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[perl5.git] / ext / B / B / Deparse.pm
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6e90668e 1# B::Deparse.pm
6f611a1a 2# Copyright (c) 1998, 1999, 2000 Stephen McCamant. All rights reserved.
6e90668e
SM
3# This module is free software; you can redistribute and/or modify
4# it under the same terms as Perl itself.
5
6# This is based on the module of the same name by Malcolm Beattie,
7# but essentially none of his code remains.
8
a798dbf2 9package B::Deparse;
f4a44678 10use Carp 'cluck', 'croak';
7a9b44b9 11use B qw(class main_root main_start main_cv svref_2object opnumber cstring
bd0865ec
GS
12 OPf_WANT OPf_WANT_VOID OPf_WANT_SCALAR OPf_WANT_LIST
13 OPf_KIDS OPf_REF OPf_STACKED OPf_SPECIAL
ce4e655d 14 OPpLVAL_INTRO OPpOUR_INTRO OPpENTERSUB_AMPER OPpSLICE OPpCONST_BARE
3ed82cfc 15 OPpTRANS_SQUASH OPpTRANS_DELETE OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT OPpTARGET_MY
7e80da18
RH
16 OPpCONST_ARYBASE OPpEXISTS_SUB OPpSORT_NUMERIC OPpSORT_INTEGER
17 OPpSORT_REVERSE
ce4e655d 18 SVf_IOK SVf_NOK SVf_ROK SVf_POK SVpad_OUR
6aaf4108 19 CVf_METHOD CVf_LOCKED CVf_LVALUE
fcd95d64 20 PMf_KEEP PMf_GLOBAL PMf_CONTINUE PMf_EVAL PMf_ONCE PMf_SKIPWHITE
bd0865ec 21 PMf_MULTILINE PMf_SINGLELINE PMf_FOLD PMf_EXTENDED);
58cccf98 22$VERSION = 0.60;
a798dbf2 23use strict;
34a48b4b 24use warnings ();
a798dbf2 25
6e90668e
SM
26# Changes between 0.50 and 0.51:
27# - fixed nulled leave with live enter in sort { }
28# - fixed reference constants (\"str")
29# - handle empty programs gracefully
30# - handle infinte loops (for (;;) {}, while (1) {})
31# - differentiate between `for my $x ...' and `my $x; for $x ...'
32# - various minor cleanups
33# - moved globals into an object
34# - added `-u', like B::C
35# - package declarations using cop_stash
36# - subs, formats and code sorted by cop_seq
f6f9bdb7
SM
37# Changes between 0.51 and 0.52:
38# - added pp_threadsv (special variables under USE_THREADS)
39# - added documentation
bd0865ec 40# Changes between 0.52 and 0.53:
9d2c6865
SM
41# - many changes adding precedence contexts and associativity
42# - added `-p' and `-s' output style options
43# - various other minor fixes
bd0865ec 44# Changes between 0.53 and 0.54:
d7f5b6da
SM
45# - added support for new `for (1..100)' optimization,
46# thanks to Gisle Aas
bd0865ec 47# Changes between 0.54 and 0.55:
90be192f
SM
48# - added support for new qr// construct
49# - added support for new pp_regcreset OP
bd0865ec 50# Changes between 0.55 and 0.56:
f5aa8f4e
SM
51# - tested on base/*.t, cmd/*.t, comp/*.t, io/*.t
52# - fixed $# on non-lexicals broken in last big rewrite
53# - added temporary fix for change in opcode of OP_STRINGIFY
54# - fixed problem in 0.54's for() patch in `for (@ary)'
55# - fixed precedence in conditional of ?:
56# - tweaked list paren elimination in `my($x) = @_'
57# - made continue-block detection trickier wrt. null ops
58# - fixed various prototype problems in pp_entersub
59# - added support for sub prototypes that never get GVs
60# - added unquoting for special filehandle first arg in truncate
61# - print doubled rv2gv (a bug) as `*{*GV}' instead of illegal `**GV'
62# - added semicolons at the ends of blocks
63# - added -l `#line' declaration option -- fixes cmd/subval.t 27,28
bd0865ec
GS
64# Changes between 0.56 and 0.561:
65# - fixed multiply-declared my var in pp_truncate (thanks to Sarathy)
66# - used new B.pm symbolic constants (done by Nick Ing-Simmons)
67# Changes between 0.561 and 0.57:
68# - stylistic changes to symbolic constant stuff
69# - handled scope in s///e replacement code
70# - added unquote option for expanding "" into concats, etc.
71# - split method and proto parts of pp_entersub into separate functions
72# - various minor cleanups
f4a44678
SM
73# Changes after 0.57:
74# - added parens in \&foo (patch by Albert Dvornik)
75# Changes between 0.57 and 0.58:
76# - fixed `0' statements that weren't being printed
77# - added methods for use from other programs
78# (based on patches from James Duncan and Hugo van der Sanden)
79# - added -si and -sT to control indenting (also based on a patch from Hugo)
80# - added -sv to print something else instead of '???'
81# - preliminary version of utf8 tr/// handling
3ed82cfc
GS
82# Changes after 0.58:
83# - uses of $op->ppaddr changed to new $op->name (done by Sarathy)
84# - added support for Hugo's new OP_SETSTATE (like nextstate)
85# Changes between 0.58 and 0.59
86# - added support for Chip's OP_METHOD_NAMED
87# - added support for Ilya's OPpTARGET_MY optimization
88# - elided arrows before `()' subscripts when possible
58cccf98
SM
89# Changes between 0.59 and 0.60
90# - support for method attribues was added
91# - some warnings fixed
92# - separate recognition of constant subs
93# - rewrote continue block handling, now recoginizing for loops
94# - added more control of expanding control structures
6e90668e
SM
95
96# Todo:
f4a44678
SM
97# - finish tr/// changes
98# - add option for even more parens (generalize \&foo change)
90be192f 99# - left/right context
f4a44678 100# - treat top-level block specially for incremental output
58cccf98 101# - copy comments (look at real text with $^P?)
f5aa8f4e 102# - avoid semis in one-statement blocks
9d2c6865 103# - associativity of &&=, ||=, ?:
6e90668e
SM
104# - ',' => '=>' (auto-unquote?)
105# - break long lines ("\r" as discretionary break?)
f4a44678
SM
106# - configurable syntax highlighting: ANSI color, HTML, TeX, etc.
107# - more style options: brace style, hex vs. octal, quotes, ...
108# - print big ints as hex/octal instead of decimal (heuristic?)
3ed82cfc 109# - handle `my $x if 0'?
f5aa8f4e 110# - coordinate with Data::Dumper (both directions? see previous)
6e90668e
SM
111# - version using op_next instead of op_first/sibling?
112# - avoid string copies (pass arrays, one big join?)
9d2c6865 113# - here-docs?
6e90668e 114
f5aa8f4e
SM
115# Tests that will always fail:
116# comp/redef.t -- all (redefinition happens at compile time)
117
6e90668e
SM
118# Object fields (were globals):
119#
120# avoid_local:
121# (local($a), local($b)) and local($a, $b) have the same internal
122# representation but the short form looks better. We notice we can
123# use a large-scale local when checking the list, but need to prevent
124# individual locals too. This hash holds the addresses of OPs that
125# have already had their local-ness accounted for. The same thing
126# is done with my().
127#
128# curcv:
129# CV for current sub (or main program) being deparsed
130#
8510e997
RH
131# curcvlex:
132# Cached hash of lexical variables for curcv: keys are names,
133# each value is an array of pairs, indicating the cop_seq of scopes
134# in which a var of that name is valid.
135#
34a48b4b
RH
136# curcop:
137# COP for statement being deparsed
138#
6e90668e
SM
139# curstash:
140# name of the current package for deparsed code
141#
142# subs_todo:
34a48b4b 143# array of [cop_seq, CV, is_format?] for subs and formats we still
6e90668e
SM
144# want to deparse
145#
f5aa8f4e
SM
146# protos_todo:
147# as above, but [name, prototype] for subs that never got a GV
148#
6e90668e
SM
149# subs_done, forms_done:
150# keys are addresses of GVs for subs and formats we've already
151# deparsed (or at least put into subs_todo)
9d2c6865 152#
0ca62a8e
RH
153# subs_declared
154# keys are names of subs for which we've printed declarations.
155# That means we can omit parentheses from the arguments.
156#
9d2c6865 157# parens: -p
f5aa8f4e 158# linenums: -l
bd0865ec 159# unquote: -q
9d2c6865 160# cuddle: ` ' or `\n', depending on -sC
f4a44678
SM
161# indent_size: -si
162# use_tabs: -sT
163# ex_const: -sv
9d2c6865
SM
164
165# A little explanation of how precedence contexts and associativity
166# work:
167#
168# deparse() calls each per-op subroutine with an argument $cx (short
169# for context, but not the same as the cx* in the perl core), which is
170# a number describing the op's parents in terms of precedence, whether
f5aa8f4e 171# they're inside an expression or at statement level, etc. (see
9d2c6865
SM
172# chart below). When ops with children call deparse on them, they pass
173# along their precedence. Fractional values are used to implement
174# associativity (`($x + $y) + $z' => `$x + $y + $y') and related
175# parentheses hacks. The major disadvantage of this scheme is that
176# it doesn't know about right sides and left sides, so say if you
177# assign a listop to a variable, it can't tell it's allowed to leave
178# the parens off the listop.
179
180# Precedences:
181# 26 [TODO] inside interpolation context ("")
182# 25 left terms and list operators (leftward)
183# 24 left ->
184# 23 nonassoc ++ --
185# 22 right **
186# 21 right ! ~ \ and unary + and -
187# 20 left =~ !~
188# 19 left * / % x
189# 18 left + - .
190# 17 left << >>
191# 16 nonassoc named unary operators
192# 15 nonassoc < > <= >= lt gt le ge
193# 14 nonassoc == != <=> eq ne cmp
194# 13 left &
195# 12 left | ^
196# 11 left &&
197# 10 left ||
198# 9 nonassoc .. ...
199# 8 right ?:
200# 7 right = += -= *= etc.
201# 6 left , =>
202# 5 nonassoc list operators (rightward)
203# 4 right not
204# 3 left and
205# 2 left or xor
206# 1 statement modifiers
207# 0 statement level
208
6ec152c3
RH
209# Also, lineseq may pass a fourth parameter to the pp_ routines:
210# if present, the fourth parameter is passed on by deparse.
211#
212# If present and true, it means that the op exists directly as
ce4e655d 213# part of a lineseq. Currently it's only used by scopeop to
6ec152c3
RH
214# decide whether its results need to be enclosed in a do {} block.
215
9d2c6865
SM
216# Nonprinting characters with special meaning:
217# \cS - steal parens (see maybe_parens_unop)
218# \n - newline and indent
219# \t - increase indent
220# \b - decrease indent (`outdent')
f5aa8f4e 221# \f - flush left (no indent)
9d2c6865 222# \cK - kill following semicolon, if any
6e90668e
SM
223
224sub null {
225 my $op = shift;
226 return class($op) eq "NULL";
227}
228
229sub todo {
230 my $self = shift;
34a48b4b 231 my($cv, $is_form) = @_;
e31885a0 232 return unless ($cv->FILE eq $0 || exists $self->{files}{$cv->FILE});
6e90668e
SM
233 my $seq;
234 if (!null($cv->START) and is_state($cv->START)) {
235 $seq = $cv->START->cop_seq;
236 } else {
237 $seq = 0;
238 }
34a48b4b 239 push @{$self->{'subs_todo'}}, [$seq, $cv, $is_form];
6e90668e
SM
240}
241
242sub next_todo {
243 my $self = shift;
244 my $ent = shift @{$self->{'subs_todo'}};
34a48b4b
RH
245 my $cv = $ent->[1];
246 my $gv = $cv->GV;
247 my $name = $self->gv_name($gv);
6e90668e
SM
248 if ($ent->[2]) {
249 return "format $name =\n"
e31885a0 250 . $self->deparse_format($ent->[1]). "\n";
6e90668e 251 } else {
0ca62a8e 252 $self->{'subs_declared'}{$name} = 1;
34a48b4b
RH
253 if ($name eq "BEGIN") {
254 my $use_dec = $self->begin_is_use($cv);
0e7fe0f0
RH
255 if (defined ($use_dec)) {
256 return () if 0 == length($use_dec);
257 return $use_dec;
258 }
34a48b4b 259 }
a0035eb8
RH
260 my $l = '';
261 if ($self->{'linenums'}) {
262 my $line = $gv->LINE;
263 my $file = $gv->FILE;
264 $l = "\n\f#line $line \"$file\"\n";
265 }
266 return "${l}sub $name " . $self->deparse_sub($cv);
34a48b4b
RH
267 }
268}
269
270# Return a "use" declaration for this BEGIN block, if appropriate
271sub begin_is_use {
272 my ($self, $cv) = @_;
273 my $root = $cv->ROOT;
80dc0729 274 local @$self{qw'curcv curcvlex'} = ($cv);
34a48b4b
RH
275#require B::Debug;
276#B::walkoptree($cv->ROOT, "debug");
277 my $lineseq = $root->first;
278 return if $lineseq->name ne "lineseq";
279
280 my $req_op = $lineseq->first->sibling;
281 return if $req_op->name ne "require";
282
283 my $module;
284 if ($req_op->first->private & OPpCONST_BARE) {
285 # Actually it should always be a bareword
286 $module = $self->const_sv($req_op->first)->PV;
287 $module =~ s[/][::]g;
288 $module =~ s/.pm$//;
289 }
290 else {
291 $module = const($self->const_sv($req_op->first));
292 }
293
294 my $version;
295 my $version_op = $req_op->sibling;
296 return if class($version_op) eq "NULL";
297 if ($version_op->name eq "lineseq") {
298 # We have a version parameter; skip nextstate & pushmark
299 my $constop = $version_op->first->next->next;
300
301 return unless $self->const_sv($constop)->PV eq $module;
302 $constop = $constop->sibling;
34a48b4b
RH
303 $version = $self->const_sv($constop)->int_value;
304 $constop = $constop->sibling;
305 return if $constop->name ne "method_named";
306 return if $self->const_sv($constop)->PV ne "VERSION";
307 }
308
309 $lineseq = $version_op->sibling;
310 return if $lineseq->name ne "lineseq";
311 my $entersub = $lineseq->first->sibling;
312 if ($entersub->name eq "stub") {
313 return "use $module $version ();\n" if defined $version;
314 return "use $module ();\n";
315 }
316 return if $entersub->name ne "entersub";
317
318 # See if there are import arguments
319 my $args = '';
320
6ec152c3
RH
321 my $svop = $entersub->first->sibling; # Skip over pushmark
322 return unless $self->const_sv($svop)->PV eq $module;
34a48b4b
RH
323
324 # Pull out the arguments
6ec152c3
RH
325 for ($svop=$svop->sibling; $svop->name ne "method_named";
326 $svop = $svop->sibling) {
34a48b4b 327 $args .= ", " if length($args);
6ec152c3 328 $args .= $self->deparse($svop, 6);
34a48b4b
RH
329 }
330
331 my $use = 'use';
6ec152c3 332 my $method_named = $svop;
34a48b4b
RH
333 return if $method_named->name ne "method_named";
334 my $method_name = $self->const_sv($method_named)->PV;
335
336 if ($method_name eq "unimport") {
337 $use = 'no';
338 }
339
340 # Certain pragmas are dealt with using hint bits,
341 # so we ignore them here
342 if ($module eq 'strict' || $module eq 'integer'
0e7fe0f0 343 || $module eq 'bytes' || $module eq 'warnings') {
34a48b4b
RH
344 return "";
345 }
346
347 if (defined $version && length $args) {
348 return "$use $module $version ($args);\n";
349 } elsif (defined $version) {
350 return "$use $module $version;\n";
351 } elsif (length $args) {
352 return "$use $module ($args);\n";
353 } else {
354 return "$use $module;\n";
6e90668e
SM
355 }
356}
357
6e90668e 358sub stash_subs {
34a48b4b
RH
359 my ($self, $pack) = @_;
360 my (@ret, $stash);
361 if (!defined $pack) {
362 $pack = '';
363 $stash = \%::;
f5aa8f4e 364 }
34a48b4b
RH
365 else {
366 $pack =~ s/(::)?$/::/;
367 no strict 'refs';
368 $stash = \%$pack;
369 }
370 my %stash = svref_2object($stash)->ARRAY;
371 while (my ($key, $val) = each %stash) {
372 next if $key eq 'main::'; # avoid infinite recursion
f5aa8f4e
SM
373 my $class = class($val);
374 if ($class eq "PV") {
a0035eb8
RH
375 # Just a prototype. As an ugly but fairly effective way
376 # to find out if it belongs here is to see if the AUTOLOAD
377 # (if any) for the stash was defined in one of our files.
378 my $A = $stash{"AUTOLOAD"};
379 if (defined ($A) && class($A) eq "GV" && defined($A->CV)
380 && class($A->CV) eq "CV") {
381 my $AF = $A->FILE;
382 next unless $AF eq $0 || exists $self->{'files'}{$AF};
383 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
384 push @{$self->{'protos_todo'}}, [$pack . $key, $val->PV];
385 } elsif ($class eq "IV") {
a0035eb8
RH
386 # Just a name. As above.
387 my $A = $stash{"AUTOLOAD"};
388 if (defined ($A) && class($A) eq "GV" && defined($A->CV)
389 && class($A->CV) eq "CV") {
390 my $AF = $A->FILE;
391 next unless $AF eq $0 || exists $self->{'files'}{$AF};
392 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
393 push @{$self->{'protos_todo'}}, [$pack . $key, undef];
394 } elsif ($class eq "GV") {
34a48b4b 395 if (class(my $cv = $val->CV) ne "SPECIAL") {
f5aa8f4e 396 next if $self->{'subs_done'}{$$val}++;
e31885a0 397 next if $$val != ${$cv->GV}; # Ignore imposters
8510e997 398 $self->todo($cv, 0);
f5aa8f4e 399 }
e31885a0 400 if (class(my $cv = $val->FORM) ne "SPECIAL") {
f5aa8f4e 401 next if $self->{'forms_done'}{$$val}++;
e31885a0
RH
402 next if $$val != ${$cv->GV}; # Ignore imposters
403 $self->todo($cv, 1);
f5aa8f4e 404 }
34a48b4b
RH
405 if (class($val->HV) ne "SPECIAL" && $key =~ /::$/) {
406 $self->stash_subs($pack . $key);
407 }
6e90668e
SM
408 }
409 }
410}
a798dbf2 411
f5aa8f4e
SM
412sub print_protos {
413 my $self = shift;
414 my $ar;
415 my @ret;
416 foreach $ar (@{$self->{'protos_todo'}}) {
417 my $proto = (defined $ar->[1] ? " (". $ar->[1] . ")" : "");
418 push @ret, "sub " . $ar->[0] . "$proto;\n";
419 }
420 delete $self->{'protos_todo'};
421 return @ret;
422}
423
9d2c6865
SM
424sub style_opts {
425 my $self = shift;
426 my $opts = shift;
427 my $opt;
428 while (length($opt = substr($opts, 0, 1))) {
429 if ($opt eq "C") {
430 $self->{'cuddle'} = " ";
f4a44678
SM
431 $opts = substr($opts, 1);
432 } elsif ($opt eq "i") {
433 $opts =~ s/^i(\d+)//;
434 $self->{'indent_size'} = $1;
435 } elsif ($opt eq "T") {
436 $self->{'use_tabs'} = 1;
437 $opts = substr($opts, 1);
438 } elsif ($opt eq "v") {
439 $opts =~ s/^v([^.]*)(.|$)//;
440 $self->{'ex_const'} = $1;
9d2c6865 441 }
9d2c6865
SM
442 }
443}
444
f4a44678
SM
445sub new {
446 my $class = shift;
447 my $self = bless {}, $class;
448 $self->{'subs_todo'} = [];
34a48b4b 449 $self->{'files'} = {};
f4a44678 450 $self->{'curstash'} = "main";
34a48b4b 451 $self->{'curcop'} = undef;
f4a44678
SM
452 $self->{'cuddle'} = "\n";
453 $self->{'indent_size'} = 4;
454 $self->{'use_tabs'} = 0;
793e2a70
RH
455 $self->{'expand'} = 0;
456 $self->{'unquote'} = 0;
457 $self->{'linenums'} = 0;
458 $self->{'parens'} = 0;
f4a44678 459 $self->{'ex_const'} = "'???'";
08c6f5ec
RH
460
461 $self->{'ambient_arybase'} = 0;
e31885a0 462 $self->{'ambient_warnings'} = undef; # Assume no lexical warnings
a0405c92 463 $self->{'ambient_hints'} = 0;
08c6f5ec
RH
464 $self->init();
465
f4a44678 466 while (my $arg = shift @_) {
34a48b4b
RH
467 if ($arg =~ /^-f(.*)/) {
468 $self->{'files'}{$1} = 1;
f4a44678
SM
469 } elsif ($arg eq "-p") {
470 $self->{'parens'} = 1;
471 } elsif ($arg eq "-l") {
472 $self->{'linenums'} = 1;
473 } elsif ($arg eq "-q") {
474 $self->{'unquote'} = 1;
475 } elsif (substr($arg, 0, 2) eq "-s") {
476 $self->style_opts(substr $arg, 2);
58cccf98
SM
477 } elsif ($arg =~ /^-x(\d)$/) {
478 $self->{'expand'} = $1;
f4a44678
SM
479 }
480 }
481 return $self;
482}
483
34a48b4b
RH
484sub WARN_MASK () {
485 # Mask out the bits that C<use vars> uses
486 $warnings::Bits{all} | $warnings::DeadBits{all};
487}
488
08c6f5ec
RH
489# Initialise the contextual information, either from
490# defaults provided with the ambient_pragmas method,
491# or from perl's own defaults otherwise.
492sub init {
493 my $self = shift;
494
495 $self->{'arybase'} = $self->{'ambient_arybase'};
e31885a0
RH
496 $self->{'warnings'} = defined ($self->{'ambient_warnings'})
497 ? $self->{'ambient_warnings'} & WARN_MASK
498 : undef;
a0405c92 499 $self->{'hints'} = $self->{'ambient_hints'} & 0xFF;
217aba5d
RH
500
501 # also a convenient place to clear out subs_declared
502 delete $self->{'subs_declared'};
08c6f5ec
RH
503}
504
a798dbf2 505sub compile {
6e90668e
SM
506 my(@args) = @_;
507 return sub {
f4a44678 508 my $self = B::Deparse->new(@args);
34a48b4b
RH
509 my @BEGINs = B::begin_av->isa("B::AV") ? B::begin_av->ARRAY : ();
510 my @INITs = B::init_av->isa("B::AV") ? B::init_av->ARRAY : ();
511 my @ENDs = B::end_av->isa("B::AV") ? B::end_av->ARRAY : ();
512 for my $block (@BEGINs, @INITs, @ENDs) {
e31885a0 513 $self->todo($block, 0);
34a48b4b
RH
514 }
515 $self->stash_subs();
6e90668e 516 $self->{'curcv'} = main_cv;
8510e997 517 $self->{'curcvlex'} = undef;
f5aa8f4e 518 print $self->print_protos;
6e90668e 519 @{$self->{'subs_todo'}} =
f4a44678
SM
520 sort {$a->[0] <=> $b->[0]} @{$self->{'subs_todo'}};
521 print $self->indent($self->deparse(main_root, 0)), "\n"
522 unless null main_root;
6e90668e
SM
523 my @text;
524 while (scalar(@{$self->{'subs_todo'}})) {
525 push @text, $self->next_todo;
526 }
6f611a1a 527 print $self->indent(join("", @text)), "\n" if @text;
e31885a0
RH
528
529 # Print __DATA__ section, if necessary
530 no strict 'refs';
531 if (defined *{$self->{'curstash'}."::DATA"}{IO}) {
532 print "__DATA__\n";
533 print readline(*{$self->{'curstash'}."::DATA"});
534 }
a798dbf2 535 }
a798dbf2
MB
536}
537
f4a44678
SM
538sub coderef2text {
539 my $self = shift;
540 my $sub = shift;
541 croak "Usage: ->coderef2text(CODEREF)" unless ref($sub) eq "CODE";
08c6f5ec
RH
542
543 $self->init();
f4a44678
SM
544 return $self->indent($self->deparse_sub(svref_2object($sub)));
545}
546
08c6f5ec
RH
547sub ambient_pragmas {
548 my $self = shift;
e31885a0 549 my ($arybase, $hint_bits, $warning_bits) = (0, 0);
08c6f5ec
RH
550
551 while (@_ > 1) {
552 my $name = shift();
553 my $val = shift();
554
555 if ($name eq 'strict') {
556 require strict;
557
558 if ($val eq 'none') {
559 $hint_bits &= ~strict::bits(qw/refs subs vars/);
560 next();
561 }
562
563 my @names;
564 if ($val eq "all") {
565 @names = qw/refs subs vars/;
566 }
567 elsif (ref $val) {
568 @names = @$val;
569 }
570 else {
a0405c92 571 @names = split' ', $val;
08c6f5ec
RH
572 }
573 $hint_bits |= strict::bits(@names);
574 }
575
576 elsif ($name eq '$[') {
577 $arybase = $val;
578 }
579
a0405c92
RH
580 elsif ($name eq 'integer'
581 || $name eq 'bytes'
582 || $name eq 'utf8') {
583 require "$name.pm";
08c6f5ec 584 if ($val) {
a0405c92
RH
585 $hint_bits |= ${$::{"${name}::"}{"hint_bits"}};
586 }
587 else {
588 $hint_bits &= ~${$::{"${name}::"}{"hint_bits"}};
589 }
590 }
591
592 elsif ($name eq 're') {
593 require re;
594 if ($val eq 'none') {
595 $hint_bits &= ~re::bits(qw/taint eval asciirange/);
596 next();
597 }
598
599 my @names;
600 if ($val eq 'all') {
601 @names = qw/taint eval asciirange/;
602 }
603 elsif (ref $val) {
604 @names = @$val;
08c6f5ec
RH
605 }
606 else {
a0405c92 607 @names = split' ',$val;
08c6f5ec 608 }
a0405c92 609 $hint_bits |= re::bits(@names);
08c6f5ec
RH
610 }
611
612 elsif ($name eq 'warnings') {
08c6f5ec
RH
613 if ($val eq 'none') {
614 $warning_bits = "\0"x12;
615 next();
616 }
617
618 my @names;
619 if (ref $val) {
620 @names = @$val;
621 }
622 else {
623 @names = split/\s+/, $val;
624 }
625
e31885a0 626 $warning_bits = "\0"x12 if !defined ($warning_bits);
08c6f5ec
RH
627 $warning_bits |= warnings::bits(@names);
628 }
629
630 elsif ($name eq 'warning_bits') {
631 $warning_bits = $val;
632 }
633
634 elsif ($name eq 'hint_bits') {
635 $hint_bits = $val;
636 }
637
638 else {
639 croak "Unknown pragma type: $name";
640 }
641 }
642 if (@_) {
643 croak "The ambient_pragmas method expects an even number of args";
644 }
645
646 $self->{'ambient_arybase'} = $arybase;
647 $self->{'ambient_warnings'} = $warning_bits;
a0405c92 648 $self->{'ambient_hints'} = $hint_bits;
08c6f5ec
RH
649}
650
6e90668e
SM
651sub deparse {
652 my $self = shift;
6ec152c3 653 my($op, $cx, $flags) = @_;
34a48b4b
RH
654
655 Carp::confess("Null op in deparse") if !defined($op)
656 || class($op) eq "NULL";
3f872cb9 657 my $meth = "pp_" . $op->name;
ce4e655d
RH
658 if (is_scope($op)) {
659 return $self->$meth($op, $cx, $flags);
6ec152c3 660 }
9d2c6865 661 return $self->$meth($op, $cx);
a798dbf2
MB
662}
663
6e90668e 664sub indent {
f4a44678 665 my $self = shift;
6e90668e
SM
666 my $txt = shift;
667 my @lines = split(/\n/, $txt);
668 my $leader = "";
f4a44678 669 my $level = 0;
6e90668e
SM
670 my $line;
671 for $line (@lines) {
f4a44678
SM
672 my $cmd = substr($line, 0, 1);
673 if ($cmd eq "\t" or $cmd eq "\b") {
674 $level += ($cmd eq "\t" ? 1 : -1) * $self->{'indent_size'};
675 if ($self->{'use_tabs'}) {
676 $leader = "\t" x ($level / 8) . " " x ($level % 8);
677 } else {
678 $leader = " " x $level;
679 }
6e90668e
SM
680 $line = substr($line, 1);
681 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
682 if (substr($line, 0, 1) eq "\f") {
683 $line = substr($line, 1); # no indent
684 } else {
685 $line = $leader . $line;
686 }
9d2c6865 687 $line =~ s/\cK;?//g;
6e90668e
SM
688 }
689 return join("\n", @lines);
690}
691
6e90668e
SM
692sub deparse_sub {
693 my $self = shift;
694 my $cv = shift;
695 my $proto = "";
ce4e655d 696Carp::confess("NULL in deparse_sub") if !defined($cv) || $cv->isa("B::NULL");
34a48b4b
RH
697Carp::confess("SPECIAL in deparse_sub") if $cv->isa("B::SPECIAL");
698 local $self->{'curcop'} = $self->{'curcop'};
6e90668e
SM
699 if ($cv->FLAGS & SVf_POK) {
700 $proto = "(". $cv->PV . ") ";
701 }
6aaf4108
SC
702 if ($cv->CvFLAGS & (CVf_METHOD|CVf_LOCKED|CVf_LVALUE)) {
703 $proto .= ": ";
704 $proto .= "lvalue " if $cv->CvFLAGS & CVf_LVALUE;
705 $proto .= "locked " if $cv->CvFLAGS & CVf_LOCKED;
706 $proto .= "method " if $cv->CvFLAGS & CVf_METHOD;
707 }
708
6e90668e 709 local($self->{'curcv'}) = $cv;
8510e997 710 local($self->{'curcvlex'});
a0405c92
RH
711 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
712 = @$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'};
ce4e655d 713 my $body;
6e90668e 714 if (not null $cv->ROOT) {
ce4e655d
RH
715 my $lineseq = $cv->ROOT->first;
716 if ($lineseq->name eq "lineseq") {
717 my @ops;
718 for(my$o=$lineseq->first; $$o; $o=$o->sibling) {
719 push @ops, $o;
720 }
721 $body = $self->lineseq(undef, @ops).";";
722 my $scope_en = $self->find_scope_en($lineseq);
723 if (defined $scope_en) {
724 my $subs = join"", $self->seq_subs($scope_en);
725 $body .= ";\n$subs" if length($subs);
726 }
727 }
728 else {
729 $body = $self->deparse($cv->ROOT->first, 0);
730 }
de3f1649 731 }
ce4e655d
RH
732 else {
733 my $sv = $cv->const_sv;
734 if ($$sv) {
735 # uh-oh. inlinable sub... format it differently
736 return $proto . "{ " . const($sv) . " }\n";
737 } else { # XSUB? (or just a declaration)
738 return "$proto;\n";
739 }
6e90668e 740 }
ce4e655d 741 return $proto ."{\n\t$body\n\b}" ."\n";
6e90668e
SM
742}
743
744sub deparse_format {
745 my $self = shift;
746 my $form = shift;
747 my @text;
748 local($self->{'curcv'}) = $form;
8510e997 749 local($self->{'curcvlex'});
a0405c92
RH
750 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
751 = @$self{'curstash warnings hints'};
6e90668e
SM
752 my $op = $form->ROOT;
753 my $kid;
754 $op = $op->first->first; # skip leavewrite, lineseq
755 while (not null $op) {
756 $op = $op->sibling; # skip nextstate
757 my @exprs;
758 $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
a5b0cd91 759 push @text, "\f".$self->const_sv($kid)->PV;
6e90668e
SM
760 $kid = $kid->sibling;
761 for (; not null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 762 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 0);
6e90668e 763 }
a5b0cd91 764 push @text, "\f".join(", ", @exprs)."\n" if @exprs;
6e90668e
SM
765 $op = $op->sibling;
766 }
a5b0cd91 767 return join("", @text) . "\f.";
6e90668e
SM
768}
769
6e90668e 770sub is_scope {
a798dbf2 771 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
772 return $op->name eq "leave" || $op->name eq "scope"
773 || $op->name eq "lineseq"
774 || ($op->name eq "null" && class($op) eq "UNOP"
775 && (is_scope($op->first) || $op->first->name eq "enter"));
6e90668e
SM
776}
777
778sub is_state {
3f872cb9
GS
779 my $name = $_[0]->name;
780 return $name eq "nextstate" || $name eq "dbstate" || $name eq "setstate";
6e90668e
SM
781}
782
783sub is_miniwhile { # check for one-line loop (`foo() while $y--')
784 my $op = shift;
785 return (!null($op) and null($op->sibling)
3f872cb9
GS
786 and $op->name eq "null" and class($op) eq "UNOP"
787 and (($op->first->name =~ /^(and|or)$/
788 and $op->first->first->sibling->name eq "lineseq")
789 or ($op->first->name eq "lineseq"
6e90668e 790 and not null $op->first->first->sibling
3f872cb9 791 and $op->first->first->sibling->name eq "unstack")
6e90668e
SM
792 ));
793}
794
795sub is_scalar {
796 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
797 return ($op->name eq "rv2sv" or
798 $op->name eq "padsv" or
799 $op->name eq "gv" or # only in array/hash constructs
bd0865ec 800 $op->flags & OPf_KIDS && !null($op->first)
3f872cb9 801 && $op->first->name eq "gvsv");
6e90668e
SM
802}
803
9d2c6865
SM
804sub maybe_parens {
805 my $self = shift;
806 my($text, $cx, $prec) = @_;
807 if ($prec < $cx # unary ops nest just fine
808 or $prec == $cx and $cx != 4 and $cx != 16 and $cx != 21
809 or $self->{'parens'})
810 {
811 $text = "($text)";
812 # In a unop, let parent reuse our parens; see maybe_parens_unop
813 $text = "\cS" . $text if $cx == 16;
814 return $text;
815 } else {
816 return $text;
817 }
818}
819
820# same as above, but get around the `if it looks like a function' rule
821sub maybe_parens_unop {
822 my $self = shift;
823 my($name, $kid, $cx) = @_;
824 if ($cx > 16 or $self->{'parens'}) {
a0035eb8
RH
825 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 1);
826 if ($name eq "umask" && $kid =~ /^\d+$/) {
827 $kid = sprintf("%#o", $kid);
828 }
829 return "$name($kid)";
9d2c6865
SM
830 } else {
831 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 16);
a0035eb8
RH
832 if ($name eq "umask" && $kid =~ /^\d+$/) {
833 $kid = sprintf("%#o", $kid);
834 }
9d2c6865
SM
835 if (substr($kid, 0, 1) eq "\cS") {
836 # use kid's parens
837 return $name . substr($kid, 1);
838 } elsif (substr($kid, 0, 1) eq "(") {
839 # avoid looks-like-a-function trap with extra parens
840 # (`+' can lead to ambiguities)
841 return "$name(" . $kid . ")";
842 } else {
843 return "$name $kid";
844 }
845 }
846}
847
848sub maybe_parens_func {
849 my $self = shift;
850 my($func, $text, $cx, $prec) = @_;
851 if ($prec <= $cx or substr($text, 0, 1) eq "(" or $self->{'parens'}) {
852 return "$func($text)";
853 } else {
854 return "$func $text";
855 }
856}
857
6e90668e
SM
858sub maybe_local {
859 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 860 my($op, $cx, $text) = @_;
ce4e655d
RH
861 my $our_intro = ($op->name =~ /^(gv|rv2)[ash]v$/) ? OPpOUR_INTRO : 0;
862 if ($op->private & (OPpLVAL_INTRO|$our_intro)
863 and not $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$op}) {
864 my $our_local = ($op->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) ? "local" : "our";
e8d3f51b 865 if (want_scalar($op)) {
ce4e655d 866 return "$our_local $text";
e8d3f51b 867 } else {
ce4e655d 868 return $self->maybe_parens_func("$our_local", $text, $cx, 16);
e8d3f51b 869 }
6e90668e
SM
870 } else {
871 return $text;
a798dbf2 872 }
a798dbf2
MB
873}
874
3ed82cfc
GS
875sub maybe_targmy {
876 my $self = shift;
877 my($op, $cx, $func, @args) = @_;
878 if ($op->private & OPpTARGET_MY) {
879 my $var = $self->padname($op->targ);
880 my $val = $func->($self, $op, 7, @args);
881 return $self->maybe_parens("$var = $val", $cx, 7);
882 } else {
883 return $func->($self, $op, $cx, @args);
884 }
885}
886
6e90668e
SM
887sub padname_sv {
888 my $self = shift;
889 my $targ = shift;
890 return (($self->{'curcv'}->PADLIST->ARRAY)[0]->ARRAY)[$targ];
891}
892
893sub maybe_my {
894 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 895 my($op, $cx, $text) = @_;
4c1f658f 896 if ($op->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO and not $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$op}) {
e8d3f51b
RH
897 if (want_scalar($op)) {
898 return "my $text";
899 } else {
900 return $self->maybe_parens_func("my", $text, $cx, 16);
901 }
6e90668e
SM
902 } else {
903 return $text;
904 }
905}
906
9d2c6865
SM
907# The following OPs don't have functions:
908
909# pp_padany -- does not exist after parsing
910# pp_rcatline -- does not exist
911
912sub pp_enter { # see also leave
913 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTER";
914 return "XXX";
915}
916
917sub pp_pushmark { # see also list
918 cluck "unexpected OP_PUSHMARK";
919 return "XXX";
920}
921
922sub pp_leavesub { # see also deparse_sub
923 cluck "unexpected OP_LEAVESUB";
924 return "XXX";
925}
926
927sub pp_leavewrite { # see also deparse_format
928 cluck "unexpected OP_LEAVEWRITE";
929 return "XXX";
930}
931
932sub pp_method { # see also entersub
933 cluck "unexpected OP_METHOD";
934 return "XXX";
935}
936
937sub pp_regcmaybe { # see also regcomp
938 cluck "unexpected OP_REGCMAYBE";
939 return "XXX";
940}
941
90be192f
SM
942sub pp_regcreset { # see also regcomp
943 cluck "unexpected OP_REGCRESET";
944 return "XXX";
945}
946
9d2c6865
SM
947sub pp_substcont { # see also subst
948 cluck "unexpected OP_SUBSTCONT";
949 return "XXX";
950}
951
952sub pp_grepstart { # see also grepwhile
953 cluck "unexpected OP_GREPSTART";
954 return "XXX";
955}
956
957sub pp_mapstart { # see also mapwhile
958 cluck "unexpected OP_MAPSTART";
959 return "XXX";
960}
961
962sub pp_flip { # see also flop
963 cluck "unexpected OP_FLIP";
964 return "XXX";
965}
966
967sub pp_iter { # see also leaveloop
968 cluck "unexpected OP_ITER";
969 return "XXX";
970}
971
972sub pp_enteriter { # see also leaveloop
973 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTERITER";
974 return "XXX";
975}
976
977sub pp_enterloop { # see also leaveloop
978 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTERLOOP";
979 return "XXX";
980}
981
982sub pp_leaveeval { # see also entereval
983 cluck "unexpected OP_LEAVEEVAL";
984 return "XXX";
985}
986
987sub pp_entertry { # see also leavetry
988 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTERTRY";
989 return "XXX";
990}
6e90668e 991
ce4e655d
RH
992# $root should be the op which represents the root of whatever
993# we're sequencing here. If it's undefined, then we don't append
994# any subroutine declarations to the deparsed ops, otherwise we
995# append appropriate declarations.
58cccf98 996sub lineseq {
ce4e655d 997 my($self, $root, @ops) = @_;
58cccf98 998 my($expr, @exprs);
ce4e655d
RH
999
1000 my $out_cop = $self->{'curcop'};
1001 my $out_seq = defined($out_cop) ? $out_cop->cop_seq : undef;
1002 my $limit_seq;
1003 if (defined $root) {
1004 $limit_seq = $out_seq;
1005 my $nseq = $self->find_scope_st($root->sibling) if ${$root->sibling};
1006 $limit_seq = $nseq if !defined($limit_seq)
1007 or defined($nseq) && $nseq < $limit_seq;
1008 }
1009 $limit_seq = $self->{'limit_seq'}
1010 if defined($self->{'limit_seq'})
1011 && (!defined($limit_seq) || $self->{'limit_seq'} < $limit_seq);
1012 local $self->{'limit_seq'} = $limit_seq;
58cccf98 1013 for (my $i = 0; $i < @ops; $i++) {
6e90668e 1014 $expr = "";
58cccf98
SM
1015 if (is_state $ops[$i]) {
1016 $expr = $self->deparse($ops[$i], 0);
1017 $i++;
e99ebc55
RH
1018 if ($i > $#ops) {
1019 push @exprs, $expr;
1020 last;
1021 }
58cccf98 1022 }
c73811ab
RH
1023 if (!is_state $ops[$i] and (my $ls = $ops[$i+1]) and
1024 !null($ops[$i+1]) and $ops[$i+1]->name eq "lineseq")
58cccf98 1025 {
c73811ab
RH
1026 if ($ls->first && !null($ls->first) && is_state($ls->first)
1027 && (my $sib = $ls->first->sibling)) {
1028 if (!null($sib) && $sib->name eq "leaveloop") {
1029 push @exprs, $expr . $self->for_loop($ops[$i], 0);
1030 $i++;
1031 next;
1032 }
1033 }
6e90668e 1034 }
6ec152c3 1035 $expr .= $self->deparse($ops[$i], 0, (@ops != 1));
e99ebc55 1036 $expr =~ s/;\n?\z//;
f99a63a2 1037 push @exprs, $expr;
6e90668e 1038 }
ce4e655d
RH
1039 my $body = join(";\n", grep {length} @exprs);
1040 my $subs = "";
1041 if (defined $root && defined $limit_seq) {
1042 $subs = join "\n", $self->seq_subs($limit_seq);
1043 }
1044 return join(";\n", grep {length} $body, $subs);
6e90668e
SM
1045}
1046
58cccf98 1047sub scopeop {
ce4e655d 1048 my($real_block, $self, $op, $cx, $flags) = @_;
58cccf98
SM
1049 my $kid;
1050 my @kids;
a0405c92
RH
1051
1052 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
1053 = @$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'} if $real_block;
58cccf98
SM
1054 if ($real_block) {
1055 $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip enter
1056 if (is_miniwhile($kid)) {
1057 my $top = $kid->first;
1058 my $name = $top->name;
1059 if ($name eq "and") {
1060 $name = "while";
1061 } elsif ($name eq "or") {
1062 $name = "until";
1063 } else { # no conditional -> while 1 or until 0
1064 return $self->deparse($top->first, 1) . " while 1";
1065 }
1066 my $cond = $top->first;
1067 my $body = $cond->sibling->first; # skip lineseq
1068 $cond = $self->deparse($cond, 1);
1069 $body = $self->deparse($body, 1);
1070 return "$body $name $cond";
6e90668e 1071 }
58cccf98
SM
1072 } else {
1073 $kid = $op->first;
1074 }
1075 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
1076 push @kids, $kid;
6e90668e 1077 }
ce4e655d
RH
1078 if ($flags || $cx > 0) { # inside an expression, (a do {} while for lineseq)
1079 return "do {\n\t" . $self->lineseq($op, @kids) . "\n\b}";
9d2c6865 1080 } else {
ce4e655d 1081 my $lineseq = $self->lineseq($op, @kids);
7a9b44b9 1082 return (length ($lineseq) ? "$lineseq;" : "");
6e90668e 1083 }
6e90668e
SM
1084}
1085
ce4e655d 1086sub pp_scope { scopeop(0, @_); }
58cccf98
SM
1087sub pp_lineseq { scopeop(0, @_); }
1088sub pp_leave { scopeop(1, @_); }
9d2c6865 1089
6e90668e
SM
1090# The BEGIN {} is used here because otherwise this code isn't executed
1091# when you run B::Deparse on itself.
1092my %globalnames;
1093BEGIN { map($globalnames{$_}++, "SIG", "STDIN", "STDOUT", "STDERR", "INC",
1094 "ENV", "ARGV", "ARGVOUT", "_"); }
1095
1096sub gv_name {
1097 my $self = shift;
1098 my $gv = shift;
34a48b4b 1099Carp::confess() if $gv->isa("B::CV");
6e90668e 1100 my $stash = $gv->STASH->NAME;
d9963e60 1101 my $name = $gv->SAFENAME;
9d2c6865
SM
1102 if ($stash eq $self->{'curstash'} or $globalnames{$name}
1103 or $name =~ /^[^A-Za-z_]/)
1104 {
6e90668e
SM
1105 $stash = "";
1106 } else {
1107 $stash = $stash . "::";
a798dbf2 1108 }
d9963e60
RH
1109 if ($name =~ /^\^../) {
1110 $name = "{$name}"; # ${^WARNING_BITS} etc
6e90668e
SM
1111 }
1112 return $stash . $name;
a798dbf2
MB
1113}
1114
8510e997
RH
1115# Return the name to use for a stash variable.
1116# If a lexical with the same name is in scope, it may need to be
1117# fully-qualified.
1118sub stash_variable {
1119 my ($self, $prefix, $name) = @_;
1120
1121 return "$prefix$name" if $name =~ /::/;
1122
1123 unless ($prefix eq '$' || $prefix eq '@' ||
1124 $prefix eq '%' || $prefix eq '$#') {
1125 return "$prefix$name";
1126 }
1127
1128 my $v = ($prefix eq '$#' ? '@' : $prefix) . $name;
1129 return $prefix .$self->{'curstash'}.'::'. $name if $self->lex_in_scope($v);
1130 return "$prefix$name";
1131}
1132
1133sub lex_in_scope {
1134 my ($self, $name) = @_;
1135 $self->populate_curcvlex() if !defined $self->{'curcvlex'};
1136
6ec152c3 1137 return 0 if !defined($self->{'curcop'});
8510e997
RH
1138 my $seq = $self->{'curcop'}->cop_seq;
1139 return 0 if !exists $self->{'curcvlex'}{$name};
1140 for my $a (@{$self->{'curcvlex'}{$name}}) {
1141 my ($st, $en) = @$a;
1142 return 1 if $seq > $st && $seq <= $en;
1143 }
1144 return 0;
1145}
1146
1147sub populate_curcvlex {
1148 my $self = shift;
ce4e655d 1149 for (my $cv = $self->{'curcv'}; class($cv) eq "CV"; $cv = $cv->OUTSIDE) {
8510e997
RH
1150 my @padlist = $cv->PADLIST->ARRAY;
1151 my @ns = $padlist[0]->ARRAY;
1152
1153 for (my $i=0; $i<@ns; ++$i) {
1154 next if class($ns[$i]) eq "SPECIAL";
ce4e655d 1155 next if $ns[$i]->FLAGS & SVpad_OUR; # Skip "our" vars
0f2fe21d
RH
1156 if (class($ns[$i]) eq "PV") {
1157 # Probably that pesky lexical @_
1158 next;
1159 }
8510e997
RH
1160 my $name = $ns[$i]->PVX;
1161 my $seq_st = $ns[$i]->NVX;
1162 my $seq_en = int($ns[$i]->IVX);
1163
1164 push @{$self->{'curcvlex'}{$name}}, [$seq_st, $seq_en];
1165 }
1166 }
1167}
1168
ce4e655d
RH
1169sub find_scope_st { ((find_scope(@_))[0]); }
1170sub find_scope_en { ((find_scope(@_))[1]); }
1171
1172# Recurses down the tree, looking for pad variable introductions and COPs
1173sub find_scope {
1174 my ($self, $op, $scope_st, $scope_en) = @_;
1175Carp::cluck() if !defined $op;
1176 return ($scope_st, $scope_en) unless $op->flags & OPf_KIDS;
1177
1178 for (my $o=$op->first; $$o; $o=$o->sibling) {
1179 if ($o->name =~ /^pad.v$/ && $o->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) {
1180 my $s = int($self->padname_sv($o->targ)->NVX);
1181 my $e = $self->padname_sv($o->targ)->IVX;
1182 $scope_st = $s if !defined($scope_st) || $s < $scope_st;
1183 $scope_en = $e if !defined($scope_en) || $e > $scope_en;
1184 }
1185 elsif (is_state($o)) {
1186 my $c = $o->cop_seq;
1187 $scope_st = $c if !defined($scope_st) || $c < $scope_st;
1188 $scope_en = $c if !defined($scope_en) || $c > $scope_en;
1189 }
1190 elsif ($o->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
1191 ($scope_st, $scope_en) =
1192 $self->find_scope($o, $scope_st, $scope_en)
34a48b4b
RH
1193 }
1194 }
ce4e655d
RH
1195
1196 return ($scope_st, $scope_en);
34a48b4b
RH
1197}
1198
1199# Returns a list of subs which should be inserted before the COP
1200sub cop_subs {
1201 my ($self, $op, $out_seq) = @_;
1202 my $seq = $op->cop_seq;
1203 # If we have nephews, then our sequence number indicates
1204 # the cop_seq of the end of some sort of scope.
1205 if (class($op->sibling) ne "NULL" && $op->sibling->flags & OPf_KIDS
ce4e655d
RH
1206 and my $nseq = $self->find_scope_st($op->sibling) ) {
1207 $seq = $nseq;
34a48b4b
RH
1208 }
1209 $seq = $out_seq if defined($out_seq) && $out_seq < $seq;
1210 return $self->seq_subs($seq);
1211}
1212
1213sub seq_subs {
1214 my ($self, $seq) = @_;
1215 my @text;
1216#push @text, "# ($seq)\n";
1217
ce4e655d 1218 return "" if !defined $seq;
34a48b4b
RH
1219 while (scalar(@{$self->{'subs_todo'}})
1220 and $seq > $self->{'subs_todo'}[0][0]) {
1221 push @text, $self->next_todo;
1222 }
1223 return @text;
1224}
1225
08c6f5ec 1226# Notice how subs and formats are inserted between statements here;
a0405c92 1227# also $[ assignments and pragmas.
6e90668e
SM
1228sub pp_nextstate {
1229 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1230 my($op, $cx) = @_;
34a48b4b 1231 $self->{'curcop'} = $op;
6e90668e 1232 my @text;
34a48b4b 1233 push @text, $self->cop_subs($op);
e99ebc55 1234 push @text, $op->label . ": " if $op->label;
11faa288 1235 my $stash = $op->stashpv;
6e90668e
SM
1236 if ($stash ne $self->{'curstash'}) {
1237 push @text, "package $stash;\n";
1238 $self->{'curstash'} = $stash;
1239 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
1240 if ($self->{'linenums'}) {
1241 push @text, "\f#line " . $op->line .
57843af0 1242 ' "' . $op->file, qq'"\n';
f5aa8f4e 1243 }
08c6f5ec 1244
7a9b44b9
RH
1245 if ($self->{'arybase'} != $op->arybase) {
1246 push @text, '$[ = '. $op->arybase .";\n";
1247 $self->{'arybase'} = $op->arybase;
1248 }
1249
1250 my $warnings = $op->warnings;
1251 my $warning_bits;
1252 if ($warnings->isa("B::SPECIAL") && $$warnings == 4) {
1253 $warning_bits = $warnings::Bits{"all"};
1254 }
e31885a0 1255 elsif ($warnings->isa("B::SPECIAL") && $$warnings == 5) {
7a9b44b9
RH
1256 $warning_bits = "\0"x12;
1257 }
e31885a0
RH
1258 elsif ($warnings->isa("B::SPECIAL")) {
1259 $warning_bits = undef;
1260 }
7a9b44b9 1261 else {
34a48b4b 1262 $warning_bits = $warnings->PV & WARN_MASK;
7a9b44b9
RH
1263 }
1264
e31885a0
RH
1265 if (defined ($warning_bits) and
1266 !defined($self->{warnings}) || $self->{'warnings'} ne $warning_bits) {
08c6f5ec 1267 push @text, declare_warnings($self->{'warnings'}, $warning_bits);
7a9b44b9
RH
1268 $self->{'warnings'} = $warning_bits;
1269 }
1270
a0405c92
RH
1271 if ($self->{'hints'} != $op->private) {
1272 push @text, declare_hints($self->{'hints'}, $op->private);
1273 $self->{'hints'} = $op->private;
1274 }
1275
6e90668e
SM
1276 return join("", @text);
1277}
1278
08c6f5ec
RH
1279sub declare_warnings {
1280 my ($from, $to) = @_;
6ec152c3 1281 if (($to & WARN_MASK) eq warnings::bits("all")) {
a0405c92
RH
1282 return "use warnings;\n";
1283 }
6ec152c3 1284 elsif (($to & WARN_MASK) eq "\0"x length($to)) {
a0405c92
RH
1285 return "no warnings;\n";
1286 }
1287 return "BEGIN {\${^WARNING_BITS} = ".cstring($to)."}\n";
1288}
1289
1290sub declare_hints {
1291 my ($from, $to) = @_;
a0035eb8
RH
1292 my $use = $to & ~$from;
1293 my $no = $from & ~$to;
1294 my $decls = "";
1295 for my $pragma (hint_pragmas($use)) {
1296 $decls .= "use $pragma;\n";
1297 }
1298 for my $pragma (hint_pragmas($no)) {
1299 $decls .= "no $pragma;\n";
1300 }
1301 return $decls;
1302}
1303
1304sub hint_pragmas {
1305 my ($bits) = @_;
1306 my @pragmas;
1307 push @pragmas, "integer" if $bits & 0x1;
1308 push @pragmas, "strict 'refs'" if $bits & 0x2;
1309 push @pragmas, "bytes" if $bits & 0x8;
1310 return @pragmas;
08c6f5ec
RH
1311}
1312
6e90668e 1313sub pp_dbstate { pp_nextstate(@_) }
3f872cb9 1314sub pp_setstate { pp_nextstate(@_) }
6e90668e
SM
1315
1316sub pp_unstack { return "" } # see also leaveloop
1317
1318sub baseop {
1319 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1320 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1321 return $name;
1322}
1323
e99ebc55
RH
1324sub pp_stub {
1325 my $self = shift;
1326 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
1327 if ($cx) {
1328 return "()";
1329 }
1330 else {
1331 return "();";
1332 }
1333}
6e90668e
SM
1334sub pp_wantarray { baseop(@_, "wantarray") }
1335sub pp_fork { baseop(@_, "fork") }
3ed82cfc
GS
1336sub pp_wait { maybe_targmy(@_, \&baseop, "wait") }
1337sub pp_getppid { maybe_targmy(@_, \&baseop, "getppid") }
1338sub pp_time { maybe_targmy(@_, \&baseop, "time") }
6e90668e
SM
1339sub pp_tms { baseop(@_, "times") }
1340sub pp_ghostent { baseop(@_, "gethostent") }
1341sub pp_gnetent { baseop(@_, "getnetent") }
1342sub pp_gprotoent { baseop(@_, "getprotoent") }
1343sub pp_gservent { baseop(@_, "getservent") }
1344sub pp_ehostent { baseop(@_, "endhostent") }
1345sub pp_enetent { baseop(@_, "endnetent") }
1346sub pp_eprotoent { baseop(@_, "endprotoent") }
1347sub pp_eservent { baseop(@_, "endservent") }
1348sub pp_gpwent { baseop(@_, "getpwent") }
1349sub pp_spwent { baseop(@_, "setpwent") }
1350sub pp_epwent { baseop(@_, "endpwent") }
1351sub pp_ggrent { baseop(@_, "getgrent") }
1352sub pp_sgrent { baseop(@_, "setgrent") }
1353sub pp_egrent { baseop(@_, "endgrent") }
1354sub pp_getlogin { baseop(@_, "getlogin") }
1355
1356sub POSTFIX () { 1 }
1357
9d2c6865
SM
1358# I couldn't think of a good short name, but this is the category of
1359# symbolic unary operators with interesting precedence
1360
1361sub pfixop {
1362 my $self = shift;
1363 my($op, $cx, $name, $prec, $flags) = (@_, 0);
1364 my $kid = $op->first;
1365 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, $prec);
1366 return $self->maybe_parens(($flags & POSTFIX) ? "$kid$name" : "$name$kid",
1367 $cx, $prec);
1368}
1369
1370sub pp_preinc { pfixop(@_, "++", 23) }
1371sub pp_predec { pfixop(@_, "--", 23) }
3ed82cfc
GS
1372sub pp_postinc { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "++", 23, POSTFIX) }
1373sub pp_postdec { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "--", 23, POSTFIX) }
9d2c6865
SM
1374sub pp_i_preinc { pfixop(@_, "++", 23) }
1375sub pp_i_predec { pfixop(@_, "--", 23) }
3ed82cfc
GS
1376sub pp_i_postinc { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "++", 23, POSTFIX) }
1377sub pp_i_postdec { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "--", 23, POSTFIX) }
68cc8748 1378sub pp_complement { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "~", 21) }
9d2c6865 1379
3ed82cfc
GS
1380sub pp_negate { maybe_targmy(@_, \&real_negate) }
1381sub real_negate {
9d2c6865
SM
1382 my $self = shift;
1383 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3f872cb9 1384 if ($op->first->name =~ /^(i_)?negate$/) {
9d2c6865
SM
1385 # avoid --$x
1386 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "-", 21.5);
1387 } else {
1388 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "-", 21);
1389 }
1390}
1391sub pp_i_negate { pp_negate(@_) }
1392
1393sub pp_not {
1394 my $self = shift;
1395 my($op, $cx) = @_;
1396 if ($cx <= 4) {
1397 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "not ", 4);
1398 } else {
1399 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "!", 21);
1400 }
1401}
1402
6e90668e
SM
1403sub unop {
1404 my $self = shift;
f4a44678 1405 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e 1406 my $kid;
9d2c6865 1407 if ($op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
6e90668e 1408 $kid = $op->first;
e31885a0
RH
1409 if (defined prototype("CORE::$name")
1410 && prototype("CORE::$name") =~ /^;?\*/
1411 && $kid->name eq "rv2gv") {
1412 $kid = $kid->first;
1413 }
1414
9d2c6865 1415 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $kid, $cx);
6e90668e 1416 } else {
9d2c6865 1417 return $name . ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL ? "()" : "");
6e90668e 1418 }
6e90668e
SM
1419}
1420
3ed82cfc
GS
1421sub pp_chop { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chop") }
1422sub pp_chomp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chomp") }
1423sub pp_schop { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chop") }
1424sub pp_schomp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chomp") }
6e90668e
SM
1425sub pp_defined { unop(@_, "defined") }
1426sub pp_undef { unop(@_, "undef") }
1427sub pp_study { unop(@_, "study") }
6e90668e
SM
1428sub pp_ref { unop(@_, "ref") }
1429sub pp_pos { maybe_local(@_, unop(@_, "pos")) }
1430
3ed82cfc
GS
1431sub pp_sin { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "sin") }
1432sub pp_cos { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "cos") }
1433sub pp_rand { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "rand") }
6e90668e 1434sub pp_srand { unop(@_, "srand") }
3ed82cfc
GS
1435sub pp_exp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "exp") }
1436sub pp_log { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "log") }
1437sub pp_sqrt { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "sqrt") }
1438sub pp_int { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "int") }
1439sub pp_hex { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "hex") }
1440sub pp_oct { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "oct") }
1441sub pp_abs { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "abs") }
1442
1443sub pp_length { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "length") }
1444sub pp_ord { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "ord") }
1445sub pp_chr { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chr") }
6e90668e
SM
1446
1447sub pp_each { unop(@_, "each") }
1448sub pp_values { unop(@_, "values") }
1449sub pp_keys { unop(@_, "keys") }
1450sub pp_pop { unop(@_, "pop") }
1451sub pp_shift { unop(@_, "shift") }
1452
1453sub pp_caller { unop(@_, "caller") }
1454sub pp_reset { unop(@_, "reset") }
1455sub pp_exit { unop(@_, "exit") }
1456sub pp_prototype { unop(@_, "prototype") }
1457
1458sub pp_close { unop(@_, "close") }
1459sub pp_fileno { unop(@_, "fileno") }
1460sub pp_umask { unop(@_, "umask") }
6e90668e
SM
1461sub pp_untie { unop(@_, "untie") }
1462sub pp_tied { unop(@_, "tied") }
1463sub pp_dbmclose { unop(@_, "dbmclose") }
1464sub pp_getc { unop(@_, "getc") }
1465sub pp_eof { unop(@_, "eof") }
1466sub pp_tell { unop(@_, "tell") }
1467sub pp_getsockname { unop(@_, "getsockname") }
1468sub pp_getpeername { unop(@_, "getpeername") }
1469
3ed82cfc
GS
1470sub pp_chdir { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chdir") }
1471sub pp_chroot { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chroot") }
6e90668e 1472sub pp_readlink { unop(@_, "readlink") }
3ed82cfc 1473sub pp_rmdir { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "rmdir") }
6e90668e
SM
1474sub pp_readdir { unop(@_, "readdir") }
1475sub pp_telldir { unop(@_, "telldir") }
1476sub pp_rewinddir { unop(@_, "rewinddir") }
1477sub pp_closedir { unop(@_, "closedir") }
3ed82cfc 1478sub pp_getpgrp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "getpgrp") }
6e90668e
SM
1479sub pp_localtime { unop(@_, "localtime") }
1480sub pp_gmtime { unop(@_, "gmtime") }
1481sub pp_alarm { unop(@_, "alarm") }
3ed82cfc 1482sub pp_sleep { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "sleep") }
6e90668e
SM
1483
1484sub pp_dofile { unop(@_, "do") }
1485sub pp_entereval { unop(@_, "eval") }
1486
1487sub pp_ghbyname { unop(@_, "gethostbyname") }
1488sub pp_gnbyname { unop(@_, "getnetbyname") }
1489sub pp_gpbyname { unop(@_, "getprotobyname") }
1490sub pp_shostent { unop(@_, "sethostent") }
1491sub pp_snetent { unop(@_, "setnetent") }
1492sub pp_sprotoent { unop(@_, "setprotoent") }
1493sub pp_sservent { unop(@_, "setservent") }
1494sub pp_gpwnam { unop(@_, "getpwnam") }
1495sub pp_gpwuid { unop(@_, "getpwuid") }
1496sub pp_ggrnam { unop(@_, "getgrnam") }
1497sub pp_ggrgid { unop(@_, "getgrgid") }
1498
1499sub pp_lock { unop(@_, "lock") }
1500
1501sub pp_exists {
1502 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1503 my($op, $cx) = @_;
34a48b4b
RH
1504 my $arg;
1505 if ($op->private & OPpEXISTS_SUB) {
1506 # Checking for the existence of a subroutine
1507 return $self->maybe_parens_func("exists",
1508 $self->pp_rv2cv($op->first, 16), $cx, 16);
1509 }
1510 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1511 # Array element, not hash element
1512 return $self->maybe_parens_func("exists",
1513 $self->pp_aelem($op->first, 16), $cx, 16);
1514 }
9d2c6865
SM
1515 return $self->maybe_parens_func("exists", $self->pp_helem($op->first, 16),
1516 $cx, 16);
6e90668e
SM
1517}
1518
6e90668e
SM
1519sub pp_delete {
1520 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1521 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1522 my $arg;
1523 if ($op->private & OPpSLICE) {
34a48b4b
RH
1524 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1525 # Deleting from an array, not a hash
1526 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1527 $self->pp_aslice($op->first, 16),
1528 $cx, 16);
1529 }
9d2c6865
SM
1530 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1531 $self->pp_hslice($op->first, 16),
1532 $cx, 16);
6e90668e 1533 } else {
34a48b4b
RH
1534 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1535 # Deleting from an array, not a hash
1536 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1537 $self->pp_aelem($op->first, 16),
1538 $cx, 16);
1539 }
9d2c6865
SM
1540 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1541 $self->pp_helem($op->first, 16),
1542 $cx, 16);
6e90668e 1543 }
6e90668e
SM
1544}
1545
6e90668e
SM
1546sub pp_require {
1547 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1548 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3f872cb9 1549 if (class($op) eq "UNOP" and $op->first->name eq "const"
4c1f658f 1550 and $op->first->private & OPpCONST_BARE)
6e90668e 1551 {
18228111 1552 my $name = $self->const_sv($op->first)->PV;
6e90668e
SM
1553 $name =~ s[/][::]g;
1554 $name =~ s/\.pm//g;
34a48b4b 1555 return "require $name";
6e90668e 1556 } else {
9d2c6865 1557 $self->unop($op, $cx, "require");
6e90668e
SM
1558 }
1559}
1560
9d2c6865
SM
1561sub pp_scalar {
1562 my $self = shift;
1563 my($op, $cv) = @_;
1564 my $kid = $op->first;
1565 if (not null $kid->sibling) {
1566 # XXX Was a here-doc
1567 return $self->dquote($op);
1568 }
1569 $self->unop(@_, "scalar");
1570}
1571
1572
6e90668e
SM
1573sub padval {
1574 my $self = shift;
1575 my $targ = shift;
18228111 1576 #cluck "curcv was undef" unless $self->{curcv};
6e90668e
SM
1577 return (($self->{'curcv'}->PADLIST->ARRAY)[1]->ARRAY)[$targ];
1578}
1579
1580sub pp_refgen {
1581 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1582 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 1583 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9 1584 if ($kid->name eq "null") {
6e90668e 1585 $kid = $kid->first;
3f872cb9
GS
1586 if ($kid->name eq "anonlist" || $kid->name eq "anonhash") {
1587 my($pre, $post) = @{{"anonlist" => ["[","]"],
1588 "anonhash" => ["{","}"]}->{$kid->name}};
6e90668e
SM
1589 my($expr, @exprs);
1590 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
1591 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 1592 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
1593 push @exprs, $expr;
1594 }
1595 return $pre . join(", ", @exprs) . $post;
1596 } elsif (!null($kid->sibling) and
3f872cb9 1597 $kid->sibling->name eq "anoncode") {
6e90668e
SM
1598 return "sub " .
1599 $self->deparse_sub($self->padval($kid->sibling->targ));
3f872cb9
GS
1600 } elsif ($kid->name eq "pushmark") {
1601 my $sib_name = $kid->sibling->name;
1602 if ($sib_name =~ /^(pad|rv2)[ah]v$/
c8c62db7
AD
1603 and not $kid->sibling->flags & OPf_REF)
1604 {
1605 # The @a in \(@a) isn't in ref context, but only when the
1606 # parens are there.
1607 return "\\(" . $self->deparse($kid->sibling, 1) . ")";
3f872cb9 1608 } elsif ($sib_name eq 'entersub') {
c8c62db7
AD
1609 my $text = $self->deparse($kid->sibling, 1);
1610 # Always show parens for \(&func()), but only with -p otherwise
1611 $text = "($text)" if $self->{'parens'}
1612 or $kid->sibling->private & OPpENTERSUB_AMPER;
1613 return "\\$text";
1614 }
1615 }
6e90668e 1616 }
9d2c6865 1617 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "\\", 20);
6e90668e
SM
1618}
1619
1620sub pp_srefgen { pp_refgen(@_) }
1621
1622sub pp_readline {
1623 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1624 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 1625 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9 1626 $kid = $kid->first if $kid->name eq "rv2gv"; # <$fh>
e31885a0
RH
1627 return "<" . $self->deparse($kid, 1) . ">" if is_scalar($kid);
1628 return $self->unop($op, $cx, "readline");
6e90668e
SM
1629}
1630
bd0865ec
GS
1631# Unary operators that can occur as pseudo-listops inside double quotes
1632sub dq_unop {
1633 my $self = shift;
1634 my($op, $cx, $name, $prec, $flags) = (@_, 0, 0);
1635 my $kid;
1636 if ($op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
1637 $kid = $op->first;
1638 # If there's more than one kid, the first is an ex-pushmark.
1639 $kid = $kid->sibling if not null $kid->sibling;
1640 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $kid, $cx);
1641 } else {
1642 return $name . ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL ? "()" : "");
1643 }
1644}
1645
1646sub pp_ucfirst { dq_unop(@_, "ucfirst") }
1647sub pp_lcfirst { dq_unop(@_, "lcfirst") }
1648sub pp_uc { dq_unop(@_, "uc") }
1649sub pp_lc { dq_unop(@_, "lc") }
3ed82cfc 1650sub pp_quotemeta { maybe_targmy(@_, \&dq_unop, "quotemeta") }
bd0865ec 1651
6e90668e
SM
1652sub loopex {
1653 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1654 my ($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e 1655 if (class($op) eq "PVOP") {
9d2c6865
SM
1656 return "$name " . $op->pv;
1657 } elsif (class($op) eq "OP") {
1658 return $name;
6e90668e 1659 } elsif (class($op) eq "UNOP") {
9d2c6865
SM
1660 # Note -- loop exits are actually exempt from the
1661 # looks-like-a-func rule, but a few extra parens won't hurt
1662 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $op->first, $cx);
6e90668e 1663 }
6e90668e
SM
1664}
1665
1666sub pp_last { loopex(@_, "last") }
1667sub pp_next { loopex(@_, "next") }
1668sub pp_redo { loopex(@_, "redo") }
1669sub pp_goto { loopex(@_, "goto") }
1670sub pp_dump { loopex(@_, "dump") }
1671
1672sub ftst {
1673 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1674 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e 1675 if (class($op) eq "UNOP") {
9d2c6865
SM
1676 # Genuine `-X' filetests are exempt from the LLAFR, but not
1677 # l?stat(); for the sake of clarity, give'em all parens
1678 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $op->first, $cx);
7934575e 1679 } elsif (class($op) eq "SVOP") {
9d2c6865 1680 return $self->maybe_parens_func($name, $self->pp_gv($op, 1), $cx, 16);
6e90668e 1681 } else { # I don't think baseop filetests ever survive ck_ftst, but...
9d2c6865 1682 return $name;
6e90668e 1683 }
6e90668e
SM
1684}
1685
1686sub pp_lstat { ftst(@_, "lstat") }
1687sub pp_stat { ftst(@_, "stat") }
1688sub pp_ftrread { ftst(@_, "-R") }
1689sub pp_ftrwrite { ftst(@_, "-W") }
1690sub pp_ftrexec { ftst(@_, "-X") }
1691sub pp_fteread { ftst(@_, "-r") }
e31885a0
RH
1692sub pp_ftewrite { ftst(@_, "-w") }
1693sub pp_fteexec { ftst(@_, "-x") }
6e90668e
SM
1694sub pp_ftis { ftst(@_, "-e") }
1695sub pp_fteowned { ftst(@_, "-O") }
1696sub pp_ftrowned { ftst(@_, "-o") }
1697sub pp_ftzero { ftst(@_, "-z") }
1698sub pp_ftsize { ftst(@_, "-s") }
1699sub pp_ftmtime { ftst(@_, "-M") }
1700sub pp_ftatime { ftst(@_, "-A") }
1701sub pp_ftctime { ftst(@_, "-C") }
1702sub pp_ftsock { ftst(@_, "-S") }
1703sub pp_ftchr { ftst(@_, "-c") }
1704sub pp_ftblk { ftst(@_, "-b") }
1705sub pp_ftfile { ftst(@_, "-f") }
1706sub pp_ftdir { ftst(@_, "-d") }
1707sub pp_ftpipe { ftst(@_, "-p") }
1708sub pp_ftlink { ftst(@_, "-l") }
1709sub pp_ftsuid { ftst(@_, "-u") }
1710sub pp_ftsgid { ftst(@_, "-g") }
1711sub pp_ftsvtx { ftst(@_, "-k") }
1712sub pp_fttty { ftst(@_, "-t") }
1713sub pp_fttext { ftst(@_, "-T") }
1714sub pp_ftbinary { ftst(@_, "-B") }
1715
a798dbf2 1716sub SWAP_CHILDREN () { 1 }
6e90668e 1717sub ASSIGN () { 2 } # has OP= variant
7013e6ae 1718sub LIST_CONTEXT () { 4 } # Assignment is in list context
6e90668e 1719
9d2c6865
SM
1720my(%left, %right);
1721
1722sub assoc_class {
1723 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
1724 my $name = $op->name;
1725 if ($name eq "concat" and $op->first->name eq "concat") {
9d2c6865 1726 # avoid spurious `=' -- see comment in pp_concat
3f872cb9 1727 return "concat";
9d2c6865 1728 }
3f872cb9
GS
1729 if ($name eq "null" and class($op) eq "UNOP"
1730 and $op->first->name =~ /^(and|x?or)$/
9d2c6865
SM
1731 and null $op->first->sibling)
1732 {
1733 # Like all conditional constructs, OP_ANDs and OP_ORs are topped
1734 # with a null that's used as the common end point of the two
1735 # flows of control. For precedence purposes, ignore it.
1736 # (COND_EXPRs have these too, but we don't bother with
1737 # their associativity).
1738 return assoc_class($op->first);
1739 }
1740 return $name . ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED ? "=" : "");
1741}
1742
1743# Left associative operators, like `+', for which
1744# $a + $b + $c is equivalent to ($a + $b) + $c
1745
1746BEGIN {
3f872cb9
GS
1747 %left = ('multiply' => 19, 'i_multiply' => 19,
1748 'divide' => 19, 'i_divide' => 19,
1749 'modulo' => 19, 'i_modulo' => 19,
1750 'repeat' => 19,
1751 'add' => 18, 'i_add' => 18,
1752 'subtract' => 18, 'i_subtract' => 18,
1753 'concat' => 18,
1754 'left_shift' => 17, 'right_shift' => 17,
1755 'bit_and' => 13,
1756 'bit_or' => 12, 'bit_xor' => 12,
1757 'and' => 3,
1758 'or' => 2, 'xor' => 2,
9d2c6865
SM
1759 );
1760}
1761
1762sub deparse_binop_left {
1763 my $self = shift;
1764 my($op, $left, $prec) = @_;
58231d39 1765 if ($left{assoc_class($op)} && $left{assoc_class($left)}
9d2c6865
SM
1766 and $left{assoc_class($op)} == $left{assoc_class($left)})
1767 {
1768 return $self->deparse($left, $prec - .00001);
1769 } else {
1770 return $self->deparse($left, $prec);
1771 }
1772}
1773
1774# Right associative operators, like `=', for which
1775# $a = $b = $c is equivalent to $a = ($b = $c)
1776
1777BEGIN {
3f872cb9
GS
1778 %right = ('pow' => 22,
1779 'sassign=' => 7, 'aassign=' => 7,
1780 'multiply=' => 7, 'i_multiply=' => 7,
1781 'divide=' => 7, 'i_divide=' => 7,
1782 'modulo=' => 7, 'i_modulo=' => 7,
1783 'repeat=' => 7,
1784 'add=' => 7, 'i_add=' => 7,
1785 'subtract=' => 7, 'i_subtract=' => 7,
1786 'concat=' => 7,
1787 'left_shift=' => 7, 'right_shift=' => 7,
1788 'bit_and=' => 7,
1789 'bit_or=' => 7, 'bit_xor=' => 7,
1790 'andassign' => 7,
1791 'orassign' => 7,
9d2c6865
SM
1792 );
1793}
1794
1795sub deparse_binop_right {
1796 my $self = shift;
1797 my($op, $right, $prec) = @_;
58231d39 1798 if ($right{assoc_class($op)} && $right{assoc_class($right)}
9d2c6865
SM
1799 and $right{assoc_class($op)} == $right{assoc_class($right)})
1800 {
1801 return $self->deparse($right, $prec - .00001);
1802 } else {
1803 return $self->deparse($right, $prec);
1804 }
1805}
1806
a798dbf2 1807sub binop {
6e90668e 1808 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1809 my ($op, $cx, $opname, $prec, $flags) = (@_, 0);
a798dbf2
MB
1810 my $left = $op->first;
1811 my $right = $op->last;
9d2c6865
SM
1812 my $eq = "";
1813 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED && $flags & ASSIGN) {
1814 $eq = "=";
1815 $prec = 7;
1816 }
a798dbf2
MB
1817 if ($flags & SWAP_CHILDREN) {
1818 ($left, $right) = ($right, $left);
1819 }
9d2c6865 1820 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $prec);
7013e6ae 1821 $left = "($left)" if $flags & LIST_CONTEXT && $left =~ /^\$/;
9d2c6865
SM
1822 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $prec);
1823 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $opname$eq $right", $cx, $prec);
1824}
1825
3ed82cfc
GS
1826sub pp_add { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "+", 18, ASSIGN) }
1827sub pp_multiply { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "*", 19, ASSIGN) }
1828sub pp_subtract { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "-",18, ASSIGN) }
1829sub pp_divide { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "/", 19, ASSIGN) }
1830sub pp_modulo { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "%", 19, ASSIGN) }
1831sub pp_i_add { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "+", 18, ASSIGN) }
1832sub pp_i_multiply { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "*", 19, ASSIGN) }
1833sub pp_i_subtract { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "-", 18, ASSIGN) }
1834sub pp_i_divide { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "/", 19, ASSIGN) }
1835sub pp_i_modulo { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "%", 19, ASSIGN) }
1836sub pp_pow { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "**", 22, ASSIGN) }
1837
1838sub pp_left_shift { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "<<", 17, ASSIGN) }
1839sub pp_right_shift { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, ">>", 17, ASSIGN) }
1840sub pp_bit_and { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "&", 13, ASSIGN) }
1841sub pp_bit_or { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "|", 12, ASSIGN) }
1842sub pp_bit_xor { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "^", 12, ASSIGN) }
9d2c6865
SM
1843
1844sub pp_eq { binop(@_, "==", 14) }
1845sub pp_ne { binop(@_, "!=", 14) }
1846sub pp_lt { binop(@_, "<", 15) }
1847sub pp_gt { binop(@_, ">", 15) }
1848sub pp_ge { binop(@_, ">=", 15) }
1849sub pp_le { binop(@_, "<=", 15) }
1850sub pp_ncmp { binop(@_, "<=>", 14) }
1851sub pp_i_eq { binop(@_, "==", 14) }
1852sub pp_i_ne { binop(@_, "!=", 14) }
1853sub pp_i_lt { binop(@_, "<", 15) }
1854sub pp_i_gt { binop(@_, ">", 15) }
1855sub pp_i_ge { binop(@_, ">=", 15) }
1856sub pp_i_le { binop(@_, "<=", 15) }
1857sub pp_i_ncmp { binop(@_, "<=>", 14) }
1858
1859sub pp_seq { binop(@_, "eq", 14) }
1860sub pp_sne { binop(@_, "ne", 14) }
1861sub pp_slt { binop(@_, "lt", 15) }
1862sub pp_sgt { binop(@_, "gt", 15) }
1863sub pp_sge { binop(@_, "ge", 15) }
1864sub pp_sle { binop(@_, "le", 15) }
1865sub pp_scmp { binop(@_, "cmp", 14) }
1866
1867sub pp_sassign { binop(@_, "=", 7, SWAP_CHILDREN) }
7013e6ae 1868sub pp_aassign { binop(@_, "=", 7, SWAP_CHILDREN | LIST_CONTEXT) }
6e90668e
SM
1869
1870# `.' is special because concats-of-concats are optimized to save copying
1871# by making all but the first concat stacked. The effect is as if the
1872# programmer had written `($a . $b) .= $c', except legal.
3ed82cfc
GS
1873sub pp_concat { maybe_targmy(@_, \&real_concat) }
1874sub real_concat {
6e90668e 1875 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1876 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1877 my $left = $op->first;
1878 my $right = $op->last;
1879 my $eq = "";
9d2c6865 1880 my $prec = 18;
3f872cb9 1881 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED and $op->first->name ne "concat") {
6e90668e 1882 $eq = "=";
9d2c6865 1883 $prec = 7;
6e90668e 1884 }
9d2c6865
SM
1885 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $prec);
1886 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $prec);
1887 return $self->maybe_parens("$left .$eq $right", $cx, $prec);
6e90668e
SM
1888}
1889
1890# `x' is weird when the left arg is a list
1891sub pp_repeat {
1892 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1893 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1894 my $left = $op->first;
1895 my $right = $op->last;
9d2c6865
SM
1896 my $eq = "";
1897 my $prec = 19;
1898 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
1899 $eq = "=";
1900 $prec = 7;
1901 }
6e90668e
SM
1902 if (null($right)) { # list repeat; count is inside left-side ex-list
1903 my $kid = $left->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
1904 my @exprs;
1905 for (; !null($kid->sibling); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 1906 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
1907 }
1908 $right = $kid;
1909 $left = "(" . join(", ", @exprs). ")";
1910 } else {
9d2c6865 1911 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $prec);
6e90668e 1912 }
9d2c6865
SM
1913 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $prec);
1914 return $self->maybe_parens("$left x$eq $right", $cx, $prec);
6e90668e
SM
1915}
1916
1917sub range {
1918 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1919 my ($op, $cx, $type) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1920 my $left = $op->first;
1921 my $right = $left->sibling;
9d2c6865
SM
1922 $left = $self->deparse($left, 9);
1923 $right = $self->deparse($right, 9);
1924 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $type $right", $cx, 9);
6e90668e
SM
1925}
1926
1927sub pp_flop {
1928 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1929 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1930 my $flip = $op->first;
1931 my $type = ($flip->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) ? "..." : "..";
9d2c6865 1932 return $self->range($flip->first, $cx, $type);
6e90668e
SM
1933}
1934
1935# one-line while/until is handled in pp_leave
1936
1937sub logop {
1938 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1939 my ($op, $cx, $lowop, $lowprec, $highop, $highprec, $blockname) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1940 my $left = $op->first;
1941 my $right = $op->first->sibling;
58cccf98
SM
1942 if ($cx == 0 and is_scope($right) and $blockname
1943 and $self->{'expand'} < 7)
1944 { # if ($a) {$b}
9d2c6865
SM
1945 $left = $self->deparse($left, 1);
1946 $right = $self->deparse($right, 0);
1947 return "$blockname ($left) {\n\t$right\n\b}\cK";
58cccf98
SM
1948 } elsif ($cx == 0 and $blockname and not $self->{'parens'}
1949 and $self->{'expand'} < 7) { # $b if $a
9d2c6865
SM
1950 $right = $self->deparse($right, 1);
1951 $left = $self->deparse($left, 1);
1952 return "$right $blockname $left";
1953 } elsif ($cx > $lowprec and $highop) { # $a && $b
1954 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $highprec);
1955 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $highprec);
1956 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $highop $right", $cx, $highprec);
1957 } else { # $a and $b
1958 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $lowprec);
1959 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $lowprec);
1960 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $lowop $right", $cx, $lowprec);
1961 }
1962}
1963
1964sub pp_and { logop(@_, "and", 3, "&&", 11, "if") }
f4a44678 1965sub pp_or { logop(@_, "or", 2, "||", 10, "unless") }
3ed82cfc
GS
1966
1967# xor is syntactically a logop, but it's really a binop (contrary to
1968# old versions of opcode.pl). Syntax is what matters here.
9d2c6865 1969sub pp_xor { logop(@_, "xor", 2, "", 0, "") }
6e90668e
SM
1970
1971sub logassignop {
1972 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1973 my ($op, $cx, $opname) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1974 my $left = $op->first;
1975 my $right = $op->first->sibling->first; # skip sassign
9d2c6865
SM
1976 $left = $self->deparse($left, 7);
1977 $right = $self->deparse($right, 7);
1978 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $opname $right", $cx, 7);
a798dbf2
MB
1979}
1980
6e90668e
SM
1981sub pp_andassign { logassignop(@_, "&&=") }
1982sub pp_orassign { logassignop(@_, "||=") }
1983
1984sub listop {
1985 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
1986 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
1987 my(@exprs);
1988 my $parens = ($cx >= 5) || $self->{'parens'};
1989 my $kid = $op->first->sibling;
1990 return $name if null $kid;
e31885a0
RH
1991 my $first;
1992 if (defined prototype("CORE::$name")
1993 && prototype("CORE::$name") =~ /^;?\*/
1994 && $kid->name eq "rv2gv") {
1995 $first = $self->deparse($kid->first, 6);
1996 }
1997 else {
1998 $first = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
1999 }
e99ebc55 2000 if ($name eq "chmod" && $first =~ /^\d+$/) {
a0035eb8 2001 $first = sprintf("%#o", $first);
e99ebc55 2002 }
9d2c6865
SM
2003 $first = "+$first" if not $parens and substr($first, 0, 1) eq "(";
2004 push @exprs, $first;
2005 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2006 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
2007 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
2008 }
2009 if ($parens) {
2010 return "$name(" . join(", ", @exprs) . ")";
2011 } else {
2012 return "$name " . join(", ", @exprs);
6e90668e 2013 }
6e90668e 2014}
a798dbf2 2015
6e90668e 2016sub pp_bless { listop(@_, "bless") }
3ed82cfc 2017sub pp_atan2 { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "atan2") }
6e90668e
SM
2018sub pp_substr { maybe_local(@_, listop(@_, "substr")) }
2019sub pp_vec { maybe_local(@_, listop(@_, "vec")) }
3ed82cfc
GS
2020sub pp_index { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "index") }
2021sub pp_rindex { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "rindex") }
2022sub pp_sprintf { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "sprintf") }
6e90668e 2023sub pp_formline { listop(@_, "formline") } # see also deparse_format
3ed82cfc 2024sub pp_crypt { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "crypt") }
6e90668e
SM
2025sub pp_unpack { listop(@_, "unpack") }
2026sub pp_pack { listop(@_, "pack") }
3ed82cfc 2027sub pp_join { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "join") }
6e90668e 2028sub pp_splice { listop(@_, "splice") }
3ed82cfc
GS
2029sub pp_push { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "push") }
2030sub pp_unshift { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "unshift") }
6e90668e
SM
2031sub pp_reverse { listop(@_, "reverse") }
2032sub pp_warn { listop(@_, "warn") }
2033sub pp_die { listop(@_, "die") }
9d2c6865
SM
2034# Actually, return is exempt from the LLAFR (see examples in this very
2035# module!), but for consistency's sake, ignore that fact
6e90668e
SM
2036sub pp_return { listop(@_, "return") }
2037sub pp_open { listop(@_, "open") }
2038sub pp_pipe_op { listop(@_, "pipe") }
2039sub pp_tie { listop(@_, "tie") }
82bafd27 2040sub pp_binmode { listop(@_, "binmode") }
6e90668e
SM
2041sub pp_dbmopen { listop(@_, "dbmopen") }
2042sub pp_sselect { listop(@_, "select") }
2043sub pp_select { listop(@_, "select") }
2044sub pp_read { listop(@_, "read") }
2045sub pp_sysopen { listop(@_, "sysopen") }
2046sub pp_sysseek { listop(@_, "sysseek") }
2047sub pp_sysread { listop(@_, "sysread") }
2048sub pp_syswrite { listop(@_, "syswrite") }
2049sub pp_send { listop(@_, "send") }
2050sub pp_recv { listop(@_, "recv") }
2051sub pp_seek { listop(@_, "seek") }
6e90668e
SM
2052sub pp_fcntl { listop(@_, "fcntl") }
2053sub pp_ioctl { listop(@_, "ioctl") }
3ed82cfc 2054sub pp_flock { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "flock") }
6e90668e
SM
2055sub pp_socket { listop(@_, "socket") }
2056sub pp_sockpair { listop(@_, "sockpair") }
2057sub pp_bind { listop(@_, "bind") }
2058sub pp_connect { listop(@_, "connect") }
2059sub pp_listen { listop(@_, "listen") }
2060sub pp_accept { listop(@_, "accept") }
2061sub pp_shutdown { listop(@_, "shutdown") }
2062sub pp_gsockopt { listop(@_, "getsockopt") }
2063sub pp_ssockopt { listop(@_, "setsockopt") }
3ed82cfc
GS
2064sub pp_chown { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "chown") }
2065sub pp_unlink { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "unlink") }
2066sub pp_chmod { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "chmod") }
2067sub pp_utime { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "utime") }
2068sub pp_rename { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "rename") }
2069sub pp_link { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "link") }
2070sub pp_symlink { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "symlink") }
2071sub pp_mkdir { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "mkdir") }
6e90668e
SM
2072sub pp_open_dir { listop(@_, "opendir") }
2073sub pp_seekdir { listop(@_, "seekdir") }
3ed82cfc
GS
2074sub pp_waitpid { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "waitpid") }
2075sub pp_system { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "system") }
2076sub pp_exec { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "exec") }
2077sub pp_kill { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "kill") }
2078sub pp_setpgrp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "setpgrp") }
2079sub pp_getpriority { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "getpriority") }
2080sub pp_setpriority { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "setpriority") }
6e90668e
SM
2081sub pp_shmget { listop(@_, "shmget") }
2082sub pp_shmctl { listop(@_, "shmctl") }
2083sub pp_shmread { listop(@_, "shmread") }
2084sub pp_shmwrite { listop(@_, "shmwrite") }
2085sub pp_msgget { listop(@_, "msgget") }
2086sub pp_msgctl { listop(@_, "msgctl") }
2087sub pp_msgsnd { listop(@_, "msgsnd") }
2088sub pp_msgrcv { listop(@_, "msgrcv") }
2089sub pp_semget { listop(@_, "semget") }
2090sub pp_semctl { listop(@_, "semctl") }
2091sub pp_semop { listop(@_, "semop") }
2092sub pp_ghbyaddr { listop(@_, "gethostbyaddr") }
2093sub pp_gnbyaddr { listop(@_, "getnetbyaddr") }
2094sub pp_gpbynumber { listop(@_, "getprotobynumber") }
2095sub pp_gsbyname { listop(@_, "getservbyname") }
2096sub pp_gsbyport { listop(@_, "getservbyport") }
2097sub pp_syscall { listop(@_, "syscall") }
2098
2099sub pp_glob {
2100 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2101 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2102 my $text = $self->dq($op->first->sibling); # skip pushmark
2103 if ($text =~ /^\$?(\w|::|\`)+$/ # could look like a readline
2104 or $text =~ /[<>]/) {
2105 return 'glob(' . single_delim('qq', '"', $text) . ')';
2106 } else {
2107 return '<' . $text . '>';
2108 }
2109}
2110
f5aa8f4e
SM
2111# Truncate is special because OPf_SPECIAL makes a bareword first arg
2112# be a filehandle. This could probably be better fixed in the core
2113# by moving the GV lookup into ck_truc.
2114
2115sub pp_truncate {
2116 my $self = shift;
2117 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2118 my(@exprs);
2119 my $parens = ($cx >= 5) || $self->{'parens'};
2120 my $kid = $op->first->sibling;
acba1d67 2121 my $fh;
f5aa8f4e
SM
2122 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
2123 # $kid is an OP_CONST
18228111 2124 $fh = $self->const_sv($kid)->PV;
f5aa8f4e
SM
2125 } else {
2126 $fh = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
2127 $fh = "+$fh" if not $parens and substr($fh, 0, 1) eq "(";
2128 }
2129 my $len = $self->deparse($kid->sibling, 6);
2130 if ($parens) {
2131 return "truncate($fh, $len)";
2132 } else {
2133 return "truncate $fh, $len";
2134 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
2135}
2136
6e90668e
SM
2137sub indirop {
2138 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2139 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2140 my($expr, @exprs);
2141 my $kid = $op->first->sibling;
2142 my $indir = "";
2143 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
2144 $indir = $kid;
2145 $indir = $indir->first; # skip rv2gv
2146 if (is_scope($indir)) {
9d2c6865 2147 $indir = "{" . $self->deparse($indir, 0) . "}";
c73811ab
RH
2148 } elsif ($indir->name eq "const" && $indir->private & OPpCONST_BARE) {
2149 $indir = $self->const_sv($indir)->PV;
6e90668e 2150 } else {
9d2c6865 2151 $indir = $self->deparse($indir, 24);
6e90668e
SM
2152 }
2153 $indir = $indir . " ";
2154 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2155 }
7e80da18
RH
2156 if ($name eq "sort" && $op->private & (OPpSORT_NUMERIC | OPpSORT_INTEGER)) {
2157 $indir = ($op->private & OPpSORT_REVERSE) ? '{$b <=> $a} '
2158 : '{$a <=> $b} ';
2159 }
2160 elsif ($name eq "sort" && $op->private & OPpSORT_REVERSE) {
2161 $indir = '{$b cmp $a} ';
2162 }
6e90668e 2163 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2164 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2165 push @exprs, $expr;
2166 }
3ed82cfc 2167 return $self->maybe_parens_func($name, $indir . join(", ", @exprs),
9d2c6865 2168 $cx, 5);
6e90668e
SM
2169}
2170
2171sub pp_prtf { indirop(@_, "printf") }
2172sub pp_print { indirop(@_, "print") }
2173sub pp_sort { indirop(@_, "sort") }
2174
2175sub mapop {
2176 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2177 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2178 my($expr, @exprs);
2179 my $kid = $op->first; # this is the (map|grep)start
2180 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip a pushmark
2181 my $code = $kid->first; # skip a null
2182 if (is_scope $code) {
f4a44678 2183 $code = "{" . $self->deparse($code, 0) . "} ";
6e90668e 2184 } else {
9d2c6865 2185 $code = $self->deparse($code, 24) . ", ";
6e90668e
SM
2186 }
2187 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2188 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2189 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2190 push @exprs, $expr if $expr;
2191 }
9d2c6865 2192 return $self->maybe_parens_func($name, $code . join(", ", @exprs), $cx, 5);
6e90668e
SM
2193}
2194
2195sub pp_mapwhile { mapop(@_, "map") }
2196sub pp_grepwhile { mapop(@_, "grep") }
2197
2198sub pp_list {
2199 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2200 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2201 my($expr, @exprs);
2202 my $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
2203 my $lop;
ce4e655d 2204 my $local = "either"; # could be local(...), my(...) or our(...)
6e90668e
SM
2205 for ($lop = $kid; !null($lop); $lop = $lop->sibling) {
2206 # This assumes that no other private flags equal 128, and that
2207 # OPs that store things other than flags in their op_private,
2208 # like OP_AELEMFAST, won't be immediate children of a list.
ce4e655d
RH
2209 unless ($lop->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO
2210 or $lop->name eq "undef")
6e90668e
SM
2211 {
2212 $local = ""; # or not
2213 last;
2214 }
3f872cb9 2215 if ($lop->name =~ /^pad[ash]v$/) { # my()
ce4e655d 2216 ($local = "", last) if $local eq "local" || $local eq "our";
6e90668e 2217 $local = "my";
ce4e655d
RH
2218 } elsif ($op->name =~ /^(gv|rv2)[ash]v$/
2219 && $op->private & OPpOUR_INTRO) { # our()
2220 ($local = "", last) if $local eq "my" || $local eq "local";
2221 $local = "our";
3f872cb9 2222 } elsif ($lop->name ne "undef") { # local()
ce4e655d 2223 ($local = "", last) if $local eq "my" || $local eq "our";
6e90668e
SM
2224 $local = "local";
2225 }
2226 }
2227 $local = "" if $local eq "either"; # no point if it's all undefs
f5aa8f4e 2228 return $self->deparse($kid, $cx) if null $kid->sibling and not $local;
6e90668e
SM
2229 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
2230 if ($local) {
3f872cb9 2231 if (class($kid) eq "UNOP" and $kid->first->name eq "gvsv") {
6e90668e
SM
2232 $lop = $kid->first;
2233 } else {
2234 $lop = $kid;
2235 }
2236 $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$lop}++;
9d2c6865 2237 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2238 delete $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$lop};
2239 } else {
9d2c6865 2240 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2241 }
2242 push @exprs, $expr;
2243 }
9d2c6865
SM
2244 if ($local) {
2245 return "$local(" . join(", ", @exprs) . ")";
2246 } else {
2247 return $self->maybe_parens( join(", ", @exprs), $cx, 6);
2248 }
6e90668e
SM
2249}
2250
6f611a1a
GS
2251sub is_ifelse_cont {
2252 my $op = shift;
2253 return ($op->name eq "null" and class($op) eq "UNOP"
2254 and $op->first->name =~ /^(and|cond_expr)$/
2255 and is_scope($op->first->first->sibling));
2256}
2257
6e90668e
SM
2258sub pp_cond_expr {
2259 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2260 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2261 my $cond = $op->first;
2262 my $true = $cond->sibling;
2263 my $false = $true->sibling;
9d2c6865 2264 my $cuddle = $self->{'cuddle'};
6f611a1a 2265 unless ($cx == 0 and (is_scope($true) and $true->name ne "null") and
58cccf98
SM
2266 (is_scope($false) || is_ifelse_cont($false))
2267 and $self->{'expand'} < 7) {
f5aa8f4e 2268 $cond = $self->deparse($cond, 8);
9d2c6865
SM
2269 $true = $self->deparse($true, 8);
2270 $false = $self->deparse($false, 8);
2271 return $self->maybe_parens("$cond ? $true : $false", $cx, 8);
6f611a1a
GS
2272 }
2273
f5aa8f4e 2274 $cond = $self->deparse($cond, 1);
9d2c6865 2275 $true = $self->deparse($true, 0);
6f611a1a
GS
2276 my $head = "if ($cond) {\n\t$true\n\b}";
2277 my @elsifs;
2278 while (!null($false) and is_ifelse_cont($false)) {
2279 my $newop = $false->first;
2280 my $newcond = $newop->first;
2281 my $newtrue = $newcond->sibling;
2282 $false = $newtrue->sibling; # last in chain is OP_AND => no else
2283 $newcond = $self->deparse($newcond, 1);
2284 $newtrue = $self->deparse($newtrue, 0);
2285 push @elsifs, "elsif ($newcond) {\n\t$newtrue\n\b}";
2286 }
2287 if (!null($false)) {
2288 $false = $cuddle . "else {\n\t" .
2289 $self->deparse($false, 0) . "\n\b}\cK";
2290 } else {
2291 $false = "\cK";
6e90668e 2292 }
6f611a1a 2293 return $head . join($cuddle, "", @elsifs) . $false;
6e90668e
SM
2294}
2295
58cccf98 2296sub loop_common {
6e90668e 2297 my $self = shift;
58cccf98 2298 my($op, $cx, $init) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2299 my $enter = $op->first;
2300 my $kid = $enter->sibling;
a0405c92
RH
2301 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
2302 = @$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'};
6e90668e 2303 my $head = "";
9d2c6865 2304 my $bare = 0;
58cccf98
SM
2305 my $body;
2306 my $cond = undef;
3f872cb9 2307 if ($kid->name eq "lineseq") { # bare or infinite loop
6e90668e 2308 if (is_state $kid->last) { # infinite
e99ebc55 2309 $head = "while (1) "; # Can't use for(;;) if there's a continue
58cccf98 2310 $cond = "";
9d2c6865
SM
2311 } else {
2312 $bare = 1;
6e90668e 2313 }
58cccf98 2314 $body = $kid;
3f872cb9 2315 } elsif ($enter->name eq "enteriter") { # foreach
6e90668e
SM
2316 my $ary = $enter->first->sibling; # first was pushmark
2317 my $var = $ary->sibling;
f5aa8f4e
SM
2318 if ($enter->flags & OPf_STACKED
2319 and not null $ary->first->sibling->sibling)
2320 {
d7f5b6da
SM
2321 $ary = $self->deparse($ary->first->sibling, 9) . " .. " .
2322 $self->deparse($ary->first->sibling->sibling, 9);
d8d95777
GA
2323 } else {
2324 $ary = $self->deparse($ary, 1);
2325 }
6e90668e 2326 if (null $var) {
f6f9bdb7 2327 if ($enter->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) { # thread special var
9d2c6865 2328 $var = $self->pp_threadsv($enter, 1);
f6f9bdb7 2329 } else { # regular my() variable
9d2c6865 2330 $var = $self->pp_padsv($enter, 1);
f6f9bdb7
SM
2331 if ($self->padname_sv($enter->targ)->IVX ==
2332 $kid->first->first->sibling->last->cop_seq)
2333 {
2334 # If the scope of this variable closes at the last
2335 # statement of the loop, it must have been
2336 # declared here.
2337 $var = "my " . $var;
2338 }
6e90668e 2339 }
3f872cb9 2340 } elsif ($var->name eq "rv2gv") {
9d2c6865 2341 $var = $self->pp_rv2sv($var, 1);
3f872cb9 2342 } elsif ($var->name eq "gv") {
9d2c6865 2343 $var = "\$" . $self->deparse($var, 1);
6e90668e 2344 }
9d2c6865 2345 $head = "foreach $var ($ary) ";
58cccf98 2346 $body = $kid->first->first->sibling; # skip OP_AND and OP_ITER
3f872cb9 2347 } elsif ($kid->name eq "null") { # while/until
6e90668e 2348 $kid = $kid->first;
58cccf98
SM
2349 my $name = {"and" => "while", "or" => "until"}->{$kid->name};
2350 $cond = $self->deparse($kid->first, 1);
2351 $head = "$name ($cond) ";
2352 $body = $kid->first->sibling;
3f872cb9 2353 } elsif ($kid->name eq "stub") { # bare and empty
9d2c6865 2354 return "{;}"; # {} could be a hashref
6e90668e 2355 }
58cccf98
SM
2356 # If there isn't a continue block, then the next pointer for the loop
2357 # will point to the unstack, which is kid's penultimate child, except
2358 # in a bare loop, when it will point to the leaveloop. When neither of
2359 # these conditions hold, then the third-to-last child in the continue
2360 # block (or the last in a bare loop).
2361 my $cont_start = $enter->nextop;
2362 my $cont;
c73811ab 2363 if ($$cont_start != $$op && ${$cont_start->sibling} != ${$body->last}) {
58cccf98
SM
2364 if ($bare) {
2365 $cont = $body->last;
2366 } else {
2367 $cont = $body->first;
2368 while (!null($cont->sibling->sibling->sibling)) {
2369 $cont = $cont->sibling;
2370 }
2371 }
2372 my $state = $body->first;
2373 my $cuddle = $self->{'cuddle'};
2374 my @states;
2375 for (; $$state != $$cont; $state = $state->sibling) {
2376 push @states, $state;
2377 }
ce4e655d 2378 $body = $self->lineseq(undef, @states);
58cccf98
SM
2379 if (defined $cond and not is_scope $cont and $self->{'expand'} < 3) {
2380 $head = "for ($init; $cond; " . $self->deparse($cont, 1) .") ";
2381 $cont = "\cK";
2382 } else {
2383 $cont = $cuddle . "continue {\n\t" .
2384 $self->deparse($cont, 0) . "\n\b}\cK";
6e90668e 2385 }
6e90668e 2386 } else {
7a9b44b9 2387 return "" if !defined $body;
c73811ab
RH
2388 if (length $init) {
2389 $head = "for ($init; $cond;) ";
2390 }
9d2c6865 2391 $cont = "\cK";
58cccf98 2392 $body = $self->deparse($body, 0);
6e90668e 2393 }
ce4e655d 2394 $body =~ s/;?$/;\n/;
34a48b4b
RH
2395
2396 return $head . "{\n\t" . $body . "\b}" . $cont;
58cccf98
SM
2397}
2398
2399sub pp_leaveloop { loop_common(@_, "") }
2400
2401sub for_loop {
2402 my $self = shift;
2403 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2404 my $init = $self->deparse($op, 1);
c73811ab 2405 return $self->loop_common($op->sibling->first->sibling, $cx, $init);
6e90668e
SM
2406}
2407
2408sub pp_leavetry {
2409 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2410 return "eval {\n\t" . $self->pp_leave(@_) . "\n\b}";
bd0865ec 2411}
6e90668e 2412
bd0865ec
GS
2413BEGIN { eval "sub OP_CONST () {" . opnumber("const") . "}" }
2414BEGIN { eval "sub OP_STRINGIFY () {" . opnumber("stringify") . "}" }
f5aa8f4e 2415
a798dbf2 2416sub pp_null {
6e90668e 2417 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2418 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 2419 if (class($op) eq "OP") {
f4a44678
SM
2420 # old value is lost
2421 return $self->{'ex_const'} if $op->targ == OP_CONST;
3f872cb9 2422 } elsif ($op->first->name eq "pushmark") {
9d2c6865 2423 return $self->pp_list($op, $cx);
3f872cb9 2424 } elsif ($op->first->name eq "enter") {
9d2c6865 2425 return $self->pp_leave($op, $cx);
bd0865ec 2426 } elsif ($op->targ == OP_STRINGIFY) {
6f611a1a 2427 return $self->dquote($op, $cx);
6e90668e 2428 } elsif (!null($op->first->sibling) and
3f872cb9 2429 $op->first->sibling->name eq "readline" and
6e90668e 2430 $op->first->sibling->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
2431 return $self->maybe_parens($self->deparse($op->first, 7) . " = "
2432 . $self->deparse($op->first->sibling, 7),
2433 $cx, 7);
6e90668e 2434 } elsif (!null($op->first->sibling) and
3f872cb9 2435 $op->first->sibling->name eq "trans" and
6e90668e 2436 $op->first->sibling->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
2437 return $self->maybe_parens($self->deparse($op->first, 20) . " =~ "
2438 . $self->deparse($op->first->sibling, 20),
2439 $cx, 20);
c102638c
RH
2440 } elsif ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL && $cx == 0 && !$op->targ) {
2441 return "do {\n\t". $self->deparse($op->first, $cx) ."\n\b};";
6e90668e 2442 } else {
9d2c6865 2443 return $self->deparse($op->first, $cx);
6e90668e 2444 }
a798dbf2
MB
2445}
2446
6e90668e
SM
2447sub padname {
2448 my $self = shift;
2449 my $targ = shift;
68223ea3 2450 return $self->padname_sv($targ)->PVX;
6e90668e
SM
2451}
2452
2453sub padany {
2454 my $self = shift;
2455 my $op = shift;
2456 return substr($self->padname($op->targ), 1); # skip $/@/%
2457}
2458
2459sub pp_padsv {
2460 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
2461 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2462 return $self->maybe_my($op, $cx, $self->padname($op->targ));
6e90668e
SM
2463}
2464
2465sub pp_padav { pp_padsv(@_) }
2466sub pp_padhv { pp_padsv(@_) }
2467
9d2c6865
SM
2468my @threadsv_names;
2469
2470BEGIN {
2471 @threadsv_names = ("_", "1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8", "9",
2472 "&", "`", "'", "+", "/", ".", ",", "\\", '"', ";",
2473 "^", "-", "%", "=", "|", "~", ":", "^A", "^E",
2474 "!", "@");
2475}
f6f9bdb7
SM
2476
2477sub pp_threadsv {
2478 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
2479 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2480 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, "\$" . $threadsv_names[$op->targ]);
f6f9bdb7
SM
2481}
2482
6f611a1a 2483sub gv_or_padgv {
18228111
GS
2484 my $self = shift;
2485 my $op = shift;
6f611a1a
GS
2486 if (class($op) eq "PADOP") {
2487 return $self->padval($op->padix);
2488 } else { # class($op) eq "SVOP"
2489 return $op->gv;
18228111 2490 }
18228111
GS
2491}
2492
6e90668e
SM
2493sub pp_gvsv {
2494 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2495 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6f611a1a 2496 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($op);
8510e997
RH
2497 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, $self->stash_variable("\$",
2498 $self->gv_name($gv)));
6e90668e
SM
2499}
2500
2501sub pp_gv {
2502 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2503 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6f611a1a 2504 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($op);
18228111 2505 return $self->gv_name($gv);
6e90668e
SM
2506}
2507
2508sub pp_aelemfast {
2509 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2510 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6f611a1a 2511 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($op);
ce4e655d
RH
2512 my $name = $self->gv_name($gv);
2513 $name = $self->{'curstash'}."::$name"
2514 if $name !~ /::/ && $self->lex_in_scope('@'.$name);
2515
2516 return "\$" . $name . "[" .
7a9b44b9 2517 ($op->private + $self->{'arybase'}) . "]";
6e90668e
SM
2518}
2519
2520sub rv2x {
2521 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2522 my($op, $cx, $type) = @_;
6e90668e 2523 my $kid = $op->first;
f5aa8f4e 2524 my $str = $self->deparse($kid, 0);
8510e997
RH
2525 return $self->stash_variable($type, $str) if is_scalar($kid);
2526 return $type ."{$str}";
6e90668e
SM
2527}
2528
2529sub pp_rv2sv { maybe_local(@_, rv2x(@_, "\$")) }
2530sub pp_rv2hv { maybe_local(@_, rv2x(@_, "%")) }
2531sub pp_rv2gv { maybe_local(@_, rv2x(@_, "*")) }
2532
2533# skip rv2av
2534sub pp_av2arylen {
2535 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2536 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3f872cb9 2537 if ($op->first->name eq "padav") {
9d2c6865 2538 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, '$#' . $self->padany($op->first));
6e90668e 2539 } else {
f5aa8f4e
SM
2540 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx,
2541 $self->rv2x($op->first, $cx, '$#'));
6e90668e
SM
2542 }
2543}
2544
2545# skip down to the old, ex-rv2cv
9d2c6865 2546sub pp_rv2cv { $_[0]->rv2x($_[1]->first->first->sibling, $_[2], "&") }
6e90668e
SM
2547
2548sub pp_rv2av {
2549 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2550 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 2551 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9 2552 if ($kid->name eq "const") { # constant list
18228111 2553 my $av = $self->const_sv($kid);
6e90668e
SM
2554 return "(" . join(", ", map(const($_), $av->ARRAY)) . ")";
2555 } else {
9d2c6865 2556 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, $self->rv2x($op, $cx, "\@"));
6e90668e
SM
2557 }
2558 }
2559
3ed82cfc
GS
2560sub is_subscriptable {
2561 my $op = shift;
2562 if ($op->name =~ /^[ahg]elem/) {
2563 return 1;
2564 } elsif ($op->name eq "entersub") {
2565 my $kid = $op->first;
2566 return 0 unless null $kid->sibling;
2567 $kid = $kid->first;
2568 $kid = $kid->sibling until null $kid->sibling;
2569 return 0 if is_scope($kid);
2570 $kid = $kid->first;
2571 return 0 if $kid->name eq "gv";
2572 return 0 if is_scalar($kid);
2573 return is_subscriptable($kid);
2574 } else {
2575 return 0;
2576 }
2577}
6e90668e
SM
2578
2579sub elem {
2580 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2581 my ($op, $cx, $left, $right, $padname) = @_;
6e90668e 2582 my($array, $idx) = ($op->first, $op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 2583 unless ($array->name eq $padname) { # Maybe this has been fixed
6e90668e
SM
2584 $array = $array->first; # skip rv2av (or ex-rv2av in _53+)
2585 }
3f872cb9 2586 if ($array->name eq $padname) {
6e90668e
SM
2587 $array = $self->padany($array);
2588 } elsif (is_scope($array)) { # ${expr}[0]
9d2c6865 2589 $array = "{" . $self->deparse($array, 0) . "}";
ce4e655d
RH
2590 } elsif ($array->name eq "gv") {
2591 $array = $self->gv_name($self->gv_or_padgv($array));
2592 if ($array !~ /::/) {
2593 my $prefix = ($left eq '[' ? '@' : '%');
2594 $array = $self->{curstash}.'::'.$array
2595 if $self->lex_in_scope($prefix . $array);
2596 }
6e90668e 2597 } elsif (is_scalar $array) { # $x[0], $$x[0], ...
9d2c6865 2598 $array = $self->deparse($array, 24);
6e90668e
SM
2599 } else {
2600 # $x[20][3]{hi} or expr->[20]
3ed82cfc 2601 my $arrow = is_subscriptable($array) ? "" : "->";
9d2c6865
SM
2602 return $self->deparse($array, 24) . $arrow .
2603 $left . $self->deparse($idx, 1) . $right;
6e90668e 2604 }
9d2c6865 2605 $idx = $self->deparse($idx, 1);
7a9b44b9
RH
2606
2607 # Outer parens in an array index will confuse perl
2608 # if we're interpolating in a regular expression, i.e.
2609 # /$x$foo[(-1)]/ is *not* the same as /$x$foo[-1]/
2610 #
2611 # If $self->{parens}, then an initial '(' will
2612 # definitely be paired with a final ')'. If
2613 # !$self->{parens}, the misleading parens won't
2614 # have been added in the first place.
2615 #
2616 # [You might think that we could get "(...)...(...)"
2617 # where the initial and final parens do not match
2618 # each other. But we can't, because the above would
2619 # only happen if there's an infix binop between the
2620 # two pairs of parens, and *that* means that the whole
2621 # expression would be parenthesized as well.]
2622 #
2623 $idx =~ s/^\((.*)\)$/$1/ if $self->{'parens'};
2624
6e90668e
SM
2625 return "\$" . $array . $left . $idx . $right;
2626}
2627
3f872cb9
GS
2628sub pp_aelem { maybe_local(@_, elem(@_, "[", "]", "padav")) }
2629sub pp_helem { maybe_local(@_, elem(@_, "{", "}", "padhv")) }
6e90668e
SM
2630
2631sub pp_gelem {
2632 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2633 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2634 my($glob, $part) = ($op->first, $op->last);
2635 $glob = $glob->first; # skip rv2gv
3f872cb9 2636 $glob = $glob->first if $glob->name eq "rv2gv"; # this one's a bug
9d2c6865
SM
2637 my $scope = is_scope($glob);
2638 $glob = $self->deparse($glob, 0);
2639 $part = $self->deparse($part, 1);
6e90668e
SM
2640 return "*" . ($scope ? "{$glob}" : $glob) . "{$part}";
2641}
2642
2643sub slice {
2644 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2645 my ($op, $cx, $left, $right, $regname, $padname) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2646 my $last;
2647 my(@elems, $kid, $array, $list);
2648 if (class($op) eq "LISTOP") {
2649 $last = $op->last;
2650 } else { # ex-hslice inside delete()
2651 for ($kid = $op->first; !null $kid->sibling; $kid = $kid->sibling) {}
2652 $last = $kid;
2653 }
2654 $array = $last;
2655 $array = $array->first
3f872cb9 2656 if $array->name eq $regname or $array->name eq "null";
6e90668e 2657 if (is_scope($array)) {
9d2c6865 2658 $array = "{" . $self->deparse($array, 0) . "}";
3f872cb9 2659 } elsif ($array->name eq $padname) {
6e90668e
SM
2660 $array = $self->padany($array);
2661 } else {
9d2c6865 2662 $array = $self->deparse($array, 24);
6e90668e
SM
2663 }
2664 $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
3f872cb9 2665 if ($kid->name eq "list") {
6e90668e
SM
2666 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip list, pushmark
2667 for (; !null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2668 push @elems, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2669 }
2670 $list = join(", ", @elems);
2671 } else {
9d2c6865 2672 $list = $self->deparse($kid, 1);
6e90668e
SM
2673 }
2674 return "\@" . $array . $left . $list . $right;
2675}
2676
3ed82cfc
GS
2677sub pp_aslice { maybe_local(@_, slice(@_, "[", "]", "rv2av", "padav")) }
2678sub pp_hslice { maybe_local(@_, slice(@_, "{", "}", "rv2hv", "padhv")) }
6e90668e
SM
2679
2680sub pp_lslice {
2681 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2682 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2683 my $idx = $op->first;
2684 my $list = $op->last;
2685 my(@elems, $kid);
9d2c6865
SM
2686 $list = $self->deparse($list, 1);
2687 $idx = $self->deparse($idx, 1);
2688 return "($list)" . "[$idx]";
6e90668e
SM
2689}
2690
6e90668e
SM
2691sub want_scalar {
2692 my $op = shift;
2693 return ($op->flags & OPf_WANT) == OPf_WANT_SCALAR;
2694}
2695
bd0865ec
GS
2696sub want_list {
2697 my $op = shift;
2698 return ($op->flags & OPf_WANT) == OPf_WANT_LIST;
2699}
2700
2701sub method {
6e90668e 2702 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2703 my($op, $cx) = @_;
bd0865ec
GS
2704 my $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
2705 my($meth, $obj, @exprs);
3f872cb9 2706 if ($kid->name eq "list" and want_list $kid) {
bd0865ec
GS
2707 # When an indirect object isn't a bareword but the args are in
2708 # parens, the parens aren't part of the method syntax (the LLAFR
2709 # doesn't apply), but they make a list with OPf_PARENS set that
2710 # doesn't get flattened by the append_elem that adds the method,
2711 # making a (object, arg1, arg2, ...) list where the object
2712 # usually is. This can be distinguished from
2713 # `($obj, $arg1, $arg2)->meth()' (which is legal if $arg2 is an
2714 # object) because in the later the list is in scalar context
2715 # as the left side of -> always is, while in the former
2716 # the list is in list context as method arguments always are.
2717 # (Good thing there aren't method prototypes!)
3ed82cfc 2718 $meth = $kid->sibling;
bd0865ec
GS
2719 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
2720 $obj = $kid;
6e90668e 2721 $kid = $kid->sibling;
bd0865ec 2722 for (; not null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2723 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e 2724 }
bd0865ec
GS
2725 } else {
2726 $obj = $kid;
2727 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2728 for (; not null $kid->sibling; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
2729 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e 2730 }
3ed82cfc 2731 $meth = $kid;
bd0865ec
GS
2732 }
2733 $obj = $self->deparse($obj, 24);
3ed82cfc 2734 if ($meth->name eq "method_named") {
18228111 2735 $meth = $self->const_sv($meth)->PV;
bd0865ec 2736 } else {
3ed82cfc
GS
2737 $meth = $meth->first;
2738 if ($meth->name eq "const") {
2739 # As of 5.005_58, this case is probably obsoleted by the
2740 # method_named case above
18228111 2741 $meth = $self->const_sv($meth)->PV; # needs to be bare
3ed82cfc
GS
2742 } else {
2743 $meth = $self->deparse($meth, 1);
2744 }
bd0865ec
GS
2745 }
2746 my $args = join(", ", @exprs);
2747 $kid = $obj . "->" . $meth;
2748 if ($args) {
2749 return $kid . "(" . $args . ")"; # parens mandatory
2750 } else {
2751 return $kid;
2752 }
2753}
2754
2755# returns "&" if the prototype doesn't match the args,
2756# or ("", $args_after_prototype_demunging) if it does.
2757sub check_proto {
2758 my $self = shift;
2759 my($proto, @args) = @_;
2760 my($arg, $real);
2761 my $doneok = 0;
2762 my @reals;
2763 # An unbackslashed @ or % gobbles up the rest of the args
2764 $proto =~ s/([^\\]|^)([@%])(.*)$/$1$2/;
2765 while ($proto) {
2766 $proto =~ s/^ *([\\]?[\$\@&%*]|;)//;
2767 my $chr = $1;
2768 if ($chr eq "") {
2769 return "&" if @args;
2770 } elsif ($chr eq ";") {
2771 $doneok = 1;
2772 } elsif ($chr eq "@" or $chr eq "%") {
2773 push @reals, map($self->deparse($_, 6), @args);
2774 @args = ();
6e90668e 2775 } else {
bd0865ec
GS
2776 $arg = shift @args;
2777 last unless $arg;
2778 if ($chr eq "\$") {
2779 if (want_scalar $arg) {
2780 push @reals, $self->deparse($arg, 6);
2781 } else {
2782 return "&";
2783 }
2784 } elsif ($chr eq "&") {
3f872cb9 2785 if ($arg->name =~ /^(s?refgen|undef)$/) {
bd0865ec
GS
2786 push @reals, $self->deparse($arg, 6);
2787 } else {
2788 return "&";
2789 }
2790 } elsif ($chr eq "*") {
3f872cb9
GS
2791 if ($arg->name =~ /^s?refgen$/
2792 and $arg->first->first->name eq "rv2gv")
bd0865ec
GS
2793 {
2794 $real = $arg->first->first; # skip refgen, null
3f872cb9 2795 if ($real->first->name eq "gv") {
bd0865ec
GS
2796 push @reals, $self->deparse($real, 6);
2797 } else {
2798 push @reals, $self->deparse($real->first, 6);
2799 }
2800 } else {
2801 return "&";
2802 }
2803 } elsif (substr($chr, 0, 1) eq "\\") {
2804 $chr = substr($chr, 1);
3f872cb9 2805 if ($arg->name =~ /^s?refgen$/ and
bd0865ec
GS
2806 !null($real = $arg->first) and
2807 ($chr eq "\$" && is_scalar($real->first)
2808 or ($chr eq "\@"
3f872cb9
GS
2809 && $real->first->sibling->name
2810 =~ /^(rv2|pad)av$/)
bd0865ec 2811 or ($chr eq "%"
3f872cb9
GS
2812 && $real->first->sibling->name
2813 =~ /^(rv2|pad)hv$/)
bd0865ec 2814 #or ($chr eq "&" # This doesn't work
3f872cb9 2815 # && $real->first->name eq "rv2cv")
bd0865ec 2816 or ($chr eq "*"
3f872cb9 2817 && $real->first->name eq "rv2gv")))
bd0865ec
GS
2818 {
2819 push @reals, $self->deparse($real, 6);
2820 } else {
2821 return "&";
2822 }
2823 }
2824 }
9d2c6865 2825 }
bd0865ec
GS
2826 return "&" if $proto and !$doneok; # too few args and no `;'
2827 return "&" if @args; # too many args
2828 return ("", join ", ", @reals);
2829}
2830
2831sub pp_entersub {
2832 my $self = shift;
2833 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2834 return $self->method($op, $cx) unless null $op->first->sibling;
2835 my $prefix = "";
2836 my $amper = "";
2837 my($kid, @exprs);
9d2c6865
SM
2838 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
2839 $prefix = "do ";
2840 } elsif ($op->private & OPpENTERSUB_AMPER) {
2841 $amper = "&";
2842 }
2843 $kid = $op->first;
2844 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip ex-list, pushmark
2845 for (; not null $kid->sibling; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
2846 push @exprs, $kid;
2847 }
bd0865ec
GS
2848 my $simple = 0;
2849 my $proto = undef;
9d2c6865
SM
2850 if (is_scope($kid)) {
2851 $amper = "&";
2852 $kid = "{" . $self->deparse($kid, 0) . "}";
3f872cb9 2853 } elsif ($kid->first->name eq "gv") {
6f611a1a 2854 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($kid->first);
9d2c6865
SM
2855 if (class($gv->CV) ne "SPECIAL") {
2856 $proto = $gv->CV->PV if $gv->CV->FLAGS & SVf_POK;
2857 }
bd0865ec 2858 $simple = 1; # only calls of named functions can be prototyped
9d2c6865
SM
2859 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 24);
2860 } elsif (is_scalar $kid->first) {
2861 $amper = "&";
2862 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 24);
2863 } else {
2864 $prefix = "";
3ed82cfc
GS
2865 my $arrow = is_subscriptable($kid->first) ? "" : "->";
2866 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 24) . $arrow;
9d2c6865 2867 }
0ca62a8e
RH
2868
2869 # Doesn't matter how many prototypes there are, if
2870 # they haven't happened yet!
2871 my $declared = exists $self->{'subs_declared'}{$kid};
e99ebc55
RH
2872 if (!$declared && defined($proto)) {
2873 # Avoid "too early to check prototype" warning
2874 ($amper, $proto) = ('&');
2875 }
0ca62a8e 2876
bd0865ec 2877 my $args;
0ca62a8e 2878 if ($declared and defined $proto and not $amper) {
bd0865ec
GS
2879 ($amper, $args) = $self->check_proto($proto, @exprs);
2880 if ($amper eq "&") {
9d2c6865
SM
2881 $args = join(", ", map($self->deparse($_, 6), @exprs));
2882 }
2883 } else {
2884 $args = join(", ", map($self->deparse($_, 6), @exprs));
6e90668e 2885 }
9d2c6865
SM
2886 if ($prefix or $amper) {
2887 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
2888 return $prefix . $amper . $kid . "(" . $args . ")";
2889 } else {
2890 return $prefix . $amper. $kid;
2891 }
6e90668e 2892 } else {
34a48b4b
RH
2893 # glob() invocations can be translated into calls of
2894 # CORE::GLOBAL::glob with an second parameter, a number.
2895 # Reverse this.
2896 if ($kid eq "CORE::GLOBAL::glob") {
2897 $kid = "glob";
2898 $args =~ s/\s*,[^,]+$//;
2899 }
2900
2901 # It's a syntax error to call CORE::GLOBAL::foo without a prefix,
2902 # so it must have been translated from a keyword call. Translate
2903 # it back.
2904 $kid =~ s/^CORE::GLOBAL:://;
2905
0ca62a8e
RH
2906 if (!$declared) {
2907 return "$kid(" . $args . ")";
2908 } elsif (defined $proto and $proto eq "") {
9d2c6865 2909 return $kid;
ce4e655d 2910 } elsif (defined $proto and $proto eq "\$" and is_scalar($exprs[0])) {
9d2c6865 2911 return $self->maybe_parens_func($kid, $args, $cx, 16);
6f611a1a 2912 } elsif (defined($proto) && $proto or $simple) {
9d2c6865
SM
2913 return $self->maybe_parens_func($kid, $args, $cx, 5);
2914 } else {
2915 return "$kid(" . $args . ")";
2916 }
6e90668e
SM
2917 }
2918}
2919
2920sub pp_enterwrite { unop(@_, "write") }
2921
2922# escape things that cause interpolation in double quotes,
2923# but not character escapes
2924sub uninterp {
2925 my($str) = @_;
3f766ba3 2926 $str =~ s/(^|\G|[^\\])((?:\\\\)*)([\$\@]|\\[uUlLQE])/$1$2\\$3/g;
9d2c6865
SM
2927 return $str;
2928}
2929
4682a7ac 2930# the same, but treat $|, $), $( and $ at the end of the string differently
9d2c6865
SM
2931sub re_uninterp {
2932 my($str) = @_;
2dbfce88 2933 $str =~ s/(^|\G|[^\\])((?:\\\\)*)([\$\@](?!\||\)|\(|$)|\\[uUlLQE])/$1$2\\$3/g;
6e90668e
SM
2934 return $str;
2935}
2936
2937# character escapes, but not delimiters that might need to be escaped
746698c5 2938sub escape_str { # ASCII, UTF8
6e90668e 2939 my($str) = @_;
746698c5 2940 $str =~ s/(.)/ord($1)>255 ? sprintf("\\x{%x}", ord($1)) : $1/eg;
6e90668e
SM
2941 $str =~ s/\a/\\a/g;
2942# $str =~ s/\cH/\\b/g; # \b means someting different in a regex
2943 $str =~ s/\t/\\t/g;
2944 $str =~ s/\n/\\n/g;
2945 $str =~ s/\e/\\e/g;
2946 $str =~ s/\f/\\f/g;
2947 $str =~ s/\r/\\r/g;
2948 $str =~ s/([\cA-\cZ])/'\\c' . chr(ord('@') + ord($1))/ge;
2949 $str =~ s/([\0\033-\037\177-\377])/'\\' . sprintf("%03o", ord($1))/ge;
2950 return $str;
2951}
2952
9d2c6865
SM
2953# Don't do this for regexen
2954sub unback {
2955 my($str) = @_;
2956 $str =~ s/\\/\\\\/g;
2957 return $str;
2958}
2959
08c6f5ec
RH
2960# Remove backslashes which precede literal control characters,
2961# to avoid creating ambiguity when we escape the latter.
2962sub re_unback {
2963 my($str) = @_;
2964
2965 # the insane complexity here is due to the behaviour of "\c\"
2966 $str =~ s/(^|[^\\]|\\c\\)(?<!\\c)\\(\\\\)*(?=[\0-\031\177-\377])/$1$2/g;
2967 return $str;
2968}
2969
6e90668e
SM
2970sub balanced_delim {
2971 my($str) = @_;
2972 my @str = split //, $str;
2973 my($ar, $open, $close, $fail, $c, $cnt);
2974 for $ar (['[',']'], ['(',')'], ['<','>'], ['{','}']) {
2975 ($open, $close) = @$ar;
2976 $fail = 0; $cnt = 0;
2977 for $c (@str) {
2978 if ($c eq $open) {
2979 $cnt++;
2980 } elsif ($c eq $close) {
2981 $cnt--;
2982 if ($cnt < 0) {
bd0865ec 2983 # qq()() isn't ")("
6e90668e
SM
2984 $fail = 1;
2985 last;
2986 }
2987 }
2988 }
2989 $fail = 1 if $cnt != 0;
2990 return ($open, "$open$str$close") if not $fail;
2991 }
2992 return ("", $str);
2993}
2994
2995sub single_delim {
2996 my($q, $default, $str) = @_;
90be192f 2997 return "$default$str$default" if $default and index($str, $default) == -1;
6e90668e
SM
2998 my($succeed, $delim);
2999 ($succeed, $str) = balanced_delim($str);
3000 return "$q$str" if $succeed;
3001 for $delim ('/', '"', '#') {
3002 return "$q$delim" . $str . $delim if index($str, $delim) == -1;
3003 }
90be192f
SM
3004 if ($default) {
3005 $str =~ s/$default/\\$default/g;
3006 return "$default$str$default";
3007 } else {
3008 $str =~ s[/][\\/]g;
3009 return "$q/$str/";
3010 }
6e90668e
SM
3011}
3012
6e90668e
SM
3013sub const {
3014 my $sv = shift;
3015 if (class($sv) eq "SPECIAL") {
bd0865ec 3016 return ('undef', '1', '0')[$$sv-1]; # sv_undef, sv_yes, sv_no
7a9b44b9
RH
3017 } elsif (class($sv) eq "NULL") {
3018 return 'undef';
6e90668e 3019 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_IOK) {
d9963e60 3020 return $sv->int_value;
6e90668e 3021 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_NOK) {
a798dbf2 3022 return $sv->NV;
7a9b44b9 3023 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_ROK && $sv->can("RV")) {
6e90668e 3024 return "\\(" . const($sv->RV) . ")"; # constant folded
34768ba5 3025 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_POK) {
6e90668e 3026 my $str = $sv->PV;
bd0865ec 3027 if ($str =~ /[^ -~]/) { # ASCII for non-printing
9d2c6865 3028 return single_delim("qq", '"', uninterp escape_str unback $str);
6e90668e 3029 } else {
bd0865ec 3030 return single_delim("q", "'", unback $str);
6e90668e 3031 }
34768ba5
RH
3032 } else {
3033 return "undef";
a798dbf2
MB
3034 }
3035}
3036
18228111
GS
3037sub const_sv {
3038 my $self = shift;
3039 my $op = shift;
3040 my $sv = $op->sv;
3041 # the constant could be in the pad (under useithreads)
3042 $sv = $self->padval($op->targ) unless $$sv;
3043 return $sv;
3044}
3045
6e90668e
SM
3046sub pp_const {
3047 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 3048 my($op, $cx) = @_;
7e40138b
RH
3049 if ($op->private & OPpCONST_ARYBASE) {
3050 return '$[';
3051 }
4c1f658f 3052# if ($op->private & OPpCONST_BARE) { # trouble with `=>' autoquoting
18228111 3053# return $self->const_sv($op)->PV;
6e90668e 3054# }
18228111 3055 my $sv = $self->const_sv($op);
d5ae42cc
JM
3056# return const($sv);
3057 my $c = const $sv;
76ef7183 3058 return $c =~ /^-\d/ ? $self->maybe_parens($c, $cx, 21) : $c;
6e90668e
SM
3059}
3060
3061sub dq {
3062 my $self = shift;
3063 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
3064 my $type = $op->name;
3065 if ($type eq "const") {
f3402b25
RH
3066 return '$[' if $op->private & OPpCONST_ARYBASE;
3067 return uninterp(escape_str(unback($self->const_sv($op)->as_string)));
3f872cb9 3068 } elsif ($type eq "concat") {
8fed1104
RH
3069 my $first = $self->dq($op->first);
3070 my $last = $self->dq($op->last);
3071 # Disambiguate "${foo}bar", "${foo}{bar}", "${foo}[1]"
f3402b25
RH
3072 if ($last =~ /^[A-Z\\\^\[\]_?]/) {
3073 $first =~ s/([\$@])\^$/${1}{^}/; # "${^}W" etc
3074 }
3075 elsif ($last =~ /^[{\[\w]/) {
3076 $first =~ s/([\$@])([A-Za-z_]\w*)$/${1}{$2}/;
8fed1104
RH
3077 }
3078 return $first . $last;
3f872cb9 3079 } elsif ($type eq "uc") {
6e90668e 3080 return '\U' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3081 } elsif ($type eq "lc") {
6e90668e 3082 return '\L' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3083 } elsif ($type eq "ucfirst") {
6e90668e 3084 return '\u' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 3085 } elsif ($type eq "lcfirst") {
6e90668e 3086 return '\l' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 3087 } elsif ($type eq "quotemeta") {
6e90668e 3088 return '\Q' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3089 } elsif ($type eq "join") {
9d2c6865 3090 return $self->deparse($op->last, 26); # was join($", @ary)
a798dbf2 3091 } else {
9d2c6865 3092 return $self->deparse($op, 26);
6e90668e
SM
3093 }
3094}
3095
3096sub pp_backtick {
3097 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 3098 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
3099 # skip pushmark
3100 return single_delim("qx", '`', $self->dq($op->first->sibling));
3101}
3102
3103sub dquote {
3104 my $self = shift;
6f611a1a 3105 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3ed82cfc
GS
3106 my $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip ex-stringify, pushmark
3107 return $self->deparse($kid, $cx) if $self->{'unquote'};
3108 $self->maybe_targmy($kid, $cx,
3109 sub {single_delim("qq", '"', $self->dq($_[1]))});
6e90668e
SM
3110}
3111
bd0865ec 3112# OP_STRINGIFY is a listop, but it only ever has one arg
3ed82cfc 3113sub pp_stringify { maybe_targmy(@_, \&dquote) }
6e90668e
SM
3114
3115# tr/// and s/// (and tr[][], tr[]//, tr###, etc)
3116# note that tr(from)/to/ is OK, but not tr/from/(to)
3117sub double_delim {
3118 my($from, $to) = @_;
3119 my($succeed, $delim);
3120 if ($from !~ m[/] and $to !~ m[/]) {
3121 return "/$from/$to/";
3122 } elsif (($succeed, $from) = balanced_delim($from) and $succeed) {
3123 if (($succeed, $to) = balanced_delim($to) and $succeed) {
3124 return "$from$to";
3125 } else {
3126 for $delim ('/', '"', '#') { # note no `'' -- s''' is special
3127 return "$from$delim$to$delim" if index($to, $delim) == -1;
3128 }
3129 $to =~ s[/][\\/]g;
3130 return "$from/$to/";
3131 }
3132 } else {
3133 for $delim ('/', '"', '#') { # note no '
3134 return "$delim$from$delim$to$delim"
3135 if index($to . $from, $delim) == -1;
3136 }
3137 $from =~ s[/][\\/]g;
3138 $to =~ s[/][\\/]g;
3139 return "/$from/$to/";
3140 }
3141}
3142
3143sub pchr { # ASCII
3144 my($n) = @_;
3145 if ($n == ord '\\') {
3146 return '\\\\';
3147 } elsif ($n >= ord(' ') and $n <= ord('~')) {
3148 return chr($n);
3149 } elsif ($n == ord "\a") {
3150 return '\\a';
3151 } elsif ($n == ord "\b") {
3152 return '\\b';
3153 } elsif ($n == ord "\t") {
3154 return '\\t';
3155 } elsif ($n == ord "\n") {
3156 return '\\n';
3157 } elsif ($n == ord "\e") {
3158 return '\\e';
3159 } elsif ($n == ord "\f") {
3160 return '\\f';
3161 } elsif ($n == ord "\r") {
3162 return '\\r';
3163 } elsif ($n >= ord("\cA") and $n <= ord("\cZ")) {
3164 return '\\c' . chr(ord("@") + $n);
3165 } else {
3166# return '\x' . sprintf("%02x", $n);
3167 return '\\' . sprintf("%03o", $n);
3168 }
3169}
3170
3171sub collapse {
3172 my(@chars) = @_;
23db111c 3173 my($str, $c, $tr) = ("");
6e90668e
SM
3174 for ($c = 0; $c < @chars; $c++) {
3175 $tr = $chars[$c];
3176 $str .= pchr($tr);
3177 if ($c <= $#chars - 2 and $chars[$c + 1] == $tr + 1 and
3178 $chars[$c + 2] == $tr + 2)
3179 {
f4a44678
SM
3180 for (; $c <= $#chars-1 and $chars[$c + 1] == $chars[$c] + 1; $c++)
3181 {}
6e90668e
SM
3182 $str .= "-";
3183 $str .= pchr($chars[$c]);
3184 }
3185 }
3186 return $str;
3187}
3188
f4a44678
SM
3189# XXX This has trouble with hyphens in the replacement (tr/bac/-AC/),
3190# and backslashes.
3191
3192sub tr_decode_byte {
3193 my($table, $flags) = @_;
3194 my(@table) = unpack("s256", $table);
6e90668e
SM
3195 my($c, $tr, @from, @to, @delfrom, $delhyphen);
3196 if ($table[ord "-"] != -1 and
3197 $table[ord("-") - 1] == -1 || $table[ord("-") + 1] == -1)
3198 {
3199 $tr = $table[ord "-"];
3200 $table[ord "-"] = -1;
3201 if ($tr >= 0) {
3202 @from = ord("-");
3203 @to = $tr;
3204 } else { # -2 ==> delete
3205 $delhyphen = 1;
3206 }
3207 }
3208 for ($c = 0; $c < 256; $c++) {
3209 $tr = $table[$c];
3210 if ($tr >= 0) {
3211 push @from, $c; push @to, $tr;
3212 } elsif ($tr == -2) {
3213 push @delfrom, $c;
3214 }
3215 }
6e90668e 3216 @from = (@from, @delfrom);
f4a44678 3217 if ($flags & OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT) {
6e90668e
SM
3218 my @newfrom = ();
3219 my %from;
3220 @from{@from} = (1) x @from;
3221 for ($c = 0; $c < 256; $c++) {
3222 push @newfrom, $c unless $from{$c};
3223 }
3224 @from = @newfrom;
3225 }
56d8b52c 3226 unless ($flags & OPpTRANS_DELETE || !@to) {
6e90668e
SM
3227 pop @to while $#to and $to[$#to] == $to[$#to -1];
3228 }
6e90668e
SM
3229 my($from, $to);
3230 $from = collapse(@from);
3231 $to = collapse(@to);
3232 $from .= "-" if $delhyphen;
f4a44678
SM
3233 return ($from, $to);
3234}
3235
3236sub tr_chr {
3237 my $x = shift;
3238 if ($x == ord "-") {
3239 return "\\-";
3240 } else {
3241 return chr $x;
3242 }
3243}
3244
3245# XXX This doesn't yet handle all cases correctly either
3246
3247sub tr_decode_utf8 {
3248 my($swash_hv, $flags) = @_;
3249 my %swash = $swash_hv->ARRAY;
3250 my $final = undef;
3251 $final = $swash{'FINAL'}->IV if exists $swash{'FINAL'};
3252 my $none = $swash{"NONE"}->IV;
3253 my $extra = $none + 1;
3254 my(@from, @delfrom, @to);
3255 my $line;
3256 foreach $line (split /\n/, $swash{'LIST'}->PV) {
3257 my($min, $max, $result) = split(/\t/, $line);
3258 $min = hex $min;
3259 if (length $max) {
3260 $max = hex $max;
3261 } else {
3262 $max = $min;
3263 }
3264 $result = hex $result;
3265 if ($result == $extra) {
3266 push @delfrom, [$min, $max];
3267 } else {
3268 push @from, [$min, $max];
3269 push @to, [$result, $result + $max - $min];
3270 }
3271 }
3272 for my $i (0 .. $#from) {
3273 if ($from[$i][0] == ord '-') {
3274 unshift @from, splice(@from, $i, 1);
3275 unshift @to, splice(@to, $i, 1);
3276 last;
3277 } elsif ($from[$i][1] == ord '-') {
3278 $from[$i][1]--;
3279 $to[$i][1]--;
3280 unshift @from, ord '-';
3281 unshift @to, ord '-';
3282 last;
3283 }
3284 }
3285 for my $i (0 .. $#delfrom) {
3286 if ($delfrom[$i][0] == ord '-') {
3287 push @delfrom, splice(@delfrom, $i, 1);
3288 last;
3289 } elsif ($delfrom[$i][1] == ord '-') {
3290 $delfrom[$i][1]--;
3291 push @delfrom, ord '-';
3292 last;
3293 }
3294 }
3295 if (defined $final and $to[$#to][1] != $final) {
3296 push @to, [$final, $final];
3297 }
3298 push @from, @delfrom;
3299 if ($flags & OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT) {
3300 my @newfrom;
3301 my $next = 0;
3302 for my $i (0 .. $#from) {
3303 push @newfrom, [$next, $from[$i][0] - 1];
3304 $next = $from[$i][1] + 1;
3305 }
3306 @from = ();
3307 for my $range (@newfrom) {
3308 if ($range->[0] <= $range->[1]) {
3309 push @from, $range;
3310 }
3311 }
3312 }
3313 my($from, $to, $diff);
3314 for my $chunk (@from) {
3315 $diff = $chunk->[1] - $chunk->[0];
3316 if ($diff > 1) {
3317 $from .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . "-" . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
3318 } elsif ($diff == 1) {
3319 $from .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
3320 } else {
3321 $from .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]);
3322 }
3323 }
3324 for my $chunk (@to) {
3325 $diff = $chunk->[1] - $chunk->[0];
3326 if ($diff > 1) {
3327 $to .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . "-" . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
3328 } elsif ($diff == 1) {
3329 $to .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
3330 } else {
3331 $to .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]);
3332 }
3333 }
3334 #$final = sprintf("%04x", $final) if defined $final;
3335 #$none = sprintf("%04x", $none) if defined $none;
3336 #$extra = sprintf("%04x", $extra) if defined $extra;
3337 #print STDERR "final: $final\n none: $none\nextra: $extra\n";
3338 #print STDERR $swash{'LIST'}->PV;
3339 return (escape_str($from), escape_str($to));
3340}
3341
3342sub pp_trans {
3343 my $self = shift;
3344 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3345 my($from, $to);
3346 if (class($op) eq "PVOP") {
3347 ($from, $to) = tr_decode_byte($op->pv, $op->private);
3348 } else { # class($op) eq "SVOP"
3349 ($from, $to) = tr_decode_utf8($op->sv->RV, $op->private);
3350 }
3351 my $flags = "";
3352 $flags .= "c" if $op->private & OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT;
3353 $flags .= "d" if $op->private & OPpTRANS_DELETE;
3354 $to = "" if $from eq $to and $flags eq "";
3355 $flags .= "s" if $op->private & OPpTRANS_SQUASH;
6e90668e
SM
3356 return "tr" . double_delim($from, $to) . $flags;
3357}
3358
3359# Like dq(), but different
3360sub re_dq {
3361 my $self = shift;
3362 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
3363 my $type = $op->name;
3364 if ($type eq "const") {
f3402b25
RH
3365 return '$[' if $op->private & OPpCONST_ARYBASE;
3366 return re_uninterp(escape_str(re_unback($self->const_sv($op)->as_string)));
3f872cb9 3367 } elsif ($type eq "concat") {
a0e66df8
RH
3368 my $first = $self->re_dq($op->first);
3369 my $last = $self->re_dq($op->last);
3370 # Disambiguate "${foo}bar", "${foo}{bar}", "${foo}[1]"
f3402b25
RH
3371 if ($last =~ /^[A-Z\\\^\[\]_?]/) {
3372 $first =~ s/([\$@])\^$/${1}{^}/;
3373 }
3374 elsif ($last =~ /^[{\[\w]/) {
3375 $first =~ s/([\$@])([A-Za-z_]\w*)$/${1}{$2}/;
a0e66df8
RH
3376 }
3377 return $first . $last;
3f872cb9 3378 } elsif ($type eq "uc") {
6e90668e 3379 return '\U' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3380 } elsif ($type eq "lc") {
6e90668e 3381 return '\L' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3382 } elsif ($type eq "ucfirst") {
6e90668e 3383 return '\u' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 3384 } elsif ($type eq "lcfirst") {
6e90668e 3385 return '\l' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 3386 } elsif ($type eq "quotemeta") {
6e90668e 3387 return '\Q' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3388 } elsif ($type eq "join") {
9d2c6865 3389 return $self->deparse($op->last, 26); # was join($", @ary)
6e90668e 3390 } else {
9d2c6865 3391 return $self->deparse($op, 26);
6e90668e
SM
3392 }
3393}
3394
3395sub pp_regcomp {
3396 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 3397 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 3398 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9
GS
3399 $kid = $kid->first if $kid->name eq "regcmaybe";
3400 $kid = $kid->first if $kid->name eq "regcreset";
6e90668e
SM
3401 return $self->re_dq($kid);
3402}
3403
6e90668e
SM
3404# osmic acid -- see osmium tetroxide
3405
3406my %matchwords;
3407map($matchwords{join "", sort split //, $_} = $_, 'cig', 'cog', 'cos', 'cogs',
3408 'cox', 'go', 'is', 'ism', 'iso', 'mig', 'mix', 'osmic', 'ox', 'sic',
3409 'sig', 'six', 'smog', 'so', 'soc', 'sog', 'xi');
3410
90be192f 3411sub matchop {
6e90668e 3412 my $self = shift;
90be192f 3413 my($op, $cx, $name, $delim) = @_;
6e90668e 3414 my $kid = $op->first;
9d2c6865 3415 my ($binop, $var, $re) = ("", "", "");
6e90668e 3416 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
3417 $binop = 1;
3418 $var = $self->deparse($kid, 20);
6e90668e
SM
3419 $kid = $kid->sibling;
3420 }
3421 if (null $kid) {
08c6f5ec 3422 $re = re_uninterp(escape_str(re_unback($op->precomp)));
6e90668e 3423 } else {
9d2c6865 3424 $re = $self->deparse($kid, 1);
6e90668e
SM
3425 }
3426 my $flags = "";
3427 $flags .= "c" if $op->pmflags & PMf_CONTINUE;
3428 $flags .= "g" if $op->pmflags & PMf_GLOBAL;
3429 $flags .= "i" if $op->pmflags & PMf_FOLD;
3430 $flags .= "m" if $op->pmflags & PMf_MULTILINE;
3431 $flags .= "o" if $op->pmflags & PMf_KEEP;
3432 $flags .= "s" if $op->pmflags & PMf_SINGLELINE;
3433 $flags .= "x" if $op->pmflags & PMf_EXTENDED;
3434 $flags = $matchwords{$flags} if $matchwords{$flags};
3435 if ($op->pmflags & PMf_ONCE) { # only one kind of delimiter works here
3436 $re =~ s/\?/\\?/g;
9d2c6865
SM
3437 $re = "?$re?";
3438 } else {
90be192f 3439 $re = single_delim($name, $delim, $re);
9d2c6865
SM
3440 }
3441 $re = $re . $flags;
3442 if ($binop) {
3443 return $self->maybe_parens("$var =~ $re", $cx, 20);
3444 } else {
3445 return $re;
6e90668e 3446 }
6e90668e
SM
3447}
3448
90be192f
SM
3449sub pp_match { matchop(@_, "m", "/") }
3450sub pp_pushre { matchop(@_, "m", "/") }
3451sub pp_qr { matchop(@_, "qr", "") }
6e90668e
SM
3452
3453sub pp_split {
3454 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 3455 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
3456 my($kid, @exprs, $ary, $expr);
3457 $kid = $op->first;
3458 if ($ {$kid->pmreplroot}) {
ce4e655d 3459 $ary = $self->stash_variable('@', $self->gv_name($kid->pmreplroot));
6e90668e
SM
3460 }
3461 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 3462 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e 3463 }
fcd95d64
DD
3464
3465 # handle special case of split(), and split(" ") that compiles to /\s+/
3466 $kid = $op->first;
3467 if ($kid->flags & OPf_SPECIAL
3468 && $exprs[0] eq '/\\s+/'
3469 && $kid->pmflags & PMf_SKIPWHITE ) {
3470 $exprs[0] = '" "';
3471 }
3472
6e90668e
SM
3473 $expr = "split(" . join(", ", @exprs) . ")";
3474 if ($ary) {
9d2c6865 3475 return $self->maybe_parens("$ary = $expr", $cx, 7);
6e90668e
SM
3476 } else {
3477 return $expr;
3478 }
3479}
3480
3481# oxime -- any of various compounds obtained chiefly by the action of
3482# hydroxylamine on aldehydes and ketones and characterized by the
3483# bivalent grouping C=NOH [Webster's Tenth]
3484
3485my %substwords;
3486map($substwords{join "", sort split //, $_} = $_, 'ego', 'egoism', 'em',
3487 'es', 'ex', 'exes', 'gee', 'go', 'goes', 'ie', 'ism', 'iso', 'me',
3488 'meese', 'meso', 'mig', 'mix', 'os', 'ox', 'oxime', 'see', 'seem',
3489 'seg', 'sex', 'sig', 'six', 'smog', 'sog', 'some', 'xi');
3490
3491sub pp_subst {
3492 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 3493 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 3494 my $kid = $op->first;
9d2c6865 3495 my($binop, $var, $re, $repl) = ("", "", "", "");
6e90668e 3496 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
3497 $binop = 1;
3498 $var = $self->deparse($kid, 20);
6e90668e
SM
3499 $kid = $kid->sibling;
3500 }
3501 my $flags = "";
3502 if (null($op->pmreplroot)) {
3503 $repl = $self->dq($kid);
3504 $kid = $kid->sibling;
3505 } else {
3506 $repl = $op->pmreplroot->first; # skip substcont
3f872cb9 3507 while ($repl->name eq "entereval") {
6e90668e
SM
3508 $repl = $repl->first;
3509 $flags .= "e";
3510 }
bd0865ec
GS
3511 if ($op->pmflags & PMf_EVAL) {
3512 $repl = $self->deparse($repl, 0);
3513 } else {
3514 $repl = $self->dq($repl);
3515 }
6e90668e
SM
3516 }
3517 if (null $kid) {
08c6f5ec 3518 $re = re_uninterp(escape_str(re_unback($op->precomp)));
6e90668e 3519 } else {
9d2c6865 3520 $re = $self->deparse($kid, 1);
a798dbf2 3521 }
6e90668e
SM
3522 $flags .= "e" if $op->pmflags & PMf_EVAL;
3523 $flags .= "g" if $op->pmflags & PMf_GLOBAL;
3524 $flags .= "i" if $op->pmflags & PMf_FOLD;
3525 $flags .= "m" if $op->pmflags & PMf_MULTILINE;
3526 $flags .= "o" if $op->pmflags & PMf_KEEP;
3527 $flags .= "s" if $op->pmflags & PMf_SINGLELINE;
3528 $flags .= "x" if $op->pmflags & PMf_EXTENDED;
3529 $flags = $substwords{$flags} if $substwords{$flags};
9d2c6865
SM
3530 if ($binop) {
3531 return $self->maybe_parens("$var =~ s"
3532 . double_delim($re, $repl) . $flags,
3533 $cx, 20);
3534 } else {
3535 return "s". double_delim($re, $repl) . $flags;
3536 }
a798dbf2
MB
3537}
3538
35391;
f6f9bdb7
SM
3540__END__
3541
3542=head1 NAME
3543
3544B::Deparse - Perl compiler backend to produce perl code
3545
3546=head1 SYNOPSIS
3547
646bba82
SM
3548B<perl> B<-MO=Deparse>[B<,-u>I<PACKAGE>][B<,-p>][B<,-q>][B<,-l>]
3549 [B<,-s>I<LETTERS>][B<,-x>I<LEVEL>] I<prog.pl>
f6f9bdb7
SM
3550
3551=head1 DESCRIPTION
3552
3553B::Deparse is a backend module for the Perl compiler that generates
3554perl source code, based on the internal compiled structure that perl
3555itself creates after parsing a program. The output of B::Deparse won't
3556be exactly the same as the original source, since perl doesn't keep
3557track of comments or whitespace, and there isn't a one-to-one
3558correspondence between perl's syntactical constructions and their
9d2c6865
SM
3559compiled form, but it will often be close. When you use the B<-p>
3560option, the output also includes parentheses even when they are not
3561required by precedence, which can make it easy to see if perl is
3562parsing your expressions the way you intended.
f6f9bdb7
SM
3563
3564Please note that this module is mainly new and untested code and is
3565still under development, so it may change in the future.
3566
3567=head1 OPTIONS
3568
9d2c6865
SM
3569As with all compiler backend options, these must follow directly after
3570the '-MO=Deparse', separated by a comma but not any white space.
f6f9bdb7
SM
3571
3572=over 4
3573
bd0865ec
GS
3574=item B<-l>
3575
3576Add '#line' declarations to the output based on the line and file
3577locations of the original code.
3578
9d2c6865
SM
3579=item B<-p>
3580
3581Print extra parentheses. Without this option, B::Deparse includes
3582parentheses in its output only when they are needed, based on the
3583structure of your program. With B<-p>, it uses parentheses (almost)
3584whenever they would be legal. This can be useful if you are used to
3585LISP, or if you want to see how perl parses your input. If you say
3586
3587 if ($var & 0x7f == 65) {print "Gimme an A!"}
3588 print ($which ? $a : $b), "\n";
3589 $name = $ENV{USER} or "Bob";
3590
3591C<B::Deparse,-p> will print
3592
3593 if (($var & 0)) {
3594 print('Gimme an A!')
3595 };
3596 (print(($which ? $a : $b)), '???');
3597 (($name = $ENV{'USER'}) or '???')
3598
3599which probably isn't what you intended (the C<'???'> is a sign that
3600perl optimized away a constant value).
3601
bd0865ec
GS
3602=item B<-q>
3603
3604Expand double-quoted strings into the corresponding combinations of
3605concatenation, uc, ucfirst, lc, lcfirst, quotemeta, and join. For
3606instance, print
3607
3608 print "Hello, $world, @ladies, \u$gentlemen\E, \u\L$me!";
3609
3610as
3611
3612 print 'Hello, ' . $world . ', ' . join($", @ladies) . ', '
3613 . ucfirst($gentlemen) . ', ' . ucfirst(lc $me . '!');
3614
3615Note that the expanded form represents the way perl handles such
3616constructions internally -- this option actually turns off the reverse
3617translation that B::Deparse usually does. On the other hand, note that
3618C<$x = "$y"> is not the same as C<$x = $y>: the former makes the value
3619of $y into a string before doing the assignment.
3620
34a48b4b
RH
3621=item B<-f>I<FILE>
3622
3623Normally, B::Deparse deparses the main code of a program, and all the subs
3624defined in the same file. To include subs defined in other files, pass the
3625B<-f> option with the filename. You can pass the B<-f> option several times, to
3626include more than one secondary file. (Most of the time you don't want to
3627use it at all.) You can also use this option to include subs which are
3628defined in the scope of a B<#line> directive with two parameters.
f6f9bdb7 3629
9d2c6865
SM
3630=item B<-s>I<LETTERS>
3631
f4a44678
SM
3632Tweak the style of B::Deparse's output. The letters should follow
3633directly after the 's', with no space or punctuation. The following
3634options are available:
9d2c6865
SM
3635
3636=over 4
3637
3638=item B<C>
3639
3640Cuddle C<elsif>, C<else>, and C<continue> blocks. For example, print
3641
3642 if (...) {
3643 ...
3644 } else {
3645 ...
3646 }