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More perldiag grammar tweaks
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous overloaded argument to %s resolved as %s
80
81(W ambiguous) You called C<keys>, C<values> or C<each> on an object that had
82overloading of C<%{}> or C<@{}> or both. In such a case, the object is
83dereferenced according to its overloading, not its underlying reference type.
84The warning is issued when C<%{}> overloading exists on a blessed arrayref,
85when C<@{}> overloading exists on a blessed hashref, or when both overloadings
86are defined (in which case C<%{}> is used). You can force the interpretation
c69ca1d4 87of the object by explicitly dereferencing it as an array or hash instead of
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88passing the object itself to C<keys>, C<values> or C<each>.
89
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90=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
91
92(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
93all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
94first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
95C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
96
6df41af2 97=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 98
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99(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
100you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
101a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 102
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103=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
104
105(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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106bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
107(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
108like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
109assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
110clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
111really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 112
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113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
114
115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
116asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
117named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
118the varable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
119function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
120and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
121
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122=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s%s} resolved to %c%s%s
123
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124(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo
125represents the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for
126element number 2 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write
127C<$foo[2]>, or you might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to
128the function named foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it
129returns. If you meant that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
130
131In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
132to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
133C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length>
134followed by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what
135you want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/>
136to the unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to
137something that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by
138simply turning off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 139
bdac9d71 140=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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141
142(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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143string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
144the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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145write C<-foo()>.
146
6df41af2 147=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 148
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149(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
150redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
151redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 152
6df41af2 153=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 154
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155(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
156redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
157into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
158though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
159which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 160
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161 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
162 while (<STDIN>) {
163 print;
164 print OUT;
165 }
166 close OUT;
c9f97d15 167
6df41af2 168=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 169
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170(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
171transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 172one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 173a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
174hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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175you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
176alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 177
6df41af2 178=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 179
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180(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
181with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
182impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
183for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 184
6df41af2 185=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 186
6df41af2 187(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 188
b0fdf69e 189=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 190
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191(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
192subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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193
194 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 195 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 196 &do_something
a0d0e21e 197
8ea97a1e 198=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 199
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200(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
201such as:
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202
203 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 204 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 205
8ea97a1e 206or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 207
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208 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
209 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 210
6df41af2 211=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 212
6df41af2 213(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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214name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
215error.
a0d0e21e 216
f86702cc 217=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 218
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219(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
220that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
221will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 222
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223=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
224
225(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
226forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
227data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
228the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
229If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
230the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
231
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232=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
233
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234(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
235spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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236
237=item assertion botched: %s
238
239(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
240
241=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
242
243(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
244
245=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
246
247(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
248must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
249know which context to supply to the right side.
250
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251=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
252
4447dfc1 253(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
96ebfdd7 254thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
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255Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
256created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
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257thread. See L<threads>.
258
2393f1b9 259=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 260
49293501 261(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 262the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 263
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264=item Attempt to bless into a reference
265
266(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
267the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
268supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
269
270 bless $self, $proto;
271
272when you intended
273
274 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
275
276If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
277of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
278example by:
279
280 bless $self, "$proto";
281
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282=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
283
284(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
285which is not in its key set.
286
287=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
288
289(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
290declared readonly from a restricted hash.
291
de42a5a9 292=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 293
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294(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
295that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
296outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 297
54310121 298=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 299
111a855e 300(P internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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301strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
302strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
303of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 304
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305=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
306
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307(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
308free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
309SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
310free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
311try to free it.
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312
313=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
314
e476b1b5 315(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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316
317=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
318
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319(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
320see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
321earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
322This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
323that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
324mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
325corrupted.
a0d0e21e 326
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327=item Attempt to join self
328
329(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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330impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
331to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 332
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333=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
334
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335(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
336function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
337means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
338invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
339literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
340avoid this warning.
84902520 341
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342=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
343
344(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
345compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
346unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
347L<perlvar/%INC>.
348
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349=item Attempt to set length of freed array
350
351(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
352can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
353of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
354
355 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
356 $$r = 503
357
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358=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
359
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360(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
361used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
362dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 363
c32124fe
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364=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
365
111a855e 366(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "locked"
c32124fe 367attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
a5547419 368effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in a future
c32124fe
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369release of Perl 5.
370
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371=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
372
111a855e 373(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 374attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
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375had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in a future release
376of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 377
de42a5a9 378=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 379
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380(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
381or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 382S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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383S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
384
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385=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
386
496a33f5 387(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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388substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
389most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
390
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391=item Bad filehandle: %s
392
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393(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
394symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
395open(), or did it in another package.
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396
397=item Bad free() ignored
398
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399(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
400been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 401setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 402
9ea8bc6d 403This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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404dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
405which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 406
aa689395
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407=item Bad hash
408
409(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
410
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411=item Badly placed ()'s
412
413(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
414of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
415Perl yourself.
416
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417=item Bad name after %s::
418
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419(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
420didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
421of quotes, so
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422
423 $var = 'myvar';
424 $sym = mypack::$var;
425
426is not the same as
427
428 $var = 'myvar';
429 $sym = "mypack::$var";
430
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431=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
432
433(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
434plugin API.
435
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436=item Bad realloc() ignored
437
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438(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
439never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
4dcecea4 440by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 441
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442=item Bad symbol for array
443
444(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
445wasn't a symbol table entry.
446
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447=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
448
449(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
450that wasn't a symbol table entry.
451
452
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453=item Bad symbol for filehandle
454
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455(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
456that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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457
458=item Bad symbol for hash
459
460(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
461wasn't a symbol table entry.
462
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463=item Bareword found in conditional
464
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465(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
466conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
467of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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468
469 open FOO || die;
470
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471It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
472a bareword:
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473
474 use constant TYPO => 1;
475 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
476
477The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
478
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479=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
480
481(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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482subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
483symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
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484
485=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
486
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487(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
488compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
489you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 490
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491=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
492
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493(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
494subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
495exited.
a0d0e21e 496
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497=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
498
499(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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500implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
501occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
502be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
503depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 504
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505=item \1 better written as $1
506
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507(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
508The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
509substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
510because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
511there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 512
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513=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" instead
514
515=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" instead
516
517(W deprecated, regexp) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following a
518C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
519itself in a future release.
520
252aa082
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521=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
522
e476b1b5 523(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
524(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
525L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 526
69282e91 527=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 528
be771a83
GS
529(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
530check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 531
c289d2f7
JH
532=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
533
534(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 535Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 536
c5a0f51a
JH
537=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
538
e476b1b5 539(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 540
4633a7c4
LW
541=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
542
be771a83 543(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
4dcecea4 544copiable.
4633a7c4 545
f675dbe5
CB
546=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
547
be771a83
GS
548(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
549iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
550which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 551
a0d0e21e
LW
552=item Callback called exit
553
4929bf7b 554(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
555exited by calling exit.
556
6df41af2 557=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 558
be771a83
GS
559(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
560parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
561that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
562early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
563subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
564checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
565function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
566the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 567
49704364 568=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
569
570(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
571compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
572attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
573See L<perlfunc/pack>.
574
49704364 575=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
576
577(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
578format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
579
5c1f4d79
NC
580=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
581
582(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
583then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
584triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
585from that type of reference to a typeglob.
586
ba2fdce6
NC
587=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
588
589(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 590be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 591
b5d97229
RGS
592=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
593
594(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
595either with open() or binmode().
596
96ebfdd7
RK
597=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
598
599(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
600integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
601to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
602
a0d0e21e
LW
603=item Can't bless non-reference value
604
605(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
606encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
607
dc57907a
RGS
608=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
609
0d863452
RH
610(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
611a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
612
613=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 614
0d863452
RH
615(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
616
6df41af2
GS
617=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
618
619(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
620object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
621like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
622
623 $BADREF = undef;
624 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
625 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
626
a0d0e21e
LW
627=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
628
54310121 629(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
630ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
631didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
632object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
633
634=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
635
636(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
637object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
638defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
639Something like this will reproduce the error:
640
641 $BADREF = 42;
642 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
643 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
644
a0d0e21e
LW
645=item Can't chdir to %s
646
647(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
648that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
649
0545a864 650=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 651
be771a83
GS
652(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
653nosuid.
104d25b7 654
22e74366 655=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
656
657(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 658(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
659say things like:
660
661 *foo += 1;
662
663You CAN say
664
665 $foo = *foo;
666 $foo += 1;
667
668but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
669
0d863452 670=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 671
0d863452
RH
672(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
673or C<default> block.
674
a0d0e21e
LW
675=item Can't create pipe mailbox
676
be771a83
GS
677(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
678quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 679
eb64745e
GS
680=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
681
30c282f6
NC
682(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
683"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 684
6df41af2
GS
685=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
686
be771a83
GS
687(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
688a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 689
a0d0e21e
LW
690=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
691
be771a83
GS
692(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
693reason.
a0d0e21e 694
54310121 695=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 696
be771a83
GS
697(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
698reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
699C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 700
10f9c03d 701=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 702
e476b1b5 703(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
704characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
705inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 706
7253e4e3 707=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 708
b45f050a 709(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 710regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 711regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 712
a0d0e21e
LW
713=item Can't do waitpid with flags
714
be771a83
GS
715(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
716waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 717
a0d0e21e
LW
718=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
719
be771a83
GS
720(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
721point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
722line.
a0d0e21e 723
1109a392
MHM
724=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
725
726(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
727or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
728little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
729See L<perlfunc/pack>.
730
a0d0e21e
LW
731=item Can't exec "%s": %s
732
d1be9408 733(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
734named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
735permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
736C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
737architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
738can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
739#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
740
741=item Can't exec %s
742
be771a83
GS
743(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
744that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
745need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
746
747=item Can't execute %s
748
be771a83
GS
749(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
750found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 751
6df41af2 752=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 753
be771a83
GS
754(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
755is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 756
56ca2fc0
JH
757=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
758
759(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
760could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
761See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
762for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 763
6df41af2
GS
764=item Can't find label %s
765
be771a83
GS
766(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
767possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
768
769=item Can't find %s on PATH
770
be771a83
GS
771(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
772found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 773
6df41af2 774=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 775
be771a83
GS
776(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
777found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
778script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
779
780=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
781
be771a83
GS
782(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
783that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
784nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 785
fb73857a
PP
786 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
787
be771a83
GS
788If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
789unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
790editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 791
660a4616
ST
792=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
793
5f8ad6b6
FC
794(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
795property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
796letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 797L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
5f8ad6b6
FC
798for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
799mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by C<\\p>
800(just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
801until C<\E>).
660a4616 802
b3647a36 803=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 804
be771a83
GS
805(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
806pipeline.
a0d0e21e 807
b3647a36
SR
808=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
809
c973c02e 810(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
811after five seconds.
812
748a9306
LW
813=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
814
be771a83
GS
815(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
816between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
817Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
818the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
819account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
820the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 821the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
822the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
823if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
824because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
825appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
826and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
827routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
828shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
829only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 830
a0d0e21e
LW
831=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
832
be771a83
GS
833(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
834pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
835
836=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
837
748a9306
LW
838(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
839mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 840
6df41af2 841=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 842
be771a83
GS
843(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
844loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
845
846=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
847
be771a83
GS
848(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
849a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
850you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
851See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 852
9850bf21 853=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 854
9850bf21
RH
855(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
856comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
857as the reduce() function in List::Util).
858
c74ace89 859=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 860
be771a83 861(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 862"string" or block.
b150fb22 863
6df41af2
GS
864=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
865
be771a83
GS
866(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
867subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
868cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
869routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 870
0b5b802d
GS
871=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
872
be771a83
GS
873(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
874signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
875signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
876processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
877situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
878may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 879
e2c0f81f
DG
880=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
881
882(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
883attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
884process identifier.
885
6df41af2 886=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 887
6df41af2 888(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
889except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
890block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
891block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
892usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
893inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
894L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 895
2c7d6b9c
RGS
896=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
897
898(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
899package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
900
b8170e59
JB
901=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
902
903(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
904may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
905incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
906between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 907extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
908installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
909extensions.
910
748a9306
LW
911=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
912
2ba9eb46 913(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 914lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
915localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
916package name.
917
6df41af2 918=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 919
6df41af2
GS
920(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
921handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 922pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 923that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 924
ea071790 925=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
926
927(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
928found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
929unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
930need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
931the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
932to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
933L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 934
6df41af2
GS
935=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
936
be771a83
GS
937(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
938autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
939are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
940the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 941
b8170e59
JB
942=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
943
944(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
945for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
946unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
947
a0d0e21e
LW
948=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
949
950(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
951functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 952method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
953
954=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
955
be771a83
GS
956(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
957doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 958
2f7da168
RK
959=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
960
961(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
962e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
963
3e3baf6d
TB
964=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
965
be771a83
GS
966(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
967VMS.
3e3baf6d 968
a0d0e21e
LW
969=item Can't modify %s in %s
970
be771a83
GS
971(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
972to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 973
54310121 974=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
975
976(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
977a NULL.
978
6df41af2
GS
979=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
980
981(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 982such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 983
5f05dabc 984=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 985
5f05dabc 986(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
987buffer.
988
6df41af2
GS
989=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
990
991(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
992there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
993count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
994grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
995though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
996once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 997
a0d0e21e
LW
998=item Can't open %s: %s
999
c47ff5f1 1000(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
1001filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
1002switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
1003is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
1004the command line.
a0d0e21e 1005
9a869a14
RGS
1006=item Can't open a reference
1007
1008(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1009using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1010
1011 open FH, '>', $ref;
1012
1013but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1014open is not supported.
1015
a0d0e21e
LW
1016=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1017
be771a83
GS
1018(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1019You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1020as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1021">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1022
748a9306
LW
1023=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1024
be771a83
GS
1025(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1026redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1027the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1028
1029=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1030
be771a83
GS
1031(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1032redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1033command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1034
1035=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1036
be771a83
GS
1037(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1038redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1039the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1040
1041=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1042
be771a83
GS
1043(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1044redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1045for stdout.
748a9306 1046
2b8ca739 1047=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1048
1049(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1050
fa3aa65a
JC
1051If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1052shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1053you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1054
6df41af2
GS
1055=item Can't read CRTL environ
1056
1057(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1058from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1059missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1060or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1061searched.
6df41af2 1062
6df41af2
GS
1063=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1064
1065(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1066there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1067count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1068or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1069though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1070loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1071
64977eb6 1072=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1073
be771a83
GS
1074(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1075file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1076the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1077
a0d0e21e
LW
1078=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1079
e476b1b5 1080(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1081probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1082
748a9306
LW
1083=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1084
be771a83
GS
1085(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1086to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1087
fe13d51d 1088=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1089
be771a83
GS
1090(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1091to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
2fe2bdfd 1092the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1093
cd06dffe
GS
1094=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1095
be771a83
GS
1096(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1097temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1098is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1099
96ebfdd7
RK
1100=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1101
1102(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1103there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1104
78f9721b
SM
1105=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1106
1107(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1108but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1109to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1110the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1111list context.
1112
a0d0e21e
LW
1113=item Can't stat script "%s"
1114
be771a83
GS
1115(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1116open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1117
a0d0e21e
LW
1118=item Can't take log of %g
1119
fb73857a
PP
1120(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1121negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1122standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1123negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1124
1125=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1126
1127(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1128negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1129with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1130
1131=item Can't undef active subroutine
1132
1133(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1134however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1135redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1136
c81225bc 1137=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1138
be771a83
GS
1139(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1140into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1141specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1142indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1143
1db89ea5
BS
1144=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1145
e27ad1f2 1146(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1147table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1148for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1149
96ebfdd7
RK
1150=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1151
1152(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1153be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1154
6df41af2
GS
1155=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1156
be771a83
GS
1157(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1158references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1159
90b75b61 1160=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1161
1162(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1163Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1164provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1165
1109a392
MHM
1166=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1167
1168(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1169byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1170allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1171
6df41af2
GS
1172=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1173
be771a83
GS
1174(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1175foreach.
6df41af2 1176
aab6a793 1177=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1178
be771a83
GS
1179(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1180is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1181(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1182have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1183weren't.
1184
6d3b25aa
RGS
1185=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1186
1187(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1188that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1189For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1190is inside a big-endian group.
1191
c07a80fd
PP
1192=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1193
1194(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1195You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1196and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1197Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1198lexical variable.
1199
a0d0e21e
LW
1200=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1201
1202(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1203reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1204test the type of the reference, if need be.
1205
748a9306 1206=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1207
be771a83
GS
1208(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1209references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1210
748a9306
LW
1211=item Can't use subscript on %s
1212
1213(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1214subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1215didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1216
6df41af2
GS
1217=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1218
75b44862
GS
1219(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1220creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1221backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1222expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1223value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1224instead.
6df41af2 1225
0d863452 1226=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1227
0d863452
RH
1228(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1229loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1230from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1231or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1232
810b8aa5
GS
1233=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1234
1235(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1236references can be weakened.
1237
5f05dabc 1238=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1239
be771a83
GS
1240(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1241with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1242Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1243
4a68bf9d 1244=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1245
17a3df4c
KW
1246(F|W deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
1247It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl 5.16. In the
1248cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
1249derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1250
1251Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well.
f9d13529 1252
f337b084 1253=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1254
1255(W pack) You said
1256
1257 pack("C", $x)
1258
1259where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1260only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1261and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1262
1263 pack("C", $x & 255)
1264
1265If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1266instead.
1267
f337b084
TH
1268=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1269
1270(W pack) You said
1271
1272 pack("U0W", $x)
1273
1274where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1275all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1276meant:
1277
1278 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1279
1280=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1281
1282(W pack) You said
1283
1284 pack("c", $x)
1285
1286where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1287is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1288and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1289
1290 pack("c", $x & 255);
1291
1292If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1293instead.
1294
f337b084
TH
1295=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1296
1297(W unpack) You tried something like
1298
1299 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1300
1a147d38 1301where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1302below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1303modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1304
1305 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1306
1307=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1308
1309(W pack) You tried something like
1310
1311 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1312
1a147d38
YO
1313where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1314value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1315uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1316
1317 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1318
1319=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1320
1321(W unpack) You tried something like
1322
1323 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1324
1a147d38
YO
1325where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1326value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1327uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1328
1329 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1330
96ebfdd7
RK
1331=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1332
1333(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1334
abc7ecad
SP
1335=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1336
1337(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1338a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1339
541ed3a9
FC
1340=item Closure prototype called
1341
1342(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1343handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1344This subroutine cannot be called.
1345
49704364
LW
1346=item Code missing after '/'
1347
1348(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1349template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1350
0876b9a0
KW
1351=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1352
9ae3ac1a
KW
1353=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, no properties match it; all inverse properties do
1354
0876b9a0
KW
1355(W utf8) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum of U+10FFFF.
1356
1357Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code
1358points, up to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on
1359your system, but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems.
1360At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code points up to
13610x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require
1362larger than a 32 bit word.
1363
9ae3ac1a
KW
1364None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1365code point. For example,
1366
1367 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1368
1369will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1370
1371 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1372
1373will match.
1374
6df41af2
GS
1375=item %s: Command not found
1376
be771a83
GS
1377(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1378Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1379
7a2e2cd6
PP
1380=item Compilation failed in require
1381
1382(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1383Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1384encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1385
c3464db5
DD
1386=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1387
be771a83
GS
1388(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1389situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1390to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1391arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1392recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1393under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1394in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1395that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1396on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1397
38875929
DM
1398=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1399
1400(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1401cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
a568ca76 1402function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
38875929 1403cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
a568ca76
FC
1404has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread
1405first to wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
38875929
DM
1406after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1407lock.
1408
38875929
DM
1409=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1410
1411(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1412cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
a568ca76 1413function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
38875929 1414cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
a568ca76
FC
1415has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread
1416first to wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
38875929
DM
1417after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1418lock.
1419
69282e91 1420=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1421
be771a83
GS
1422(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1423to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1424L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1425
41ab332f 1426=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1427
be771a83
GS
1428(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1429an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1430specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1431corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1432L<overload>.
6df41af2 1433
fc8cd66c
YO
1434=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1435
1a147d38
YO
1436(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1437the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1438forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1439See L<charnames>.
1440
1441
779c5bc9
GS
1442=item Constant is not %s reference
1443
1444(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1445is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1446The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1447usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1448See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1449
4cee8e80
CS
1450=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1451
bb028877 1452(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1453eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1454commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1455
9607fc9c
PP
1456=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1457
be771a83
GS
1458(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1459for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1460workarounds.
9607fc9c 1461
e7ea3e70
IZ
1462=item Copy method did not return a reference
1463
64977eb6 1464(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1465L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1466
6798c92b
GS
1467=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1468
1469(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1470
a0d0e21e
LW
1471=item corrupted regexp pointers
1472
1473(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1474expression compiler gave it.
1475
1476=item corrupted regexp program
1477
be771a83
GS
1478(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1479valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1480
de42a5a9 1481=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1482
1483(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1484
49704364
LW
1485=item Count after length/code in unpack
1486
1487(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1488you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1489L<perlfunc/pack>.
1490
17a3df4c
KW
1491=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1492
1493(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1494to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1495evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
1496ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.16. Just use a
1497semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1498
1499=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
f9d13529 1500
17a3df4c 1501(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
f9d13529 1502non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1408fb84 1503written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
17a3df4c 1504characters.
f9d13529 1505
a0d0e21e
LW
1506=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1507
be771a83
GS
1508(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1509100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1510infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1511which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1512
aad1d01f
NC
1513This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1514setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1515
f10b0346 1516=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1517
be771a83
GS
1518(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1519checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1520array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1521
f10b0346 1522=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1523
be771a83
GS
1524(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1525checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1526is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1527
62658f4d
PM
1528=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1529
1530(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1531there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1532
fc36a67e
PP
1533=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1534
be771a83
GS
1535(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1536long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1537that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1538
4a68bf9d 1539=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1540
1541(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
1542But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names are
1543deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character and
1544continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces, parentheses or
1545colons.
1546
6d3b25aa
RGS
1547=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1548
1549(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1550There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1551not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1552conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1553static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1554relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1555declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1556
6d3b25aa
RGS
1557 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1558
1559becomes
1560
1561 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1562
36fb85f3
RGS
1563Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1564have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1565
1566 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1567
500ab966
RGS
1568=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1569
1570(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1571just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1572to create a dangling reference.
1573
3cdd684c
TP
1574=item Did not produce a valid header
1575
1576See Server error.
1577
6df41af2
GS
1578=item %s did not return a true value
1579
1580(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1581it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1582traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1583do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1584
cc507455 1585=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1586
413ff9f6
FC
1587(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1588some such.
4633a7c4 1589
cc507455 1590=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1591
be771a83
GS
1592(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1593variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1594seems superfluous.
33633739 1595
cc507455 1596=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1597
be771a83
GS
1598(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1599@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1600carried away.
748a9306 1601
7e1af8bc 1602=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1603
1604(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1605you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1606
3cdd684c
TP
1607=item Document contains no data
1608
1609See Server error.
1610
62658f4d
PM
1611=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1612
1613(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1614define a C<$VERSION.>
1615
49704364
LW
1616=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1617
1618(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1619See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1620
a0d0e21e
LW
1621=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1622
1623(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1624
1625=item do_study: out of memory
1626
1627(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1628
6df41af2
GS
1629=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1630
56da5a46
RGS
1631(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1632"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1633name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1634because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1635"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1636something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1637subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1638"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1639
ac206dc8
RGS
1640=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1641
1642(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1643qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1644
84d78eb7
YO
1645=item dump is not supported
1646
1647(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1648
a0d0e21e
LW
1649=item Duplicate free() ignored
1650
be771a83
GS
1651(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1652already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1653
1109a392
MHM
1654=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1655
1656(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1657in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1658
4633a7c4
LW
1659=item elseif should be elsif
1660
56da5a46
RGS
1661(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1662ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1663"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1664unlikely to be what you want.
1665
ab13f0c7
JH
1666=item Empty %s
1667
af6f566e
HS
1668(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1669described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1670a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1671
85ab1d1d 1672=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1673
85ab1d1d 1674(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1675effective uids or gids failed.
1676
c038024b
RGS
1677=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1678
1679(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1680aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1681program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1682
748a9306
LW
1683=item Error converting file specification %s
1684
5f05dabc 1685(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1686specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1687single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1688an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1689conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1690
e4d48cc9
GS
1691=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1692
be771a83
GS
1693(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1694expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1695is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1696
fc8f615e 1697=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1698
be771a83
GS
1699(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1700C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1701pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1702is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1703building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1704that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1705
6df41af2
GS
1706=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1707
be771a83
GS
1708(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1709assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1710pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1711
1a147d38
YO
1712=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1713
1714(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1715any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1716
1717The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1718discovered.
1719
fc36a67e
PP
1720=item Excessively long <> operator
1721
1722(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1723Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1724filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1725variable and glob that.
1726
ed9aa3b7
SG
1727=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1728
1729(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented in MacPerl. See L<perlport>.
1730
fe13d51d 1731=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1732
1733(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1734
1735=item Exiting eval via %s
1736
be771a83
GS
1737(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1738goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1739
1740=item Exiting format via %s
1741
9a2ff54b 1742(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1743goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1744
0a753a76
PP
1745=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1746
be771a83
GS
1747(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1748sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1749loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1750
a0d0e21e
LW
1751=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1752
be771a83
GS
1753(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1754as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1755
1756=item Exiting substitution via %s
1757
be771a83
GS
1758(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1759as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1760
7b8d334a
GS
1761=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1762
be771a83
GS
1763(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1764the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1765usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1766e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1767
6df41af2
GS
1768=item %s: Expression syntax
1769
be771a83
GS
1770(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1771Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1772
1773=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1774
3c10abe3
AG
1775(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1776CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1777queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1778
7253e4e3 1779=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1780
be771a83 1781(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1782character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1783in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1784"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1785problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1786
1b1ee2ef 1787=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1788
be771a83
GS
1789(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1790system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1791details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1792you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1793
1794=item fcntl is not implemented
1795
1796(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1797PDP-11 or something?
1798
22846ab4
AB
1799=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1800
1801(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1802is not possible.
1803
f337b084
TH
1804=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1805
1806(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1807which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1808a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
1809C<u63> as format.
1810
af8c498a 1811=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1812
6c8d78fb
HS
1813(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1814it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1815"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1816write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1817
af8c498a 1818=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1819
6c8d78fb
HS
1820(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1821you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
be771a83
GS
1822with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1823intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
6c8d78fb
HS
1824Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0
1825(also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1826
1827=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1828
1829(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1830as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1831previously.
1832
1833=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1834
1835(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1836as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1837
1838=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1839
1840(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1841a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1842happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1843name.
a0d0e21e 1844
56e90b21
GS
1845=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1846
be771a83 1847(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1848some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1849filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1850same name?
56e90b21 1851
6df41af2
GS
1852=item Format not terminated
1853
1854(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1855to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1856
a0d0e21e
LW
1857=item Format %s redefined
1858
e476b1b5 1859(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1860
1861 {
271595cc 1862 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1863 eval "format NAME =...";
1864 }
1865
a0d0e21e
LW
1866=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1867
e476b1b5 1868(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1869
1870 if ($foo = 123)
1871
1872when you meant
1873
1874 if ($foo == 123)
1875
1876(or something like that).
1877
6df41af2
GS
1878=item %s found where operator expected
1879
56da5a46
RGS
1880(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1881If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1882operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1883operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1884
a0d0e21e
LW
1885=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1886
1887(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1888
1889=item gethostent not implemented
1890
1891(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1892because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1893on the Internet.
1894
69282e91 1895=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1896
be771a83
GS
1897(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1898socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1899
748a9306
LW
1900=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1901
1902(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1903C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1904
6df41af2
GS
1905=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1906
be771a83
GS
1907(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1908forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1909L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1910
1911=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1912
a4edf47d 1913(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1914that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1915declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1916which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1917
e476b1b5
GS
1918=item glob failed (%s)
1919
be771a83
GS
1920(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1921C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1922C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1923nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1924resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1925broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1926config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1927were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1928empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1929think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1930C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1931
a0d0e21e
LW
1932=item Glob not terminated
1933
1934(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1935a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1936not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1937earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1938
bcd05b94 1939=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 1940
fc003d4b
MS
1941(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was larger than
1942it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1943date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1944not-a-number value).
1945
bcd05b94 1946=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b
MS
1947
1948(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was smaller than
1949it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1950date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1951not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 1952
6df41af2 1953=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1954
6df41af2
GS
1955(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1956version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1957
1958=item goto must have label
1959
1960(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1961unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1962
49704364 1963=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1964
49704364 1965(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is
18529408 1966supposed to follow something: a template character or a ()-group.
49704364 1967 See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1968
fe13d51d 1969=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
1970
1971(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1972
a0d0e21e
LW
1973=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1974
be771a83
GS
1975(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1976to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1977created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1978
1979=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1980
be771a83
GS
1981(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1982spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1983
6df41af2
GS
1984=item %s has too many errors
1985
1986(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1987Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1988
e6897b1a
KW
1989=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
1990
1991(D syntax)
1992
1993You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following a pattern
1994without an intervening space. For example, the two constructs:
1995
1996 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
1997 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
1998
1999both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow the first form
2000in Perl 5.16. And,
2001
2002 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
2003
2004will be disallowed too.
2005
252aa082
JH
2006=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2007
e476b1b5 2008(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2009(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2010L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2011
8903cb82
PP
2012=item Identifier too long
2013
2014(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2015about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2016names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2017of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2018
c3c41406 2019=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 2020
ff3f963a
KW
2021(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return a
2022zero length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 2023its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2024been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2025
6df41af2 2026=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2027
6df41af2 2028(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2029
6df41af2 2030=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2031
be771a83
GS
2032(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2033binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2034offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2035
78d0fecf 2036=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2037
d5898338 2038(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2039would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2040when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2041version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2042to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2043
d37a9538
ST
2044=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2045
197afce1
MT
2046(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2047Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
d37a9538 2048
904d85c5
RGS
2049=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2050
2051(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
2052you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
2053
8e742a20
MHM
2054=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2055
2056(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
2057
a0d0e21e
LW
2058=item Illegal division by zero
2059
be771a83
GS
2060(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2061your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2062meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2063
6df41af2
GS
2064=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2065
be771a83
GS
2066(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2067A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2068number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2069
a0d0e21e
LW
2070=item Illegal modulus zero
2071
be771a83
GS
2072(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2073numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2074
6df41af2 2075=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2076
6df41af2
GS
2077(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2078two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2079
2080=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2081
d1be9408 2082(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2083
399388f4 2084=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2085
d1be9408 2086(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2087Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2088
fe13d51d 2089=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2090
6df41af2 2091(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2092following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2093
6df41af2 2094=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2095
75b44862 2096(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2097internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2098delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2099
6df41af2 2100=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2101
be771a83
GS
2102(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2103name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2104didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2105ignored.
54310121 2106
6df41af2 2107=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2108
be771a83
GS
2109(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2110the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2111system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2112times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2113would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2114
be771a83
GS
2115Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2116also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2117
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2118=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2119
2120(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2121C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2122documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2123
979699d9
JH
2124=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2125
2126(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2127Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2128encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2129
1a147d38
YO
2130=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2131
2132(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2133text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2134either consume text or fail.
2135
2136The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2137discovered.
2138
6dbe9451
NC
2139=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2140
2141(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2142of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2143C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2144as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2145
a0d0e21e
LW
2146=item Insecure dependency in %s
2147
8b1a09fc 2148(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2149The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2150setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2151tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2152from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2153such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2154L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2155
2156=item Insecure directory in %s
2157
be771a83
GS
2158(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2159setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2160the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2161See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2162
62f468fc 2163=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2164
2165(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2166setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2167C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2168supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2169the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2170
a7ae9550
GS
2171=item Integer overflow in %s number
2172
75b44862 2173(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2174either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2175your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2176On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2177representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
21780b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2179transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2180internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2181operations.
bbce6d69 2182
2fba7546
GA
2183=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2184
0be96356
AL
2185(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2186or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2fba7546
GA
2187integers for your architecture.
2188
46314c13
JP
2189=item Integer overflow in version
2190
2191(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2192size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2193because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2194element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2195trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2196100/9.
2197
7253e4e3 2198=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2199
2200(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2201The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2202discovered.
2203
748a9306
LW
2204=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2205
be771a83
GS
2206(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2207you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2208to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2209L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2210Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2211terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2212
7253e4e3 2213=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2214
7253e4e3
RK
2215(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2216<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2217discovered.
a0d0e21e 2218
6df41af2
GS
2219=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2220
75b44862 2221(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2222followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2223operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2224L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2225
09bef843
SB
2226=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2227
a4a4c9e2 2228(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2229by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2230
2231=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2232
a4a4c9e2 2233(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2234recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2235
c635e13b
PP
2236=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2237
be771a83
GS
2238(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2239L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2240
9e08bc66
ST
2241=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2242
2243(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2244didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2245from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2246The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2247The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2248escape was discovered.
2249
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2250=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2251
2252(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")>
2253or C<use mro 'foo'>, where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO).
2254(Currently, the only valid ones are C<dfs> and C<c3>). See L<mro>.
2255
7253e4e3 2256=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2257
2258(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2259greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2260C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2261up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2262problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2263
d1573ac7 2264=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2265
2266(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2267character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2268
09bef843
SB
2269=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2270
0120eecf 2271(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2272elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2273parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2274See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2275
b4581f09
JH
2276=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2277
2278(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2279colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
2280If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2281list was terminated too soon.
2282
2c86d456
DG
2283=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2284
2285(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2286A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2287decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2288v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2289The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2290See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2291
49704364 2292=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2293
49704364
LW
2294(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2295See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2296(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2297silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2298
2c86d456
DG
2299=item Invalid version format (%s)
2300
2301(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2302A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2303decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2304v-string. If the v-string has less than three components, it must have a
2305leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is optional. Both
2306decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a trailing "alpha"
2307component separated by an underscore character after a fractional or
2308dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized text indicates which
a6485a24 2309criteria were not met. See the L<version> module for more details on
2c86d456 2310allowed version formats.
46314c13 2311
798ae1b7
DG
2312=item Invalid version object
2313
2314(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid. Perhaps
2315the internals were modified directly in some way or an arbitrary reference
2316was blessed into the "version" class.
2317
a0d0e21e
LW
2318=item ioctl is not implemented
2319
2320(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2321strange for a machine that supports C.
2322
c289d2f7
JH
2323=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2324
2325(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
2326Check you control flow and number of arguments.
2327
fe13d51d 2328=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2329
2330(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
2331you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO Perl must be configured
2332with 'useperlio'.
2333
80cbd5ad
JH
2334=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2335
2336(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
2337neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
2338
b4581f09
JH
2339=item $* is no longer supported
2340
d1d15184 2341(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older perls, has
4fd19576
B
2342been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In previous versions of perl the use of
2343C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line matching within a string.
2344
2345Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
2346modifiers. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value then all regular
2347expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2348
8ae1fe26
RGS
2349=item $# is no longer supported
2350
d1d15184 2351(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older perls, has
8ae1fe26
RGS
2352been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2353printf/sprintf functions instead.
2354
6ad11d81
JH
2355=item `%s' is not a code reference
2356
04a80ee0
RGS
2357(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2358needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2359to a subroutine.
2360
2361=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2362
04a80ee0
RGS
2363(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2364unaware of.
6ad11d81 2365
a0d0e21e
LW
2366=item junk on end of regexp
2367
2368(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2369
2370=item Label not found for "last %s"
2371
be771a83
GS
2372(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2373of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2374L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2375
2376=item Label not found for "next %s"
2377
2378(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2379that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2380L<perlfunc/last>.
2381
2382=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2383
2384(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2385that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2386L<perlfunc/last>.
2387
85ab1d1d 2388=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2389
85ab1d1d 2390(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2391effective uids or gids failed.
2392
49704364
LW
2393=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2394
d7f8936a 2395(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
LW
2396length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2397an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2398
f0e67a1d
Z
2399=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2400
2401(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2402(using L<lex_stuff_pvn_flags|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn_flags> or similar), but
2403tried to insert a character that couldn't be part of the current input.
2404This is an inherent pitfall of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the
2405reasons to avoid it. Where it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only
2406plain ASCII is recommended.
2407
2408=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2409
2410(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2411detectable way.
2412
69282e91 2413=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2414
be771a83
GS
2415(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2416to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2417L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2418
bcd05b94 2419=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2420
fc003d4b
MS
2421(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was larger
2422than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2423wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2424not-a-number value).
2425
bcd05b94 2426=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b
MS
2427
2428(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was smaller
2429than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2430wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2431not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2432
58e23c8d 2433=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2434
2435(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2436handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2437
b88df990
NC
2438=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2439
2440(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2441for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2442hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2443because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2444are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2445You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2446
2f7da168
RK
2447=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2448
2449(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2450by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2451instead on the filehandle.)
2452
885ef6f5
GG
2453=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2454
963d9ce9 2455(W misc) Making a subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined
d9159685
RS
2456by declaring the subroutine with an lvalue attribute is not
2457possible. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine add the
e2bd2e2b 2458lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the declaration before
885ef6f5
GG
2459the definition.
2460
96ebfdd7
RK
2461=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2462
2463(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2464values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2465L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2466
49704364
LW
2467=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
2468
2469(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2470are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2471
2472=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2473
2474(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2475are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2476
6df41af2
GS
2477=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2478
2479(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2480
2481 prefix1;prefix2
2482
2483or
6df41af2
GS
2484 prefix1 prefix2
2485
be771a83
GS
2486with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2487a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2488appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2489"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2490
2f758a16
ST
2491=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2492
d37a9538
ST
2493(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2494syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2495obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2496when the function is called.
2f758a16 2497
ba210ebe
JH
2498=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2499
2575c402
JW
2500(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2501encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2502
2575c402
JW
2503One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2504you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
25058-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2506
2507If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2508sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2509set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2510message.
2511
2512See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2513
dea0fc0b
JH
2514=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
2515
183097aa 2516(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
dea0fc0b
JH
2517doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2518
ff3f963a
KW
2519=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2520
2521(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2522
f337b084
TH
2523=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2524
2525(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2526rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2527
2528=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2529
2530(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2531rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2532
2533=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2534
2535(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2536rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2537
de42a5a9 2538=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2539
fe13d51d 2540(F) Perl aborted due to a too high number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2541usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2542too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2543resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2544safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2545
49704364 2546=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2547
2548(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
2549regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2550shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2551See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2552
25f58aea
PN
2553=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2554
2555(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2556interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2557"use" or "my".
2558
49704364 2559=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2560
2561(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2562checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2563See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2564
a0d0e21e
LW
2565=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2566
2567(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2568doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2569
3cdd684c
TP
2570=item Method %s not permitted
2571
2572See Server error.
2573
a0d0e21e
LW
2574=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2575
2576(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2577by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2578ended earlier on the current line.
2579
2580=item Misplaced _ in number
2581
d4ced10d
JH
2582(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2583separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2584
7baa4690
HS
2585=item Missing argument in %s
2586
2587(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2588supplied.
2589
9e81e6a1
RGS
2590=item Missing argument to -%c
2591
2592(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2593immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2594
ff3f963a 2595=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2596
4a2d328f 2597(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
c3c41406
KW
2598double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space (or
2599comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2600This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately follow
2601the C<\N>.
423cee85 2602
f0a2b745
KW
2603=item Missing braces on \o{}
2604
2605(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2606
a0d0e21e
LW
2607=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2608
2609(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2610"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2611
06eaf0bc
GS
2612=item Missing command in piped open
2613
be771a83
GS
2614(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2615C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2616blank.
06eaf0bc 2617
961ce445
RGS
2618=item Missing control char name in \c
2619
2620(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2621character name.
2622
6df41af2
GS
2623=item Missing name in "my sub"
2624
be771a83
GS
2625(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2626they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2627
2628=item Missing $ on loop variable
2629
be771a83
GS
2630(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2631are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2632can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2633
cc507455 2634=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2635
56da5a46
RGS
2636(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2637"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2638
ab13f0c7
JH
2639=item Missing right brace on %s
2640
ff3f963a
KW
2641(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2642
4a68bf9d 2643=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2644
0a96133f
KW
2645(F)
2646C<\N> has two meanings.
2647
2648The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed
2649in braces, meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that name.
ff3f963a 2650Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
0a96133f
KW
2651double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns, it doesn't
2652have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
ff3f963a 2653
0a96133f 2654Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only) in
c3c41406
KW
2655patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short for
2656C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
ff3f963a
KW
2657
2658This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately by a
c3c41406 2659left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if
ff3f963a
KW
2660the braces form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes
2661that this means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
0a96133f 26623; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a C<\N{>
ff3f963a
KW
2663and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2664
2665However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was mistakenly
c3c41406 2666omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and
0a96133f
KW
2667raises this error. If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant
2668the latter, escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2669
d98d5fff 2670=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2671
be771a83
GS
2672(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2673ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2674were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2675
6df41af2
GS
2676=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2677
56da5a46
RGS
2678(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2679"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2680the previous line just because you saw this message.
2681
a0d0e21e
LW
2682=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2683
2684(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2685constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2686catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2687
2688 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2689 mod(2);
2690
2691Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2692
c5674021
PDF
2693Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2694is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2695
2696 $x = 1;
2697 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2698 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2699 }
c5674021 2700
7a4340ed 2701=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2702
2703(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2704subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2705backwards.
2706
7a4340ed 2707=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2708
be771a83
GS
2709(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2710couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2711
2712=item Module name must be constant
2713
2714(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2715
be98fb35 2716=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2717
be98fb35
GS
2718(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2719you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2720about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2721
fe13d51d 2722=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2723
2724(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2725can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2726list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2727See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2728
a0d0e21e
LW
2729=item msg%s not implemented
2730
2731(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2732
2733=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2734
75b44862
GS
2735(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2736They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2737
49704364 2738=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2739
49704364
LW
2740(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2741follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2742See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2743
2744=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2745
be771a83
GS
2746(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2747that yet.
6df41af2 2748
30c282f6 2749=item "%s" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2750
be771a83
GS
2751(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2752sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2753local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2754
4a68bf9d 2755=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2756
c3c41406
KW
2757(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
2758character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses its
2759specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not what you want.
2760
4a68bf9d 2761=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406
KW
2762
2763(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or sequence
2764was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that bypass the lexer,
b09c05e6 2765such as using single-quotish context, or an extra backslash in double quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2766
2767 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2768 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2769 /$re/;
2770
b09c05e6 2771Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2772
2773 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2774 /$re/;
2775
2776The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2777components:
2778
2779 $re = '\N';
2780 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2781
2782It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2783doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2784
2785Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2786C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2787
2788 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2789 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2790
8b1a09fc
PP
2791=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2792
e476b1b5 2793(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2794If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2795again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2796provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e 2797
64b374f4
FD
2798NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2799%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2800the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2801will not trigger this warning.
2802
4a68bf9d 2803=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
ff3f963a
KW
2804
2805(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
c3c41406
KW
2806number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than 0 - 9
2807or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
ff3f963a 2808
49704364
LW
2809=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2810
2811(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2812negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2813
a0d0e21e
LW
2814=item Negative length
2815
be771a83
GS
2816(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2817length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2818
ed9aa3b7
SG
2819=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2820
2821(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2822greater than or equal to zero.
2823
7253e4e3 2824=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2825
b45f050a 2826(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2827things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2828expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2829
7253e4e3 2830Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2831C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2832
6df41af2 2833=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2834
be771a83
GS
2835(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2836scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2837
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2838=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2839
2840(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2841real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2842See L<mro>.
2843
a0d0e21e
LW
2844=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2845
be771a83
GS
2846(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2847setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2848will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2849securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2850
a0d0e21e
LW
2851=item No comma allowed after %s
2852
2853(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2854allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2855Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2856
0a753a76
PP
2857One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2858constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2859importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2860does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2861explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2862L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2863would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2864remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2865constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2866list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2867this error was triggered?
2868
748a9306
LW
2869=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2870
be771a83
GS
2871(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2872redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2873doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2874
a0d0e21e
LW
2875=item No DB::DB routine defined
2876
be771a83 2877(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
ccafdc96
RGS
2878for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2879module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2880statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2881
2882=item No dbm on this machine
2883
2884(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2885supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2886
ccafdc96 2887=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2888
ccafdc96
RGS
2889(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2890for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2891module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2892of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2893
96ebfdd7
RK
2894=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2895
2896(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2897
c47ff5f1 2898=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2899
be771a83
GS
2900(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2901redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2902find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2903
49704364
LW
2904=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2905
2906(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2907matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2908
c47ff5f1 2909=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2910
be771a83
GS
2911(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2912redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2913name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2914
6df41af2
GS
2915=item No #! line
2916
2917(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2918even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2919
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2920=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2921
2922(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2923in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2924it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2925or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2926
6df41af2
GS
2927=item "no" not allowed in expression
2928
be771a83
GS
2929(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2930returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2931
c47ff5f1 2932=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2933
be771a83
GS
2934(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2935redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2936doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2937
c47ff5f1 2938=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2939
be771a83
GS
2940(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2941redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2942find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2943
1ec3e8de
GS
2944=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2945
be771a83
GS
2946(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2947declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2948semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2949
a0d0e21e
LW
2950=item No Perl script found in input
2951
2952(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2953with #! and containing the word "perl".
2954
2955=item No setregid available
2956
2957(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2958your system.
2959
2960=item No setreuid available
2961
2962(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2963your system.
2964
6df41af2
GS
2965=item No %s specified for -%c
2966
2967(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2968you haven't specified one.
e75d1f10
RD
2969=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2970
2971(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2972but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2973package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2974
2c692339
RGS
2975=item No such class %s
2976
30c282f6 2977(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration, but
2c692339
RGS
2978this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2979
3c20a832
SP
2980=item No such hook: %s
2981
2982(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl. Currently, Perl
2983accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks
2984
6df41af2
GS
2985=item No such pipe open
2986
2987(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2988close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2989earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2990
a0d0e21e
LW
2991=item No such signal: SIG%s
2992
be771a83
GS
2993(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2994not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2995names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2996
2997=item Not a CODE reference
2998
2999(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3000subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3001use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3002also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3003
3004=item Not a format reference
3005
3006(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
3007format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
3008
3009=item Not a GLOB reference
3010
be771a83
GS
3011(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3012symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3013something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3014kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3015
3016=item Not a HASH reference
3017
be771a83
GS
3018(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3019reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3020find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3021
6df41af2
GS
3022=item Not an ARRAY reference
3023
be771a83
GS
3024(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3025a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3026to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3027
a0d0e21e
LW
3028=item Not a perl script
3029
3030(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
3031even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
3032mention perl.
3033
3034=item Not a SCALAR reference
3035
be771a83
GS
3036(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3037a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3038to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3039
3040=item Not a subroutine reference
3041
3042(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3043subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3044use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3045also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3046
e7ea3e70 3047=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3048
3049(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3050doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3051
a0d0e21e
LW
3052=item Not enough arguments for %s
3053
3054(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3055
6df41af2
GS
3056=item Not enough format arguments
3057
be771a83
GS
3058(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3059supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3060
3061=item %s: not found
3062
be771a83
GS
3063(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3064of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3065yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3066
3067=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3068
6df41af2
GS
3069(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3070timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3071to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3072F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3073need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3074
f0a2b745
KW
3075=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3076
3077(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was unexpectedly
3078encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value is as indicated.
3079
4ef2275c
GA
3080=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3081
3082(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3083Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
3084select. See L<perlfunc/select>
3085
a0d0e21e
LW
3086=item Null filename used
3087
be771a83
GS
3088(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3089machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3090
6df41af2
GS
3091=item NULL OP IN RUN
3092
be771a83
GS
3093(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
3094pointer.
6df41af2 3095
55497cff
PP
3096=item Null picture in formline
3097
3098(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3099specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3100supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3101
a0d0e21e
LW
3102=item Null realloc
3103
3104(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3105
3106=item NULL regexp argument
3107
5f05dabc 3108(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3109
3110=item NULL regexp parameter
3111
3112(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3113
fc36a67e
PP
3114=item Number too long
3115
be771a83 3116(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3117about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3118versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3119the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3120"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3121
f0a2b745
KW
3122=item Number with no digits
3123
3124(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like a number.
3125This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between the braces.
3126
6df41af2
GS
3127=item Octal number in vector unsupported
3128
be771a83
GS
3129(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
3130The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
3131future version.
6df41af2 3132
252aa082
JH
3133=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3134
75b44862 3135(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3136(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3137L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
3138
3139See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
3140
6ad11d81
JH
3141=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3142
04a80ee0
RGS
3143(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
3144arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3145
b21befc1
MG
3146=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3147
3148(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3149which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3150
1930e939 3151=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3152
be771a83
GS
3153(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3154which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3155
bbce6d69
PP
3156=item Offset outside string
3157
a4a4c9e2 3158(F|W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
42bc49da 3159with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3160imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3161take place when going past the end of the string when either
3162C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3163for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3164with real files).
bbce6d69 3165
c289d2f7 3166=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3167
3168(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3169never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3170call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3171
96ebfdd7
RK
3172=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3173
3174(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3175that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3176
a0d0e21e
LW
3177=item oops: oopsAV
3178
e476b1b5 3179(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3180
3181=item oops: oopsHV
3182
e476b1b5 3183(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 3184
abc718f2
RGS
3185=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
3186
a4a4c9e2 3187(W io, deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3188a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
3189Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3190and is deprecated.
3191
3192=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
3193
a4a4c9e2 3194(W io, deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3195a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
3196Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3197and is deprecated.
3198
a0288114 3199=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 3200
be771a83
GS
3201(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
3202handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
3203of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
3204C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 3205
9ae3ac1a
KW
3206=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%X
3207
3208(W) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a Unicode
3209surrogate. Unicode frowns upon the use of surrogates for anything but
3210storing strings in UTF-16, but semantics are (reluctantly) defined for
3211the surrogates, and they are to do nothing for this operation. Because
3212the use of surrogates can be dangerous, Perl warns.
3213
3214If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3215matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3216
3217If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
3218C<no warnings 'utf8';>.
3219
3220=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%X
3221
3222(W) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a code
3223point that is not in Unicode, so what it should do is not defined. Perl
3224has chosen to have it do nothing, and warn you.
3225
3226If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3227matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3228
3229If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
3230C<no warnings 'utf8';>.
3231
748a9306
LW
3232=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
3233
be771a83
GS
3234(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
3235was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
3236use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
3237example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
3238"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 3239
6df41af2
GS
3240=item "our" variable %s redeclared
3241
be771a83
GS
3242(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
3243in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 3244
a80b8354
GS
3245=item Out of memory!
3246
3247(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
3248remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
3249no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 3250
19a52907
JH
3251At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
3252process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3253C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3254the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3255and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3256
6d3b25aa
RGS
3257=item Out of memory during %s extend
3258
3259(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3260the largest possible memory allocation.
3261
6df41af2 3262=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3263
6df41af2
GS
3264(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3265remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3266the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3267possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3268
1b979e0a 3269=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3270
be771a83
GS
3271(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
3272insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3273request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3274
3275The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
3276depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
3277However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
3278emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
3279is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
3280where the failed request happened.
55497cff 3281
1b979e0a
IZ
3282=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
3283
3284(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
3285is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
3286C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 3287
6df41af2
GS
3288=item Out of memory for yacc stack
3289
be771a83
GS
3290(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
3291parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
3292otherwise.
6df41af2 3293
28be1210
TH
3294=item '.' outside of string in pack
3295
3296(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
3297position to before the start of the packed string being built.
3298
49704364 3299=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 3300
49704364 3301(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
3302the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3303
f337b084
TH
3304=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
3305
3306(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
3307the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
3308UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3309
7cb0cfe6
BM
3310=item Overloaded dereference did not return a reference
3311
3312(F) An object with an overloaded dereference operator was dereferenced,
3313but the overloaded operation did not return a reference. See
3314L<overload>.
3315
3316=item Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP
3317
3318(F) An object with a C<qr> overload was used as part of a match, but the
3319overloaded operation didn't return a compiled regexp. See L<overload>.
3320
6df41af2
GS
3321=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
3322
be771a83
GS
3323(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
3324package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
3325some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
3326mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 3327
fb2e24cd
KW
3328=item \p{} uses Unicode rules, not locale rules
3329
3330(W) You compiled a regular expression that contained a Unicode property
3331match (C<\p> or C<\P>), but the regular expression is also being told to
f7f5e97b
KW
3332use the run-time locale, not Unicode. Instead, use a POSIX character
3333class, which should know about the locale's rules.
3334(See L<perlrecharclass/POSIX Character Classes>.)
3335
3336Even if the run-time locale is ISO 8859-1 (Latin1), which is a subset of
3337Unicode, some properties will give results that are not valid for that
3338subset.
3339
3340Here are a couple of examples to help you see what's going on. If the
3341locale is ISO 8859-7, the character at code point 0xD7 is the "GREEK
3342CAPITAL LETTER CHI". But in Unicode that code point means the
3343"MULTIPLICATION SIGN" instead, and C<\p> always uses the Unicode
3344meaning. That means that C<\p{Alpha}> won't match, but C<[[:alpha:]]>
3345should. Only in the Latin1 locale are all the characters in the same
3346positions as they are in Unicode. But, even here, some properties give
3347incorrect results. An example is C<\p{Changes_When_Uppercased}> which
3348is true for "LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS", but since the upper
3349case of that character is not in Latin1, in that locale it doesn't
3350change when upper cased.
fb2e24cd 3351
96ebfdd7
RK
3352=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
3353
3354(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3355signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3356
a0d0e21e
LW
3357=item page overflow
3358
be771a83
GS
3359(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
3360page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 3361
6df41af2
GS
3362=item panic: %s
3363
3364(P) An internal error.
3365
c99a1475
NC
3366=item panic: attempt to call %s in %s
3367
3368(P) One of the file test operators entered a code branch that calls
3369an ACL related-function, but that function is not available on this