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Add SS_ADD_* macros and replace most SSPUSH* uses
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a0d0e21e 1/* sv.c
79072805 2 *
1129b882 3 * Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
83706693
RGS
4 * 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 by Larry Wall
5 * and others
79072805
LW
6 *
7 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
8 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
9 *
4ac71550
TC
10 */
11
12/*
13 * 'I wonder what the Entish is for "yes" and "no",' he thought.
14 * --Pippin
15 *
16 * [p.480 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/iv: "Treebeard"]
17 */
18
19/*
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20 *
21 *
5e045b90
AMS
22 * This file contains the code that creates, manipulates and destroys
23 * scalar values (SVs). The other types (AV, HV, GV, etc.) reuse the
24 * structure of an SV, so their creation and destruction is handled
25 * here; higher-level functions are in av.c, hv.c, and so on. Opcode
26 * level functions (eg. substr, split, join) for each of the types are
27 * in the pp*.c files.
79072805
LW
28 */
29
30#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 31#define PERL_IN_SV_C
79072805 32#include "perl.h"
d2f185dc 33#include "regcomp.h"
79072805 34
07208e09 35#ifndef HAS_C99
4b2d6671 36# if __STDC_VERSION__ >= 199901L && !defined(VMS)
07208e09
CS
37# define HAS_C99 1
38# endif
39#endif
40#if HAS_C99
41# include <stdint.h>
42#endif
43
51371543 44#define FCALL *f
2c5424a7 45
2f8ed50e
OS
46#ifdef __Lynx__
47/* Missing proto on LynxOS */
48 char *gconvert(double, int, int, char *);
49#endif
50
e23c8137 51#ifdef PERL_UTF8_CACHE_ASSERT
ab455f60 52/* if adding more checks watch out for the following tests:
e23c8137
JH
53 * t/op/index.t t/op/length.t t/op/pat.t t/op/substr.t
54 * lib/utf8.t lib/Unicode/Collate/t/index.t
55 * --jhi
56 */
6f207bd3 57# define ASSERT_UTF8_CACHE(cache) \
ab455f60
NC
58 STMT_START { if (cache) { assert((cache)[0] <= (cache)[1]); \
59 assert((cache)[2] <= (cache)[3]); \
60 assert((cache)[3] <= (cache)[1]);} \
61 } STMT_END
e23c8137 62#else
6f207bd3 63# define ASSERT_UTF8_CACHE(cache) NOOP
e23c8137
JH
64#endif
65
f8c7b90f 66#ifdef PERL_OLD_COPY_ON_WRITE
765f542d 67#define SV_COW_NEXT_SV(sv) INT2PTR(SV *,SvUVX(sv))
607fa7f2 68#define SV_COW_NEXT_SV_SET(current,next) SvUV_set(current, PTR2UV(next))
765f542d 69#endif
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70
71/* ============================================================================
72
73=head1 Allocation and deallocation of SVs.
74
d2a0f284
JC
75An SV (or AV, HV, etc.) is allocated in two parts: the head (struct
76sv, av, hv...) contains type and reference count information, and for
77many types, a pointer to the body (struct xrv, xpv, xpviv...), which
78contains fields specific to each type. Some types store all they need
79in the head, so don't have a body.
80
486ec47a 81In all but the most memory-paranoid configurations (ex: PURIFY), heads
d2a0f284
JC
82and bodies are allocated out of arenas, which by default are
83approximately 4K chunks of memory parcelled up into N heads or bodies.
93e68bfb
JC
84Sv-bodies are allocated by their sv-type, guaranteeing size
85consistency needed to allocate safely from arrays.
86
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JC
87For SV-heads, the first slot in each arena is reserved, and holds a
88link to the next arena, some flags, and a note of the number of slots.
89Snaked through each arena chain is a linked list of free items; when
90this becomes empty, an extra arena is allocated and divided up into N
91items which are threaded into the free list.
92
93SV-bodies are similar, but they use arena-sets by default, which
94separate the link and info from the arena itself, and reclaim the 1st
95slot in the arena. SV-bodies are further described later.
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96
97The following global variables are associated with arenas:
98
99 PL_sv_arenaroot pointer to list of SV arenas
100 PL_sv_root pointer to list of free SV structures
101
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JC
102 PL_body_arenas head of linked-list of body arenas
103 PL_body_roots[] array of pointers to list of free bodies of svtype
104 arrays are indexed by the svtype needed
93e68bfb 105
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JC
106A few special SV heads are not allocated from an arena, but are
107instead directly created in the interpreter structure, eg PL_sv_undef.
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108The size of arenas can be changed from the default by setting
109PERL_ARENA_SIZE appropriately at compile time.
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110
111The SV arena serves the secondary purpose of allowing still-live SVs
112to be located and destroyed during final cleanup.
113
114At the lowest level, the macros new_SV() and del_SV() grab and free
115an SV head. (If debugging with -DD, del_SV() calls the function S_del_sv()
116to return the SV to the free list with error checking.) new_SV() calls
117more_sv() / sv_add_arena() to add an extra arena if the free list is empty.
118SVs in the free list have their SvTYPE field set to all ones.
119
ff276b08 120At the time of very final cleanup, sv_free_arenas() is called from
645c22ef 121perl_destruct() to physically free all the arenas allocated since the
6a93a7e5 122start of the interpreter.
645c22ef 123
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DM
124The function visit() scans the SV arenas list, and calls a specified
125function for each SV it finds which is still live - ie which has an SvTYPE
126other than all 1's, and a non-zero SvREFCNT. visit() is used by the
127following functions (specified as [function that calls visit()] / [function
128called by visit() for each SV]):
129
130 sv_report_used() / do_report_used()
f2524eef 131 dump all remaining SVs (debugging aid)
645c22ef 132
e4487e9b 133 sv_clean_objs() / do_clean_objs(),do_clean_named_objs(),
e76981f9 134 do_clean_named_io_objs(),do_curse()
645c22ef 135 Attempt to free all objects pointed to by RVs,
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FC
136 try to do the same for all objects indir-
137 ectly referenced by typeglobs too, and
138 then do a final sweep, cursing any
139 objects that remain. Called once from
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140 perl_destruct(), prior to calling sv_clean_all()
141 below.
142
143 sv_clean_all() / do_clean_all()
144 SvREFCNT_dec(sv) each remaining SV, possibly
145 triggering an sv_free(). It also sets the
146 SVf_BREAK flag on the SV to indicate that the
147 refcnt has been artificially lowered, and thus
148 stopping sv_free() from giving spurious warnings
149 about SVs which unexpectedly have a refcnt
150 of zero. called repeatedly from perl_destruct()
151 until there are no SVs left.
152
93e68bfb 153=head2 Arena allocator API Summary
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154
155Private API to rest of sv.c
156
157 new_SV(), del_SV(),
158
df0f0429 159 new_XPVNV(), del_XPVGV(),
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DM
160 etc
161
162Public API:
163
8cf8f3d1 164 sv_report_used(), sv_clean_objs(), sv_clean_all(), sv_free_arenas()
645c22ef 165
645c22ef
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166=cut
167
3e8320cc 168 * ========================================================================= */
645c22ef 169
4561caa4
CS
170/*
171 * "A time to plant, and a time to uproot what was planted..."
172 */
173
d7a2c63c
MHM
174#ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG
175# define MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(sv, file, line, func) \
176 Perl_mem_log_new_sv(sv, file, line, func)
177# define MEM_LOG_DEL_SV(sv, file, line, func) \
178 Perl_mem_log_del_sv(sv, file, line, func)
179#else
180# define MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(sv, file, line, func) NOOP
181# define MEM_LOG_DEL_SV(sv, file, line, func) NOOP
182#endif
183
fd0854ff 184#ifdef DEBUG_LEAKING_SCALARS
484e6108
FC
185# define FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(sv) STMT_START { \
186 if ((sv)->sv_debug_file) PerlMemShared_free((sv)->sv_debug_file); \
187 } STMT_END
d7a2c63c
MHM
188# define DEBUG_SV_SERIAL(sv) \
189 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf": (%05ld) del_SV\n", \
190 PTR2UV(sv), (long)(sv)->sv_debug_serial))
fd0854ff
DM
191#else
192# define FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(sv)
d7a2c63c 193# define DEBUG_SV_SERIAL(sv) NOOP
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DM
194#endif
195
48614a46
NC
196#ifdef PERL_POISON
197# define SvARENA_CHAIN(sv) ((sv)->sv_u.svu_rv)
daba3364 198# define SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv,val) (sv)->sv_u.svu_rv = MUTABLE_SV((val))
48614a46
NC
199/* Whilst I'd love to do this, it seems that things like to check on
200 unreferenced scalars
7e337ee0 201# define POSION_SV_HEAD(sv) PoisonNew(sv, 1, struct STRUCT_SV)
48614a46 202*/
7e337ee0
JH
203# define POSION_SV_HEAD(sv) PoisonNew(&SvANY(sv), 1, void *), \
204 PoisonNew(&SvREFCNT(sv), 1, U32)
48614a46
NC
205#else
206# define SvARENA_CHAIN(sv) SvANY(sv)
3eef1deb 207# define SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv,val) SvANY(sv) = (void *)(val)
48614a46
NC
208# define POSION_SV_HEAD(sv)
209#endif
210
990198f0
DM
211/* Mark an SV head as unused, and add to free list.
212 *
213 * If SVf_BREAK is set, skip adding it to the free list, as this SV had
214 * its refcount artificially decremented during global destruction, so
215 * there may be dangling pointers to it. The last thing we want in that
216 * case is for it to be reused. */
217
053fc874
GS
218#define plant_SV(p) \
219 STMT_START { \
990198f0 220 const U32 old_flags = SvFLAGS(p); \
d7a2c63c
MHM
221 MEM_LOG_DEL_SV(p, __FILE__, __LINE__, FUNCTION__); \
222 DEBUG_SV_SERIAL(p); \
fd0854ff 223 FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(p); \
48614a46 224 POSION_SV_HEAD(p); \
053fc874 225 SvFLAGS(p) = SVTYPEMASK; \
990198f0 226 if (!(old_flags & SVf_BREAK)) { \
3eef1deb 227 SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(p, PL_sv_root); \
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DM
228 PL_sv_root = (p); \
229 } \
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GS
230 --PL_sv_count; \
231 } STMT_END
a0d0e21e 232
053fc874
GS
233#define uproot_SV(p) \
234 STMT_START { \
235 (p) = PL_sv_root; \
daba3364 236 PL_sv_root = MUTABLE_SV(SvARENA_CHAIN(p)); \
053fc874
GS
237 ++PL_sv_count; \
238 } STMT_END
239
645c22ef 240
cac9b346
NC
241/* make some more SVs by adding another arena */
242
cac9b346
NC
243STATIC SV*
244S_more_sv(pTHX)
245{
97aff369 246 dVAR;
cac9b346 247 SV* sv;
9a87bd09
NC
248 char *chunk; /* must use New here to match call to */
249 Newx(chunk,PERL_ARENA_SIZE,char); /* Safefree() in sv_free_arenas() */
250 sv_add_arena(chunk, PERL_ARENA_SIZE, 0);
cac9b346
NC
251 uproot_SV(sv);
252 return sv;
253}
254
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255/* new_SV(): return a new, empty SV head */
256
eba0f806
DM
257#ifdef DEBUG_LEAKING_SCALARS
258/* provide a real function for a debugger to play with */
259STATIC SV*
d7a2c63c 260S_new_SV(pTHX_ const char *file, int line, const char *func)
eba0f806
DM
261{
262 SV* sv;
263
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DM
264 if (PL_sv_root)
265 uproot_SV(sv);
266 else
cac9b346 267 sv = S_more_sv(aTHX);
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DM
268 SvANY(sv) = 0;
269 SvREFCNT(sv) = 1;
270 SvFLAGS(sv) = 0;
fd0854ff 271 sv->sv_debug_optype = PL_op ? PL_op->op_type : 0;
e385c3bf
DM
272 sv->sv_debug_line = (U16) (PL_parser && PL_parser->copline != NOLINE
273 ? PL_parser->copline
274 : PL_curcop
f24aceb1
DM
275 ? CopLINE(PL_curcop)
276 : 0
e385c3bf 277 );
fd0854ff 278 sv->sv_debug_inpad = 0;
cd676548 279 sv->sv_debug_parent = NULL;
484e6108 280 sv->sv_debug_file = PL_curcop ? savesharedpv(CopFILE(PL_curcop)): NULL;
d7a2c63c
MHM
281
282 sv->sv_debug_serial = PL_sv_serial++;
283
284 MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(sv, file, line, func);
285 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf": (%05ld) new_SV (from %s:%d [%s])\n",
286 PTR2UV(sv), (long)sv->sv_debug_serial, file, line, func));
287
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288 return sv;
289}
d7a2c63c 290# define new_SV(p) (p)=S_new_SV(aTHX_ __FILE__, __LINE__, FUNCTION__)
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DM
291
292#else
293# define new_SV(p) \
053fc874 294 STMT_START { \
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GS
295 if (PL_sv_root) \
296 uproot_SV(p); \
297 else \
cac9b346 298 (p) = S_more_sv(aTHX); \
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GS
299 SvANY(p) = 0; \
300 SvREFCNT(p) = 1; \
301 SvFLAGS(p) = 0; \
d7a2c63c 302 MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(p, __FILE__, __LINE__, FUNCTION__); \
053fc874 303 } STMT_END
eba0f806 304#endif
463ee0b2 305
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DM
306
307/* del_SV(): return an empty SV head to the free list */
308
a0d0e21e 309#ifdef DEBUGGING
4561caa4 310
053fc874
GS
311#define del_SV(p) \
312 STMT_START { \
aea4f609 313 if (DEBUG_D_TEST) \
053fc874
GS
314 del_sv(p); \
315 else \
316 plant_SV(p); \
053fc874 317 } STMT_END
a0d0e21e 318
76e3520e 319STATIC void
cea2e8a9 320S_del_sv(pTHX_ SV *p)
463ee0b2 321{
97aff369 322 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
323
324 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_DEL_SV;
325
aea4f609 326 if (DEBUG_D_TEST) {
4633a7c4 327 SV* sva;
a3b680e6 328 bool ok = 0;
daba3364 329 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(sva))) {
53c1dcc0
AL
330 const SV * const sv = sva + 1;
331 const SV * const svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva)];
c0ff570e 332 if (p >= sv && p < svend) {
a0d0e21e 333 ok = 1;
c0ff570e
NC
334 break;
335 }
a0d0e21e
LW
336 }
337 if (!ok) {
9b387841
NC
338 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_INTERNAL),
339 "Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%"UVxf
340 pTHX__FORMAT, PTR2UV(p) pTHX__VALUE);
a0d0e21e
LW
341 return;
342 }
343 }
4561caa4 344 plant_SV(p);
463ee0b2 345}
a0d0e21e 346
4561caa4
CS
347#else /* ! DEBUGGING */
348
349#define del_SV(p) plant_SV(p)
350
351#endif /* DEBUGGING */
463ee0b2 352
645c22ef
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353
354/*
ccfc67b7
JH
355=head1 SV Manipulation Functions
356
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DM
357=for apidoc sv_add_arena
358
359Given a chunk of memory, link it to the head of the list of arenas,
360and split it into a list of free SVs.
361
362=cut
363*/
364
d2bd4e7f
NC
365static void
366S_sv_add_arena(pTHX_ char *const ptr, const U32 size, const U32 flags)
463ee0b2 367{
97aff369 368 dVAR;
daba3364 369 SV *const sva = MUTABLE_SV(ptr);
eb578fdb
KW
370 SV* sv;
371 SV* svend;
4633a7c4 372
7918f24d
NC
373 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_ADD_ARENA;
374
4633a7c4 375 /* The first SV in an arena isn't an SV. */
3280af22 376 SvANY(sva) = (void *) PL_sv_arenaroot; /* ptr to next arena */
4633a7c4
LW
377 SvREFCNT(sva) = size / sizeof(SV); /* number of SV slots */
378 SvFLAGS(sva) = flags; /* FAKE if not to be freed */
379
3280af22
NIS
380 PL_sv_arenaroot = sva;
381 PL_sv_root = sva + 1;
4633a7c4
LW
382
383 svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva) - 1];
384 sv = sva + 1;
463ee0b2 385 while (sv < svend) {
3eef1deb 386 SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv, (sv + 1));
03e36789 387#ifdef DEBUGGING
978b032e 388 SvREFCNT(sv) = 0;
03e36789 389#endif
4b69cbe3 390 /* Must always set typemask because it's always checked in on cleanup
03e36789 391 when the arenas are walked looking for objects. */
8990e307 392 SvFLAGS(sv) = SVTYPEMASK;
463ee0b2
LW
393 sv++;
394 }
3eef1deb 395 SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv, 0);
03e36789
NC
396#ifdef DEBUGGING
397 SvREFCNT(sv) = 0;
398#endif
4633a7c4
LW
399 SvFLAGS(sv) = SVTYPEMASK;
400}
401
055972dc
DM
402/* visit(): call the named function for each non-free SV in the arenas
403 * whose flags field matches the flags/mask args. */
645c22ef 404
5226ed68 405STATIC I32
de37a194 406S_visit(pTHX_ SVFUNC_t f, const U32 flags, const U32 mask)
8990e307 407{
97aff369 408 dVAR;
4633a7c4 409 SV* sva;
5226ed68 410 I32 visited = 0;
8990e307 411
7918f24d
NC
412 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_VISIT;
413
daba3364 414 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(sva))) {
eb578fdb
KW
415 const SV * const svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva)];
416 SV* sv;
4561caa4 417 for (sv = sva + 1; sv < svend; ++sv) {
e4787c0c 418 if (SvTYPE(sv) != (svtype)SVTYPEMASK
055972dc
DM
419 && (sv->sv_flags & mask) == flags
420 && SvREFCNT(sv))
421 {
acfe0abc 422 (FCALL)(aTHX_ sv);
5226ed68
JH
423 ++visited;
424 }
8990e307
LW
425 }
426 }
5226ed68 427 return visited;
8990e307
LW
428}
429
758a08c3
JH
430#ifdef DEBUGGING
431
645c22ef
DM
432/* called by sv_report_used() for each live SV */
433
434static void
5fa45a31 435do_report_used(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
645c22ef 436{
e4787c0c 437 if (SvTYPE(sv) != (svtype)SVTYPEMASK) {
645c22ef
DM
438 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "****\n");
439 sv_dump(sv);
440 }
441}
758a08c3 442#endif
645c22ef
DM
443
444/*
445=for apidoc sv_report_used
446
fde67290 447Dump the contents of all SVs not yet freed (debugging aid).
645c22ef
DM
448
449=cut
450*/
451
8990e307 452void
864dbfa3 453Perl_sv_report_used(pTHX)
4561caa4 454{
ff270d3a 455#ifdef DEBUGGING
055972dc 456 visit(do_report_used, 0, 0);
96a5add6
AL
457#else
458 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
ff270d3a 459#endif
4561caa4
CS
460}
461
645c22ef
DM
462/* called by sv_clean_objs() for each live SV */
463
464static void
de37a194 465do_clean_objs(pTHX_ SV *const ref)
645c22ef 466{
97aff369 467 dVAR;
ea724faa
NC
468 assert (SvROK(ref));
469 {
823a54a3
AL
470 SV * const target = SvRV(ref);
471 if (SvOBJECT(target)) {
472 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Cleaning object ref:\n "), sv_dump(ref)));
473 if (SvWEAKREF(ref)) {
474 sv_del_backref(target, ref);
475 SvWEAKREF_off(ref);
476 SvRV_set(ref, NULL);
477 } else {
478 SvROK_off(ref);
479 SvRV_set(ref, NULL);
480 SvREFCNT_dec(target);
481 }
645c22ef
DM
482 }
483 }
645c22ef
DM
484}
485
645c22ef 486
e4487e9b
DM
487/* clear any slots in a GV which hold objects - except IO;
488 * called by sv_clean_objs() for each live GV */
489
645c22ef 490static void
f30de749 491do_clean_named_objs(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
645c22ef 492{
97aff369 493 dVAR;
57ef47cc 494 SV *obj;
ea724faa 495 assert(SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV);
d011219a 496 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
57ef47cc
DM
497 if (!GvGP(sv))
498 return;
499
500 /* freeing GP entries may indirectly free the current GV;
501 * hold onto it while we mess with the GP slots */
502 SvREFCNT_inc(sv);
503
504 if ( ((obj = GvSV(sv) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
505 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
506 "Cleaning named glob SV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
507 GvSV(sv) = NULL;
508 SvREFCNT_dec(obj);
509 }
510 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvAV(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
511 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
512 "Cleaning named glob AV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
513 GvAV(sv) = NULL;
514 SvREFCNT_dec(obj);
515 }
516 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvHV(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
517 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
518 "Cleaning named glob HV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
519 GvHV(sv) = NULL;
520 SvREFCNT_dec(obj);
521 }
522 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvCV(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
523 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
524 "Cleaning named glob CV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
c43ae56f 525 GvCV_set(sv, NULL);
57ef47cc
DM
526 SvREFCNT_dec(obj);
527 }
e4487e9b
DM
528 SvREFCNT_dec(sv); /* undo the inc above */
529}
530
68b590d9 531/* clear any IO slots in a GV which hold objects (except stderr, defout);
e4487e9b
DM
532 * called by sv_clean_objs() for each live GV */
533
534static void
535do_clean_named_io_objs(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
536{
537 dVAR;
538 SV *obj;
539 assert(SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV);
540 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
68b590d9 541 if (!GvGP(sv) || sv == (SV*)PL_stderrgv || sv == (SV*)PL_defoutgv)
e4487e9b
DM
542 return;
543
544 SvREFCNT_inc(sv);
57ef47cc
DM
545 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvIO(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
546 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
547 "Cleaning named glob IO object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
548 GvIOp(sv) = NULL;
549 SvREFCNT_dec(obj);
645c22ef 550 }
57ef47cc 551 SvREFCNT_dec(sv); /* undo the inc above */
645c22ef 552}
645c22ef 553
4155e4fe
FC
554/* Void wrapper to pass to visit() */
555static void
556do_curse(pTHX_ SV * const sv) {
c2910e6c
FC
557 if ((PL_stderrgv && GvGP(PL_stderrgv) && (SV*)GvIO(PL_stderrgv) == sv)
558 || (PL_defoutgv && GvGP(PL_defoutgv) && (SV*)GvIO(PL_defoutgv) == sv))
4155e4fe
FC
559 return;
560 (void)curse(sv, 0);
561}
562
645c22ef
DM
563/*
564=for apidoc sv_clean_objs
565
fde67290 566Attempt to destroy all objects not yet freed.
645c22ef
DM
567
568=cut
569*/
570
4561caa4 571void
864dbfa3 572Perl_sv_clean_objs(pTHX)
4561caa4 573{
97aff369 574 dVAR;
68b590d9 575 GV *olddef, *olderr;
3280af22 576 PL_in_clean_objs = TRUE;
055972dc 577 visit(do_clean_objs, SVf_ROK, SVf_ROK);
e4487e9b
DM
578 /* Some barnacles may yet remain, clinging to typeglobs.
579 * Run the non-IO destructors first: they may want to output
580 * error messages, close files etc */
d011219a 581 visit(do_clean_named_objs, SVt_PVGV|SVpgv_GP, SVTYPEMASK|SVp_POK|SVpgv_GP);
e4487e9b 582 visit(do_clean_named_io_objs, SVt_PVGV|SVpgv_GP, SVTYPEMASK|SVp_POK|SVpgv_GP);
4155e4fe
FC
583 /* And if there are some very tenacious barnacles clinging to arrays,
584 closures, or what have you.... */
585 visit(do_curse, SVs_OBJECT, SVs_OBJECT);
68b590d9
DM
586 olddef = PL_defoutgv;
587 PL_defoutgv = NULL; /* disable skip of PL_defoutgv */
588 if (olddef && isGV_with_GP(olddef))
589 do_clean_named_io_objs(aTHX_ MUTABLE_SV(olddef));
590 olderr = PL_stderrgv;
591 PL_stderrgv = NULL; /* disable skip of PL_stderrgv */
592 if (olderr && isGV_with_GP(olderr))
593 do_clean_named_io_objs(aTHX_ MUTABLE_SV(olderr));
594 SvREFCNT_dec(olddef);
3280af22 595 PL_in_clean_objs = FALSE;
4561caa4
CS
596}
597
645c22ef
DM
598/* called by sv_clean_all() for each live SV */
599
600static void
de37a194 601do_clean_all(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
645c22ef 602{
97aff369 603 dVAR;
daba3364 604 if (sv == (const SV *) PL_fdpid || sv == (const SV *)PL_strtab) {
cddfcddc 605 /* don't clean pid table and strtab */
d17ea597 606 return;
cddfcddc 607 }
645c22ef
DM
608 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Cleaning loops: SV at 0x%"UVxf"\n", PTR2UV(sv)) ));
609 SvFLAGS(sv) |= SVf_BREAK;
610 SvREFCNT_dec(sv);
611}
612
613/*
614=for apidoc sv_clean_all
615
616Decrement the refcnt of each remaining SV, possibly triggering a
fde67290 617cleanup. This function may have to be called multiple times to free
ff276b08 618SVs which are in complex self-referential hierarchies.
645c22ef
DM
619
620=cut
621*/
622
5226ed68 623I32
864dbfa3 624Perl_sv_clean_all(pTHX)
8990e307 625{
97aff369 626 dVAR;
5226ed68 627 I32 cleaned;
3280af22 628 PL_in_clean_all = TRUE;
055972dc 629 cleaned = visit(do_clean_all, 0,0);
5226ed68 630 return cleaned;
8990e307 631}
463ee0b2 632
5e258f8c
JC
633/*
634 ARENASETS: a meta-arena implementation which separates arena-info
635 into struct arena_set, which contains an array of struct
636 arena_descs, each holding info for a single arena. By separating
637 the meta-info from the arena, we recover the 1st slot, formerly
638 borrowed for list management. The arena_set is about the size of an
39244528 639 arena, avoiding the needless malloc overhead of a naive linked-list.
5e258f8c
JC
640
641 The cost is 1 arena-set malloc per ~320 arena-mallocs, + the unused
642 memory in the last arena-set (1/2 on average). In trade, we get
643 back the 1st slot in each arena (ie 1.7% of a CV-arena, less for
d2a0f284 644 smaller types). The recovery of the wasted space allows use of
e15dad31
JC
645 small arenas for large, rare body types, by changing array* fields
646 in body_details_by_type[] below.
5e258f8c 647*/
5e258f8c 648struct arena_desc {
398c677b
NC
649 char *arena; /* the raw storage, allocated aligned */
650 size_t size; /* its size ~4k typ */
e5973ed5 651 svtype utype; /* bodytype stored in arena */
5e258f8c
JC
652};
653
e6148039
NC
654struct arena_set;
655
656/* Get the maximum number of elements in set[] such that struct arena_set
e15dad31 657 will fit within PERL_ARENA_SIZE, which is probably just under 4K, and
e6148039
NC
658 therefore likely to be 1 aligned memory page. */
659
660#define ARENAS_PER_SET ((PERL_ARENA_SIZE - sizeof(struct arena_set*) \
661 - 2 * sizeof(int)) / sizeof (struct arena_desc))
5e258f8c
JC
662
663struct arena_set {
664 struct arena_set* next;
0a848332
NC
665 unsigned int set_size; /* ie ARENAS_PER_SET */
666 unsigned int curr; /* index of next available arena-desc */
5e258f8c
JC
667 struct arena_desc set[ARENAS_PER_SET];
668};
669
645c22ef
DM
670/*
671=for apidoc sv_free_arenas
672
fde67290 673Deallocate the memory used by all arenas. Note that all the individual SV
645c22ef
DM
674heads and bodies within the arenas must already have been freed.
675
676=cut
677*/
4633a7c4 678void
864dbfa3 679Perl_sv_free_arenas(pTHX)
4633a7c4 680{
97aff369 681 dVAR;
4633a7c4
LW
682 SV* sva;
683 SV* svanext;
0a848332 684 unsigned int i;
4633a7c4
LW
685
686 /* Free arenas here, but be careful about fake ones. (We assume
687 contiguity of the fake ones with the corresponding real ones.) */
688
3280af22 689 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = svanext) {
daba3364 690 svanext = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(sva));
4633a7c4 691 while (svanext && SvFAKE(svanext))
daba3364 692 svanext = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(svanext));
4633a7c4
LW
693
694 if (!SvFAKE(sva))
1df70142 695 Safefree(sva);
4633a7c4 696 }
93e68bfb 697
5e258f8c 698 {
0a848332
NC
699 struct arena_set *aroot = (struct arena_set*) PL_body_arenas;
700
701 while (aroot) {
702 struct arena_set *current = aroot;
703 i = aroot->curr;
704 while (i--) {
5e258f8c
JC
705 assert(aroot->set[i].arena);
706 Safefree(aroot->set[i].arena);
707 }
0a848332
NC
708 aroot = aroot->next;
709 Safefree(current);
5e258f8c
JC
710 }
711 }
dc8220bf 712 PL_body_arenas = 0;
fdda85ca 713
0a848332
NC
714 i = PERL_ARENA_ROOTS_SIZE;
715 while (i--)
93e68bfb 716 PL_body_roots[i] = 0;
93e68bfb 717
3280af22
NIS
718 PL_sv_arenaroot = 0;
719 PL_sv_root = 0;
4633a7c4
LW
720}
721
bd81e77b
NC
722/*
723 Here are mid-level routines that manage the allocation of bodies out
724 of the various arenas. There are 5 kinds of arenas:
29489e7c 725
bd81e77b
NC
726 1. SV-head arenas, which are discussed and handled above
727 2. regular body arenas
728 3. arenas for reduced-size bodies
729 4. Hash-Entry arenas
29489e7c 730
bd81e77b
NC
731 Arena types 2 & 3 are chained by body-type off an array of
732 arena-root pointers, which is indexed by svtype. Some of the
733 larger/less used body types are malloced singly, since a large
734 unused block of them is wasteful. Also, several svtypes dont have
735 bodies; the data fits into the sv-head itself. The arena-root
736 pointer thus has a few unused root-pointers (which may be hijacked
737 later for arena types 4,5)
29489e7c 738
bd81e77b
NC
739 3 differs from 2 as an optimization; some body types have several
740 unused fields in the front of the structure (which are kept in-place
741 for consistency). These bodies can be allocated in smaller chunks,
742 because the leading fields arent accessed. Pointers to such bodies
743 are decremented to point at the unused 'ghost' memory, knowing that
744 the pointers are used with offsets to the real memory.
29489e7c 745
d2a0f284
JC
746
747=head1 SV-Body Allocation
748
749Allocation of SV-bodies is similar to SV-heads, differing as follows;
750the allocation mechanism is used for many body types, so is somewhat
751more complicated, it uses arena-sets, and has no need for still-live
752SV detection.
753
754At the outermost level, (new|del)_X*V macros return bodies of the
755appropriate type. These macros call either (new|del)_body_type or
756(new|del)_body_allocated macro pairs, depending on specifics of the
757type. Most body types use the former pair, the latter pair is used to
758allocate body types with "ghost fields".
759
760"ghost fields" are fields that are unused in certain types, and
69ba284b 761consequently don't need to actually exist. They are declared because
d2a0f284
JC
762they're part of a "base type", which allows use of functions as
763methods. The simplest examples are AVs and HVs, 2 aggregate types
764which don't use the fields which support SCALAR semantics.
765
69ba284b 766For these types, the arenas are carved up into appropriately sized
d2a0f284
JC
767chunks, we thus avoid wasted memory for those unaccessed members.
768When bodies are allocated, we adjust the pointer back in memory by the
69ba284b 769size of the part not allocated, so it's as if we allocated the full
d2a0f284
JC
770structure. (But things will all go boom if you write to the part that
771is "not there", because you'll be overwriting the last members of the
772preceding structure in memory.)
773
69ba284b
NC
774We calculate the correction using the STRUCT_OFFSET macro on the first
775member present. If the allocated structure is smaller (no initial NV
776actually allocated) then the net effect is to subtract the size of the NV
777from the pointer, to return a new pointer as if an initial NV were actually
778allocated. (We were using structures named *_allocated for this, but
779this turned out to be a subtle bug, because a structure without an NV
780could have a lower alignment constraint, but the compiler is allowed to
781optimised accesses based on the alignment constraint of the actual pointer
782to the full structure, for example, using a single 64 bit load instruction
783because it "knows" that two adjacent 32 bit members will be 8-byte aligned.)
d2a0f284
JC
784
785This is the same trick as was used for NV and IV bodies. Ironically it
786doesn't need to be used for NV bodies any more, because NV is now at
787the start of the structure. IV bodies don't need it either, because
788they are no longer allocated.
789
790In turn, the new_body_* allocators call S_new_body(), which invokes
791new_body_inline macro, which takes a lock, and takes a body off the
1e30fcd5 792linked list at PL_body_roots[sv_type], calling Perl_more_bodies() if
d2a0f284
JC
793necessary to refresh an empty list. Then the lock is released, and
794the body is returned.
795
99816f8d 796Perl_more_bodies allocates a new arena, and carves it up into an array of N
d2a0f284
JC
797bodies, which it strings into a linked list. It looks up arena-size
798and body-size from the body_details table described below, thus
799supporting the multiple body-types.
800
801If PURIFY is defined, or PERL_ARENA_SIZE=0, arenas are not used, and
802the (new|del)_X*V macros are mapped directly to malloc/free.
803
d2a0f284
JC
804For each sv-type, struct body_details bodies_by_type[] carries
805parameters which control these aspects of SV handling:
806
807Arena_size determines whether arenas are used for this body type, and if
808so, how big they are. PURIFY or PERL_ARENA_SIZE=0 set this field to
809zero, forcing individual mallocs and frees.
810
811Body_size determines how big a body is, and therefore how many fit into
812each arena. Offset carries the body-pointer adjustment needed for
69ba284b 813"ghost fields", and is used in *_allocated macros.
d2a0f284
JC
814
815But its main purpose is to parameterize info needed in
816Perl_sv_upgrade(). The info here dramatically simplifies the function
69ba284b 817vs the implementation in 5.8.8, making it table-driven. All fields
d2a0f284
JC
818are used for this, except for arena_size.
819
820For the sv-types that have no bodies, arenas are not used, so those
821PL_body_roots[sv_type] are unused, and can be overloaded. In
822something of a special case, SVt_NULL is borrowed for HE arenas;
c6f8b1d0 823PL_body_roots[HE_SVSLOT=SVt_NULL] is filled by S_more_he, but the
d2a0f284 824bodies_by_type[SVt_NULL] slot is not used, as the table is not
c6f8b1d0 825available in hv.c.
d2a0f284 826
29489e7c
DM
827*/
828
bd81e77b 829struct body_details {
0fb58b32 830 U8 body_size; /* Size to allocate */
10666ae3 831 U8 copy; /* Size of structure to copy (may be shorter) */
0fb58b32 832 U8 offset;
10666ae3
NC
833 unsigned int type : 4; /* We have space for a sanity check. */
834 unsigned int cant_upgrade : 1; /* Cannot upgrade this type */
835 unsigned int zero_nv : 1; /* zero the NV when upgrading from this */
836 unsigned int arena : 1; /* Allocated from an arena */
837 size_t arena_size; /* Size of arena to allocate */
bd81e77b 838};
29489e7c 839
bd81e77b
NC
840#define HADNV FALSE
841#define NONV TRUE
29489e7c 842
d2a0f284 843
bd81e77b
NC
844#ifdef PURIFY
845/* With -DPURFIY we allocate everything directly, and don't use arenas.
846 This seems a rather elegant way to simplify some of the code below. */
847#define HASARENA FALSE
848#else
849#define HASARENA TRUE
850#endif
851#define NOARENA FALSE
29489e7c 852
d2a0f284
JC
853/* Size the arenas to exactly fit a given number of bodies. A count
854 of 0 fits the max number bodies into a PERL_ARENA_SIZE.block,
855 simplifying the default. If count > 0, the arena is sized to fit
856 only that many bodies, allowing arenas to be used for large, rare
857 bodies (XPVFM, XPVIO) without undue waste. The arena size is
858 limited by PERL_ARENA_SIZE, so we can safely oversize the
859 declarations.
860 */
95db5f15
MB
861#define FIT_ARENA0(body_size) \
862 ((size_t)(PERL_ARENA_SIZE / body_size) * body_size)
863#define FIT_ARENAn(count,body_size) \
864 ( count * body_size <= PERL_ARENA_SIZE) \
865 ? count * body_size \
866 : FIT_ARENA0 (body_size)
867#define FIT_ARENA(count,body_size) \
868 count \
869 ? FIT_ARENAn (count, body_size) \
870 : FIT_ARENA0 (body_size)
d2a0f284 871
bd81e77b
NC
872/* Calculate the length to copy. Specifically work out the length less any
873 final padding the compiler needed to add. See the comment in sv_upgrade
874 for why copying the padding proved to be a bug. */
29489e7c 875
bd81e77b
NC
876#define copy_length(type, last_member) \
877 STRUCT_OFFSET(type, last_member) \
daba3364 878 + sizeof (((type*)SvANY((const SV *)0))->last_member)
29489e7c 879
bd81e77b 880static const struct body_details bodies_by_type[] = {
829cd18a
NC
881 /* HEs use this offset for their arena. */
882 { 0, 0, 0, SVt_NULL, FALSE, NONV, NOARENA, 0 },
d2a0f284 883
1cb9cd50 884 /* The bind placeholder pretends to be an RV for now.
c6f8b1d0 885 Also it's marked as "can't upgrade" to stop anyone using it before it's
1cb9cd50
NC
886 implemented. */
887 { 0, 0, 0, SVt_BIND, TRUE, NONV, NOARENA, 0 },
888
db93c0c4
NC
889 /* IVs are in the head, so the allocation size is 0. */
890 { 0,
d2a0f284 891 sizeof(IV), /* This is used to copy out the IV body. */
10666ae3 892 STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVIV, xiv_iv), SVt_IV, FALSE, NONV,
db93c0c4 893 NOARENA /* IVS don't need an arena */, 0
d2a0f284
JC
894 },
895
6e128786
NC
896 { sizeof(NV), sizeof(NV),
897 STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVNV, xnv_u),
898 SVt_NV, FALSE, HADNV, HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(NV)) },
d2a0f284 899
bc337e5c 900 { sizeof(XPV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
889d28b2
NC
901 copy_length(XPV, xpv_len) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
902 + STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
69ba284b 903 SVt_PV, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA,
889d28b2 904 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur)) },
d2a0f284 905
bc337e5c 906 { sizeof(XPVIV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
889d28b2
NC
907 copy_length(XPVIV, xiv_u) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
908 + STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
909 SVt_PVIV, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA,
910 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVIV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur)) },
d2a0f284 911
bc337e5c 912 { sizeof(XPVNV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
889d28b2
NC
913 copy_length(XPVNV, xnv_u) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
914 + STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
915 SVt_PVNV, FALSE, HADNV, HASARENA,
916 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVNV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur)) },
d2a0f284 917
6e128786 918 { sizeof(XPVMG), copy_length(XPVMG, xnv_u), 0, SVt_PVMG, FALSE, HADNV,
d2a0f284 919 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVMG)) },
4df7f6af 920
601dfd0a
NC
921 { sizeof(regexp),
922 sizeof(regexp),
923 0,
08e44740 924 SVt_REGEXP, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA,
eaeb1e7f 925 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(regexp))
5c35adbb 926 },
4df7f6af 927
10666ae3 928 { sizeof(XPVGV), sizeof(XPVGV), 0, SVt_PVGV, TRUE, HADNV,
d2a0f284
JC
929 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVGV)) },
930
10666ae3 931 { sizeof(XPVLV), sizeof(XPVLV), 0, SVt_PVLV, TRUE, HADNV,
d2a0f284
JC
932 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVLV)) },
933
601dfd0a 934 { sizeof(XPVAV),
4f7003f5 935 copy_length(XPVAV, xav_alloc),
601dfd0a 936 0,
69ba284b 937 SVt_PVAV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 938 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVAV)) },
d2a0f284 939
601dfd0a 940 { sizeof(XPVHV),
359164a0 941 copy_length(XPVHV, xhv_max),
601dfd0a 942 0,
69ba284b 943 SVt_PVHV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 944 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVHV)) },
d2a0f284 945
601dfd0a
NC
946 { sizeof(XPVCV),
947 sizeof(XPVCV),
948 0,
69ba284b 949 SVt_PVCV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 950 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVCV)) },
69ba284b 951
601dfd0a
NC
952 { sizeof(XPVFM),
953 sizeof(XPVFM),
954 0,
69ba284b 955 SVt_PVFM, TRUE, NONV, NOARENA,
601dfd0a 956 FIT_ARENA(20, sizeof(XPVFM)) },
d2a0f284 957
601dfd0a
NC
958 { sizeof(XPVIO),
959 sizeof(XPVIO),
960 0,
b6f60916 961 SVt_PVIO, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 962 FIT_ARENA(24, sizeof(XPVIO)) },
bd81e77b 963};
29489e7c 964
bd81e77b 965#define new_body_allocated(sv_type) \
d2a0f284 966 (void *)((char *)S_new_body(aTHX_ sv_type) \
bd81e77b 967 - bodies_by_type[sv_type].offset)
29489e7c 968
26359cfa
NC
969/* return a thing to the free list */
970
971#define del_body(thing, root) \
972 STMT_START { \
973 void ** const thing_copy = (void **)thing; \
974 *thing_copy = *root; \
975 *root = (void*)thing_copy; \
976 } STMT_END
29489e7c 977
bd81e77b 978#ifdef PURIFY
29489e7c 979
beeec492
NC
980#define new_XNV() safemalloc(sizeof(XPVNV))
981#define new_XPVNV() safemalloc(sizeof(XPVNV))
982#define new_XPVMG() safemalloc(sizeof(XPVMG))
29489e7c 983
beeec492 984#define del_XPVGV(p) safefree(p)
29489e7c 985
bd81e77b 986#else /* !PURIFY */
29489e7c 987
65ac1738 988#define new_XNV() new_body_allocated(SVt_NV)
65ac1738 989#define new_XPVNV() new_body_allocated(SVt_PVNV)
65ac1738 990#define new_XPVMG() new_body_allocated(SVt_PVMG)
645c22ef 991
26359cfa
NC
992#define del_XPVGV(p) del_body(p + bodies_by_type[SVt_PVGV].offset, \
993 &PL_body_roots[SVt_PVGV])
1d7c1841 994
bd81e77b 995#endif /* PURIFY */
93e68bfb 996
bd81e77b 997/* no arena for you! */
93e68bfb 998
bd81e77b 999#define new_NOARENA(details) \
beeec492 1000 safemalloc((details)->body_size + (details)->offset)
bd81e77b 1001#define new_NOARENAZ(details) \
beeec492 1002 safecalloc((details)->body_size + (details)->offset, 1)
d2a0f284 1003
1e30fcd5
NC
1004void *
1005Perl_more_bodies (pTHX_ const svtype sv_type, const size_t body_size,
1006 const size_t arena_size)
d2a0f284
JC
1007{
1008 dVAR;
1009 void ** const root = &PL_body_roots[sv_type];
99816f8d
NC
1010 struct arena_desc *adesc;
1011 struct arena_set *aroot = (struct arena_set *) PL_body_arenas;
1012 unsigned int curr;
d2a0f284
JC
1013 char *start;
1014 const char *end;
02982131 1015 const size_t good_arena_size = Perl_malloc_good_size(arena_size);
0b2d3faa 1016#if defined(DEBUGGING) && !defined(PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT_PRIVATE)
23e9d66c
NC
1017 static bool done_sanity_check;
1018
0b2d3faa
JH
1019 /* PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT_PRIVATE cannot coexist with global
1020 * variables like done_sanity_check. */
10666ae3 1021 if (!done_sanity_check) {
ea471437 1022 unsigned int i = SVt_LAST;
10666ae3
NC
1023
1024 done_sanity_check = TRUE;
1025
1026 while (i--)
1027 assert (bodies_by_type[i].type == i);
1028 }
1029#endif
1030
02982131 1031 assert(arena_size);
23e9d66c 1032
99816f8d
NC
1033 /* may need new arena-set to hold new arena */
1034 if (!aroot || aroot->curr >= aroot->set_size) {
1035 struct arena_set *newroot;
1036 Newxz(newroot, 1, struct arena_set);
1037 newroot->set_size = ARENAS_PER_SET;
1038 newroot->next = aroot;
1039 aroot = newroot;
1040 PL_body_arenas = (void *) newroot;
1041 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "new arenaset %p\n", (void*)aroot));
1042 }
1043
1044 /* ok, now have arena-set with at least 1 empty/available arena-desc */
1045 curr = aroot->curr++;
1046 adesc = &(aroot->set[curr]);
1047 assert(!adesc->arena);
1048
1049 Newx(adesc->arena, good_arena_size, char);
1050 adesc->size = good_arena_size;
1051 adesc->utype = sv_type;
1052 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "arena %d added: %p size %"UVuf"\n",
1053 curr, (void*)adesc->arena, (UV)good_arena_size));
1054
1055 start = (char *) adesc->arena;
d2a0f284 1056
29657bb6
NC
1057 /* Get the address of the byte after the end of the last body we can fit.
1058 Remember, this is integer division: */
02982131 1059 end = start + good_arena_size / body_size * body_size;
d2a0f284 1060
486ec47a 1061 /* computed count doesn't reflect the 1st slot reservation */
d8fca402
NC
1062#if defined(MYMALLOC) || defined(HAS_MALLOC_GOOD_SIZE)
1063 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1064 "arena %p end %p arena-size %d (from %d) type %d "
1065 "size %d ct %d\n",
02982131
NC
1066 (void*)start, (void*)end, (int)good_arena_size,
1067 (int)arena_size, sv_type, (int)body_size,
1068 (int)good_arena_size / (int)body_size));
d8fca402 1069#else
d2a0f284
JC
1070 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1071 "arena %p end %p arena-size %d type %d size %d ct %d\n",
6c9570dc 1072 (void*)start, (void*)end,
02982131
NC
1073 (int)arena_size, sv_type, (int)body_size,
1074 (int)good_arena_size / (int)body_size));
d8fca402 1075#endif
d2a0f284
JC
1076 *root = (void *)start;
1077
29657bb6
NC
1078 while (1) {
1079 /* Where the next body would start: */
d2a0f284 1080 char * const next = start + body_size;
29657bb6
NC
1081
1082 if (next >= end) {
1083 /* This is the last body: */
1084 assert(next == end);
1085
1086 *(void **)start = 0;
1087 return *root;
1088 }
1089
d2a0f284
JC
1090 *(void**) start = (void *)next;
1091 start = next;
1092 }
d2a0f284
JC
1093}
1094
1095/* grab a new thing from the free list, allocating more if necessary.
1096 The inline version is used for speed in hot routines, and the
1097 function using it serves the rest (unless PURIFY).
1098*/
1099#define new_body_inline(xpv, sv_type) \
1100 STMT_START { \
1101 void ** const r3wt = &PL_body_roots[sv_type]; \
11b79775 1102 xpv = (PTR_TBL_ENT_t*) (*((void **)(r3wt)) \
1e30fcd5 1103 ? *((void **)(r3wt)) : Perl_more_bodies(aTHX_ sv_type, \
02982131
NC
1104 bodies_by_type[sv_type].body_size,\
1105 bodies_by_type[sv_type].arena_size)); \
d2a0f284 1106 *(r3wt) = *(void**)(xpv); \
d2a0f284
JC
1107 } STMT_END
1108
1109#ifndef PURIFY
1110
1111STATIC void *
de37a194 1112S_new_body(pTHX_ const svtype sv_type)
d2a0f284
JC
1113{
1114 dVAR;
1115 void *xpv;
1116 new_body_inline(xpv, sv_type);
1117 return xpv;
1118}
1119
1120#endif
93e68bfb 1121
238b27b3
NC
1122static const struct body_details fake_rv =
1123 { 0, 0, 0, SVt_IV, FALSE, NONV, NOARENA, 0 };
1124
bd81e77b
NC
1125/*
1126=for apidoc sv_upgrade
93e68bfb 1127
bd81e77b
NC
1128Upgrade an SV to a more complex form. Generally adds a new body type to the
1129SV, then copies across as much information as possible from the old body.
9521ca61
FC
1130It croaks if the SV is already in a more complex form than requested. You
1131generally want to use the C<SvUPGRADE> macro wrapper, which checks the type
1132before calling C<sv_upgrade>, and hence does not croak. See also
1133C<svtype>.
93e68bfb 1134
bd81e77b 1135=cut
93e68bfb 1136*/
93e68bfb 1137
bd81e77b 1138void
5aaab254 1139Perl_sv_upgrade(pTHX_ SV *const sv, svtype new_type)
cac9b346 1140{
97aff369 1141 dVAR;
bd81e77b
NC
1142 void* old_body;
1143 void* new_body;
42d0e0b7 1144 const svtype old_type = SvTYPE(sv);
d2a0f284 1145 const struct body_details *new_type_details;
238b27b3 1146 const struct body_details *old_type_details
bd81e77b 1147 = bodies_by_type + old_type;
4df7f6af 1148 SV *referant = NULL;
cac9b346 1149
7918f24d
NC
1150 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UPGRADE;
1151
1776cbe8
NC
1152 if (old_type == new_type)
1153 return;
1154
1155 /* This clause was purposefully added ahead of the early return above to
1156 the shared string hackery for (sort {$a <=> $b} keys %hash), with the
1157 inference by Nick I-S that it would fix other troublesome cases. See
1158 changes 7162, 7163 (f130fd4589cf5fbb24149cd4db4137c8326f49c1 and parent)
1159
1160 Given that shared hash key scalars are no longer PVIV, but PV, there is
1161 no longer need to unshare so as to free up the IVX slot for its proper
1162 purpose. So it's safe to move the early return earlier. */
1163
093085a8 1164 if (new_type > SVt_PVMG && SvIsCOW(sv)) {
bd81e77b
NC
1165 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
1166 }
cac9b346 1167
bd81e77b 1168 old_body = SvANY(sv);
de042e1d 1169
bd81e77b
NC
1170 /* Copying structures onto other structures that have been neatly zeroed
1171 has a subtle gotcha. Consider XPVMG
cac9b346 1172
bd81e77b
NC
1173 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+
1174 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH |
1175 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+
1176 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28
645c22ef 1177
bd81e77b
NC
1178 where NVs are aligned to 8 bytes, so that sizeof that structure is
1179 actually 32 bytes long, with 4 bytes of padding at the end:
08742458 1180
bd81e77b
NC
1181 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+
1182 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH | ??? |
1183 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+
1184 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32
08742458 1185
bd81e77b 1186 so what happens if you allocate memory for this structure:
30f9da9e 1187
bd81e77b
NC
1188 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+------+...
1189 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH | GP | NAME |
1190 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+------+...
1191 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36
bfc44f79 1192
bd81e77b
NC
1193 zero it, then copy sizeof(XPVMG) bytes on top of it? Not quite what you
1194 expect, because you copy the area marked ??? onto GP. Now, ??? may have
1195 started out as zero once, but it's quite possible that it isn't. So now,
1196 rather than a nicely zeroed GP, you have it pointing somewhere random.
1197 Bugs ensue.
bfc44f79 1198
bd81e77b
NC
1199 (In fact, GP ends up pointing at a previous GP structure, because the
1200 principle cause of the padding in XPVMG getting garbage is a copy of
6c9e42f7
NC
1201 sizeof(XPVMG) bytes from a XPVGV structure in sv_unglob. Right now
1202 this happens to be moot because XPVGV has been re-ordered, with GP
1203 no longer after STASH)
30f9da9e 1204
bd81e77b
NC
1205 So we are careful and work out the size of used parts of all the
1206 structures. */
bfc44f79 1207
bd81e77b
NC
1208 switch (old_type) {
1209 case SVt_NULL:
1210 break;
1211 case SVt_IV:
4df7f6af
NC
1212 if (SvROK(sv)) {
1213 referant = SvRV(sv);
238b27b3
NC
1214 old_type_details = &fake_rv;
1215 if (new_type == SVt_NV)
1216 new_type = SVt_PVNV;
4df7f6af
NC
1217 } else {
1218 if (new_type < SVt_PVIV) {
1219 new_type = (new_type == SVt_NV)
1220 ? SVt_PVNV : SVt_PVIV;
1221 }
bd81e77b
NC
1222 }
1223 break;
1224 case SVt_NV:
1225 if (new_type < SVt_PVNV) {
1226 new_type = SVt_PVNV;
bd81e77b
NC
1227 }
1228 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1229 case SVt_PV:
1230 assert(new_type > SVt_PV);
1231 assert(SVt_IV < SVt_PV);
1232 assert(SVt_NV < SVt_PV);
1233 break;
1234 case SVt_PVIV:
1235 break;
1236 case SVt_PVNV:
1237 break;
1238 case SVt_PVMG:
1239 /* Because the XPVMG of PL_mess_sv isn't allocated from the arena,
1240 there's no way that it can be safely upgraded, because perl.c
1241 expects to Safefree(SvANY(PL_mess_sv)) */
1242 assert(sv != PL_mess_sv);
1243 /* This flag bit is used to mean other things in other scalar types.
1244 Given that it only has meaning inside the pad, it shouldn't be set
1245 on anything that can get upgraded. */
00b1698f 1246 assert(!SvPAD_TYPED(sv));
bd81e77b
NC
1247 break;
1248 default:
1249 if (old_type_details->cant_upgrade)
c81225bc
NC
1250 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't upgrade %s (%" UVuf ") to %" UVuf,
1251 sv_reftype(sv, 0), (UV) old_type, (UV) new_type);
bd81e77b 1252 }
3376de98
NC
1253
1254 if (old_type > new_type)
1255 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "sv_upgrade from type %d down to type %d",
1256 (int)old_type, (int)new_type);
1257
2fa1109b 1258 new_type_details = bodies_by_type + new_type;
645c22ef 1259
bd81e77b
NC
1260 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~SVTYPEMASK;
1261 SvFLAGS(sv) |= new_type;
932e9ff9 1262
ab4416c0
NC
1263 /* This can't happen, as SVt_NULL is <= all values of new_type, so one of
1264 the return statements above will have triggered. */
1265 assert (new_type != SVt_NULL);
bd81e77b 1266 switch (new_type) {
bd81e77b
NC
1267 case SVt_IV:
1268 assert(old_type == SVt_NULL);
1269 SvANY(sv) = (XPVIV*)((char*)&(sv->sv_u.svu_iv) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVIV, xiv_iv));
1270 SvIV_set(sv, 0);
1271 return;
1272 case SVt_NV:
1273 assert(old_type == SVt_NULL);
1274 SvANY(sv) = new_XNV();
1275 SvNV_set(sv, 0);
1276 return;
bd81e77b 1277 case SVt_PVHV:
bd81e77b 1278 case SVt_PVAV:
d2a0f284 1279 assert(new_type_details->body_size);
c1ae03ae
NC
1280
1281#ifndef PURIFY
1282 assert(new_type_details->arena);
d2a0f284 1283 assert(new_type_details->arena_size);
c1ae03ae 1284 /* This points to the start of the allocated area. */
d2a0f284
JC
1285 new_body_inline(new_body, new_type);
1286 Zero(new_body, new_type_details->body_size, char);
c1ae03ae
NC
1287 new_body = ((char *)new_body) - new_type_details->offset;
1288#else
1289 /* We always allocated the full length item with PURIFY. To do this
1290 we fake things so that arena is false for all 16 types.. */
1291 new_body = new_NOARENAZ(new_type_details);
1292#endif
1293 SvANY(sv) = new_body;
1294 if (new_type == SVt_PVAV) {
1295 AvMAX(sv) = -1;
1296 AvFILLp(sv) = -1;
1297 AvREAL_only(sv);
64484faa 1298 if (old_type_details->body_size) {
ac572bf4
NC
1299 AvALLOC(sv) = 0;
1300 } else {
1301 /* It will have been zeroed when the new body was allocated.
1302 Lets not write to it, in case it confuses a write-back
1303 cache. */
1304 }
78ac7dd9
NC
1305 } else {
1306 assert(!SvOK(sv));
1307 SvOK_off(sv);
1308#ifndef NODEFAULT_SHAREKEYS
1309 HvSHAREKEYS_on(sv); /* key-sharing on by default */
1310#endif
1311 HvMAX(sv) = 7; /* (start with 8 buckets) */
c1ae03ae 1312 }
aeb18a1e 1313
bd81e77b
NC
1314 /* SVt_NULL isn't the only thing upgraded to AV or HV.
1315 The target created by newSVrv also is, and it can have magic.
1316 However, it never has SvPVX set.
1317 */
4df7f6af
NC
1318 if (old_type == SVt_IV) {
1319 assert(!SvROK(sv));
1320 } else if (old_type >= SVt_PV) {
bd81e77b
NC
1321 assert(SvPVX_const(sv) == 0);
1322 }
aeb18a1e 1323
bd81e77b 1324 if (old_type >= SVt_PVMG) {
e736a858 1325 SvMAGIC_set(sv, ((XPVMG*)old_body)->xmg_u.xmg_magic);
bd81e77b 1326 SvSTASH_set(sv, ((XPVMG*)old_body)->xmg_stash);
797c7171
NC
1327 } else {
1328 sv->sv_u.svu_array = NULL; /* or svu_hash */
bd81e77b
NC
1329 }
1330 break;
93e68bfb 1331
bd81e77b
NC
1332 case SVt_PVIV:
1333 /* XXX Is this still needed? Was it ever needed? Surely as there is
1334 no route from NV to PVIV, NOK can never be true */
1335 assert(!SvNOKp(sv));
1336 assert(!SvNOK(sv));
1337 case SVt_PVIO:
1338 case SVt_PVFM:
bd81e77b
NC
1339 case SVt_PVGV:
1340 case SVt_PVCV:
1341 case SVt_PVLV:
12c45b25 1342 case SVt_REGEXP:
bd81e77b
NC
1343 case SVt_PVMG:
1344 case SVt_PVNV:
1345 case SVt_PV:
93e68bfb 1346
d2a0f284 1347 assert(new_type_details->body_size);
bd81e77b
NC
1348 /* We always allocated the full length item with PURIFY. To do this
1349 we fake things so that arena is false for all 16 types.. */
1350 if(new_type_details->arena) {
1351 /* This points to the start of the allocated area. */
d2a0f284
JC
1352 new_body_inline(new_body, new_type);
1353 Zero(new_body, new_type_details->body_size, char);
bd81e77b
NC
1354 new_body = ((char *)new_body) - new_type_details->offset;
1355 } else {
1356 new_body = new_NOARENAZ(new_type_details);
1357 }
1358 SvANY(sv) = new_body;
5e2fc214 1359
bd81e77b 1360 if (old_type_details->copy) {
f9ba3d20
NC
1361 /* There is now the potential for an upgrade from something without
1362 an offset (PVNV or PVMG) to something with one (PVCV, PVFM) */
1363 int offset = old_type_details->offset;
1364 int length = old_type_details->copy;
1365
1366 if (new_type_details->offset > old_type_details->offset) {
d4c19fe8 1367 const int difference
f9ba3d20
NC
1368 = new_type_details->offset - old_type_details->offset;
1369 offset += difference;
1370 length -= difference;
1371 }
1372 assert (length >= 0);
1373
1374 Copy((char *)old_body + offset, (char *)new_body + offset, length,
1375 char);
bd81e77b
NC
1376 }
1377
1378#ifndef NV_ZERO_IS_ALLBITS_ZERO
f2524eef 1379 /* If NV 0.0 is stores as all bits 0 then Zero() already creates a
e5ce394c
NC
1380 * correct 0.0 for us. Otherwise, if the old body didn't have an
1381 * NV slot, but the new one does, then we need to initialise the
1382 * freshly created NV slot with whatever the correct bit pattern is
1383 * for 0.0 */
e22a937e
NC
1384 if (old_type_details->zero_nv && !new_type_details->zero_nv
1385 && !isGV_with_GP(sv))
bd81e77b 1386 SvNV_set(sv, 0);
82048762 1387#endif
5e2fc214 1388
85dca89a
NC
1389 if (new_type == SVt_PVIO) {
1390 IO * const io = MUTABLE_IO(sv);
d963bf01 1391 GV *iogv = gv_fetchpvs("IO::File::", GV_ADD, SVt_PVHV);
85dca89a
NC
1392
1393 SvOBJECT_on(io);
1394 /* Clear the stashcache because a new IO could overrule a package
1395 name */
103f5a36 1396 DEBUG_o(Perl_deb(aTHX_ "sv_upgrade clearing PL_stashcache\n"));
85dca89a
NC
1397 hv_clear(PL_stashcache);
1398
85dca89a 1399 SvSTASH_set(io, MUTABLE_HV(SvREFCNT_inc(GvHV(iogv))));
f2524eef 1400 IoPAGE_LEN(sv) = 60;
85dca89a 1401 }
8d919b0a
FC
1402 if (new_type == SVt_REGEXP)
1403 sv->sv_u.svu_rx = (regexp *)new_body;
1404 else if (old_type < SVt_PV) {
4df7f6af
NC
1405 /* referant will be NULL unless the old type was SVt_IV emulating
1406 SVt_RV */
1407 sv->sv_u.svu_rv = referant;
1408 }
bd81e77b
NC
1409 break;
1410 default:
afd78fd5
JH
1411 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: sv_upgrade to unknown type %lu",
1412 (unsigned long)new_type);
bd81e77b 1413 }
73171d91 1414
db93c0c4 1415 if (old_type > SVt_IV) {
bd81e77b 1416#ifdef PURIFY
beeec492 1417 safefree(old_body);
bd81e77b 1418#else
bc786448
GG
1419 /* Note that there is an assumption that all bodies of types that
1420 can be upgraded came from arenas. Only the more complex non-
1421 upgradable types are allowed to be directly malloc()ed. */
1422 assert(old_type_details->arena);
bd81e77b
NC
1423 del_body((void*)((char*)old_body + old_type_details->offset),
1424 &PL_body_roots[old_type]);
1425#endif
1426 }
1427}
73171d91 1428
bd81e77b
NC
1429/*
1430=for apidoc sv_backoff
73171d91 1431
fde67290 1432Remove any string offset. You should normally use the C<SvOOK_off> macro
bd81e77b 1433wrapper instead.
73171d91 1434
bd81e77b 1435=cut
73171d91
NC
1436*/
1437
bd81e77b 1438int
5aaab254 1439Perl_sv_backoff(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
bd81e77b 1440{
69240efd 1441 STRLEN delta;
7a4bba22 1442 const char * const s = SvPVX_const(sv);
7918f24d
NC
1443
1444 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_BACKOFF;
96a5add6 1445 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
7918f24d 1446
bd81e77b
NC
1447 assert(SvOOK(sv));
1448 assert(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV);
1449 assert(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV);
7a4bba22 1450
69240efd
NC
1451 SvOOK_offset(sv, delta);
1452
7a4bba22
NC
1453 SvLEN_set(sv, SvLEN(sv) + delta);
1454 SvPV_set(sv, SvPVX(sv) - delta);
1455 Move(s, SvPVX(sv), SvCUR(sv)+1, char);
bd81e77b
NC
1456 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~SVf_OOK;
1457 return 0;
1458}
73171d91 1459
bd81e77b
NC
1460/*
1461=for apidoc sv_grow
73171d91 1462
bd81e77b
NC
1463Expands the character buffer in the SV. If necessary, uses C<sv_unref> and
1464upgrades the SV to C<SVt_PV>. Returns a pointer to the character buffer.
1465Use the C<SvGROW> wrapper instead.
93e68bfb 1466
bd81e77b
NC
1467=cut
1468*/
93e68bfb 1469
bd81e77b 1470char *
5aaab254 1471Perl_sv_grow(pTHX_ SV *const sv, STRLEN newlen)
bd81e77b 1472{
eb578fdb 1473 char *s;
93e68bfb 1474
7918f24d
NC
1475 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_GROW;
1476
5db06880
NC
1477 if (PL_madskills && newlen >= 0x100000) {
1478 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1479 "Allocation too large: %"UVxf"\n", (UV)newlen);
1480 }
bd81e77b
NC
1481#ifdef HAS_64K_LIMIT
1482 if (newlen >= 0x10000) {
1483 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1484 "Allocation too large: %"UVxf"\n", (UV)newlen);
1485 my_exit(1);
1486 }
1487#endif /* HAS_64K_LIMIT */
1488 if (SvROK(sv))
1489 sv_unref(sv);
1490 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PV) {
1491 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PV);
1492 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
1493 }
1494 else if (SvOOK(sv)) { /* pv is offset? */
1495 sv_backoff(sv);
1496 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
1497 if (newlen > SvLEN(sv))
1498 newlen += 10 * (newlen - SvCUR(sv)); /* avoid copy each time */
1499#ifdef HAS_64K_LIMIT
1500 if (newlen >= 0x10000)
1501 newlen = 0xFFFF;
1502#endif
1503 }
1504 else
db2c6cb3
FC
1505 {
1506 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) sv_force_normal(sv);
bd81e77b 1507 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
db2c6cb3 1508 }
aeb18a1e 1509
bd81e77b 1510 if (newlen > SvLEN(sv)) { /* need more room? */
f1200559
WH
1511 STRLEN minlen = SvCUR(sv);
1512 minlen += (minlen >> PERL_STRLEN_EXPAND_SHIFT) + 10;
1513 if (newlen < minlen)
1514 newlen = minlen;
aedff202 1515#ifndef Perl_safesysmalloc_size
bd81e77b 1516 newlen = PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(newlen);
bd81e77b 1517#endif
98653f18 1518 if (SvLEN(sv) && s) {
10edeb5d 1519 s = (char*)saferealloc(s, newlen);
bd81e77b
NC
1520 }
1521 else {
10edeb5d 1522 s = (char*)safemalloc(newlen);
bd81e77b
NC
1523 if (SvPVX_const(sv) && SvCUR(sv)) {
1524 Move(SvPVX_const(sv), s, (newlen < SvCUR(sv)) ? newlen : SvCUR(sv), char);
1525 }
1526 }
1527 SvPV_set(sv, s);
ca7c1a29 1528#ifdef Perl_safesysmalloc_size
98653f18
NC
1529 /* Do this here, do it once, do it right, and then we will never get
1530 called back into sv_grow() unless there really is some growing
1531 needed. */
ca7c1a29 1532 SvLEN_set(sv, Perl_safesysmalloc_size(s));
98653f18 1533#else
bd81e77b 1534 SvLEN_set(sv, newlen);
98653f18 1535#endif
bd81e77b
NC
1536 }
1537 return s;
1538}
aeb18a1e 1539
bd81e77b
NC
1540/*
1541=for apidoc sv_setiv
932e9ff9 1542
bd81e77b
NC
1543Copies an integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
1544Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<sv_setiv_mg>.
463ee0b2 1545
bd81e77b
NC
1546=cut
1547*/
463ee0b2 1548
bd81e77b 1549void
5aaab254 1550Perl_sv_setiv(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const IV i)
bd81e77b 1551{
97aff369 1552 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1553
1554 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETIV;
1555
bd81e77b
NC
1556 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(sv);
1557 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
1558 case SVt_NULL:
bd81e77b 1559 case SVt_NV:
3376de98 1560 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_IV);
bd81e77b 1561 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1562 case SVt_PV:
1563 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
1564 break;
463ee0b2 1565
bd81e77b 1566 case SVt_PVGV:
6e592b3a
BM
1567 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
1568 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1569 case SVt_PVAV:
1570 case SVt_PVHV:
1571 case SVt_PVCV:
1572 case SVt_PVFM:
1573 case SVt_PVIO:
22e74366 1574 /* diag_listed_as: Can't coerce %s to %s in %s */
bd81e77b
NC
1575 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't coerce %s to integer in %s", sv_reftype(sv,0),
1576 OP_DESC(PL_op));
42d0e0b7 1577 default: NOOP;
bd81e77b
NC
1578 }
1579 (void)SvIOK_only(sv); /* validate number */
1580 SvIV_set(sv, i);
1581 SvTAINT(sv);
1582}
932e9ff9 1583
bd81e77b
NC
1584/*
1585=for apidoc sv_setiv_mg
d33b2eba 1586
bd81e77b 1587Like C<sv_setiv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1c846c1f 1588
bd81e77b
NC
1589=cut
1590*/
d33b2eba 1591
bd81e77b 1592void
5aaab254 1593Perl_sv_setiv_mg(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const IV i)
bd81e77b 1594{
7918f24d
NC
1595 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETIV_MG;
1596
bd81e77b
NC
1597 sv_setiv(sv,i);
1598 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
1599}
727879eb 1600
bd81e77b
NC
1601/*
1602=for apidoc sv_setuv
d33b2eba 1603
bd81e77b
NC
1604Copies an unsigned integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
1605Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<sv_setuv_mg>.
9b94d1dd 1606
bd81e77b
NC
1607=cut
1608*/
d33b2eba 1609
bd81e77b 1610void
5aaab254 1611Perl_sv_setuv(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const UV u)
bd81e77b 1612{
7918f24d
NC
1613 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETUV;
1614
013abb9b
NC
1615 /* With the if statement to ensure that integers are stored as IVs whenever
1616 possible:
bd81e77b 1617 u=1.49 s=0.52 cu=72.49 cs=10.64 scripts=270 tests=20865
d33b2eba 1618
bd81e77b
NC
1619 without
1620 u=1.35 s=0.47 cu=73.45 cs=11.43 scripts=270 tests=20865
1c846c1f 1621
013abb9b
NC
1622 If you wish to remove the following if statement, so that this routine
1623 (and its callers) always return UVs, please benchmark to see what the
1624 effect is. Modern CPUs may be different. Or may not :-)
bd81e77b
NC
1625 */
1626 if (u <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
1627 sv_setiv(sv, (IV)u);
1628 return;
1629 }
1630 sv_setiv(sv, 0);
1631 SvIsUV_on(sv);
1632 SvUV_set(sv, u);
1633}
d33b2eba 1634
bd81e77b
NC
1635/*
1636=for apidoc sv_setuv_mg
727879eb 1637
bd81e77b 1638Like C<sv_setuv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
9b94d1dd 1639
bd81e77b
NC
1640=cut
1641*/
5e2fc214 1642
bd81e77b 1643void
5aaab254 1644Perl_sv_setuv_mg(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const UV u)
bd81e77b 1645{
7918f24d
NC
1646 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETUV_MG;
1647
bd81e77b
NC
1648 sv_setuv(sv,u);
1649 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
1650}
5e2fc214 1651
954c1994 1652/*
bd81e77b 1653=for apidoc sv_setnv
954c1994 1654
bd81e77b
NC
1655Copies a double into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
1656Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<sv_setnv_mg>.
954c1994
GS
1657
1658=cut
1659*/
1660
63f97190 1661void
5aaab254 1662Perl_sv_setnv(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const NV num)
79072805 1663{
97aff369 1664 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1665
1666 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETNV;
1667
bd81e77b
NC
1668 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(sv);
1669 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
79072805 1670 case SVt_NULL:
79072805 1671 case SVt_IV:
bd81e77b 1672 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_NV);
79072805
LW
1673 break;
1674 case SVt_PV:
79072805 1675 case SVt_PVIV:
bd81e77b 1676 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
79072805 1677 break;
bd4b1eb5 1678
bd4b1eb5 1679 case SVt_PVGV:
6e592b3a
BM
1680 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
1681 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1682 case SVt_PVAV:
1683 case SVt_PVHV:
79072805 1684 case SVt_PVCV:
bd81e77b
NC
1685 case SVt_PVFM:
1686 case SVt_PVIO:
22e74366 1687 /* diag_listed_as: Can't coerce %s to %s in %s */
bd81e77b 1688 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't coerce %s to number in %s", sv_reftype(sv,0),
94bbb3f4 1689 OP_DESC(PL_op));
42d0e0b7 1690 default: NOOP;
2068cd4d 1691 }
bd81e77b
NC
1692 SvNV_set(sv, num);
1693 (void)SvNOK_only(sv); /* validate number */
1694 SvTAINT(sv);
79072805
LW
1695}
1696
645c22ef 1697/*
bd81e77b 1698=for apidoc sv_setnv_mg
645c22ef 1699
bd81e77b 1700Like C<sv_setnv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
645c22ef
DM
1701
1702=cut
1703*/
1704
bd81e77b 1705void
5aaab254 1706Perl_sv_setnv_mg(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const NV num)
79072805 1707{
7918f24d
NC
1708 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETNV_MG;
1709
bd81e77b
NC
1710 sv_setnv(sv,num);
1711 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
79072805
LW
1712}
1713
bd81e77b
NC
1714/* Print an "isn't numeric" warning, using a cleaned-up,
1715 * printable version of the offending string
1716 */
954c1994 1717
bd81e77b 1718STATIC void
aad570aa 1719S_not_a_number(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
79072805 1720{
97aff369 1721 dVAR;
bd81e77b
NC
1722 SV *dsv;
1723 char tmpbuf[64];
1724 const char *pv;
94463019 1725
7918f24d
NC
1726 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_NOT_A_NUMBER;
1727
94463019 1728 if (DO_UTF8(sv)) {
84bafc02 1729 dsv = newSVpvs_flags("", SVs_TEMP);
472394e4 1730 pv = sv_uni_display(dsv, sv, 10, UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT);
94463019
JH
1731 } else {
1732 char *d = tmpbuf;
551405c4 1733 const char * const limit = tmpbuf + sizeof(tmpbuf) - 8;
94463019
JH
1734 /* each *s can expand to 4 chars + "...\0",
1735 i.e. need room for 8 chars */
ecdeb87c 1736
00b6aa41
AL
1737 const char *s = SvPVX_const(sv);
1738 const char * const end = s + SvCUR(sv);
1739 for ( ; s < end && d < limit; s++ ) {
94463019
JH
1740 int ch = *s & 0xFF;
1741 if (ch & 128 && !isPRINT_LC(ch)) {
1742 *d++ = 'M';
1743 *d++ = '-';
1744 ch &= 127;
1745 }
1746 if (ch == '\n') {
1747 *d++ = '\\';
1748 *d++ = 'n';
1749 }
1750 else if (ch == '\r') {
1751 *d++ = '\\';
1752 *d++ = 'r';
1753 }
1754 else if (ch == '\f') {
1755 *d++ = '\\';
1756 *d++ = 'f';
1757 }
1758 else if (ch == '\\') {
1759 *d++ = '\\';
1760 *d++ = '\\';
1761 }
1762 else if (ch == '\0') {
1763 *d++ = '\\';
1764 *d++ = '0';
1765 }
1766 else if (isPRINT_LC(ch))
1767 *d++ = ch;
1768 else {
1769 *d++ = '^';
1770 *d++ = toCTRL(ch);
1771 }
1772 }
1773 if (s < end) {
1774 *d++ = '.';
1775 *d++ = '.';
1776 *d++ = '.';
1777 }
1778 *d = '\0';
1779 pv = tmpbuf;
a0d0e21e 1780 }
a0d0e21e 1781
533c011a 1782 if (PL_op)
9014280d 1783 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NUMERIC),
734856a2 1784 /* diag_listed_as: Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s */
94463019
JH
1785 "Argument \"%s\" isn't numeric in %s", pv,
1786 OP_DESC(PL_op));
a0d0e21e 1787 else
9014280d 1788 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NUMERIC),
734856a2 1789 /* diag_listed_as: Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s */
94463019 1790 "Argument \"%s\" isn't numeric", pv);
a0d0e21e
LW
1791}
1792
c2988b20
NC
1793/*
1794=for apidoc looks_like_number
1795
645c22ef
DM
1796Test if the content of an SV looks like a number (or is a number).
1797C<Inf> and C<Infinity> are treated as numbers (so will not issue a
f52e41ad
FC
1798non-numeric warning), even if your atof() doesn't grok them. Get-magic is
1799ignored.
c2988b20
NC
1800
1801=cut
1802*/
1803
1804I32
aad570aa 1805Perl_looks_like_number(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
c2988b20 1806{
eb578fdb 1807 const char *sbegin;
c2988b20
NC
1808 STRLEN len;
1809
7918f24d
NC
1810 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_LOOKS_LIKE_NUMBER;
1811
f52e41ad
FC
1812 if (SvPOK(sv) || SvPOKp(sv)) {
1813 sbegin = SvPV_nomg_const(sv, len);
c2988b20 1814 }
c2988b20 1815 else
e0ab1c0e 1816 return SvFLAGS(sv) & (SVf_NOK|SVp_NOK|SVf_IOK|SVp_IOK);
c2988b20
NC
1817 return grok_number(sbegin, len, NULL);
1818}
25da4f38 1819
19f6321d
NC
1820STATIC bool
1821S_glob_2number(pTHX_ GV * const gv)
180488f8 1822{
7918f24d
NC
1823 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_GLOB_2NUMBER;
1824
675c862f
AL
1825 /* We know that all GVs stringify to something that is not-a-number,
1826 so no need to test that. */
1827 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
8e629ff4
FC
1828 {
1829 SV *const buffer = sv_newmortal();
1830 gv_efullname3(buffer, gv, "*");
675c862f 1831 not_a_number(buffer);
8e629ff4 1832 }
675c862f
AL
1833 /* We just want something true to return, so that S_sv_2iuv_common
1834 can tail call us and return true. */
19f6321d 1835 return TRUE;
675c862f
AL
1836}
1837
25da4f38
IZ
1838/* Actually, ISO C leaves conversion of UV to IV undefined, but
1839 until proven guilty, assume that things are not that bad... */
1840
645c22ef
DM
1841/*
1842 NV_PRESERVES_UV:
1843
1844 As 64 bit platforms often have an NV that doesn't preserve all bits of
28e5dec8
JH
1845 an IV (an assumption perl has been based on to date) it becomes necessary
1846 to remove the assumption that the NV always carries enough precision to
1847 recreate the IV whenever needed, and that the NV is the canonical form.
1848 Instead, IV/UV and NV need to be given equal rights. So as to not lose
645c22ef 1849 precision as a side effect of conversion (which would lead to insanity
28e5dec8
JH
1850 and the dragon(s) in t/op/numconvert.t getting very angry) the intent is
1851 1) to distinguish between IV/UV/NV slots that have cached a valid
1852 conversion where precision was lost and IV/UV/NV slots that have a
1853 valid conversion which has lost no precision
645c22ef 1854 2) to ensure that if a numeric conversion to one form is requested that
28e5dec8
JH
1855 would lose precision, the precise conversion (or differently
1856 imprecise conversion) is also performed and cached, to prevent
1857 requests for different numeric formats on the same SV causing
1858 lossy conversion chains. (lossless conversion chains are perfectly
1859 acceptable (still))
1860
1861
1862 flags are used:
1863 SvIOKp is true if the IV slot contains a valid value
1864 SvIOK is true only if the IV value is accurate (UV if SvIOK_UV true)
1865 SvNOKp is true if the NV slot contains a valid value
1866 SvNOK is true only if the NV value is accurate
1867
1868 so
645c22ef 1869 while converting from PV to NV, check to see if converting that NV to an
28e5dec8
JH
1870 IV(or UV) would lose accuracy over a direct conversion from PV to
1871 IV(or UV). If it would, cache both conversions, return NV, but mark
1872 SV as IOK NOKp (ie not NOK).
1873
645c22ef 1874 While converting from PV to IV, check to see if converting that IV to an
28e5dec8
JH
1875 NV would lose accuracy over a direct conversion from PV to NV. If it
1876 would, cache both conversions, flag similarly.
1877
1878 Before, the SV value "3.2" could become NV=3.2 IV=3 NOK, IOK quite
1879 correctly because if IV & NV were set NV *always* overruled.
645c22ef
DM
1880 Now, "3.2" will become NV=3.2 IV=3 NOK, IOKp, because the flag's meaning
1881 changes - now IV and NV together means that the two are interchangeable:
28e5dec8 1882 SvIVX == (IV) SvNVX && SvNVX == (NV) SvIVX;
d460ef45 1883
645c22ef
DM
1884 The benefit of this is that operations such as pp_add know that if
1885 SvIOK is true for both left and right operands, then integer addition
1886 can be used instead of floating point (for cases where the result won't
1887 overflow). Before, floating point was always used, which could lead to
28e5dec8
JH
1888 loss of precision compared with integer addition.
1889
1890 * making IV and NV equal status should make maths accurate on 64 bit
1891 platforms
1892 * may speed up maths somewhat if pp_add and friends start to use
645c22ef 1893 integers when possible instead of fp. (Hopefully the overhead in
28e5dec8
JH
1894 looking for SvIOK and checking for overflow will not outweigh the
1895 fp to integer speedup)
1896 * will slow down integer operations (callers of SvIV) on "inaccurate"
1897 values, as the change from SvIOK to SvIOKp will cause a call into
1898 sv_2iv each time rather than a macro access direct to the IV slot
1899 * should speed up number->string conversion on integers as IV is
645c22ef 1900 favoured when IV and NV are equally accurate
28e5dec8
JH
1901
1902 ####################################################################
645c22ef
DM
1903 You had better be using SvIOK_notUV if you want an IV for arithmetic:
1904 SvIOK is true if (IV or UV), so you might be getting (IV)SvUV.
1905 On the other hand, SvUOK is true iff UV.
28e5dec8
JH
1906 ####################################################################
1907
645c22ef 1908 Your mileage will vary depending your CPU's relative fp to integer
28e5dec8
JH
1909 performance ratio.
1910*/
1911
1912#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
645c22ef
DM
1913# define IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_IV 1
1914# define IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_UV 2
1915# define IS_NUMBER_IV_AND_UV 2
1916# define IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_IV 4
1917# define IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV 5
1918
1919/* sv_2iuv_non_preserve(): private routine for use by sv_2iv() and sv_2uv() */
28e5dec8
JH
1920
1921/* For sv_2nv these three cases are "SvNOK and don't bother casting" */
1922STATIC int
5aaab254 1923S_sv_2iuv_non_preserve(pTHX_ SV *const sv
47031da6
NC
1924# ifdef DEBUGGING
1925 , I32 numtype
1926# endif
1927 )
28e5dec8 1928{
97aff369 1929 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1930
1931 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2IUV_NON_PRESERVE;
1932
3f7c398e 1933 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,"sv_2iuv_non '%s', IV=0x%"UVxf" NV=%"NVgf" inttype=%"UVXf"\n", SvPVX_const(sv), SvIVX(sv), SvNVX(sv), (UV)numtype));
28e5dec8
JH
1934 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MIN) {
1935 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
1936 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
45977657 1937 SvIV_set(sv, IV_MIN);
28e5dec8
JH
1938 return IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_IV;
1939 }
1940 if (SvNVX(sv) > (NV)UV_MAX) {
1941 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
1942 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
1943 SvIsUV_on(sv);
607fa7f2 1944 SvUV_set(sv, UV_MAX);
28e5dec8
JH
1945 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV;
1946 }
c2988b20
NC
1947 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
1948 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
1949 /* Can't use strtol etc to convert this string. (See truth table in
1950 sv_2iv */
1951 if (SvNVX(sv) <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 1952 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
c2988b20
NC
1953 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
1954 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Integer is precise. NOK, IOK */
1955 } else {
1956 /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
1957 }
1958 return SvNVX(sv) < 0 ? IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_UV : IS_NUMBER_IV_AND_UV;
1959 }
1960 SvIsUV_on(sv);
607fa7f2 1961 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
c2988b20
NC
1962 if ((NV)(SvUVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
1963 if (SvUVX(sv) == UV_MAX) {
1964 /* As we know that NVs don't preserve UVs, UV_MAX cannot
1965 possibly be preserved by NV. Hence, it must be overflow.
1966 NOK, IOKp */
1967 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV;
1968 }
1969 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Integer is precise. NOK, UOK */
1970 } else {
1971 /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
28e5dec8 1972 }
c2988b20 1973 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_IV;
28e5dec8 1974}
645c22ef
DM
1975#endif /* !NV_PRESERVES_UV*/
1976
af359546 1977STATIC bool
7918f24d
NC
1978S_sv_2iuv_common(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
1979{
97aff369 1980 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1981
1982 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2IUV_COMMON;
1983
af359546 1984 if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
28e5dec8
JH
1985 /* erm. not sure. *should* never get NOKp (without NOK) from sv_2nv
1986 * without also getting a cached IV/UV from it at the same time
1987 * (ie PV->NV conversion should detect loss of accuracy and cache
af359546
NC
1988 * IV or UV at same time to avoid this. */
1989 /* IV-over-UV optimisation - choose to cache IV if possible */
25da4f38
IZ
1990
1991 if (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_NV)
1992 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
1993
28e5dec8
JH
1994 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv); /* Must do this first, to clear any SvOOK */
1995 /* < not <= as for NV doesn't preserve UV, ((NV)IV_MAX+1) will almost
1996 certainly cast into the IV range at IV_MAX, whereas the correct
1997 answer is the UV IV_MAX +1. Hence < ensures that dodgy boundary
1998 cases go to UV */
cab190d4
JD
1999#if defined(NAN_COMPARE_BROKEN) && defined(Perl_isnan)
2000 if (Perl_isnan(SvNVX(sv))) {
2001 SvUV_set(sv, 0);
2002 SvIsUV_on(sv);
fdbe6d7c 2003 return FALSE;
cab190d4 2004 }
cab190d4 2005#endif
28e5dec8 2006 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
45977657 2007 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
2008 if (SvNVX(sv) == (NV) SvIVX(sv)
2009#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2010 && (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
2011 (UV)(SvIVX(sv) > 0 ? SvIVX(sv) : -SvIVX(sv)))
2012 /* Don't flag it as "accurately an integer" if the number
2013 came from a (by definition imprecise) NV operation, and
2014 we're outside the range of NV integer precision */
2015#endif
2016 ) {
a43d94f2
NC
2017 if (SvNOK(sv))
2018 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Can this go wrong with rounding? NWC */
2019 else {
2020 /* scalar has trailing garbage, eg "42a" */
2021 }
28e5dec8 2022 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
7234c960 2023 "0x%"UVxf" iv(%"NVgf" => %"IVdf") (precise)\n",
28e5dec8
JH
2024 PTR2UV(sv),
2025 SvNVX(sv),
2026 SvIVX(sv)));
2027
2028 } else {
2029 /* IV not precise. No need to convert from PV, as NV
2030 conversion would already have cached IV if it detected
2031 that PV->IV would be better than PV->NV->IV
2032 flags already correct - don't set public IOK. */
2033 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
7234c960 2034 "0x%"UVxf" iv(%"NVgf" => %"IVdf") (imprecise)\n",
28e5dec8
JH
2035 PTR2UV(sv),
2036 SvNVX(sv),
2037 SvIVX(sv)));
2038 }
2039 /* Can the above go wrong if SvIVX == IV_MIN and SvNVX < IV_MIN,
2040 but the cast (NV)IV_MIN rounds to a the value less (more
2041 negative) than IV_MIN which happens to be equal to SvNVX ??
2042 Analogous to 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF rounding up to NV (2**64) and
2043 NV rounding back to 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF, so UVX == UV(NVX) and
2044 (NV)UVX == NVX are both true, but the values differ. :-(
2045 Hopefully for 2s complement IV_MIN is something like
2046 0x8000000000000000 which will be exact. NWC */
d460ef45 2047 }
25da4f38 2048 else {
607fa7f2 2049 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
2050 if (
2051 (SvNVX(sv) == (NV) SvUVX(sv))
2052#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2053 /* Make sure it's not 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF */
2054 /*&& (SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX) irrelevant with code below */
2055 && (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) > SvUVX(sv))
2056 /* Don't flag it as "accurately an integer" if the number
2057 came from a (by definition imprecise) NV operation, and
2058 we're outside the range of NV integer precision */
2059#endif
a43d94f2 2060 && SvNOK(sv)
28e5dec8
JH
2061 )
2062 SvIOK_on(sv);
25da4f38 2063 SvIsUV_on(sv);
1c846c1f 2064 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
57def98f 2065 "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%"UVuf" => %"IVdf") (as unsigned)\n",
56431972 2066 PTR2UV(sv),
57def98f
JH
2067 SvUVX(sv),
2068 SvUVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2069 }
748a9306 2070 }
cd84013a 2071 else if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
c2988b20 2072 UV value;
504618e9 2073 const int numtype = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
af359546 2074 /* We want to avoid a possible problem when we cache an IV/ a UV which
25da4f38 2075 may be later translated to an NV, and the resulting NV is not
c2988b20
NC
2076 the same as the direct translation of the initial string
2077 (eg 123.456 can shortcut to the IV 123 with atol(), but we must
2078 be careful to ensure that the value with the .456 is around if the
2079 NV value is requested in the future).
1c846c1f 2080
af359546 2081 This means that if we cache such an IV/a UV, we need to cache the
25da4f38 2082 NV as well. Moreover, we trade speed for space, and do not
28e5dec8 2083 cache the NV if we are sure it's not needed.
25da4f38 2084 */
16b7a9a4 2085
c2988b20
NC
2086 /* SVt_PVNV is one higher than SVt_PVIV, hence this order */
2087 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2088 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
5e045b90 2089 /* It's definitely an integer, only upgrade to PVIV */
28e5dec8
JH
2090 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVIV)
2091 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
f7bbb42a 2092 (void)SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2093 } else if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2094 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
28e5dec8 2095
f2524eef 2096 /* If NVs preserve UVs then we only use the UV value if we know that
c2988b20
NC
2097 we aren't going to call atof() below. If NVs don't preserve UVs
2098 then the value returned may have more precision than atof() will
2099 return, even though value isn't perfectly accurate. */
2100 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV
2101#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2102 | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT
2103#endif
2104 )) == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2105 /* This won't turn off the public IOK flag if it was set above */
2106 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2107
2108 if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG)) {
2109 /* positive */;
2110 if (value <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 2111 SvIV_set(sv, (IV)value);
c2988b20 2112 } else {
af359546 2113 /* it didn't overflow, and it was positive. */
607fa7f2 2114 SvUV_set(sv, value);
c2988b20
NC
2115 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2116 }
2117 } else {
2118 /* 2s complement assumption */
2119 if (value <= (UV)IV_MIN) {
45977657 2120 SvIV_set(sv, -(IV)value);
c2988b20
NC
2121 } else {
2122 /* Too negative for an IV. This is a double upgrade, but
d1be9408 2123 I'm assuming it will be rare. */
c2988b20
NC
2124 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2125 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
2126 SvNOK_on(sv);
2127 SvIOK_off(sv);
2128 SvIOKp_on(sv);
9d6ce603 2129 SvNV_set(sv, -(NV)value);
45977657 2130 SvIV_set(sv, IV_MIN);
c2988b20
NC
2131 }
2132 }
2133 }
2134 /* For !NV_PRESERVES_UV and IS_NUMBER_IN_UV and IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT we
2135 will be in the previous block to set the IV slot, and the next
2136 block to set the NV slot. So no else here. */
2137
2138 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2139 != IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2140 /* It wasn't an (integer that doesn't overflow the UV). */
3f7c398e 2141 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
28e5dec8 2142
c2988b20
NC
2143 if (! numtype && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2144 not_a_number(sv);
28e5dec8 2145
65202027 2146#if defined(USE_LONG_DOUBLE)
c2988b20
NC
2147 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%" PERL_PRIgldbl ")\n",
2148 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv)));
65202027 2149#else
1779d84d 2150 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%"NVgf")\n",
c2988b20 2151 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv)));
65202027 2152#endif
28e5dec8 2153
28e5dec8 2154#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
af359546
NC
2155 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2156 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
2157 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
2158 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
2159 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
2160 SvIOK_on(sv);
2161 } else {
6f207bd3 2162 NOOP; /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
af359546
NC
2163 }
2164 /* UV will not work better than IV */
2165 } else {
2166 if (SvNVX(sv) > (NV)UV_MAX) {
2167 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2168 /* Integer is inaccurate. NOK, IOKp, is UV */
2169 SvUV_set(sv, UV_MAX);
af359546
NC
2170 } else {
2171 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
2172 /* 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF not an issue in here, NVs
2173 NV preservse UV so can do correct comparison. */
2174 if ((NV)(SvUVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
2175 SvIOK_on(sv);
af359546 2176 } else {
6f207bd3 2177 NOOP; /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp, is UV */
af359546
NC
2178 }
2179 }
4b0c9573 2180 SvIsUV_on(sv);
af359546 2181 }
28e5dec8 2182#else /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
c2988b20
NC
2183 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2184 == (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT)) {
af359546 2185 /* The IV/UV slot will have been set from value returned by
c2988b20
NC
2186 grok_number above. The NV slot has just been set using
2187 Atof. */
560b0c46 2188 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2189 assert (SvIOKp(sv));
2190 } else {
2191 if (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
2192 U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))) {
2193 /* Small enough to preserve all bits. */
2194 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2195 SvNOK_on(sv);
45977657 2196 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
c2988b20
NC
2197 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv))
2198 SvIOK_on(sv);
2199 /* Assumption: first non-preserved integer is < IV_MAX,
2200 this NV is in the preserved range, therefore: */
2201 if (!(U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))
2202 < (UV)IV_MAX)) {
32fdb065 2203 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "sv_2iv assumed (U_V(fabs((double)SvNVX(sv))) < (UV)IV_MAX) but SvNVX(sv)=%"NVgf" U_V is 0x%"UVxf", IV_MAX is 0x%"UVxf"\n", SvNVX(sv), U_V(SvNVX(sv)), (UV)IV_MAX);
c2988b20
NC
2204 }
2205 } else {
2206 /* IN_UV NOT_INT
2207 0 0 already failed to read UV.
2208 0 1 already failed to read UV.
2209 1 0 you won't get here in this case. IV/UV
2210 slot set, public IOK, Atof() unneeded.
2211 1 1 already read UV.
2212 so there's no point in sv_2iuv_non_preserve() attempting
2213 to use atol, strtol, strtoul etc. */
47031da6 2214# ifdef DEBUGGING
40a17c4c 2215 sv_2iuv_non_preserve (sv, numtype);
47031da6
NC
2216# else
2217 sv_2iuv_non_preserve (sv);
2218# endif
c2988b20
NC
2219 }
2220 }
28e5dec8 2221#endif /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
a43d94f2
NC
2222 /* It might be more code efficient to go through the entire logic above
2223 and conditionally set with SvIOKp_on() rather than SvIOK(), but it
2224 gets complex and potentially buggy, so more programmer efficient
2225 to do it this way, by turning off the public flags: */
2226 if (!numtype)
2227 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~(SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK);
25da4f38 2228 }
af359546
NC
2229 }
2230 else {
675c862f 2231 if (isGV_with_GP(sv))
159b6efe 2232 return glob_2number(MUTABLE_GV(sv));
180488f8 2233
9a214eec 2234 if (!SvPADTMP(sv)) {
af359546
NC
2235 if (!PL_localizing && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
2236 report_uninit(sv);
2237 }
25da4f38
IZ
2238 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_IV)
2239 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
2240 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_IV);
af359546
NC
2241 /* Return 0 from the caller. */
2242 return TRUE;
2243 }
2244 return FALSE;
2245}
2246
2247/*
2248=for apidoc sv_2iv_flags
2249
2250Return the integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string
2251conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first.
2252Normally used via the C<SvIV(sv)> and C<SvIVx(sv)> macros.
2253
2254=cut
2255*/
2256
2257IV
5aaab254 2258Perl_sv_2iv_flags(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
af359546 2259{
97aff369 2260 dVAR;
4bac9ae4 2261
af359546 2262 if (!sv)
a0d0e21e 2263 return 0;
4bac9ae4
CS
2264
2265 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) && (flags & SV_GMAGIC))
2266 mg_get(sv);
2267
2268 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2269 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2270 SV * tmpstr;
2271 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2272 return 0;
2273 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
2274 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2275 return SvIV(tmpstr);
2276 }
2277 }
2278 return PTR2IV(SvRV(sv));
2279 }
2280
8d919b0a 2281 if (SvVALID(sv) || isREGEXP(sv)) {
2b2b6d6d
NC
2282 /* FBMs use the space for SvIVX and SvNVX for other purposes, and use
2283 the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must not let them cache IVs.
2284 In practice they are extremely unlikely to actually get anywhere
2285 accessible by user Perl code - the only way that I'm aware of is when
2286 a constant subroutine which is used as the second argument to index.
cd84013a
FC
2287
2288 Regexps have no SvIVX and SvNVX fields.
2b2b6d6d 2289 */
8d919b0a 2290 assert(isREGEXP(sv) || SvPOKp(sv));
e20b6c3b 2291 {
71c558c3 2292 UV value;
8d919b0a
FC
2293 const char * const ptr =
2294 isREGEXP(sv) ? RX_WRAPPED((REGEXP*)sv) : SvPVX_const(sv);
71c558c3 2295 const int numtype
8d919b0a 2296 = grok_number(ptr, SvCUR(sv), &value);
71c558c3
NC
2297
2298 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2299 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2300 /* It's definitely an integer */
2301 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) {
2302 if (value < (UV)IV_MIN)
2303 return -(IV)value;
2304 } else {
2305 if (value < (UV)IV_MAX)
2306 return (IV)value;
2307 }
2308 }
2309 if (!numtype) {
2310 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2311 not_a_number(sv);
2312 }
8d919b0a 2313 return I_V(Atof(ptr));
e20b6c3b 2314 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2315 }
2316
2317 if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
73381561 2318#ifdef PERL_OLD_COPY_ON_WRITE
af359546
NC
2319 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
2320 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
2321 }
73381561 2322#endif
af359546
NC
2323 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
2324 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
2325 report_uninit(sv);
2326 return 0;
2327 }
2328 }
4bac9ae4 2329
af359546
NC
2330 if (!SvIOKp(sv)) {
2331 if (S_sv_2iuv_common(aTHX_ sv))
2332 return 0;
79072805 2333 }
4bac9ae4 2334
1d7c1841
GS
2335 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%"IVdf")\n",
2336 PTR2UV(sv),SvIVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2337 return SvIsUV(sv) ? (IV)SvUVX(sv) : SvIVX(sv);
79072805
LW
2338}
2339
645c22ef 2340/*
891f9566 2341=for apidoc sv_2uv_flags
645c22ef
DM
2342
2343Return the unsigned integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string
891f9566
YST
2344conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first.
2345Normally used via the C<SvUV(sv)> and C<SvUVx(sv)> macros.
645c22ef
DM
2346
2347=cut
2348*/
2349
ff68c719 2350UV
5aaab254 2351Perl_sv_2uv_flags(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
ff68c719 2352{
97aff369 2353 dVAR;
4bac9ae4 2354
ff68c719
PP
2355 if (!sv)
2356 return 0;
4bac9ae4
CS
2357
2358 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) && (flags & SV_GMAGIC))
2359 mg_get(sv);
2360
2361 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2362 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2363 SV *tmpstr;
2364 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2365 return 0;
2366 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
2367 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2368 return SvUV(tmpstr);
2369 }
2370 }
2371 return PTR2UV(SvRV(sv));
2372 }
2373
8d919b0a 2374 if (SvVALID(sv) || isREGEXP(sv)) {
2b2b6d6d 2375 /* FBMs use the space for SvIVX and SvNVX for other purposes, and use
cd84013a
FC
2376 the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must not let them cache IVs.
2377 Regexps have no SvIVX and SvNVX fields. */
8d919b0a 2378 assert(isREGEXP(sv) || SvPOKp(sv));
e20b6c3b 2379 {
71c558c3 2380 UV value;
8d919b0a
FC
2381 const char * const ptr =
2382 isREGEXP(sv) ? RX_WRAPPED((REGEXP*)sv) : SvPVX_const(sv);
71c558c3 2383 const int numtype
8d919b0a 2384 = grok_number(ptr, SvCUR(sv), &value);
71c558c3
NC
2385
2386 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2387 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2388 /* It's definitely an integer */
2389 if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG))
2390 return value;
2391 }
2392 if (!numtype) {
2393 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2394 not_a_number(sv);
2395 }
8d919b0a 2396 return U_V(Atof(ptr));
e20b6c3b 2397 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2398 }
2399
2400 if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
73381561 2401#ifdef PERL_OLD_COPY_ON_WRITE
765f542d
NC
2402 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
2403 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
8a818333 2404 }
73381561 2405#endif
0336b60e 2406 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
0336b60e 2407 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2408 report_uninit(sv);
ff68c719
PP
2409 return 0;
2410 }
2411 }
4bac9ae4 2412
af359546
NC
2413 if (!SvIOKp(sv)) {
2414 if (S_sv_2iuv_common(aTHX_ sv))
2415 return 0;
ff68c719 2416 }
25da4f38 2417
1d7c1841
GS
2418 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2uv(%"UVuf")\n",
2419 PTR2UV(sv),SvUVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2420 return SvIsUV(sv) ? SvUVX(sv) : (UV)SvIVX(sv);
ff68c719
PP
2421}
2422
645c22ef 2423/*
196007d1 2424=for apidoc sv_2nv_flags
645c22ef
DM
2425
2426Return the num value of an SV, doing any necessary string or integer
fde67290 2427conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first.
39d5de13 2428Normally used via the C<SvNV(sv)> and C<SvNVx(sv)> macros.
645c22ef
DM
2429
2430=cut
2431*/
2432
65202027 2433NV
5aaab254 2434Perl_sv_2nv_flags(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
79072805 2435{
97aff369 2436 dVAR;
79072805
LW
2437 if (!sv)
2438 return 0.0;
8d919b0a 2439 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) || SvVALID(sv) || isREGEXP(sv)) {
2b2b6d6d 2440 /* FBMs use the space for SvIVX and SvNVX for other purposes, and use
cd84013a
FC
2441 the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must not let them cache NVs.
2442 Regexps have no SvIVX and SvNVX fields. */
8d919b0a 2443 const char *ptr;
39d5de13
DM
2444 if (flags & SV_GMAGIC)
2445 mg_get(sv);
463ee0b2
LW
2446 if (SvNOKp(sv))
2447 return SvNVX(sv);
cd84013a 2448 if (SvPOKp(sv) && !SvIOKp(sv)) {
8d919b0a
FC
2449 ptr = SvPVX_const(sv);
2450 grokpv:
041457d9 2451 if (!SvIOKp(sv) && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC) &&
8d919b0a 2452 !grok_number(ptr, SvCUR(sv), NULL))
a0d0e21e 2453 not_a_number(sv);
8d919b0a 2454 return Atof(ptr);
a0d0e21e 2455 }
25da4f38 2456 if (SvIOKp(sv)) {
1c846c1f 2457 if (SvIsUV(sv))
65202027 2458 return (NV)SvUVX(sv);
25da4f38 2459 else
65202027 2460 return (NV)SvIVX(sv);
47a72cb8
NC
2461 }
2462 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2463 goto return_rok;
2464 }
8d919b0a
FC
2465 if (isREGEXP(sv)) {
2466 ptr = RX_WRAPPED((REGEXP *)sv);
2467 goto grokpv;
2468 }
47a72cb8
NC
2469 assert(SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG);
2470 /* This falls through to the report_uninit near the end of the
2471 function. */
2472 } else if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
a0d0e21e 2473 if (SvROK(sv)) {
47a72cb8 2474 return_rok:
deb46114 2475 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
aee036bb
DM
2476 SV *tmpstr;
2477 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2478 return 0;
31d632c3 2479 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
deb46114
NC
2480 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2481 return SvNV(tmpstr);
2482 }
2483 }
2484 return PTR2NV(SvRV(sv));
a0d0e21e 2485 }
73381561 2486#ifdef PERL_OLD_COPY_ON_WRITE
765f542d
NC
2487 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
2488 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
8a818333 2489 }
73381561 2490#endif
0336b60e 2491 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
599cee73 2492 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2493 report_uninit(sv);
ed6116ce
LW
2494 return 0.0;
2495 }
79072805
LW
2496 }
2497 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_NV) {
7e25a7e9
NC
2498 /* The logic to use SVt_PVNV if necessary is in sv_upgrade. */
2499 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_NV);
906f284f 2500#ifdef USE_LONG_DOUBLE
097ee67d 2501 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2502 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1d7c1841
GS
2503 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2504 "0x%"UVxf" num(%" PERL_PRIgldbl ")\n",
2505 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
572bbb43
GS
2506 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2507 });
65202027 2508#else
572bbb43 2509 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2510 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1779d84d 2511 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" num(%"NVgf")\n",
1d7c1841 2512 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
097ee67d
JH
2513 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2514 });
572bbb43 2515#endif
79072805
LW
2516 }
2517 else if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2518 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
59d8ce62
NC
2519 if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
2520 return SvNVX(sv);
61604483 2521 }
59d8ce62 2522 if (SvIOKp(sv)) {
9d6ce603 2523 SvNV_set(sv, SvIsUV(sv) ? (NV)SvUVX(sv) : (NV)SvIVX(sv));
28e5dec8 2524#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
a43d94f2
NC
2525 if (SvIOK(sv))
2526 SvNOK_on(sv);
2527 else
2528 SvNOKp_on(sv);
28e5dec8
JH
2529#else
2530 /* Only set the public NV OK flag if this NV preserves the IV */
2531 /* Check it's not 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF */
a43d94f2
NC
2532 if (SvIOK(sv) &&
2533 SvIsUV(sv) ? ((SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX)&&(SvUVX(sv) == U_V(SvNVX(sv))))
28e5dec8
JH
2534 : (SvIVX(sv) == I_V(SvNVX(sv))))
2535 SvNOK_on(sv);
2536 else
2537 SvNOKp_on(sv);
2538#endif
93a17b20 2539 }
cd84013a 2540 else if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
c2988b20 2541 UV value;
3f7c398e 2542 const int numtype = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
041457d9 2543 if (!SvIOKp(sv) && !numtype && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
a0d0e21e 2544 not_a_number(sv);
28e5dec8 2545#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
c2988b20
NC
2546 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2547 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
5e045b90 2548 /* It's definitely an integer */
9d6ce603 2549 SvNV_set(sv, (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) ? -(NV)value : (NV)value);
c2988b20 2550 } else
3f7c398e 2551 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
a43d94f2
NC
2552 if (numtype)
2553 SvNOK_on(sv);
2554 else
2555 SvNOKp_on(sv);
28e5dec8 2556#else
3f7c398e 2557 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
2558 /* Only set the public NV OK flag if this NV preserves the value in
2559 the PV at least as well as an IV/UV would.
2560 Not sure how to do this 100% reliably. */
2561 /* if that shift count is out of range then Configure's test is
2562 wonky. We shouldn't be in here with NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS ==
2563 UV_BITS */
2564 if (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
c2988b20 2565 U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))) {
28e5dec8 2566 SvNOK_on(sv); /* Definitely small enough to preserve all bits */
c2988b20
NC
2567 } else if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_IN_UV)) {
2568 /* Can't use strtol etc to convert this string, so don't try.
2569 sv_2iv and sv_2uv will use the NV to convert, not the PV. */
2570 SvNOK_on(sv);
2571 } else {
2572 /* value has been set. It may not be precise. */
2573 if ((numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) && (value > (UV)IV_MIN)) {
2574 /* 2s complement assumption for (UV)IV_MIN */
2575 SvNOK_on(sv); /* Integer is too negative. */
2576 } else {
2577 SvNOKp_on(sv);
2578 SvIOKp_on(sv);
6fa402ec 2579
c2988b20 2580 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) {
45977657 2581 SvIV_set(sv, -(IV)value);
c2988b20 2582 } else if (value <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 2583 SvIV_set(sv, (IV)value);
c2988b20 2584 } else {
607fa7f2 2585 SvUV_set(sv, value);
c2988b20
NC
2586 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2587 }
2588
2589 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT) {
2590 /* I believe that even if the original PV had decimals,
2591 they are lost beyond the limit of the FP precision.
2592 However, neither is canonical, so both only get p
2593 flags. NWC, 2000/11/25 */
2594 /* Both already have p flags, so do nothing */
2595 } else {
66a1b24b 2596 const NV nv = SvNVX(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2597 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
2598 if (SvIVX(sv) == I_V(nv)) {
2599 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20 2600 } else {
c2988b20
NC
2601 /* It had no "." so it must be integer. */
2602 }
00b6aa41 2603 SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2604 } else {
2605 /* between IV_MAX and NV(UV_MAX).
2606 Could be slightly > UV_MAX */
6fa402ec 2607
c2988b20
NC
2608 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT) {
2609 /* UV and NV both imprecise. */
2610 } else {
66a1b24b 2611 const UV nv_as_uv = U_V(nv);
c2988b20
NC
2612
2613 if (value == nv_as_uv && SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX) {
2614 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20 2615 }
00b6aa41 2616 SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2617 }
2618 }
2619 }
2620 }
2621 }
a43d94f2
NC
2622 /* It might be more code efficient to go through the entire logic above
2623 and conditionally set with SvNOKp_on() rather than SvNOK(), but it
2624 gets complex and potentially buggy, so more programmer efficient
2625 to do it this way, by turning off the public flags: */
2626 if (!numtype)
2627 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~(SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK);
28e5dec8 2628#endif /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
93a17b20 2629 }
79072805 2630 else {
f7877b28 2631 if (isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
159b6efe 2632 glob_2number(MUTABLE_GV(sv));
180488f8
NC
2633 return 0.0;
2634 }
2635
9a214eec 2636 if (!PL_localizing && !SvPADTMP(sv) && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2637 report_uninit(sv);
7e25a7e9
NC
2638 assert (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_NV);
2639 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
2640 /* XXX Ilya implies that this is a bug in callers that assume this
2641 and ideally should be fixed. */
a0d0e21e 2642 return 0.0;
79072805 2643 }
572bbb43 2644#if defined(USE_LONG_DOUBLE)
097ee67d 2645 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2646 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1d7c1841
GS
2647 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2nv(%" PERL_PRIgldbl ")\n",
2648 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
572bbb43
GS
2649 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2650 });
65202027 2651#else
572bbb43 2652 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2653 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1779d84d 2654 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 1nv(%"NVgf")\n",
1d7c1841 2655 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
097ee67d
JH
2656 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2657 });
572bbb43 2658#endif
463ee0b2 2659 return SvNVX(sv);
79072805
LW
2660}
2661
800401ee
JH
2662/*
2663=for apidoc sv_2num
2664
2665Return an SV with the numeric value of the source SV, doing any necessary
a196a5fa
JH
2666reference or overload conversion. You must use the C<SvNUM(sv)> macro to
2667access this function.
800401ee
JH
2668
2669=cut
2670*/
2671
2672SV *
5aaab254 2673Perl_sv_2num(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
800401ee 2674{
7918f24d
NC
2675 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2NUM;
2676
b9ee0594
RGS
2677 if (!SvROK(sv))
2678 return sv;
800401ee 2679 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
31d632c3 2680 SV * const tmpsv = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
a02ec77a 2681 TAINT_IF(tmpsv && SvTAINTED(tmpsv));
800401ee
JH
2682 if (tmpsv && (!SvROK(tmpsv) || (SvRV(tmpsv) != SvRV(sv))))
2683 return sv_2num(tmpsv);
2684 }
2685 return sv_2mortal(newSVuv(PTR2UV(SvRV(sv))));
2686}
2687
645c22ef
DM
2688/* uiv_2buf(): private routine for use by sv_2pv_flags(): print an IV or
2689 * UV as a string towards the end of buf, and return pointers to start and
2690 * end of it.
2691 *
2692 * We assume that buf is at least TYPE_CHARS(UV) long.
2693 */
2694
864dbfa3 2695static char *
5de3775c 2696S_uiv_2buf(char *const buf, const IV iv, UV uv, const int is_uv, char **const peob)
25da4f38 2697{
25da4f38 2698 char *ptr = buf + TYPE_CHARS(UV);
823a54a3 2699 char * const ebuf = ptr;
25da4f38 2700 int sign;
25da4f38 2701
7918f24d
NC
2702 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UIV_2BUF;
2703
25da4f38
IZ
2704 if (is_uv)
2705 sign = 0;
2706 else if (iv >= 0) {
2707 uv = iv;
2708 sign = 0;
2709 } else {
2710 uv = -iv;
2711 sign = 1;
2712 }
2713 do {
eb160463 2714 *--ptr = '0' + (char)(uv % 10);
25da4f38
IZ
2715 } while (uv /= 10);
2716 if (sign)
2717 *--ptr = '-';
2718 *peob = ebuf;
2719 return ptr;
2720}
2721
645c22ef
DM
2722/*
2723=for apidoc sv_2pv_flags
2724
ff276b08 2725Returns a pointer to the string value of an SV, and sets *lp to its length.
fde67290
FC
2726If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first. Coerces sv to a
2727string if necessary. Normally invoked via the C<SvPV_flags> macro.
2728C<sv_2pv()> and C<sv_2pv_nomg> usually end up here too.
645c22ef
DM
2729
2730=cut
2731*/
2732
8d6d96c1 2733char *
5aaab254 2734Perl_sv_2pv_flags(pTHX_ SV *const sv, STRLEN *const lp, const I32 flags)
8d6d96c1 2735{
97aff369 2736 dVAR;
eb578fdb 2737 char *s;
79072805 2738
463ee0b2 2739 if (!sv) {
cdb061a3
NC
2740 if (lp)
2741 *lp = 0;
73d840c0 2742 return (char *)"";
463ee0b2 2743 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2744 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) && (flags & SV_GMAGIC))
2745 mg_get(sv);
2746 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2747 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2748 SV *tmpstr;
2749 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2750 return NULL;
2751 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, string_amg);
2752 TAINT_IF(tmpstr && SvTAINTED(tmpstr));
2753 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2754 /* Unwrap this: */
2755 /* char *pv = lp ? SvPV(tmpstr, *lp) : SvPV_nolen(tmpstr);
2756 */
75dfc8ec 2757
4bac9ae4
CS
2758 char *pv;
2759 if ((SvFLAGS(tmpstr) & (SVf_POK)) == SVf_POK) {
2760 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN) {
2761 pv = (char *) SvPVX_const(tmpstr);
50adf7d2 2762 } else {
4bac9ae4
CS
2763 pv = (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
2764 ? SvPVX_mutable(tmpstr) : SvPVX(tmpstr);
50adf7d2 2765 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2766 if (lp)
2767 *lp = SvCUR(tmpstr);
2768 } else {
2769 pv = sv_2pv_flags(tmpstr, lp, flags);
50adf7d2 2770 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2771 if (SvUTF8(tmpstr))
2772 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2773 else
2774 SvUTF8_off(sv);
2775 return pv;
deb46114 2776 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2777 }
2778 {
2779 STRLEN len;
2780 char *retval;
2781 char *buffer;
2782 SV *const referent = SvRV(sv);
2783
2784 if (!referent) {
2785 len = 7;
2786 retval = buffer = savepvn("NULLREF", len);
2787 } else if (SvTYPE(referent) == SVt_REGEXP &&
2788 (!(PL_curcop->cop_hints & HINT_NO_AMAGIC) ||
2789 amagic_is_enabled(string_amg))) {
2790 REGEXP * const re = (REGEXP *)MUTABLE_PTR(referent);
2791
2792 assert(re);
67d2d14d 2793
4bac9ae4
CS
2794 /* If the regex is UTF-8 we want the containing scalar to
2795 have an UTF-8 flag too */
2796 if (RX_UTF8(re))
2797 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2798 else
2799 SvUTF8_off(sv);
67d2d14d 2800
4bac9ae4
CS
2801 if (lp)
2802 *lp = RX_WRAPLEN(re);
67d2d14d 2803
4bac9ae4
CS
2804 return RX_WRAPPED(re);
2805 } else {
2806 const char *const typestr = sv_reftype(referent, 0);
2807 const STRLEN typelen = strlen(typestr);
2808 UV addr = PTR2UV(referent);
2809 const char *stashname = NULL;
2810 STRLEN stashnamelen = 0; /* hush, gcc */
2811 const char *buffer_end;
2812
2813 if (SvOBJECT(referent)) {
2814 const HEK *const name = HvNAME_HEK(SvSTASH(referent));
2815
2816 if (name) {
2817 stashname = HEK_KEY(name);
2818 stashnamelen = HEK_LEN(name);
2819
2820 if (HEK_UTF8(name)) {
2821 SvUTF8_on(sv);
fafee734 2822 } else {
4bac9ae4 2823 SvUTF8_off(sv);
fafee734 2824 }
fafee734 2825 } else {
4bac9ae4
CS
2826 stashname = "__ANON__";
2827 stashnamelen = 8;
fafee734 2828 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2829 len = stashnamelen + 1 /* = */ + typelen + 3 /* (0x */
2830 + 2 * sizeof(UV) + 2 /* )\0 */;
2831 } else {
2832 len = typelen + 3 /* (0x */
2833 + 2 * sizeof(UV) + 2 /* )\0 */;
2834 }
fafee734 2835
4bac9ae4
CS
2836 Newx(buffer, len, char);
2837 buffer_end = retval = buffer + len;
2838
2839 /* Working backwards */
2840 *--retval = '\0';
2841 *--retval = ')';
2842 do {
2843 *--retval = PL_hexdigit[addr & 15];
2844 } while (addr >>= 4);
2845 *--retval = 'x';
2846 *--retval = '0';
2847 *--retval = '(';
2848
2849 retval -= typelen;
2850 memcpy(retval, typestr, typelen);
2851
2852 if (stashname) {
2853 *--retval = '=';
2854 retval -= stashnamelen;
2855 memcpy(retval, stashname, stashnamelen);
c080367d 2856 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2857 /* retval may not necessarily have reached the start of the
2858 buffer here. */
2859 assert (retval >= buffer);
2860
2861 len = buffer_end - retval - 1; /* -1 for that \0 */
463ee0b2 2862 }
cdb061a3 2863 if (lp)
4bac9ae4
CS
2864 *lp = len;
2865 SAVEFREEPV(buffer);
2866 return retval;
79072805 2867 }
79072805 2868 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2869
2870 if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
2871 if (lp)
2872 *lp = SvCUR(sv);
2873 if (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
2874 return SvPVX_mutable(sv);
2875 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN)
2876 return (char *)SvPVX_const(sv);
2877 return SvPVX(sv);
2878 }
2879
2880 if (SvIOK(sv)) {
28e5dec8
JH
2881 /* I'm assuming that if both IV and NV are equally valid then
2882 converting the IV is going to be more efficient */
e1ec3a88 2883 const U32 isUIOK = SvIsUV(sv);
28e5dec8
JH
2884 char buf[TYPE_CHARS(UV)];
2885 char *ebuf, *ptr;
97a130b8 2886 STRLEN len;
28e5dec8
JH
2887
2888 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVIV)
2889 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
4ea1d550 2890 ptr = uiv_2buf(buf, SvIVX(sv), SvUVX(sv), isUIOK, &ebuf);
97a130b8 2891 len = ebuf - ptr;
5902b6a9 2892 /* inlined from sv_setpvn */
97a130b8
NC
2893 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, len + 1);
2894 Move(ptr, s, len, char);
2895 s += len;
28e5dec8 2896 *s = '\0';
28e5dec8 2897 }
4bac9ae4 2898 else if (SvNOK(sv)) {
79072805
LW
2899 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2900 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
29912d93
NC
2901 if (SvNVX(sv) == 0.0) {
2902 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, 2);
2903 *s++ = '0';
2904 *s = '\0';
2905 } else {
2906 dSAVE_ERRNO;
2907 /* The +20 is pure guesswork. Configure test needed. --jhi */
2908 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, NV_DIG + 20);
2909 /* some Xenix systems wipe out errno here */
2d4389e4 2910 Gconvert(SvNVX(sv), NV_DIG, 0, s);
29912d93
NC
2911 RESTORE_ERRNO;
2912 while (*s) s++;
bbce6d69 2913 }
79072805
LW
2914#ifdef hcx
2915 if (s[-1] == '.')
46fc3d4c 2916 *--s = '\0';
79072805
LW
2917#endif
2918 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2919 else if (isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
2920 GV *const gv = MUTABLE_GV(sv);
2921 SV *const buffer = sv_newmortal();
8d1c3e26 2922
4bac9ae4 2923 gv_efullname3(buffer, gv, "*");
180488f8 2924
4bac9ae4
CS
2925 assert(SvPOK(buffer));
2926 if (SvUTF8(buffer))
2927 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2928 if (lp)
2929 *lp = SvCUR(buffer);
2930 return SvPVX(buffer);
2931 }
8d919b0a
FC
2932 else if (isREGEXP(sv)) {
2933 if (lp) *lp = RX_WRAPLEN((REGEXP *)sv);
2934 return RX_WRAPPED((REGEXP *)sv);
2935 }
4bac9ae4 2936 else {
cdb061a3 2937 if (lp)
00b6aa41 2938 *lp = 0;
9f621bb0
NC
2939 if (flags & SV_UNDEF_RETURNS_NULL)
2940 return NULL;
9a214eec 2941 if (!PL_localizing && !SvPADTMP(sv) && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
9f621bb0 2942 report_uninit(sv);
4bac9ae4
CS
2943 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
2944 if (!SvREADONLY(sv) && SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PV)
25da4f38 2945 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PV);
73d840c0 2946 return (char *)"";
79072805 2947 }
4bac9ae4 2948
cdb061a3 2949 {
823a54a3 2950 const STRLEN len = s - SvPVX_const(sv);
cdb061a3
NC
2951 if (lp)
2952 *lp = len;
2953 SvCUR_set(sv, len);
2954 }
79072805 2955 SvPOK_on(sv);
1d7c1841 2956 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2pv(%s)\n",
3f7c398e 2957 PTR2UV(sv),SvPVX_const(sv)));
4d84ee25
NC
2958 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN)
2959 return (char *)SvPVX_const(sv);
10516c54
NC
2960 if (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
2961 return SvPVX_mutable(sv);
463ee0b2
LW
2962 return SvPVX(sv);
2963}
2964
645c22ef 2965/*
6050d10e
JP
2966=for apidoc sv_copypv
2967
2968Copies a stringified representation of the source SV into the
2969destination SV. Automatically performs any necessary mg_get and
54f0641b 2970coercion of numeric values into strings. Guaranteed to preserve
2575c402 2971UTF8 flag even from overloaded objects. Similar in nature to
54f0641b
NIS
2972sv_2pv[_flags] but operates directly on an SV instead of just the
2973string. Mostly uses sv_2pv_flags to do its work, except when that
6050d10e
JP
2974would lose the UTF-8'ness of the PV.
2975
4bac9ae4
CS
2976=for apidoc sv_copypv_nomg
2977
2978Like sv_copypv, but doesn't invoke get magic first.
2979
2980=for apidoc sv_copypv_flags
2981
2982Implementation of sv_copypv and sv_copypv_nomg. Calls get magic iff flags
2983include SV_GMAGIC.
2984
6050d10e
JP
2985=cut
2986*/
2987
2988void
5aaab254 2989Perl_sv_copypv(pTHX_ SV *const dsv, SV *const ssv)
6050d10e 2990{
4bac9ae4
CS
2991 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_COPYPV;
2992
2993 sv_copypv_flags(dsv, ssv, 0);
2994}
2995
2996void
5aaab254 2997Perl_sv_copypv_flags(pTHX_ SV *const dsv, SV *const ssv, const I32 flags)
4bac9ae4 2998{
446eaa42 2999 STRLEN len;
4bac9ae4 3000 const char *s;
7918f24d 3001
4bac9ae4 3002 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_COPYPV_FLAGS;
7918f24d 3003
4bac9ae4
CS
3004 if ((flags & SV_GMAGIC) && SvGMAGICAL(ssv))
3005 mg_get(ssv);
3006 s = SvPV_nomg_const(ssv,len);
cb50f42d 3007 sv_setpvn(dsv,s,len);
446eaa42 3008 if (SvUTF8(ssv))
cb50f42d 3009 SvUTF8_on(dsv);
446eaa42 3010 else
cb50f42d 3011 SvUTF8_off(dsv);
6050d10e
JP
3012}
3013
3014/*
645c22ef
DM
3015=for apidoc sv_2pvbyte
3016
3017Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV, and set *lp
1e54db1a 3018to its length. May cause the SV to be downgraded from UTF-8 as a
645c22ef
DM
3019side-effect.
3020
3021Usually accessed via the C<SvPVbyte> macro.
3022
3023=cut
3024*/
3025
7340a771 3026char *
5aaab254 3027Perl_sv_2pvbyte(pTHX_ SV *sv, STRLEN *const lp)
7340a771 3028{
7918f24d
NC
3029 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2PVBYTE;
3030
4499db73
FC
3031 if (((SvREADONLY(sv) || SvFAKE(sv)) && !SvIsCOW(sv))
3032 || isGV_with_GP(sv) || SvROK(sv)) {
a901b181
FC
3033 SV *sv2 = sv_newmortal();
3034 sv_copypv(sv2,sv);
3035 sv = sv2;
3036 }
3037 else SvGETMAGIC(sv);
0875d2fe 3038 sv_utf8_downgrade(sv,0);
71eb6d8c 3039 return lp ? SvPV_nomg(sv,*lp) : SvPV_nomg_nolen(sv);
7340a771
GS
3040}
3041
645c22ef 3042/*
035cbb0e
RGS
3043=for apidoc sv_2pvutf8
3044
3045Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation of the SV, and set *lp
3046to its length. May cause the SV to be upgraded to UTF-8 as a side-effect.
3047
3048Usually accessed via the C<SvPVutf8> macro.
3049
3050=cut
3051*/
645c22ef 3052
7340a771 3053char *
5aaab254 3054Perl_sv_2pvutf8(pTHX_ SV *sv, STRLEN *const lp)
7340a771 3055{
7918f24d
NC
3056 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2PVUTF8;
3057
4499db73
FC
3058 if (((SvREADONLY(sv) || SvFAKE(sv)) && !SvIsCOW(sv))
3059 || isGV_with_GP(sv) || SvROK(sv))
fe46cbda 3060 sv = sv_mortalcopy(sv);
4bac9ae4
CS
3061 else
3062 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
3063 sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(sv);
c3ec315f 3064 return lp ? SvPV_nomg(sv,*lp) : SvPV_nomg_nolen(sv);
7340a771 3065}
1c846c1f 3066
7ee2227d 3067
645c22ef
DM
3068/*
3069=for apidoc sv_2bool
3070
06c841cf
FC
3071This macro is only used by sv_true() or its macro equivalent, and only if
3072the latter's argument is neither SvPOK, SvIOK nor SvNOK.
3073It calls sv_2bool_flags with the SV_GMAGIC flag.
3074
3075=for apidoc sv_2bool_flags
3076
3077This function is only used by sv_true() and friends, and only if
fde67290 3078the latter's argument is neither SvPOK, SvIOK nor SvNOK. If the flags
06c841cf
FC
3079contain SV_GMAGIC, then it does an mg_get() first.
3080
645c22ef
DM
3081
3082=cut
3083*/
3084
463ee0b2 3085bool
5aaab254 3086Perl_sv_2bool_flags(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
463ee0b2 3087{
97aff369 3088 dVAR;
7918f24d 3089
06c841cf 3090 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2BOOL_FLAGS;
7918f24d 3091
06c841cf 3092 if(flags & SV_GMAGIC) SvGETMAGIC(sv);
463ee0b2 3093
a0d0e21e
LW
3094 if (!SvOK(sv))
3095 return 0;
3096 if (SvROK(sv)) {
fabdb6c0 3097 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
31d632c3 3098 SV * const tmpsv = AMG_CALLunary(sv, bool__amg);
fabdb6c0 3099 if (tmpsv && (!SvROK(tmpsv) || (SvRV(tmpsv) != SvRV(sv))))
f2338a2e 3100 return cBOOL(SvTRUE(tmpsv));
fabdb6c0
AL
3101 }
3102 return SvRV(sv) != 0;
a0d0e21e 3103 }
4bac9ae4 3104 return SvTRUE_common(sv, isGV_with_GP(sv) ? 1 : 0);
79072805
LW
3105}
3106
c461cf8f
JH
3107/*
3108=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade
3109
78ea37eb 3110Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.
645c22ef 3111Forces the SV to string form if it is not already.
2bbc8d55 3112Will C<mg_get> on C<sv> if appropriate.
4411f3b6 3113Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks even
2bbc8d55
SP
3114if the whole string is the same in UTF-8 as not.
3115Returns the number of bytes in the converted string
c461cf8f 3116
0efd0472 3117This is not a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface:
13a6c0e0
JH
3118use the Encode extension for that.
3119
fe749c9a
KW
3120=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg
3121
fde67290 3122Like sv_utf8_upgrade, but doesn't do magic on C<sv>.
fe749c9a 3123
8d6d96c1
HS
3124=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade_flags
3125
78ea37eb 3126Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.
645c22ef 3127Forces the SV to string form if it is not already.
8d6d96c1 3128Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks even
960b0271
FC
3129if all the bytes are invariant in UTF-8.
3130If C<flags> has C<SV_GMAGIC> bit set,
2bbc8d55
SP
3131will C<mg_get> on C<sv> if appropriate, else not.
3132Returns the number of bytes in the converted string
3133C<sv_utf8_upgrade> and
8d6d96c1
HS
3134C<sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg> are implemented in terms of this function.
3135
0efd0472 3136This is not a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface:
13a6c0e0
JH
3137use the Encode extension for that.
3138
8d6d96c1 3139=cut
b3ab6785
KW
3140
3141The grow version is currently not externally documented. It adds a parameter,
3142extra, which is the number of unused bytes the string of 'sv' is guaranteed to
3143have free after it upon return. This allows the caller to reserve extra space
3144that it intends to fill, to avoid extra grows.
3145
3146Also externally undocumented for the moment is the flag SV_FORCE_UTF8_UPGRADE,
3147which can be used to tell this function to not first check to see if there are
3148any characters that are different in UTF-8 (variant characters) which would
3149force it to allocate a new string to sv, but to assume there are. Typically
3150this flag is used by a routine that has already parsed the string to find that
3151there are such characters, and passes this information on so that the work
3152doesn't have to be repeated.
3153
3154(One might think that the calling routine could pass in the position of the
3155first such variant, so it wouldn't have to be found again. But that is not the
3156case, because typically when the caller is likely to use this flag, it won't be
3157calling this routine unless it finds something that won't fit into a byte.
3158Otherwise it tries to not upgrade and just use bytes. But some things that
3159do fit into a byte are variants in utf8, and the caller may not have been
3160keeping track of these.)
3161
3162If the routine itself changes the string, it adds a trailing NUL. Such a NUL
3163isn't guaranteed due to having other routines do the work in some input cases,
3164or if the input is already flagged as being in utf8.
3165
3166The speed of this could perhaps be improved for many cases if someone wanted to
3167write a fast function that counts the number of variant characters in a string,
3168especially if it could return the position of the first one.
3169
8d6d96c1
HS
3170*/
3171
3172STRLEN
5aaab254 3173Perl_sv_utf8_upgrade_flags_grow(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const I32 flags, STRLEN extra)
8d6d96c1 3174{
97aff369 3175 dVAR;
7918f24d 3176
b3ab6785 3177 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_UPGRADE_FLAGS_GROW;
7918f24d 3178
808c356f
RGS
3179 if (sv == &PL_sv_undef)
3180 return 0;
892f9127 3181 if (!SvPOK_nog(sv)) {
e0e62c2a 3182 STRLEN len = 0;
d52b7888
NC
3183 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && (SvPOKp(sv) || SvIOKp(sv) || SvNOKp(sv))) {
3184 (void) sv_2pv_flags(sv,&len, flags);
b3ab6785
KW
3185 if (SvUTF8(sv)) {
3186 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
d52b7888 3187 return len;
b3ab6785 3188 }
d52b7888 3189 } else {
33fb6f35 3190 (void) SvPV_force_flags(sv,len,flags & SV_GMAGIC);
d52b7888 3191 }
e0e62c2a 3192 }
4411f3b6 3193
f5cee72b 3194 if (SvUTF8(sv)) {
b3ab6785 3195 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
5fec3b1d 3196 return SvCUR(sv);
f5cee72b 3197 }
5fec3b1d 3198
765f542d
NC
3199 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
3200 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
db42d148
NIS
3201 }
3202
b3ab6785 3203 if (PL_encoding && !(flags & SV_UTF8_NO_ENCODING)) {
799ef3cb 3204 sv_recode_to_utf8(sv, PL_encoding);
b3ab6785
KW
3205 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
3206 return SvCUR(sv);
3207 }
3208
4e93345f
KW
3209 if (SvCUR(sv) == 0) {
3210 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, extra);
3211 } else { /* Assume Latin-1/EBCDIC */
c4e7c712 3212 /* This function could be much more efficient if we
2bbc8d55 3213 * had a FLAG in SVs to signal if there are any variant
c4e7c712 3214 * chars in the PV. Given that there isn't such a flag
b3ab6785
KW
3215 * make the loop as fast as possible (although there are certainly ways
3216 * to speed this up, eg. through vectorization) */
3217 U8 * s = (U8 *) SvPVX_const(sv);
3218 U8 * e = (U8 *) SvEND(sv);
3219 U8 *t = s;
3220 STRLEN two_byte_count = 0;
c4e7c712 3221
b3ab6785
KW
3222 if (flags & SV_FORCE_UTF8_UPGRADE) goto must_be_utf8;
3223
3224 /* See if really will need to convert to utf8. We mustn't rely on our
3225 * incoming SV being well formed and having a trailing '\0', as certain
3226 * code in pp_formline can send us partially built SVs. */
3227
c4e7c712 3228 while (t < e) {
53c1dcc0 3229 const U8 ch = *t++;
b3ab6785
KW
3230 if (NATIVE_IS_INVARIANT(ch)) continue;
3231
3232 t--; /* t already incremented; re-point to first variant */
3233 two_byte_count = 1;
3234 goto must_be_utf8;
c4e7c712 3235 }
b3ab6785
KW
3236
3237 /* utf8 conversion not needed because all are invariants. Mark as
3238 * UTF-8 even if no variant - saves scanning loop */
c4e7c712 3239 SvUTF8_on(sv);
7f0bfbea 3240 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
b3ab6785
KW
3241 return SvCUR(sv);
3242
3243must_be_utf8:
3244
3245 /* Here, the string should be converted to utf8, either because of an
3246 * input flag (two_byte_count = 0), or because a character that
3247 * requires 2 bytes was found (two_byte_count = 1). t points either to
3248 * the beginning of the string (if we didn't examine anything), or to
3249 * the first variant. In either case, everything from s to t - 1 will
3250 * occupy only 1 byte each on output.
3251 *
3252 * There are two main ways to convert. One is to create a new string
3253 * and go through the input starting from the beginning, appending each
3254 * converted value onto the new string as we go along. It's probably
3255 * best to allocate enough space in the string for the worst possible
3256 * case rather than possibly running out of space and having to
3257 * reallocate and then copy what we've done so far. Since everything
3258 * from s to t - 1 is invariant, the destination can be initialized
3259 * with these using a fast memory copy
3260 *
3261 * The other way is to figure out exactly how big the string should be
3262 * by parsing the entire input. Then you don't have to make it big
3263 * enough to handle the worst possible case, and more importantly, if
3264 * the string you already have is large enough, you don't have to
3265 * allocate a new string, you can copy the last character in the input
3266 * string to the final position(s) that will be occupied by the
3267 * converted string and go backwards, stopping at t, since everything
3268 * before that is invariant.
3269 *
3270 * There are advantages and disadvantages to each method.
3271 *
3272 * In the first method, we can allocate a new string, do the memory
3273 * copy from the s to t - 1, and then proceed through the rest of the
3274 * string byte-by-byte.
3275 *
3276 * In the second method, we proceed through the rest of the input
3277 * string just calculating how big the converted string will be. Then
3278 * there are two cases:
3279 * 1) if the string has enough extra space to handle the converted
3280 * value. We go backwards through the string, converting until we
3281 * get to the position we are at now, and then stop. If this
3282 * position is far enough along in the string, this method is
3283 * faster than the other method. If the memory copy were the same
3284 * speed as the byte-by-byte loop, that position would be about
3285 * half-way, as at the half-way mark, parsing to the end and back
3286 * is one complete string's parse, the same amount as starting
3287 * over and going all the way through. Actually, it would be
3288 * somewhat less than half-way, as it's faster to just count bytes
3289 * than to also copy, and we don't have the overhead of allocating
3290 * a new string, changing the scalar to use it, and freeing the
3291 * existing one. But if the memory copy is fast, the break-even
3292 * point is somewhere after half way. The counting loop could be
3293 * sped up by vectorization, etc, to move the break-even point
3294 * further towards the beginning.
3295 * 2) if the string doesn't have enough space to handle the converted
3296 * value. A new string will have to be allocated, and one might
3297 * as well, given that, start from the beginning doing the first
3298 * method. We've spent extra time parsing the string and in
3299 * exchange all we've gotten is that we know precisely how big to
3300 * make the new one. Perl is more optimized for time than space,
3301 * so this case is a loser.
3302 * So what I've decided to do is not use the 2nd method unless it is
3303 * guaranteed that a new string won't have to be allocated, assuming
3304 * the worst case. I also decided not to put any more conditions on it
3305 * than this, for now. It seems likely that, since the worst case is
3306 * twice as big as the unknown portion of the string (plus 1), we won't
3307 * be guaranteed enough space, causing us to go to the first method,
3308 * unless the string is short, or the first variant character is near
3309 * the end of it. In either of these cases, it seems best to use the
3310 * 2nd method. The only circumstance I can think of where this would
3311 * be really slower is if the string had once had much more data in it
3312 * than it does now, but there is still a substantial amount in it */
3313
3314 {
3315 STRLEN invariant_head = t - s;
3316 STRLEN size = invariant_head + (e - t) * 2 + 1 + extra;
3317 if (SvLEN(sv) < size) {
3318
3319 /* Here, have decided to allocate a new string */
3320
3321 U8 *dst;
3322 U8 *d;
3323
3324 Newx(dst, size, U8);
3325
3326 /* If no known invariants at the beginning of the input string,
3327 * set so starts from there. Otherwise, can use memory copy to
3328 * get up to where we are now, and then start from here */
3329
3330 if (invariant_head <= 0) {
3331 d = dst;
3332 } else {
3333 Copy(s, dst, invariant_head, char);
3334 d = dst + invariant_head;
3335 }
3336
3337 while (t < e) {
3338 const UV uv = NATIVE8_TO_UNI(*t++);
3339 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv))
3340 *d++ = (U8)UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv);
3341 else {
3342 *d++ = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(uv);
3343 *d++ = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(uv);
3344 }
3345 }
3346 *d = '\0';
3347 SvPV_free(sv); /* No longer using pre-existing string */
3348 SvPV_set(sv, (char*)dst);
3349 SvCUR_set(sv, d - dst);
3350 SvLEN_set(sv, size);
3351 } else {
3352
3353 /* Here, have decided to get the exact size of the string.
3354 * Currently this happens only when we know that there is
3355 * guaranteed enough space to fit the converted string, so
3356 * don't have to worry about growing. If two_byte_count is 0,
3357 * then t points to the first byte of the string which hasn't
3358 * been examined yet. Otherwise two_byte_count is 1, and t
3359 * points to the first byte in the string that will expand to
3360 * two. Depending on this, start examining at t or 1 after t.
3361 * */
3362
3363 U8 *d = t + two_byte_count;
3364
3365
3366 /* Count up the remaining bytes that expand to two */
3367
3368 while (d < e) {
3369 const U8 chr = *d++;
3370 if (! NATIVE_IS_INVARIANT(chr)) two_byte_count++;
3371 }
3372
3373 /* The string will expand by just the number of bytes that
3374 * occupy two positions. But we are one afterwards because of
3375 * the increment just above. This is the place to put the
3376 * trailing NUL, and to set the length before we decrement */
3377
3378 d += two_byte_count;
3379 SvCUR_set(sv, d - s);
3380 *d-- = '\0';
3381
3382
3383 /* Having decremented d, it points to the position to put the
3384 * very last byte of the expanded string. Go backwards through
3385 * the string, copying and expanding as we go, stopping when we
3386 * get to the part that is invariant the rest of the way down */
3387
3388 e--;
3389 while (e >= t) {
3390 const U8 ch = NATIVE8_TO_UNI(*e--);
3391 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(ch)) {
3392 *d-- = UNI_TO_NATIVE(ch);
3393 } else {
3394 *d-- = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(ch);
3395 *d-- = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(ch);
3396 }
3397 }
3398 }
75da9d4c
DM
3399
3400 if (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG && SvMAGIC(sv)) {
3401 /* Update pos. We do it at the end rather than during
3402 * the upgrade, to avoid slowing down the common case
3403 * (upgrade without pos) */
3404 MAGIC * mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
3405 if (mg) {
3406 I32 pos = mg->mg_len;
3407 if (pos > 0 && (U32)pos > invariant_head) {
3408 U8 *d = (U8*) SvPVX(sv) + invariant_head;
3409 STRLEN n = (U32)pos - invariant_head;
3410 while (n > 0) {
3411 if (UTF8_IS_START(*d))
3412 d++;
3413 d++;
3414 n--;
3415 }
3416 mg->mg_len = d - (U8*)SvPVX(sv);
3417 }
3418 }
3419 if ((mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_utf8)))
3420 magic_setutf8(sv,mg); /* clear UTF8 cache */
3421 }
b3ab6785 3422 }
560a288e 3423 }
b3ab6785
KW
3424
3425 /* Mark as UTF-8 even if no variant - saves scanning loop */
3426 SvUTF8_on(sv);
4411f3b6 3427 return SvCUR(sv);
560a288e
GS
3428}
3429
c461cf8f
JH
3430/*
3431=for apidoc sv_utf8_downgrade
3432
78ea37eb 3433Attempts to convert the PV of an SV from characters to bytes.
2bbc8d55
SP
3434If the PV contains a character that cannot fit
3435in a byte, this conversion will fail;
78ea37eb 3436in this case, either returns false or, if C<fail_ok> is not
c461cf8f
JH
3437true, croaks.
3438
0efd0472 3439This is not a general purpose Unicode to byte encoding interface:
13a6c0e0
JH
3440use the Encode extension for that.
3441
c461cf8f
JH
3442=cut
3443*/
3444
560a288e 3445bool
5aaab254 3446Perl_sv_utf8_downgrade(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const bool fail_ok)
560a288e 3447{
97aff369 3448 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
3449
3450 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_DOWNGRADE;
3451
78ea37eb 3452 if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvUTF8(sv)) {
fa301091 3453 if (SvCUR(sv)) {
03cfe0ae 3454 U8 *s;
652088fc 3455 STRLEN len;
75da9d4c 3456 int mg_flags = SV_GMAGIC;
fa301091 3457
765f542d
NC
3458 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
3459 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
3460 }
75da9d4c
DM
3461 if (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG && SvMAGIC(sv)) {
3462 /* update pos */
3463 MAGIC * mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
3464 if (mg) {
3465 I32 pos = mg->mg_len;
3466 if (pos > 0) {
3467 sv_pos_b2u(sv, &pos);
3468 mg_flags = 0; /* sv_pos_b2u does get magic */
3469 mg->mg_len = pos;
3470 }
3471 }
3472 if ((mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_utf8)))
3473 magic_setutf8(sv,mg); /* clear UTF8 cache */
3474
3475 }
3476 s = (U8 *) SvPV_flags(sv, len, mg_flags);
3477
03cfe0ae 3478 if (!utf8_to_bytes(s, &len)) {
fa301091
JH
3479 if (fail_ok)
3480 return FALSE;
3481 else {
3482 if (PL_op)
3483 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Wide character in %s",
53e06cf0 3484 OP_DESC(PL_op));
fa301091
JH
3485 else
3486 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Wide character");
3487 }
4b3603a4 3488 }
b162af07 3489 SvCUR_set(sv, len);
67e989fb 3490 }
560a288e 3491 }
ffebcc3e 3492 SvUTF8_off(sv);
560a288e
GS
3493 return TRUE;
3494}
3495
c461cf8f
JH
3496/*
3497=for apidoc sv_utf8_encode
3498
78ea37eb
ST
3499Converts the PV of an SV to UTF-8, but then turns the C<SvUTF8>
3500flag off so that it looks like octets again.
c461cf8f
JH
3501
3502=cut
3503*/
3504
560a288e 3505void
5aaab254 3506Perl_sv_utf8_encode(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
560a288e 3507{
7918f24d
NC
3508 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_ENCODE;
3509
4c94c214 3510 if (SvREADONLY(sv)) {
654c723f 3511 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
4c94c214 3512 }
a5f5288a 3513 (void) sv_utf8_upgrade(sv);
560a288e
GS
3514 SvUTF8_off(sv);
3515}
3516
4411f3b6
NIS
3517/*
3518=for apidoc sv_utf8_decode
3519
78ea37eb
ST
3520If the PV of the SV is an octet sequence in UTF-8
3521and contains a multiple-byte character, the C<SvUTF8> flag is turned on
fde67290 3522so that it looks like a character. If the PV contains only single-byte
694cf0d2 3523characters, the C<SvUTF8> flag stays off.
78ea37eb 3524Scans PV for validity and returns false if the PV is invalid UTF-8.
4411f3b6
NIS
3525
3526=cut
3527*/
3528
560a288e 3529bool
5aaab254 3530Perl_sv_utf8_decode(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
560a288e 3531{
7918f24d
NC
3532 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_DECODE;
3533
78ea37eb 3534 if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
75da9d4c 3535 const U8 *start, *c;
93524f2b 3536 const U8 *e;
9cbac4c7 3537
645c22ef
DM
3538 /* The octets may have got themselves encoded - get them back as
3539 * bytes
3540 */
3541 if (!sv_utf8_downgrade(sv, TRUE))
560a288e
GS
3542 return FALSE;
3543
3544 /* it is actually just a matter of turning the utf8 flag on, but
3545 * we want to make sure everything inside is valid utf8 first.
3546 */
75da9d4c 3547 c = start = (const U8 *) SvPVX_const(sv);
f9cf141a 3548 if (!is_utf8_string(c, SvCUR(sv)))
67e989fb 3549 return FALSE;
93524f2b 3550 e = (const U8 *) SvEND(sv);
511c2ff0 3551 while (c < e) {
b64e5050 3552 const U8 ch = *c++;
c4d5f83a 3553 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(ch)) {
67e989fb
JH
3554 SvUTF8_on(sv);
3555 break;
3556 }
560a288e 3557 }
75da9d4c
DM
3558 if (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG && SvMAGIC(sv)) {
3559 /* adjust pos to the start of a UTF8 char sequence */
3560 MAGIC * mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
3561 if (mg) {
3562 I32 pos = mg->mg_len;
3563 if (pos > 0) {
3564 for (c = start + pos; c > start; c--) {
3565 if (UTF8_IS_START(*c))
3566 break;
3567 }
3568 mg->mg_len = c - start;
3569 }
3570 }
3571 if ((mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_utf8)))
3572 magic_setutf8(sv,mg); /* clear UTF8 cache */
3573 }
560a288e
GS
3574 }
3575 return TRUE;
3576}
3577
954c1994
GS
3578/*
3579=for apidoc sv_setsv
3580
645c22ef
DM
3581Copies the contents of the source SV C<ssv> into the destination SV
3582C<dsv>. The source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal, so don't use this
fde67290 3583function if the source SV needs to be reused. Does not handle 'set' magic.
645c22ef
DM
3584Loosely speaking, it performs a copy-by-value, obliterating any previous
3585content of the destination.
3586
3587You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers, such as
3588C<SvSetSV>, C<SvSetSV_nosteal>, C<SvSetMagicSV> and
3589C<SvSetMagicSV_nosteal>.
3590
8d6d96c1
HS
3591=for apidoc sv_setsv_flags
3592
645c22ef
DM
3593Copies the contents of the source SV C<ssv> into the destination SV
3594C<dsv>. The source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal, so don't use this
fde67290 3595function if the source SV needs to be reused. Does not handle 'set' magic.
645c22ef
DM
3596Loosely speaking, it performs a copy-by-value, obliterating any previous
3597content of the destination.
3598If the C<flags> parameter has the C<SV_GMAGIC> bit set, will C<mg_get> on
fde67290
FC
3599C<ssv> if appropriate, else not. If the C<flags>
3600parameter has the C<NOSTEAL> bit set then the
3601buffers of temps will not be stolen. <sv_setsv>
5fcdf167 3602and C<sv_setsv_nomg> are implemented in terms of this function.
645c22ef
DM
3603
3604You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers, such as
3605C<SvSetSV>, C<SvSetSV_nosteal>, C<SvSetMagicSV> and
3606C<SvSetMagicSV_nosteal>.
3607
3608This is the primary function for copying scalars, and most other
3609copy-ish functions and macros use this underneath.
8d6d96c1
HS
3610
3611=cut
3612*/
3613
5d0301b7 3614static void
7bc54cea 3615S_glob_assign_glob(pTHX_ SV *const dstr, SV *const sstr, const int dtype)
5d0301b7 3616{
c8bbf675 3617 I32 mro_changes = 0; /* 1 = method, 2 = isa, 3 = recursive isa */
3e6edce2 3618 HV *old_stash = NULL;
dd69841b 3619
7918f24d
NC
3620 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_GLOB_ASSIGN_GLOB;
3621
bec4f4b4 3622 if (dtype != SVt_PVGV && !isGV_with_GP(dstr)) {
5d0301b7
NC
3623 const char * const name = GvNAME(sstr);
3624 const STRLEN len = GvNAMELEN(sstr);
0d092c36 3625 {
f7877b28
NC
3626 if (dtype >= SVt_PV) {
3627 SvPV_free(dstr);
3628 SvPV_set(dstr, 0);
3629 SvLEN_set(dstr, 0);
3630 SvCUR_set(dstr, 0);
3631 }
0d092c36 3632 SvUPGRADE(dstr, SVt_PVGV);
dedf8e73 3633 (void)SvOK_off(dstr);