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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
12 (S) A severe warning (mandatory).
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
15 (X) A very fatal error (non-trappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
748a9306 18Optional warnings are enabled by using the B<-w> switch. Warnings may
8b1a09fc 19be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}> to a reference to a routine that will be
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20called on each warning instead of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
21Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
22L<perlfunc/eval>.
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23
24Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 25just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
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26The symbols C<"%-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
27
28=over 4
29
30=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
31
32(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
33to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
34if you want to localize a package variable.
35
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36=item "my" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same scope
37
38(S) A lexical variable has been redeclared in the same scope, effectively
39eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost always
8b1a09fc 40a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
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41until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
42destroyed.
43
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44=item "no" not allowed in expression
45
46(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
47no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
48
49=item "use" not allowed in expression
50
51(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
52no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
53
54=item % may only be used in unpack
55
5f05dabc 56(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
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57checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
58way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
59
60=item %s (...) interpreted as function
61
62(W) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 63by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 64found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
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65
66=item %s argument is not a HASH element
67
5f05dabc 68(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash element, such as
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69
70 $foo{$bar}
71 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
72
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73=item %s argument is not a HASH element or slice
74
75(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash element, such as
76
77 $foo{$bar}
78 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
79
80or a hash slice, such as
81
82 @foo{$bar, $baz, $xyzzy}
83 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
84
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85=item %s did not return a true value
86
87(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
88it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
89traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
90do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
91
92=item %s found where operator expected
93
94(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
95sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
96it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
97delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
98
99=item %s had compilation errors.
100
101(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
102
103=item %s has too many errors.
104
105(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
106Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
107
108=item %s matches null string many times
109
110(W) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
111regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
112
113=item %s never introduced
114
115(S) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
116before it could possibly have been used.
117
118=item %s syntax OK
119
120(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
121
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122=item %s: Command not found.
123
124(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
8b1a09fc 125of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
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126into Perl yourself.
127
128=item %s: Expression syntax.
129
130(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
8b1a09fc 131of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
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132into Perl yourself.
133
134=item %s: Undefined variable.
135
136(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
8b1a09fc 137of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
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138into Perl yourself.
139
140=item %s: not found
141
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142(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
143instead of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
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144into Perl yourself.
145
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146=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
147
148(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
149which provides a race condition that breaks security.
150
151=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
152
153(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
154know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
155
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156=item 500 Server error
157
158See Server error.
159
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160=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
161
162(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
163if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
164
165=item @ outside of string
166
2ba9eb46 167(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
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168the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
169
170=item accept() on closed fd
171
172(W) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
173the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
174
175=item Allocation too large: %lx
176
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177(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MSDOS machine.
178
179=item Allocation too large
180
181(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes.
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182
183=item Arg too short for msgsnd
184
185(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
186
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187=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
188
189(W)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
190you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 191a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 192
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193=item Args must match #! line
194
195(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
196with match the arguments specified on the #! line.
197
198=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric
199
200(W) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
201expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
202will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
203
204=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
205
206(D) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
207is now heavily deprecated.
208
209=item assertion botched: %s
210
211(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
212
213=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
214
215(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
216
217=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
218
219(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
220must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
221know which context to supply to the right side.
222
223=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
224
225(P) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
226be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
227of those arenas.
228
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229=item Attempt to free non-existent shared string
230
231(P) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
232optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
233indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
234that can no longer be found in the table.
235
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236=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
237
238(W) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
239routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
240the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
241routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
242it.
243
244=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
245
246(P) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
247
248=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
249
250(W) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
251would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
252and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
253could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
254SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
255when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
256
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257=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
258
259(W) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 260as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
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261dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
262
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263=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
264
265(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 266shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 267S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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268S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
269
270=item Bad associative array
271
272(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
273
274=item Bad filehandle: %s
275
276(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
277has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
278did it in another package.
279
280=item Bad free() ignored
281
282(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
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283malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
284setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
285
286This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
287"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
288C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
289system malloc().
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290
291=item Bad name after %s::
292
293(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
294finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
295so
296
297 $var = 'myvar';
298 $sym = mypack::$var;
299
300is not the same as
301
302 $var = 'myvar';
303 $sym = "mypack::$var";
304
305=item Bad symbol for array
306
307(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
308wasn't a symbol table entry.
309
310=item Bad symbol for filehandle
311
312(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
313wasn't a symbol table entry.
314
315=item Bad symbol for hash
316
317(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
318wasn't a symbol table entry.
319
8b1a09fc 320=item Badly placed ()'s
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321
322(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
8b1a09fc 323of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
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324into Perl yourself.
325
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326=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
327
328(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
329Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
330
331=item bind() on closed fd
332
333(W) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
334the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
335
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336=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
337
338(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
339
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340=item Callback called exit
341
342(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via perl_call_sv()
343exited by calling exit.
344
345=item Can't "last" outside a block
346
347(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
348except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
349current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
350"loopish" block. You can usually double the curlies to get the same
5f05dabc 351effect though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block
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352that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
353
354=item Can't "next" outside a block
355
356(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
357there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
358count as a "loopish" block. You can usually double the curlies to get
5f05dabc 359the same effect though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block
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360that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
361
362=item Can't "redo" outside a block
363
364(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
365there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
366count as a "loopish" block. You can usually double the curlies to get
5f05dabc 367the same effect though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block
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368that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
369
370=item Can't bless non-reference value
371
372(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
373encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
374
375=item Can't break at that line
376
377(S) A warning intended for while running within the debugger, indicating
378the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
379be stopped at.
380
381=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
382
383(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
384functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
385in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
386
387=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
388
389(F) A method call must know what package it's supposed to run in. It
390ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
391you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
392an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
393
394=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
395
396(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
397object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
398neither an object reference nor a package name. (Perhaps it's null?)
399Something like this will reproduce the error:
400
401 $BADREF = undef;
402 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
403 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
404
405=item Can't chdir to %s
406
407(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
408that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
409
410=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
411
412(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 413(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
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414say things like:
415
416 *foo += 1;
417
418You CAN say
419
420 $foo = *foo;
421 $foo += 1;
422
423but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
424
425=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
426
427(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 428(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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429
430=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
431
432(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 433(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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434
435=item Can't create pipe mailbox
436
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437(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
438or other plumbing problems.
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439
440=item Can't declare %s in my
441
5f05dabc 442(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as lexical variables.
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443They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
444
445=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
446
447(S) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
448
5f05dabc 449=item Can't do in-place edit without backup
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450
451(F) You're on a system such as MSDOS that gets confused if you try reading
452from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say B<-i>C<.bak>, or some
453such.
454
8b1a09fc 455=item Can't do inplace edit: %s E<gt> 14 characters
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456
457(S) There isn't enough room in the filename to make a backup name for the file.
458
459=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
460
461(S) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
462/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
463
464=item Can't do setegid!
465
466(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
467of suidperl.
468
469=item Can't do seteuid!
470
471(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
472
473=item Can't do setuid
474
475(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
476do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
477form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
478under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
479If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
480your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
481
482=item Can't do waitpid with flags
483
484(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
485without flags is emulated.
486
8b1a09fc 487=item Can't do {n,m} with n E<gt> m
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488
489(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
490your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
491
492=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
493
494(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
495For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
496
497=item Can't exec "%s": %s
498
5f05dabc 499(W) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
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500program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
501were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
502executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
503#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
504similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
505
506=item Can't exec %s
507
508(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
509what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
510mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
511
512=item Can't execute %s
513
514(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
515in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions.
516
517=item Can't find label %s
518
519(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
520for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
521
522=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
523
524(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 525the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
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526levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
527
528 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.)
529
530=item Can't fork
531
532(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
533
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534=item Unsupported function fork
535
536(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
537
538Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
539Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
540the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
541
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542=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
543
544(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
545access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
546access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
547that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
548assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
549it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
550retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
551but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 552routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
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553appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
554returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
555knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
556see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
557code takes stat buffers lightly.)
558
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559=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
560
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561(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
562can't retrieve its name for later use.
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563
564=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
565
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566(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
567mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
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568
569=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
570
571(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
572call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 573you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
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574L<perlfunc/goto>.
575
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576=item Can't localize a reference
577
578(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which is not allowed because
579the compiler can't determine whether $ref will end up pointing to anything
580with a symbol table entry, and a symbol table entry is necessary to
581do a local.
582
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583=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
584
2ba9eb46 585(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
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586lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
587localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
588package name.
589
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590=item Can't locate %s in @INC
591
592(F) You said to do (or require, or use) a file that couldn't be found
593in any of the libraries mentioned in @INC. Perhaps you need to set
594the PERL5LIB environment variable to say where the extra library is,
595or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or maybe
596you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>.
597
598=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
599
600(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
601functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 602method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
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603
604=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
605
606(W) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
607to exist.
608
609=item Can't mktemp()
610
611(F) The mktemp() routine failed for some reason while trying to process
612a B<-e> switch. Maybe your /tmp partition is full, or clobbered.
613
614=item Can't modify %s in %s
615
616(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 617change it, such as with an auto-increment.
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LW
618
619=item Can't modify non-existent substring
620
621(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
622a NULL.
623
5f05dabc 624=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 625
5f05dabc 626(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
627buffer.
628
629=item Can't open %s: %s
630
631(S) An inplace edit couldn't open the original file for the indicated reason.
632Usually this is because you don't have read permission for the file.
633
634=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
635
636(W) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
637try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
7e1af8bc 638IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using "E<gt>",
a0d0e21e
LW
639and then read it in under a different file handle.
640
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641=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
642
643(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
644couldn't open the file specified after '2E<gt>' or '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the
645command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
646
647=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
648
649(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 650couldn't open the file specified after 'E<lt>' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
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651
652=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
653
654(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
655couldn't open the file specified after 'E<gt>' or 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command
656line for writing.
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657
658=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
659
660(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
661couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
662
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LW
663=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
664
665(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
666
667=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
668
669(S) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason, probably because
670you don't have write permission to the directory.
671
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672=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
673
674(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
675reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
676
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677=item Can't reswap uid and euid
678
679(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
680of suidperl.
681
682=item Can't return outside a subroutine
683
684(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
685there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
686
687=item Can't stat script "%s"
688
689(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
690it open already. Bizarre.
691
692=item Can't swap uid and euid
693
694(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
695of suidperl.
696
697=item Can't take log of %g
698
5f05dabc 699(F) Logarithms are defined on only positive real numbers.
a0d0e21e
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700
701=item Can't take sqrt of %g
702
703(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
704negative number. There's a Complex package available for Perl, though,
705if you really want to do that.
706
707=item Can't undef active subroutine
708
709(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
710however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
711redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
712
713=item Can't unshift
714
715(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
716as the main Perl stack.
717
718=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
719
720(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
721it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
722so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
723message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
724
725=item Can't upgrade to undef
726
727(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
728of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
729code calling sv_upgrade.
730
c07a80fd
PP
731=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
732
733(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
8b1a09fc 734You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the E<lt>=E<gt> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
735and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
736Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
737lexical variable.
738
a0d0e21e
LW
739=item Can't use %s for loop variable
740
741(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
742
743=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
744
745(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
746reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
747test the type of the reference, if need be.
748
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749=item Can't use \1 to mean $1 in expression
750
751(W) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
752a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 753to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
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754Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
755out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
756
757=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
758
759(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
760are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
761
762=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
763
764(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
765be a defined value. This helps to de-lurk some insidious errors.
766
a0d0e21e
LW
767=item Can't use global %s in "my"
768
769(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 770not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
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LW
771the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
772variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
773weren't.
774
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775=item Can't use subscript on %s
776
777(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
778subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
779didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
780
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781=item Can't write to temp file for B<-e>: %s
782
783(F) The write routine failed for some reason while trying to process
784a B<-e> switch. Maybe your /tmp partition is full, or clobbered.
785
5f05dabc 786=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
787
788(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
789an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
790Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
791
792=item Cannot open temporary file
793
8b1a09fc 794(F) The create routine failed for some reason while trying to process
a0d0e21e
LW
795a B<-e> switch. Maybe your /tmp partition is full, or clobbered.
796
797=item chmod: mode argument is missing initial 0
798
799(W) A novice will sometimes say
800
801 chmod 777, $filename
802
803not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
804to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
805
8b1a09fc 806=item Close on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
807
808(W) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
809
810=item connect() on closed fd
811
812(W) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
813the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
814
815=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
816
817(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
818
819=item corrupted regexp pointers
820
821(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
822expression compiler gave it.
823
824=item corrupted regexp program
825
826(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
827a valid magic number.
828
829=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
830
831(W) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
832times than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
833recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
834case it indicates something else.
835
4633a7c4
LW
836=item Did you mean &%s instead?
837
838(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
839
748a9306 840=item Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?
a0d0e21e 841
748a9306
LW
842(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
843On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
844
7e1af8bc 845=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
846
847(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
848you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
849
850=item Do you need to pre-declare %s?
748a9306
LW
851
852(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
853found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
854name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
855because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
856"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
857referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
858to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
859can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
860declaration.
a0d0e21e
LW
861
862=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
863
864(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
865
866=item do_study: out of memory
867
868(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
869
870=item Duplicate free() ignored
871
872(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
873been freed.
874
4633a7c4
LW
875=item elseif should be elsif
876
877(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
878ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
879named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
880unlikely to be what you want.
881
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LW
882=item END failed--cleanup aborted
883
884(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing an END subroutine.
885The interpreter is immediately exited.
886
748a9306
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887=item Error converting file specification %s
888
5f05dabc 889(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
890specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
891single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
892passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
893case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
894
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LW
895=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
896
897(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
898
899=item Exiting eval via %s
900
8b1a09fc 901(W) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
902a goto, or a loop control statement.
903
904=item Exiting subroutine via %s
905
8b1a09fc 906(W) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
907a goto, or a loop control statement.
908
909=item Exiting substitution via %s
910
8b1a09fc 911(W) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
912a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
913
748a9306 914=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 915
748a9306
LW
916(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
917service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
918filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
919the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
920
921=item fcntl is not implemented
922
923(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
924PDP-11 or something?
925
926=item Filehandle %s never opened
927
928(W) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
929You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
930the FileHandle package.
931
5f05dabc 932=item Filehandle %s opened for only input
a0d0e21e
LW
933
934(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
935intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 936"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 937you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 938L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 939
5f05dabc 940=item Filehandle opened for only input
a0d0e21e
LW
941
942(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
943intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 944"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 945you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 946L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
947
948=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
949
950(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
951a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
952that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
953the name.
954
955=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
956
957(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
958a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
959that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
960the name.
961
962=item Format %s redefined
963
964(W) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
965
966 {
967 local $^W = 0;
968 eval "format NAME =...";
969 }
970
971=item Format not terminated
972
973(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
974to the end of your file without finding such a line.
975
976=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
977
978(W) You said
979
980 if ($foo = 123)
981
982when you meant
983
984 if ($foo == 123)
985
986(or something like that).
987
988=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
989
990(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
991
992=item gethostent not implemented
993
994(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
995because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
996on the Internet.
997
998=item get{sock,peer}name() on closed fd
999
1000(W) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
1001Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1002
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LW
1003=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1004
1005(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1006C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1007
1008
a0d0e21e
LW
1009=item Glob not terminated
1010
1011(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1012a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1013finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1014the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1015
1016=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1017
1018(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables must
1019either be lexically scoped (using "my"), or explicitly qualified to
1020say which package the global variable is in (using "::").
1021
1022=item goto must have label
1023
1024(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1025unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1026
1027=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1028
1029(S) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
1030existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1031an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1032
1033=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1034
1035(D) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
1036is now heavily deprecated.
1037
8b1a09fc 1038=item Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter
a0d0e21e 1039
8b1a09fc
PP
1040(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. A logical name was encountered when preparing
1041to iterate over %ENV which violates the syntactic rules governing logical
5f05dabc
PP
1042names. Because it cannot be translated normally, it is skipped, and will not
1043appear in %ENV. This may be a benign occurrence, as some software packages
8b1a09fc
PP
1044might directly modify logical name tables and introduce non-standard names,
1045or it may indicate that a logical name table has been corrupted.
a0d0e21e
LW
1046
1047=item Illegal division by zero
1048
1049(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1050logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1051
1052=item Illegal modulus zero
1053
1054(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1055don't take to this kindly.
1056
1057=item Illegal octal digit
1058
1059(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1060
748a9306
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1061=item Illegal octal digit ignored
1062
1063(W) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
1064of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1065
a0d0e21e
LW
1066=item Insecure dependency in %s
1067
8b1a09fc 1068(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1069The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1070or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1071labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1072who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1073used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1074for more information.
1075
1076=item Insecure directory in %s
1077
1078(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1079script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1080See L<perlsec>.
1081
1082=item Insecure PATH
1083
1084(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
8b1a09fc 1085setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> is derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1086potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1087known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1088
bbce6d69
PP
1089=item Integer overflow in hex number
1090
1091(S) The literal hex number you have specified is too big for your
1092architecture. On a 32-bit architecture the largest hex literal is
10930xFFFFFFFF.
1094
1095=item Integer overflow in octal number
1096
1097(S) The literal octal number you have specified is too big for your
1098architecture. On a 32-bit architecture the largest octal literal is
1099037777777777.
1100
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LW
1101=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1102
1103(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1104of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1105whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
748a9306
LW
1106script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/exec>). Somehow, this count
1107has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1108this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1109and execute the specified command.
1110
a0d0e21e
LW
1111=item internal disaster in regexp
1112
1113(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1114
1115=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1116
1117(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1118
1119=item invalid [] range in regexp
1120
1121(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
1122greater than the maximum character. See L<perlre>.
1123
1124=item ioctl is not implemented
1125
1126(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1127strange for a machine that supports C.
1128
1129=item junk on end of regexp
1130
1131(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1132
1133=item Label not found for "last %s"
1134
1135(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1136loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1137See L<perlfunc/last>.
1138
1139=item Label not found for "next %s"
1140
1141(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1142that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1143L<perlfunc/last>.
1144
1145=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1146
1147(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1148that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1149L<perlfunc/last>.
1150
1151=item listen() on closed fd
1152
1153(W) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1154the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1155
1156=item Literal @%s now requires backslash
1157
1158(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1159array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was
1160first used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and
1161ambiguous instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by putting a
1162backslash to indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array
1163within the program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply
1164assume that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1165
1166=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1167
1168(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 1169doesn't somehow point to a valid method. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1170
1171=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1172
1173(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1174by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1175ended earlier on the current line.
1176
1177=item Misplaced _ in number
1178
1179(W) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
1180
1181=item Missing $ on loop variable
1182
8b1a09fc
PP
1183(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1184mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1185one line to the next.
1186
1187=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1188
1189(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1190"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1191
748a9306
LW
1192=item Missing operator before %s?
1193
1194(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1195found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1196
a0d0e21e
LW
1197=item Missing right bracket
1198
1199(F) The lexer counted more opening curly brackets (braces) than closing ones.
1200As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you were last
1201editing.
1202
1203=item Missing semicolon on previous line?
1204
1205(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1206found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
1207the previous line just because you saw this message.
1208
1209=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1210
1211(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1212constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1213catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1214
1215 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1216 mod(2);
1217
1218Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1219
1220=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, subscript %d
1221
1222(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1223subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1224backwards.
1225
1226=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
1227
1228(F) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
1229be created for some peculiar reason.
1230
1231=item Module name must be constant
1232
1233(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1234
1235=item msg%s not implemented
1236
1237(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1238
1239=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1240
8b1a09fc
PP
1241(W) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
1242like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1243
1244=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1245
1246(W) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names. If you
1247had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
1248again somehow to suppress the message (the C<use vars> pragma is
1249provided for just this purpose).
a0d0e21e
LW
1250
1251=item Negative length
1252
1253(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1254that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1255
1256=item nested *?+ in regexp
1257
5f05dabc 1258(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1259things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1260
5f05dabc 1261Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1262to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1263
1264=item No #! line
1265
1266(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1267even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1268
1269=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1270
1271(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1272script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1273another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1274See L<perlsec>.
1275
1276=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1277
1278(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1279
1280=item No comma allowed after %s
1281
1282(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1283allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1284Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1285
748a9306
LW
1286=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1287
1288(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
1289and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know whither you
1290want to pipe the output from this command.
1291
a0d0e21e
LW
1292=item No DB::DB routine defined
1293
1294(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1295but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1296didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1297statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1298automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1299right.
1300
1301=item No dbm on this machine
1302
1303(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1304supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1305
1306=item No DBsub routine
1307
1308(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1309but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1310didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1311ordinary subroutine call.
1312
8b1a09fc 1313=item No error file after 2E<gt> or 2E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1314
1315(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1316and found a '2E<gt>' or a '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find
1317the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 1318
8b1a09fc 1319=item No input file after E<lt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1320
1321(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1322and found a 'E<lt>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
1323from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 1324
8b1a09fc 1325=item No output file after E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1326
1327(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1328and found a lone 'E<gt>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
1329whither you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 1330
8b1a09fc 1331=item No output file after E<gt> or E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1332
1333(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1334and found a 'E<gt>' or a 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find the
1335name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 1336
a0d0e21e
LW
1337=item No Perl script found in input
1338
1339(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
1340with #! and containing the word "perl".
1341
1342=item No setregid available
1343
1344(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
1345your system.
1346
1347=item No setreuid available
1348
1349(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
1350your system.
1351
1352=item No space allowed after B<-I>
1353
1354(F) The argument to B<-I> must follow the B<-I> immediately with no
1355intervening space.
1356
748a9306
LW
1357=item No such pipe open
1358
1359(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
1360close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
1361an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
1362
a0d0e21e
LW
1363=item No such signal: SIG%s
1364
1365(W) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
1366Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
1367
1368=item Not a CODE reference
1369
1370(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1371subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1372use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1373See also L<perlref>.
1374
1375=item Not a format reference
1376
1377(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
1378format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
1379
1380=item Not a GLOB reference
1381
55497cff 1382(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
1383a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
1384something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
1385what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1386
1387=item Not a HASH reference
1388
1389(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
1390found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1391function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1392
1393=item Not a perl script
1394
1395(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1396even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
1397mention perl.
1398
1399=item Not a SCALAR reference
1400
1401(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
1402found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1403function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1404
1405=item Not a subroutine reference
1406
1407(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1408subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1409use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1410See also L<perlref>.
1411
1412=item Not a subroutine reference in %OVERLOAD
1413
1414(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 1415doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1416
1417=item Not an ARRAY reference
1418
1419(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
1420found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1421function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1422
1423=item Not enough arguments for %s
1424
1425(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
1426
1427=item Not enough format arguments
1428
1429(W) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
1430See L<perlform>.
1431
1432=item Null filename used
1433
5f05dabc 1434(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
1435that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
1436
55497cff
PP
1437=item Null picture in formline
1438
1439(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
1440specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
1441supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
1442
a0d0e21e
LW
1443=item NULL OP IN RUN
1444
1445(P) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
1446
1447=item Null realloc
1448
1449(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
1450
1451=item NULL regexp argument
1452
5f05dabc 1453(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
1454
1455=item NULL regexp parameter
1456
1457(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
1458
1459=item Odd number of elements in hash list
1460
1461(S) You specified an odd number of elements to a hash list, which is odd,
5f05dabc 1462because hash lists come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 1463
bbce6d69
PP
1464=item Offset outside string
1465
1466(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
1467pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
1468The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
1469will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
1470
a0d0e21e
LW
1471=item oops: oopsAV
1472
1473(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1474
1475=item oops: oopsHV
1476
1477(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1478
1479=item Operation `%s' %s: no method found,
1480
1481(F) An attempt was made to use an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 1482somehow no longer points to a valid method. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 1483
748a9306
LW
1484=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
1485
1486(S) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
1487expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
1488to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
1489For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
1490if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
1491
a0d0e21e
LW
1492=item Out of memory for yacc stack
1493
1494(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
1495but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
1496
1497=item Out of memory!
1498
55497cff 1499(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
eff9c6e2
CS
1500remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
1501
1502The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
1503depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
1504However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
1505an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff
PP
1506error is trappable I<once>.
1507
1508=item Out of memory during request for %s
1509
1510(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
1511remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
1512the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
1513a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
1514
a0d0e21e
LW
1515=item page overflow
1516
1517(W) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
1518See L<perlform>.
1519
1520=item panic: ck_grep
1521
1522(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
1523
1524=item panic: ck_split
1525
1526(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
1527
1528=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
1529
1530(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
1531are in the savestack.
1532
1533=item panic: die %s
1534
1535(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
1536it wasn't an eval context.
1537
1538=item panic: do_match
1539
1540(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1541
1542=item panic: do_split
1543
1544(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
1545
1546=item panic: do_subst
1547
1548(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1549
1550=item panic: do_trans
1551
1552(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1553
1554=item panic: goto
1555
1556(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
1557and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
1558
1559=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
1560
1561(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
1562
1563=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
1564
1565(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
1566
1567=item panic: last
1568
1569(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
1570it wasn't a block context.
1571
1572=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
1573
5f05dabc 1574(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
1575
1576=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
1577
1578(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
1579invalid enum on the top of it.
1580
1581=item panic: malloc
1582
1583(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
1584
1585=item panic: mapstart
1586
1587(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
1588
1589=item panic: null array
1590
1591(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
1592
1593=item panic: pad_alloc
1594
1595(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1596and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1597
1598=item panic: pad_free curpad
1599
1600(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1601and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1602
1603=item panic: pad_free po
1604
1605(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1606
1607=item panic: pad_reset curpad
1608
1609(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1610and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1611
1612=item panic: pad_sv po
1613
1614(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1615
1616=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
1617
1618(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1619and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1620
1621=item panic: pad_swipe po
1622
1623(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1624
1625=item panic: pp_iter
1626
1627(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
1628
1629=item panic: realloc
1630
1631(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
1632
1633=item panic: restartop
1634
1635(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
1636didn't supply the destination.
1637
1638=item panic: return
1639
1640(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
1641then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
1642
1643=item panic: scan_num
1644
1645(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
1646
1647=item panic: sv_insert
1648
1649(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
1650was string.
1651
1652=item panic: top_env
1653
1654(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
1655
1656=item panic: yylex
1657
1658(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
1659
5f05dabc 1660=item Pareneses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e
LW
1661
1662(W) You said something like
1663
1664 my $foo, $bar = @_;
1665
1666when you meant
1667
1668 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
1669
1670Remember that "my" and "local" bind closer than comma.
1671
1672=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
1673
1674(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
1675than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
1676anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
1677
1678=item Permission denied
1679
1680(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
1681
748a9306
LW
1682=item pid %d not a child
1683
1684(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
1685isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
1686perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
1687
a0d0e21e
LW
1688=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
1689
1690(F) Your C compiler uses POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
1691the BSD version, which takes a pid.
1692
bbce6d69
PP
1693=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
1694
5f05dabc 1695(W) You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69
PP
1696
1697 qw( a # a comment
1698 b # another comment
1699 ) ;
1700
1701when you should have written this:
1702
1703 qw( a
1704 b
1705 ) ;
1706
1707=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
1708
5f05dabc 1709(W) You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69
PP
1710
1711 qw( a, b, c );
1712
1713when you should have written this:
1714
1715 qw( a b c );
1716
a0d0e21e
LW
1717=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
1718
1719(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
1720Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
1721end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
1722Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
1723
1724=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
1725
1726(S) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 1727
a0d0e21e
LW
1728 open FOO || die;
1729
1730is now misinterpreted as
1731
1732 open(FOO || die);
1733
1734because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary and
1735list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must put
5f05dabc 1736parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator instead of "||".
a0d0e21e
LW
1737
1738=item print on closed filehandle %s
1739
1740(W) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
1741Check your logic flow.
1742
1743=item printf on closed filehandle %s
1744
1745(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
1746Check your logic flow.
1747
1748=item Probable precedence problem on %s
1749
1750(W) The compiler found a bare word where it expected a conditional,
1751which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
1752last argument of the previous construct, for example:
1753
1754 open FOO || die;
1755
4633a7c4
LW
1756=item Prototype mismatch: (%s) vs (%s)
1757
5f05dabc 1758(S) The subroutine being defined had a pre-declared (forward) declaration
4633a7c4
LW
1759with a different function prototype.
1760
8b1a09fc 1761=item Read on closed filehandle E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
1762
1763(W) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
1764Check your logic flow.
1765
1766=item Reallocation too large: %lx
1767
1768(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MSDOS machine.
1769
1770=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
1771
1772(F) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
1773desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
1774which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
1775
1776=item Recursive inheritance detected
1777
1778(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
1779an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
1780
1781=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
1782
1783(W) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
1784reference count of other than 1.
1785
1786=item regexp memory corruption
1787
1788(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1789expression compiler gave it.
1790
1791=item regexp out of space
1792
1793(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
1794
1795=item regexp too big
1796
2ba9eb46 1797(F) The current implementation of regular expressions uses shorts as
a0d0e21e
LW
1798address offsets within a string. Unfortunately this means that if
1799the regular expression compiles to longer than 32767, it'll blow up.
1800Usually when you want a regular expression this big, there is a better
1801way to do it with multiple statements. See L<perlre>.
1802
1803=item Reversed %s= operator
1804
1805(W) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
1806comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
1807
1808=item Runaway format
1809
1810(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
1811produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
1812199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
1813themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
1814shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
1815
1816=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
1817
a6006777 1818(W) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 1819an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc
PP
1820The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
1821assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 1822like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 1823subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 1824
748a9306 1825On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 1826element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
1827Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
1828L<perlref>.
1829
a6006777
PP
1830=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
1831
1832(W) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
1833a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
1834The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
1835assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
1836like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
1837subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
1838
1839On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
1840element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
1841Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
1842L<perlref>.
1843
a0d0e21e
LW
1844=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
1845
1846(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script with its setuid
8b1a09fc 1847or setgid bit not set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
1848
1849=item Search pattern not terminated
1850
1851(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
1852construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
1853
1854=item seek() on unopened file
1855
1856(W) You tried to use the seek() function on a filehandle that was either
1857never opened or has been closed since.
1858
1859=item select not implemented
1860
1861(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
1862
1863=item sem%s not implemented
1864
1865(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
1866
1867=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
1868
1869(S) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
1870that had previously been marked as free.
1871
1872=item Semicolon seems to be missing
1873
1874(W) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
1875or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
1876
1877=item Send on closed socket
1878
1879(W) The filehandle you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
1880Check your logic flow.
1881
1882=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
1883
1884(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 1885parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1886
1887=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
1888
1889(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
1890but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
1891
1892=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
1893
1894(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
1895See L<perlre>.
1896
a5f75d66
AD
1897=item Server error
1898
1899Also known as "500 Server error". This is a CGI error, not a Perl
1900error. You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible
1901by the user CGI is running the script under (which is probably not
1902the user account you tested it under), does not rely on any environment
1903variables (like PATH) from the user it isn't running under, and isn't
1904in a location where the CGI server can't find it, basically, more or less.
1905
a0d0e21e
LW
1906=item setegid() not implemented
1907
8b1a09fc 1908(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
1909the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
1910think so.
1911
1912=item seteuid() not implemented
1913
8b1a09fc 1914(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<gt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
1915the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
1916think so.
1917
1918=item setrgid() not implemented
1919
8b1a09fc 1920(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
1921the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
1922think so.
1923
1924=item setruid() not implemented
1925
8b1a09fc 1926(F) You tried to assign to C<$<lt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
1927the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
1928think so.
1929
1930=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
1931
1932(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
1933because the world might have written on it already.
1934
1935=item shm%s not implemented
1936
1937(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
1938
1939=item shutdown() on closed fd
1940
1941(W) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
1942
1943=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined.
1944
1945(W) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
1946put it into the wrong package?
1947
1948=item sort is now a reserved word
1949
1950(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
1951But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
1952
1953=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
1954
1955(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
4633a7c4 1956it by not using C<E<lt>=E<gt>> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
1957See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1958
1959=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
1960
1961(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
1962or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1963
1964=item Split loop
1965
1966(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
1967more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
1968See L<perlfunc/split>.
1969
8b1a09fc 1970=item Stat on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
1971
1972(W) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
1973on a filehandle that was either never opened or has been closed since.
1974
1975=item Statement unlikely to be reached
1976
1977(W) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
1978This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
1979there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
1980which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
1981by itself.
1982
1983=item Subroutine %s redefined
1984
1985(W) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
1986
1987 {
1988 local $^W = 0;
1989 eval "sub name { ... }";
1990 }
1991
1992=item Substitution loop
1993
1994(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
1995substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
1996input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 1997L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
1998
1999=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2000
2001(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2002construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
2003
2004=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2005
2006(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2007construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
2008
2009=item substr outside of string
2010
2011(W) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a string.
2012That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the length of
2013the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
2014
2015=item suidperl is no longer needed since...
2016
2017(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2018version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2019
2020=item syntax error
2021
2022(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2023
2024 A keyword is misspelled.
2025 A semicolon is missing.
2026 A comma is missing.
2027 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2028 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2029 A closing quote is missing.
2030
2031Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2032error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2033The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2034it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2035before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2036Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2037the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2038C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2039if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2040
cb1a09d0
AD
2041=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2042
8b1a09fc
PP
2043(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
2044instead of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2045into Perl yourself.
2046
a0d0e21e
LW
2047=item System V IPC is not implemented on this machine
2048
5f05dabc 2049(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem", "shm",
a0d0e21e
LW
2050or "msg". See L<perlfunc/semctl>, for example.
2051
2052=item Syswrite on closed filehandle
2053
2054(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2055Check your logic flow.
2056
2057=item tell() on unopened file
2058
2059(W) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
2060never opened or has been closed since.
2061
8b1a09fc 2062=item Test on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2063
2064(W) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
2065open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2066
2067=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2068
8b1a09fc 2069(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2070a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2071
2072 $[ = 0;
2073 $[ = 1;
2074 ...
2075 local $[ = 0;
2076 local $[ = 1;
2077 ...
2078
2079This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2080out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2081
2082=item The %s function is unimplemented
2083
2084The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2085to the probings of Configure.
2086
2087=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia.
2088
2089(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2090probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 2091think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
2092will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
2093will deny it.
2094
2095=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
2096
2097(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
2098if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
2099the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
2100
2101=item times not implemented
2102
2103(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
2104you're not running on Unix.
2105
2106=item Too few args to syscall
2107
2108(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
2109system call to call, silly dilly.
2110
cb1a09d0
AD
2111=item Too many ('s
2112
2113=item Too many )'s
2114
2115(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
8b1a09fc 2116of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2117into Perl yourself.
2118
a0d0e21e
LW
2119=item Too many args to syscall
2120
5f05dabc 2121(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
2122
2123=item Too many arguments for %s
2124
2125(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
2126
2127=item trailing \ in regexp
2128
2129(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
2130it. See L<perlre>.
2131
2132=item Translation pattern not terminated
2133
2134(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
2135construct.
2136
2137=item Translation replacement not terminated
2138
2139(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
2140construct.
2141
2142=item truncate not implemented
2143
2144(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
2145Configure knows about.
2146
2147=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
2148
2149(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
2150certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
2151%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
2152{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
2153
2154=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
2155
5f05dabc 2156(W) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal literals
a0d0e21e
LW
2157always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
2158
4633a7c4
LW
2159=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
2160
2161(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
2162
a0d0e21e
LW
2163=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
2164
2165(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
2166contexts were entered and left.
2167
2168=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
2169
2170(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
2171values were temporarily localized.
2172
2173=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
2174
2175(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
2176were entered and left.
2177
2178=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
2179
2180(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
2181scalars were allocated and freed.
2182
2183=item Undefined format "%s" called
2184
2185(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2186another package? See L<perlform>.
2187
2188=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
2189
2190(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
2191it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2192
2193=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
2194
2195(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2196has since been undefined.
2197
2198=item Undefined subroutine called
2199
2200(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
2201or if it was, it has since been undefined.
2202
2203=item Undefined subroutine in sort
2204
2205(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
2206have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2207
4633a7c4
LW
2208=item Undefined top format "%s" called
2209
2210(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2211another package? See L<perlform>.
2212
a0d0e21e
LW
2213=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
2214
2215(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
2216representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
2217
2218=item Unknown BYTEORDER
2219
5f05dabc 2220(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e
LW
2221
2222=item unmatched () in regexp
2223
2224(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
2225expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 2226the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2227
2228=item Unmatched right bracket
2229
2230(F) The lexer counted more closing curly brackets (braces) than opening
2231ones, so you're probably missing an opening bracket. As a general
2232rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the place you were
2233last editing.
2234
2235=item unmatched [] in regexp
2236
2237(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
2238include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
2239See L<perlre>.
2240
2241=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2242
2243(W) You used a bare word that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
2244It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
2245an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
2246
2247=item Unrecognized character \%03o ignored
2248
2249(S) A garbage character was found in the input, and ignored, in case it's
2250a weird control character on an EBCDIC machine, or some such.
2251
2252=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
2253
2254(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
2255Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
2256
2257=item Unrecognized switch: -%s
2258
2259(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
2260(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
2261supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
2262
2263=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
2264
2265(W) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
2266failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
2267because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chop>.
2268
2269=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
2270
2271(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
2272
2273=item Unsupported function %s
2274
2275(F) This machines doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
2276At least, Configure doesn't think so.
2277
2278=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
2279
2280(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
2281least that's what Configure thought.
2282
8b1a09fc 2283=item Unterminated E<lt>E<gt> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
2284
2285(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
2286a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
2287finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
2288the line, and you really meant a "less than".
2289
2290=item Use of $# is deprecated
2291
8b1a09fc 2292(D) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
2293Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
2294
2295=item Use of $* is deprecated
2296
5f05dabc 2297(D) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
2298you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
2299use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
2300action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
2301
748a9306
LW
2302=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
2303
5f05dabc
PP
2304(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
2305only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 2306
a0d0e21e
LW
2307=item Use of %s is deprecated
2308
2309(D) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
2310because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
2311bad side effects.
2312
8b1a09fc 2313=item Use of bare E<lt>E<lt> to mean E<lt>E<lt>"" is deprecated
4633a7c4
LW
2314
2315(D) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
2316wish to use a blank line as the terminator of the here-document.
2317
a0d0e21e
LW
2318=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
2319
2320(D) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
2321subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
2322a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
2323
2324=item Use of uninitialized value
2325
2326(W) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
2327interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
2328warning assign an initial value to your variables.
2329
2330=item Useless use of %s in void context
2331
2332(W) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
2333with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
2334from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
2335this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
2336your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
2337if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
2338
2339 $one, $two = 1, 2;
2340
2341when you meant to say
2342
2343 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
2344
748a9306
LW
2345Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
2346reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
2347example, if you say
2348
2349 $array = (1,2);
2350
2351when you should have said
2352
2353 $array = [1,2];
2354
2355The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
2356while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
2357a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
2358throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
2359L<perlref> for more on this.
2360
55497cff
PP
2361=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
2362
2363(W) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
2364valid when C<untie> was called.
2365
8ebc5c01 2366=item Value of %s construct can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777
PP
2367
2368(W) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), or
8ebc5c01 2369C<readdir> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
a6006777 2370value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which
8ebc5c01 2371is probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in
a6006777
PP
2372conditional expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
2373
4633a7c4
LW
2374=item Variable "%s" is not exported
2375
2376(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
2377that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
2378something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
2379by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
2380on the front of your variable.
2381
cb1a09d0
AD
2382=item Variable syntax.
2383
2384(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
8b1a09fc 2385of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2386into Perl yourself.
2387
7e1af8bc 2388=item Warning: something's wrong
5f05dabc
PP
2389
2390(W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of C<warn "">) or
2391you called it with no args and C<$_> was empty.
2392
a0d0e21e
LW
2393=item Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly.
2394
8b1a09fc 2395(S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the
5f05dabc 2396close(). This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.
a0d0e21e 2397
5f05dabc 2398=item Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
a0d0e21e
LW
2399
2400(S) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
2401binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or
2402unary operator. For instance, if you know that the rand function
2403has a default argument of 1.0, and you write
2404
2405 rand + 5;
2406
2407you may THINK you wrote the same thing as
2408
2409 rand() + 5;
2410
2411but in actual fact, you got
2412
2413 rand(+5);
2414
5f05dabc 2415So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.
a0d0e21e
LW
2416
2417=item Write on closed filehandle
2418
2419(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2420Check your logic flow.
2421
2422=item X outside of string
2423
2424(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position before
2425the beginning of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2426
2427=item x outside of string
2428
2429(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after
2430the end of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2431
2432=item Xsub "%s" called in sort
2433
2434(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
2435
2436=item Xsub called in sort
2437
2438(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
2439
2440=item You can't use C<-l> on a filehandle
2441
2442(F) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it
2443already went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.
2444Use a filename instead.
2445
2446=item YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
2447
5f05dabc 2448(F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the
a0d0e21e
LW
2449sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip
2450about what you want. Your best bet is to use the wrapsuid script in
2451the eg directory to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.
2452
2453=item You need to quote "%s"
2454
2455(W) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name. Unfortunately, you
2456already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5
2457will try to call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is
2458probably not what you want. (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)
2459
2460=item [gs]etsockopt() on closed fd
2461
2462(W) You tried to get or set a socket option on a closed socket.
2463Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
2464See L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2465
2466=item \1 better written as $1
2467
2468(W) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables. The use
5f05dabc 2469of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
a0d0e21e
LW
2470substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
2471because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better
2472if there are more than 9 backreferences.
2473
8b1a09fc 2474=item '|' and 'E<lt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
2475
2476(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
2477found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using
8b1a09fc 2478'E<lt>'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
748a9306 2479
8b1a09fc 2480=item '|' and 'E<gt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
2481
2482(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
2483thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another
2484command. You need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you
2485from piping into a program or Perl script which 'splits' output into two
2486streams, such as
2487
2488 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
2489 while (<STDIN>) {
2490 print;
2491 print OUT;
2492 }
2493 close OUT;
2494
33c8a3fe
IZ
2495=item Got an error from DosAllocMem:
2496
2497(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you use an obsolete version
5f05dabc 2498of perl, and this should not happen anyway.
33c8a3fe
IZ
2499
2500=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2501
2502(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2503
2504 prefix1;prefix2
2505
2506or
2507
2508 prefix1 prefix2
2509
2510with non-empty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2511a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may appear
2512if components are not found, or are too long. See L<perlos2/"PERLLIB_PREFIX">.
2513
2514=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
2515
2516(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
2517C<sh>-shell in. See L<perlos2/"PERL_SH_DIR">.
2518
2519=item Process terminated by SIG%s
2520
2521(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
2522applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
2523port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
2524L<perlipc/"Signals">. See L<perlos2/"Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT">.
2525
a0d0e21e
LW
2526=back
2527