LW
2590=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2591
2592(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2593doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2594
3cdd684c
TP
2595=item Method %s not permitted
2596
2597See Server error.
2598
a0d0e21e
LW
2599=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2600
2601(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2602by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2603ended earlier on the current line.
2604
2605=item Misplaced _ in number
2606
d4ced10d
JH
2607(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2608separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2609
7baa4690
HS
2610=item Missing argument in %s
2611
2612(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2613supplied.
2614
9e81e6a1
RGS
2615=item Missing argument to -%c
2616
2617(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2618immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2619
ff3f963a 2620=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2621
4a2d328f 2622(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
c3c41406
KW
2623double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space (or
2624comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2625This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately follow
2626the C<\N>.
423cee85 2627
f0a2b745
KW
2628=item Missing braces on \o{}
2629
2630(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2631
a0d0e21e
LW
2632=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2633
2634(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2635"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2636
06eaf0bc
GS
2637=item Missing command in piped open
2638
be771a83
GS
2639(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2640C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2641blank.
06eaf0bc 2642
961ce445
RGS
2643=item Missing control char name in \c
2644
2645(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2646character name.
2647
6df41af2
GS
2648=item Missing name in "my sub"
2649
be771a83
GS
2650(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2651they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2652
2653=item Missing $ on loop variable
2654
be771a83
GS
2655(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2656are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2657can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2658
cc507455 2659=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2660
56da5a46
RGS
2661(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2662"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2663
ab13f0c7
JH
2664=item Missing right brace on %s
2665
ff3f963a
KW
2666(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2667
4a68bf9d 2668=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2669
0a96133f
KW
2670(F)
2671C<\N> has two meanings.
2672
2673The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed
2674in braces, meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that name.
ff3f963a 2675Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
0a96133f
KW
2676double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns, it doesn't
2677have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
ff3f963a 2678
0a96133f 2679Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only) in
c3c41406
KW
2680patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short for
2681C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
ff3f963a
KW
2682
2683This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately by a
c3c41406 2684left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if
ff3f963a
KW
2685the braces form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes
2686that this means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
0a96133f 26873; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a C<\N{>
ff3f963a
KW
2688and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2689
2690However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was mistakenly
c3c41406 2691omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and
0a96133f
KW
2692raises this error. If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant
2693the latter, escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2694
d98d5fff 2695=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2696
be771a83
GS
2697(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2698ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2699were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2700
6df41af2
GS
2701=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2702
56da5a46
RGS
2703(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2704"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2705the previous line just because you saw this message.
2706
a0d0e21e
LW
2707=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2708
2709(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2710constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2711catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2712
2713 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2714 mod(2);
2715
2716Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2717
c5674021
PDF
2718Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2719is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2720
2721 $x = 1;
2722 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2723 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2724 }
c5674021 2725
7a4340ed 2726=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2727
2728(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2729subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2730backwards.
2731
7a4340ed 2732=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2733
be771a83
GS
2734(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2735couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2736
2737=item Module name must be constant
2738
2739(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2740
be98fb35 2741=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2742
be98fb35
GS
2743(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2744you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2745about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2746
fe13d51d 2747=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2748
2749(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2750can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2751list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2752See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2753
a0d0e21e
LW
2754=item msg%s not implemented
2755
2756(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2757
2758=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2759
75b44862
GS
2760(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2761They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2762
49704364 2763=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2764
49704364
WL
2765(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2766follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2767See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2768
2769=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2770
be771a83
GS
2771(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2772that yet.
6df41af2 2773
30c282f6 2774=item "%s" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2775
be771a83
GS
2776(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2777sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2778local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2779
4a68bf9d 2780=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2781
c3c41406
KW
2782(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
2783character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses its
2784specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not what you want.
2785
4a68bf9d 2786=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406
KW
2787
2788(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or sequence
2789was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that bypass the lexer,
b09c05e6 2790such as using single-quotish context, or an extra backslash in double quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2791
2792 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2793 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2794 /$re/;
2795
b09c05e6 2796Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2797
2798 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2799 /$re/;
2800
2801The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2802components:
2803
2804 $re = '\N';
2805 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2806
2807It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2808doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2809
2810Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2811C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2812
2813 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2814 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2815
8b1a09fc 2816=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2817
e476b1b5 2818(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2819If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2820again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2821provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e 2822
64b374f4
FD
2823NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2824%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2825the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2826will not trigger this warning.
2827
4a68bf9d 2828=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
ff3f963a
KW
2829
2830(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
c3c41406
KW
2831number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than 0 - 9
2832or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
ff3f963a 2833
49704364
WL
2834=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2835
2836(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2837negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2838
a0d0e21e
LW
2839=item Negative length
2840
be771a83
GS
2841(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2842length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2843
ed9aa3b7
SG
2844=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2845
2846(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2847greater than or equal to zero.
2848
7253e4e3 2849=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2850
b45f050a 2851(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2852things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2853expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2854
7253e4e3 2855Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2856C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2857
6df41af2 2858=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2859
be771a83
GS
2860(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2861scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2862
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2863=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2864
2865(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2866real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2867See L<mro>.
2868
a0d0e21e
LW
2869=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2870
be771a83
GS
2871(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2872setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2873will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2874securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2875
a0d0e21e
LW
2876=item No comma allowed after %s
2877
2878(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2879allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2880Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2881
0a753a76 2882One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2883constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2884importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2885does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2886explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2887L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2888would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2889remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2890constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2891list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2892this error was triggered?
2893
748a9306
LW
2894=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2895
be771a83
GS
2896(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2897redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2898doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2899
a0d0e21e
LW
2900=item No DB::DB routine defined
2901
be771a83 2902(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
ccafdc96
RGS
2903for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2904module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2905statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2906
2907=item No dbm on this machine
2908
2909(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2910supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2911
ccafdc96 2912=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2913
ccafdc96
RGS
2914(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2915for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2916module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2917of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2918
96ebfdd7
RK
2919=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2920
2921(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2922
c47ff5f1 2923=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2924
be771a83
GS
2925(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2926redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2927find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2928
49704364
WL
2929=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2930
2931(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2932matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2933
c47ff5f1 2934=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2935
be771a83
GS
2936(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2937redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2938name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2939
6df41af2
GS
2940=item No #! line
2941
2942(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2943even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2944
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2945=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2946
2947(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2948in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2949it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2950or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2951
6df41af2
GS
2952=item "no" not allowed in expression
2953
be771a83
GS
2954(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2955returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2956
c47ff5f1 2957=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2958
be771a83
GS
2959(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2960redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2961doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2962
c47ff5f1 2963=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2964
be771a83
GS
2965(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2966redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2967find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2968
1ec3e8de
GS
2969=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2970
be771a83
GS
2971(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2972declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2973semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2974
a0d0e21e
LW
2975=item No Perl script found in input
2976
2977(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2978with #! and containing the word "perl".
2979
2980=item No setregid available
2981
2982(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2983your system.
2984
2985=item No setreuid available
2986
2987(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2988your system.
2989
6df41af2
GS
2990=item No %s specified for -%c
2991
2992(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2993you haven't specified one.
e75d1f10
RD
2994=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2995
2996(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2997but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2998package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2999
2c692339
RGS
3000=item No such class %s
3001
30c282f6 3002(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration, but
2c692339
RGS
3003this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
3004
3c20a832
SP
3005=item No such hook: %s
3006
3007(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl. Currently, Perl
3008accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks
3009
6df41af2
GS
3010=item No such pipe open
3011
3012(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
3013close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
3014earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 3015
a0d0e21e
LW
3016=item No such signal: SIG%s
3017
be771a83
GS
3018(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
3019not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
3020names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
3021
3022=item Not a CODE reference
3023
3024(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3025subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3026use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3027also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3028
3029=item Not a format reference
3030
3031(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
3032format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
3033
3034=item Not a GLOB reference
3035
be771a83
GS
3036(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3037symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3038something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3039kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3040
3041=item Not a HASH reference
3042
be771a83
GS
3043(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3044reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3045find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3046
6df41af2
GS
3047=item Not an ARRAY reference
3048
be771a83
GS
3049(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3050a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3051to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3052
a0d0e21e
LW
3053=item Not a perl script
3054
3055(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
3056even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
3057mention perl.
3058
3059=item Not a SCALAR reference
3060
be771a83
GS
3061(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3062a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3063to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3064
3065=item Not a subroutine reference
3066
3067(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3068subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3069use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3070also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3071
e7ea3e70 3072=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3073
3074(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3075doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3076
a0d0e21e
LW
3077=item Not enough arguments for %s
3078
3079(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3080
6df41af2
GS
3081=item Not enough format arguments
3082
be771a83
GS
3083(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3084supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3085
3086=item %s: not found
3087
be771a83
GS
3088(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3089of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3090yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3091
3092=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3093
6df41af2
GS
3094(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3095timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3096to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3097F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3098need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3099
f0a2b745
KW
3100=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3101
3102(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was unexpectedly
3103encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value is as indicated.
3104
4ef2275c
GA
3105=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3106
3107(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3108Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
3109select. See L<perlfunc/select>
3110
a0d0e21e
LW
3111=item Null filename used
3112
be771a83
GS
3113(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3114machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3115
6df41af2
GS
3116=item NULL OP IN RUN
3117
be771a83
GS
3118(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
3119pointer.
6df41af2 3120
55497cff 3121=item Null picture in formline
3122
3123(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3124specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3125supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3126
a0d0e21e
LW
3127=item Null realloc
3128
3129(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3130
3131=item NULL regexp argument
3132
5f05dabc 3133(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3134
3135=item NULL regexp parameter
3136
3137(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3138
fc36a67e 3139=item Number too long
3140
be771a83 3141(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3142about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3143versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3144the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3145"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3146
f0a2b745
KW
3147=item Number with no digits
3148
3149(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like a number.
3150This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between the braces.
3151
6df41af2
GS
3152=item Octal number in vector unsupported
3153
be771a83
GS
3154(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
3155The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
3156future version.
6df41af2 3157
252aa082
JH
3158=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3159
75b44862 3160(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3161(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3162L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
3163
3164See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
3165
6ad11d81
JH
3166=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3167
04a80ee0
RGS
3168(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
3169arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3170
b21befc1
MG
3171=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3172
3173(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3174which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3175
1930e939 3176=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3177
be771a83
GS
3178(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3179which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3180
bbce6d69 3181=item Offset outside string
3182
a4a4c9e2 3183(F|W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
42bc49da 3184with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3185imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3186take place when going past the end of the string when either
3187C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3188for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3189with real files).
bbce6d69 3190
c289d2f7 3191=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3192
3193(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3194never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3195call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3196
96ebfdd7
RK
3197=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3198
3199(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3200that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3201
a0d0e21e
LW
3202=item oops: oopsAV
3203
e476b1b5 3204(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3205
3206=item oops: oopsHV
3207
e476b1b5 3208(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 3209
abc718f2
RGS
3210=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
3211
a4a4c9e2 3212(W io, deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3213a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
3214Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3215and is deprecated.
3216
3217=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
3218
a4a4c9e2 3219(W io, deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3220a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
3221Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3222and is deprecated.
3223
a0288114 3224=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 3225
be771a83
GS
3226(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
3227handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
3228of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
3229C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 3230
9ae3ac1a
KW
3231=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%X
3232
3233(W) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a Unicode
3234surrogate. Unicode frowns upon the use of surrogates for anything but
3235storing strings in UTF-16, but semantics are (reluctantly) defined for
3236the surrogates, and they are to do nothing for this operation. Because
3237the use of surrogates can be dangerous, Perl warns.
3238
3239If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3240matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3241
3242If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
3243C<no warnings 'utf8';>.
3244
3245=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%X
3246
3247(W) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a code
3248point that is not in Unicode, so what it should do is not defined. Perl
3249has chosen to have it do nothing, and warn you.
3250
3251If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3252matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3253
3254If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
3255C<no warnings 'utf8';>.
3256
748a9306
LW
3257=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
3258
be771a83
GS
3259(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
3260was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
3261use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
3262example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
3263"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 3264
6df41af2
GS
3265=item "our" variable %s redeclared
3266
be771a83
GS
3267(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
3268in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 3269
a80b8354
GS
3270=item Out of memory!
3271
3272(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
3273remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
3274no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 3275
19a52907
JH
3276At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
3277process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3278C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3279the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3280and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3281
6d3b25aa
RGS
3282=item Out of memory during %s extend
3283
3284(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3285the largest possible memory allocation.
3286
6df41af2 3287=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3288
6df41af2
GS
3289(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3290remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3291the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3292possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3293
1b979e0a 3294=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3295
be771a83
GS
3296(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
3297insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3298request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3299
3300The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
3301depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
3302However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
3303emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
3304is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
3305where the failed request happened.
55497cff 3306
1b979e0a
IZ
3307=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
3308
3309(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
3310is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
3311C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 3312
6df41af2
GS
3313=item Out of memory for yacc stack
3314
be771a83
GS
3315(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
3316parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
3317otherwise.
6df41af2 3318
28be1210
TH
3319=item '.' outside of string in pack
3320
3321(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
3322position to before the start of the packed string being built.
3323
49704364 3324=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 3325
49704364 3326(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
3327the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3328
f337b084
TH
3329=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
3330
3331(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
3332the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
3333UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3334
7cb0cfe6
BM
3335=item Overloaded dereference did not return a reference
3336
3337(F) An object with an overloaded dereference operator was dereferenced,
3338but the overloaded operation did not return a reference. See
3339L<overload>.
3340
3341=item Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP
3342
3343(F) An object with a C<qr> overload was used as part of a match, but the
3344overloaded operation didn't return a compiled regexp. See L<overload>.
3345
6df41af2
GS
3346=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
3347
be771a83
GS
3348(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
3349package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
3350some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
3351mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 3352
fb2e24cd
KW
3353=item \p{} uses Unicode rules, not locale rules
3354
3355(W) You compiled a regular expression that contained a Unicode property
3356match (C<\p> or C<\P>), but the regular expression is also being told to
f7f5e97b
KW
3357use the run-time locale, not Unicode. Instead, use a POSIX character
3358class, which should know about the locale's rules.
3359(See L<perlrecharclass/POSIX Character Classes>.)
3360
3361Even if the run-time locale is ISO 8859-1 (Latin1), which is a subset of
3362Unicode, some properties will give results that are not valid for that
3363subset.
3364
3365Here are a couple of examples to help you see what's going on. If the
3366locale is ISO 8859-7, the character at code point 0xD7 is the "GREEK
3367CAPITAL LETTER CHI". But in Unicode that code point means the
3368"MULTIPLICATION SIGN" instead, and C<\p> always uses the Unicode
3369meaning. That means that C<\p{Alpha}> won't match, but C<[[:alpha:]]>
3370should. Only in the Latin1 locale are all the characters in the same
3371positions as they are in Unicode. But, even here, some properties give
3372incorrect results. An example is C<\p{Changes_When_Uppercased}> which
3373is true for "LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS", but since the upper
3374case of that character is not in Latin1, in that locale it doesn't
3375change when upper cased.
fb2e24cd 3376
96ebfdd7
RK
3377=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
3378
3379(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3380signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3381
a0d0e21e
LW
3382=item page overflow
3383
be771a83
GS
3384(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
3385page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 3386
6df41af2
GS
3387=item panic: %s
3388
3389(P) An internal error.
3390
c99a1475
NC