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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
e476b1b5 12 (S) A severe warning (default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
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18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above (W,
19D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
30Default warnings are always enabled unless they are explicitly disabled
31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
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37
38Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 39just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
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40Since the messages are listed in alphabetical order, the symbols
41C<"%(-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
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42
43=over 4
44
33633739
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45=item "%s" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s
46
e476b1b5 47(W misc) A "my" or "our" variable has been redeclared in the current scope or statement,
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48effectively eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost
49always a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
50until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
51destroyed.
52
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53=item "my sub" not yet implemented
54
55(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try that
56yet.
57
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58=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
59
60(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
61to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
62if you want to localize a package variable.
63
64=item "no" not allowed in expression
65
66(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
67no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
68
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69=item "our" variable %s redeclared
70
e476b1b5 71(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before in the
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72current lexical scope.
73
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74=item "use" not allowed in expression
75
76(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
77no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
78
f61d411c 79=item '!' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 80
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81(F) The '!' is allowed in pack() and unpack() only after certain types.
82See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 83
17f4a12d 84=item / cannot take a count
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85
86(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
87but you have also specified an explicit size for the string.
88See L<perlfunc/pack>.
89
17f4a12d 90=item / must be followed by a, A or Z
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91
92(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
93which must be followed by one of the letters a, A or Z
94to indicate what sort of string is to be unpacked.
95See L<perlfunc/pack>.
96
17f4a12d 97=item / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*
43192e07 98
437784d6 99(F) You had a pack template indicating a counted-length string,
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100Currently the only things that can have their length counted are a*, A* or Z*.
101See L<perlfunc/pack>.
102
17f4a12d 103=item / must follow a numeric type
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104
105(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '#',
106but this did not follow some numeric unpack specification.
107See L<perlfunc/pack>.
108
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109=item % may only be used in unpack
110
5f05dabc 111(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
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112checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
113way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
114
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115=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
116
e476b1b5 117(W regexp) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
c9f97d15 118by Perl. This combination appears in an interpolated variable or a
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119C<'>-delimited regular expression. The character was understood literally.
120
121=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed through
122
e476b1b5 123(W regexp) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
1028017a 124by Perl inside character classes. The character was understood literally.
c9f97d15 125
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126=item /%s/ should probably be written as "%s"
127
e476b1b5 128(W syntax) You have used a pattern where Perl expected to find a string,
437784d6 129as in the first argument to C<join>. Perl will treat the true
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130or false result of matching the pattern against $_ as the string,
131which is probably not what you had in mind.
132
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133=item %s (...) interpreted as function
134
e476b1b5 135(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 136by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 137found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
a0d0e21e 138
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139=item %s() called too early to check prototype
140
e476b1b5 141(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the parser saw a
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142definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check that the call
143conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an early prototype
144declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the subroutine
145definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype checking. Alternatively,
146if you are certain that you're calling the function correctly, you may put
147an ampersand before the name to avoid the warning. See L<perlsub>.
148
8ea97a1e 149=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element
a0d0e21e 150
8ea97a1e 151(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element, such as:
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152
153 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 154 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
a0d0e21e 155
8ea97a1e 156=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 157
8ea97a1e 158(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element, such as:
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159
160 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 161 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 162
8ea97a1e 163or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 164
8ea97a1e 165 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
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166 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
167
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168=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
169
170(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
171name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this error.
172
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173=item %s did not return a true value
174
175(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
176it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
177traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
178do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
179
180=item %s found where operator expected
181
182(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
183sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
184it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
185delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
186
f86702cc 187=item %s had compilation errors
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188
189(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
190
f86702cc 191=item %s has too many errors
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192
193(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
194Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
195
196=item %s matches null string many times
197
e476b1b5 198(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
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199regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
200
201=item %s never introduced
202
e476b1b5 203(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
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204before it could possibly have been used.
205
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206=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
207
e476b1b5 208(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a package-specific handler.
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209That name might have a meaning to Perl itself some day, even though it
210doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a mixed-case attribute name, instead.
211See L<attributes>.
212
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213=item %s syntax OK
214
215(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
216
f86702cc 217=item %s: Command not found
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218
219(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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220of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
221Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 222
f86702cc 223=item %s: Expression syntax
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224
225(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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226of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
227Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 228
f86702cc 229=item %s: Undefined variable
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230
231(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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232of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
233Perl yourself.
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234
235=item %s: not found
236
8b1a09fc 237(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 238instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
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239into Perl yourself.
240
cc507455 241=item (in cleanup) %s
a99e4ac2 242
e476b1b5 243(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
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244the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by
245the system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast
246number of times, the warning is issued only once for any number
247of failures that would otherwise result in the same message being
248repeated.
249
250Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag
251could also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
252
cc507455 253=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
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254
255(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
256found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
257the previous line just because you saw this message.
258
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259=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
260
261(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
262which provides a race condition that breaks security.
263
264=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
265
266(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
267know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
268
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269=item C<-p> destination: %s
270
271(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
272command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
273redirected it with select().)
274
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275=item 500 Server error
276
277See Server error.
278
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279=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
280
281(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
282if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
283
284=item @ outside of string
285
2ba9eb46 286(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
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287the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
288
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289=item <> should be quotes
290
c47ff5f1 291(F) You wrote C<< require <file> >> when you should have written
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292C<require 'file'>.
293
69282e91 294=item accept() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 295
e476b1b5 296(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
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297the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
298
299=item Allocation too large: %lx
300
54310121 301(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
55497cff 302
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303=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
304
e476b1b5 305(W misc) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and transliteration (tr///)
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306operators work on scalar values. If you apply one of them to an array
307or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to a scalar value -- the
308length of an array, or the population info of a hash -- and then work on
309that scalar value. This is probably not what you meant to do. See
310L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for alternatives.
311
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312=item Arg too short for msgsnd
313
314(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
315
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316=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
317
e476b1b5 318(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
748a9306 319you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 320a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 321
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322=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
323
e476b1b5 324(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl keyword,
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325and you have used the name without qualification for calling one or the
326other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the subroutine is
327not imported.
328
329To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
330before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
331Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
332imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
333
334To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
335on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or by declaring the subroutine
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336to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes">
337or L<attributes>).
5315574d 338
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339=item Args must match #! line
340
341(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
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342with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
343impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
344for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 345
f86702cc 346=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 347
e476b1b5 348(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
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349expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
350will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
351
352=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
353
e476b1b5 354(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
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355is now heavily deprecated.
356
357=item assertion botched: %s
358
359(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
360
361=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
362
363(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
364
365=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
366
367(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
368must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
369know which context to supply to the right side.
370
371=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
372
e476b1b5 373(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
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374be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
375of those arenas.
376
54310121 377=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 378
e476b1b5 379(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
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380optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
381indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
382that can no longer be found in the table.
383
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384=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
385
e476b1b5 386(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
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387routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
388the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
389routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
390it.
391
392=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
393
e476b1b5 394(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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395
396=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
397
e476b1b5 398(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
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399would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
400and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
401could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
402SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
403when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
404
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405=item Attempt to join self
406
407(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
408impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may
409need to move the join() to some other thread.
410
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411=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
412
e476b1b5 413(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
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414function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
415means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
416invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
417literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
418avoid this warning.
419
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420=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
421
e476b1b5 422(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 423as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
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424dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
425
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426=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
427
428(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 429shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 430S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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431S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
432
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433=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
434
435(F) You've used the /e switch to evaluate the replacement for a
436substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
437most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
438
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439=item Bad filehandle: %s
440
441(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
442has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
443did it in another package.
444
445=item Bad free() ignored
446
e476b1b5 447(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
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448malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
449setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
450
451This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
452"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
453C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
454system malloc().
a0d0e21e 455
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456=item Bad hash
457
458(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
459
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460=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
461
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462(F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a
463pseudo-hash is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
464See L<perlref>.
57079c46 465
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466=item Bad name after %s::
467
468(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
469finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
470so
471
472 $var = 'myvar';
473 $sym = mypack::$var;
474
475is not the same as
476
477 $var = 'myvar';
478 $sym = "mypack::$var";
479
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480=item Bad realloc() ignored
481
e476b1b5 482(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had never been
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483malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
484setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
485
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486=item Bad symbol for array
487
488(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
489wasn't a symbol table entry.
490
491=item Bad symbol for filehandle
492
493(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
494wasn't a symbol table entry.
495
496=item Bad symbol for hash
497
498(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
499wasn't a symbol table entry.
500
8b1a09fc 501=item Badly placed ()'s
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502
503(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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504of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
505Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 506
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507=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
508
509(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
d98d5fff 510subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>" symbol.
54310121 511Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
3fe9a6f1 512
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513=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
514
e476b1b5 515(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but
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516the compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point.
517Perhaps you need to predeclare a package?
518
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519=item Bareword found in conditional
520
e476b1b5 521(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a conditional,
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522which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
523last argument of the previous construct, for example:
524
525 open FOO || die;
526
527It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted
528as a bareword:
529
530 use constant TYPO => 1;
531 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
532
533The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
534
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535=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
536
537(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
538Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
539
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540=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
541
542(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
543implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had
544already occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}>
545could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code
546likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
547
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548=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
549
e476b1b5 550(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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551(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
552L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 553
69282e91 554=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 555
e476b1b5 556(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
a0d0e21e
LW
557the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
558
c5a0f51a
JH
559=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
560
e476b1b5 561(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 562
4633a7c4
LW
563=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
564
565(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
566
f675dbe5
CB
567=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
568
e476b1b5 569(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to iterate over
f675dbe5
CB
570%ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition which was too long,
571so it was truncated to the string shown.
572
a0d0e21e
LW
573=item Callback called exit
574
4929bf7b 575(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
576exited by calling exit.
577
a651a37d 578=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
0a753a76
PP
579
580(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look
581like a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually
582occurs if you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which
583is a no-no. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
584
84902520
TB
585=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
586
587(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a
588foreach loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
589
a651a37d 590=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
a0d0e21e
LW
591
592(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
593except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
594current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
a651a37d
GS
595"loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep().
596You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect though,
597because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once.
598See L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e 599
a651a37d 600=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
a0d0e21e
LW
601
602(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
603there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
a651a37d
GS
604count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
605or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
606though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
607loops once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
a0d0e21e 608
f675dbe5
CB
609=item Can't read CRTL environ
610
611(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
612from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
613missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
614or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not searched.
615
a651a37d 616=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
a0d0e21e
LW
617
618(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
619there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
a651a37d
GS
620count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
621or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
622though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
623loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
a0d0e21e
LW
624
625=item Can't bless non-reference value
626
627(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
628encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
629
630=item Can't break at that line
631
e476b1b5 632(S internal) A warning intended to only be printed while running within the debugger, indicating
a0d0e21e
LW
633the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
634be stopped at.
635
636=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
637
638(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
639functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
640in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
641
642=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
643
54310121 644(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
a0d0e21e
LW
645ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
646you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
647an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
648
649=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
650
651(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
652object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
72b5445b
GS
653a defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
654Something like this will reproduce the error:
655
656 $BADREF = 42;
657 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
658 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
659
660=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
661
662(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
663object reference or package name contains an undefined value.
a0d0e21e
LW
664Something like this will reproduce the error:
665
666 $BADREF = undef;
667 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
668 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
669
670=item Can't chdir to %s
671
672(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
673that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
674
0545a864 675=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 676
e688b231 677(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for nosuid.
104d25b7 678
a0d0e21e
LW
679=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
680
681(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 682(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
683say things like:
684
685 *foo += 1;
686
687You CAN say
688
689 $foo = *foo;
690 $foo += 1;
691
692but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
693
694=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
695
696(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 697(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
698
699=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
700
701(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 702(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 703
57079c46
GA
704=item Can't coerce array into hash
705
706(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
707information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
708only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
709
a0d0e21e
LW
710=item Can't create pipe mailbox
711
748a9306
LW
712(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
713or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 714
eb64745e 715=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 716
eb64745e
GS
717(S) Currently, only scalar variables can declared with a specific class
718qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration. The semantics may be extended
719for other types of variables in future.
720
721=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
722
723(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my" or
724"our" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e
LW
725
726=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
727
e476b1b5 728(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
a0d0e21e 729
54310121 730=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 731
54310121 732(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try reading
3fe9a6f1 733from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say C<-i.bak>, or some
a0d0e21e
LW
734such.
735
10f9c03d 736=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 737
e476b1b5 738(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
739characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
740inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e
LW
741
742=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
743
e476b1b5 744(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
a0d0e21e
LW
745/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
746
747=item Can't do setegid!
748
749(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
750of suidperl.
751
752=item Can't do seteuid!
753
754(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
755
756=item Can't do setuid
757
758(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
759do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
760form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
761under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
762If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
763your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
764
765=item Can't do waitpid with flags
766
767(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
768without flags is emulated.
769
c47ff5f1 770=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m
a0d0e21e
LW
771
772(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
773your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
774
775=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
776
777(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
778For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
779
780=item Can't exec "%s": %s
781
e476b1b5 782(W exec) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
a0d0e21e
LW
783program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
784were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
785executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
786#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
787similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
788
789=item Can't exec %s
790
791(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
792what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
793mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
794
795=item Can't execute %s
796
2a92aaa0
GS
797(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute found
798in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
799
800=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
801
802(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
803in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The script
804exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
805
806=item Can't find %s on PATH
807
a0d0e21e 808(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
2a92aaa0 809in the PATH.
a0d0e21e
LW
810
811=item Can't find label %s
812
813(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
814for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
815
816=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
817
818(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 819the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
a0d0e21e
LW
820levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
821
fb73857a
PP
822 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
823
824If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
825included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good
826programmer's editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
827
828=item Can't fork
829
830(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
831
748a9306
LW
832=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
833
834(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
835access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
836access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
837that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
838assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
839it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
840retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
841but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 842routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
748a9306
LW
843appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
844returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
845knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
846see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
847code takes stat buffers lightly.)
848
a0d0e21e
LW
849=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
850
748a9306
LW
851(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
852can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
853
854=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
855
748a9306
LW
856(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
857mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e
LW
858
859=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
860
861(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
862call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 863you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
a0d0e21e
LW
864L<perlfunc/goto>.
865
b150fb22
RH
866=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
867
868(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval "string".
869(You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you probably don't want to.)
870
0b5b802d
GS
871=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
872
e476b1b5 873(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD signal
0b5b802d
GS
874(sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this signal
875will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
876processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value.
877This situation typically indicates that the parent program under
878which Perl may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
879
706a304b 880=item Can't localize through a reference
4633a7c4 881
706a304b
SM
882(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
883handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
884pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be
885sure that $ref will still be a reference.
4633a7c4 886
748a9306
LW
887=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
888
2ba9eb46 889(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
890lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
891localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
892package name.
893
0ebe0038
SM
894=item Can't localize pseudo-hash element
895
c47ff5f1 896(F) You said something like C<< local $ar->{'key'} >>, where $ar is
0ebe0038
SM
897a reference to a pseudo-hash. That hasn't been implemented yet, but
898you can get a similar effect by localizing the corresponding array
c47ff5f1 899element directly -- C<< local $ar->[$ar->[0]{'key'}] >>.
0ebe0038 900
4727527e
IZ
901=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
902
903(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows autoload,
904but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes are a misprint
905in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit> the file, say, by
906doing C<make install>.
907
ec889f3a
GS
908=item Can't locate %s
909
910(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
911found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
912unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
913to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the extra
914library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or
915maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>
916and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e
LW
917
918=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
919
920(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
921functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 922method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
923
924=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
925
e476b1b5 926(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
a0d0e21e
LW
927to exist.
928
3e3baf6d
TB
929=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
930
931(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.
932
a0d0e21e
LW
933=item Can't modify %s in %s
934
935(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 936change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 937
cd06dffe
GS
938=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
939
437784d6
GS
940(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
941such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
cd06dffe 942
54310121 943=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
944
945(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
946a NULL.
947
5f05dabc 948=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 949
5f05dabc 950(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
951buffer.
952
953=item Can't open %s: %s
954
c47ff5f1 955(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
956filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
957switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
958is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named
959on the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
960
961=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
962
e476b1b5 963(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
a0d0e21e 964try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
c47ff5f1 965IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using ">",
a0d0e21e
LW
966and then read it in under a different file handle.
967
748a9306
LW
968=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
969
970(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
c47ff5f1 971couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on the
8b1a09fc 972command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
973
974=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
975
976(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
c47ff5f1 977couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
978
979=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
980
981(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
c47ff5f1 982couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on the command
8b1a09fc 983line for writing.
748a9306
LW
984
985=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
986
987(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
988couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
989
a0d0e21e
LW
990=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
991
992(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
993
7bac28a0
PP
994=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
995
996(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
997pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when it
998was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
999this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
1000
10f9c03d
CK
1001=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
1002
e476b1b5 1003(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup file. Perl
10f9c03d
CK
1004was unable to remove the original file to replace it with the modified
1005file. The file was left unmodified.
1006
a0d0e21e
LW
1007=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1008
e476b1b5 1009(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1010probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1011
748a9306
LW
1012=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1013
1014(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
1015reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
1016
a0d0e21e
LW
1017=item Can't reswap uid and euid
1018
1019(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
1020of suidperl.
1021
1022=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1023
1024(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1025there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1026
cd06dffe
GS
1027=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1028
1029(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such
1030as temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue.
1031This is not allowed.
1032
a0d0e21e
LW
1033=item Can't stat script "%s"
1034
1035(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
1036it open already. Bizarre.
1037
1038=item Can't swap uid and euid
1039
1040(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
1041of suidperl.
1042
1043=item Can't take log of %g
1044
fb73857a
PP
1045(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1046negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
1047standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for
1048the negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1049
1050=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1051
1052(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1053negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1054with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1055
1056=item Can't undef active subroutine
1057
1058(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1059however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1060redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1061
1062=item Can't unshift
1063
1064(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1065as the main Perl stack.
1066
1067=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
1068
1069(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
1070it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
1071so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
1072message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
1073
1074=item Can't upgrade to undef
1075
1076(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
1077of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
1078code calling sv_upgrade.
1079
1d2dff63
GS
1080=item Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available
1081
1082(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1083Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1084provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1085
c07a80fd
PP
1086=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1087
1088(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1089You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1090and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1091Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1092lexical variable.
1093
a0d0e21e
LW
1094=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1095
1096(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
1097
1098=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1099
1100(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1101reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1102test the type of the reference, if need be.
1103
9a7dcd9c 1104=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
748a9306 1105
e476b1b5 1106(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
748a9306 1107a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 1108to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
LW
1109Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
1110out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
1111
9a7dcd9c 1112=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
44a8e56a
PP
1113
1114(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
1115are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
1116
748a9306 1117=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
1118
1119(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
1120are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
1121
1122=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1123
1124(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
54310121 1125be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
a0d0e21e 1126
a0d0e21e
LW
1127=item Can't use global %s in "my"
1128
1129(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 1130not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
a0d0e21e
LW
1131the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
1132variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
1133weren't.
1134
748a9306
LW
1135=item Can't use subscript on %s
1136
1137(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1138subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
1139didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
1140
810b8aa5
GS
1141=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1142
1143(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1144references can be weakened.
1145
5f05dabc 1146=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
1147
1148(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
1149an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
1150Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1151
3f4520fe 1152=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
b6c543e3
IZ
1153
1154(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but
1155there is no builtin with the name C<word>.
1156
3f4520fe 1157=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
e7ea3e70
IZ
1158
1159(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1160opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1161package. If method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
1162
b8c5462f 1163=item Character class [:%s:] unknown
4599a1de 1164
b8c5462f 1165(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown.
437784d6 1166See L<perlre>.
4599a1de 1167
b8c5462f
JH
1168=item Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes
1169
e476b1b5 1170(W unsafe) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
644a2880 1171I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct,
437784d6
GS
1172for example: /[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that [= =] and [. .]
1173are not currently implemented; they are simply placeholders for
1174future extensions.
b8c5462f 1175
644a2880 1176=item Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
4599a1de 1177
e476b1b5 1178(W regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
b8c5462f 1179with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
4599a1de
JH
1180If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1181expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
b8c5462f 1182backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
4599a1de
JH
1183
1184=item Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
1185
e476b1b5 1186(W regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
4599a1de
JH
1187beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions.
1188If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1189expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
1190backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
1191
5a211162 1192=item chmod() mode argument is missing initial 0
a0d0e21e 1193
e476b1b5 1194(W chmod) A novice will sometimes say
a0d0e21e
LW
1195
1196 chmod 777, $filename
1197
1198not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
1199to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
1200
c47ff5f1 1201=item Close on unopened file <%s>
a0d0e21e 1202
e476b1b5 1203(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
a0d0e21e 1204
7a2e2cd6
PP
1205=item Compilation failed in require
1206
1207(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
1208Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it encountered
1209were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
1210
c3464db5
DD
1211=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1212
e476b1b5 1213(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex situations
c3464db5
DD
1214where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited to 32766,
1215or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1216arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1217recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1218under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather
1219than in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular
1220expression so that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlbook>
1221for information on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
1222
69282e91 1223=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1224
e476b1b5 1225(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
a0d0e21e
LW
1226the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
1227
779c5bc9
GS
1228=item Constant is not %s reference
1229
1230(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
1231is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference. The
1232message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This usually
1233indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
1234See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1235
4cee8e80
CS
1236=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1237
e476b1b5 1238(S|W redefine) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
4cee8e80
CS
1239inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1240workarounds.
1241
9607fc9c
PP
1242=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1243
e476b1b5 1244(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
9607fc9c
PP
1245inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1246workarounds.
1247
423cee85
JH
1248=item constant(%s): %s
1249
f0af216f
GS
1250(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define an
1251overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name specified
1252in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding
1253C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and L<overload>.
423cee85 1254
e7ea3e70
IZ
1255=item Copy method did not return a reference
1256
1257(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
1258
6798c92b
GS
1259=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1260
1261(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1262
a0d0e21e
LW
1263=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1264
1265(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1266
1267=item corrupted regexp pointers
1268
1269(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1270expression compiler gave it.
1271
1272=item corrupted regexp program
1273
1274(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
1275a valid magic number.
1276
1277=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1278
e476b1b5 1279(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
3e3baf6d 1280times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
a0d0e21e
LW
1281recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
1282case it indicates something else.
1283
f10b0346 1284=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1285
e476b1b5 1286(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it checks for an
69794302
MJD
1287undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the array is empty,
1288just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
1289
f10b0346 1290=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1291
e476b1b5 1292(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it checks for an
69794302
MJD
1293undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash is empty,
1294just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
1295
fc36a67e
PP
1296=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1297
c47ff5f1 1298(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label
fc36a67e
PP
1299C<FOO> is too long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously
1300twisted to write code that triggers this error.
1301
3cdd684c
TP
1302=item Did not produce a valid header
1303
1304See Server error.
1305
cc507455 1306=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4
LW
1307
1308(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
1309
cc507455 1310=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1311
e476b1b5 1312(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global variable.
33633739
GS
1313You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which seems superfluous.
1314
cc507455 1315=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1316
748a9306
LW
1317(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
1318On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
1319
7e1af8bc 1320=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1321
1322(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1323you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1324
cc507455 1325=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
748a9306
LW
1326
1327(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1328found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1329name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1330because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
1331"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
1332referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
1333to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
1334can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
1335declaration.
a0d0e21e 1336
3cdd684c
TP
1337=item Document contains no data
1338
1339See Server error.
1340
a0d0e21e
LW
1341=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1342
1343(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1344
1345=item do_study: out of memory
1346
1347(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1348
1349=item Duplicate free() ignored
1350
e476b1b5 1351(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
a0d0e21e
LW
1352been freed.
1353
4633a7c4
LW
1354=item elseif should be elsif
1355
1356(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1357ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1358named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
1359unlikely to be what you want.
1360
4f25aa18 1361=item %s failed--call queue aborted
a0d0e21e 1362
7d30b5c4 1363(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a CHECK, INIT, or
4f25aa18
GS
1364END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the queue of such
1365routines has been prematurely ended.
a0d0e21e 1366
85ab1d1d 1367=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1368
85ab1d1d 1369(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1370effective uids or gids failed.
1371
748a9306
LW
1372=item Error converting file specification %s
1373
5f05dabc 1374(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
1375specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
1376single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
1377passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
1378case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
1379
e4d48cc9
GS
1380=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1381
1382(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular expression
1383that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which is unsafe.
1384See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
1385
1386=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1387
1388(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion,
1389but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'> pragma is
1390in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1391
1392=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1393
1394(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the C<(?{ ... })>
3c247ff3
GS
1395zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the pattern contains
1396interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it is not allowed.
e4d48cc9
GS
1397If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly building the pattern
1398from an interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval().
1399See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1400
fc36a67e
PP
1401=item Excessively long <> operator
1402
1403(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1404Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1405filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1406variable and glob that.
1407
f86702cc 1408=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1409
1410(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1411
1412=item Exiting eval via %s
1413
e476b1b5
GS
1414(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
1415a goto, or a loop control statement.
1416
1417=item Exiting format via %s
1418
1419(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1420a goto, or a loop control statement.
1421
0a753a76
PP
1422=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1423
e476b1b5 1424(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a sort block or
0a753a76
PP
1425subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control
1426statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1427
a0d0e21e
LW
1428=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1429
e476b1b5 1430(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1431a goto, or a loop control statement.
1432
1433=item Exiting substitution via %s
1434
e476b1b5 1435(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1436a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
1437
7b8d334a
GS
1438=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1439
e476b1b5 1440(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
7b8d334a
GS
1441the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1442usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target
ae6c4aac 1443package, e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1444
73b437c8
JH
1445=item false [] range "%s" in regexp
1446
e476b1b5 1447(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal character, not
73b437c8
JH
1448another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-" in your false
1449range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the "-", "\-".
1450See L<perlre>.
1451
748a9306 1452=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1453
748a9306
LW
1454(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
1455service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
1456filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
1457the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1458
1459=item fcntl is not implemented
1460
1461(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1462PDP-11 or something?
1463
1464=item Filehandle %s never opened
1465
e476b1b5 1466(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
a0d0e21e
LW
1467You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
1468the FileHandle package.
1469
af8c498a 1470=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1471
e476b1b5 1472(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
a0d0e21e 1473intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
c47ff5f1
GS
1474"+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If
1475you intended only to write the file, use ">" or ">>". See
8b1a09fc 1476L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1477
af8c498a 1478=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1479
e476b1b5 1480(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing. If you
437784d6 1481intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it with
c47ff5f1
GS
1482"+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If
1483you intended only to read from the file, use "<". See
8b1a09fc 1484L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1485
1486=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1487
1488(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
1489a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1490that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1491the name.
1492
1493=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1494
1495(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
1496a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1497that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1498the name.
1499
56e90b21
GS
1500=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1501
e476b1b5 1502(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed some
56e90b21
GS
1503time before now. Check your logic flow. flock() operates on filehandles.
1504Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the same name?
1505
a0d0e21e
LW
1506=item Format %s redefined
1507
e476b1b5 1508(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1509
1510 {
4438c4b7 1511 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
1512 eval "format NAME =...";
1513 }
1514
1515=item Format not terminated
1516
1517(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1518to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1519
1520=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1521
e476b1b5 1522(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1523
1524 if ($foo = 123)
1525
1526when you meant
1527
1528 if ($foo == 123)
1529
1530(or something like that).
1531
1532=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1533
1534(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1535
1536=item gethostent not implemented
1537
1538(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1539because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1540on the Internet.
1541
69282e91 1542=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1543
e476b1b5 1544(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
a0d0e21e
LW
1545Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1546
748a9306
LW
1547=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1548
1549(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1550C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1551
e476b1b5
GS
1552=item glob failed (%s)
1553
1554(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for C<glob>
c47ff5f1 1555and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
e476b1b5
GS
1556pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a nonzero
1557status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit resulted in a
1558coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is broken. If so,
1559you should change all of the csh-related variables in config.sh: If you
1560have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it were csh (e.g.
1561C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all empty (except that
1562C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will think csh is missing.
1563In either case, after editing config.sh, run C<./Configure -S> and
1564rebuild Perl.
1565
a0d0e21e
LW
1566=item Glob not terminated
1567
1568(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1569a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1570finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1571the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1572
1573=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1574
68dc0745 1575(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
eb64745e
GS
1576must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), declared beforehand using
1577"our", or explicitly qualified to say which package the global variable
1578is in (using "::").
a0d0e21e
LW
1579
1580=item goto must have label
1581
1582(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1583unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1584
1585=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1586
e476b1b5 1587(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
a0d0e21e
LW
1588existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1589an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1590
1591=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1592
e476b1b5 1593(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
a0d0e21e
LW
1594is now heavily deprecated.
1595
252aa082
JH
1596=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1597
e476b1b5 1598(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1599(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1600L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1601
8903cb82
PP
1602=item Identifier too long
1603
1604(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e
PP
1605about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
1606names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future
1607versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1608
f675dbe5
CB
1609=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
1610
e476b1b5 1611(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's internal
f675dbe5 1612environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=> delimiter
4375e838 1613used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
f675dbe5
CB
1614
1615=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
a0d0e21e 1616
e476b1b5 1617(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical name
f675dbe5
CB
1618or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1619didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the
1620line was ignored.
a0d0e21e 1621
4fdae800
PP
1622=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1623
d5898338
GS
1624(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
1625would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this
1626error when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason,
1627your version of Perl appears to have been built without this support.
1628Talk to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 1629
a0d0e21e
LW
1630=item Illegal division by zero
1631
1632(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1633logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1634
1635=item Illegal modulus zero
1636
1637(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1638don't take to this kindly.
1639
399388f4
GS
1640=item Illegal binary digit %s
1641
437784d6 1642(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
399388f4
GS
1643
1644=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1645
1646(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1647
399388f4
GS
1648=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
1649
e476b1b5 1650(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
399388f4
GS
1651Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the offending digit.
1652
1653=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 1654
e476b1b5 1655(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
748a9306
LW
1656of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1657
651978e7 1658=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
6ff81951 1659
e476b1b5 1660(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or A - F, a - f
252aa082 1661in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal number stopped
6ff81951
GS
1662before the illegal character.
1663
81e118e0
JH
1664=item Illegal number of bits in vec
1665
0a1cd687 1666(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
c5a0f51a 1667two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
09bef843 1668
54310121
PP
1669=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
1670
1671(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1672following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
1673
9607fc9c
PP
1674=item In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s
1675
1676(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1677array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was first
1678used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and ambiguous
1679instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by prepending a backslash to
1680indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array within the
1681program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply assume
1682that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1683
a0d0e21e
LW
1684=item Insecure dependency in %s
1685
8b1a09fc 1686(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1687The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1688or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1689labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1690who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1691used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1692for more information.
1693
1694=item Insecure directory in %s
1695
1696(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1697script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1698See L<perlsec>.
1699
62f468fc 1700=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1701
1702(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
G
1703setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1704C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1705potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1706known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1707
a7ae9550
GS
1708=item Integer overflow in %s number
1709
e476b1b5 1710(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified either
c6edd1b7 1711as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for your
9e24b6e2
JH
1712architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number. On a
171332-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
1714representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
17150b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
1716transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
1717internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
1718operations.
bbce6d69 1719
748a9306
LW
1720=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1721
1722(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1723of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1724whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
b687b08b 1725script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count
748a9306
LW
1726has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1727this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1728and execute the specified command.
1729
a0d0e21e
LW
1730=item internal disaster in regexp
1731
1732(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1733
1734=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1735
1736(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1737
09bef843
SB
1738=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
1739
1740The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
1741by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1742
1743=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
1744
1745The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not recognized
1746by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1747
73b437c8 1748=item invalid [] range "%s" in regexp
a0d0e21e
LW
1749
1750(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
1209ba90 1751greater than the maximum character. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 1752
c635e13b
PP
1753=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1754
e476b1b5 1755(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.
c635e13b
PP
1756See L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
1757
09bef843
SB
1758=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
1759
0120eecf 1760(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
09bef843
SB
1761elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute
1762had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated
1763too soon. See L<attributes>.
1764
96e4d5b1
PP
1765=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1766
8903cb82 1767(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
e476b1b5 1768(W pack) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be silently
fb73857a 1769ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1770
1771=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1772
8903cb82 1773(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
e476b1b5 1774(W unpack) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be silently
fb73857a 1775ignored.
96e4d5b1 1776
a0d0e21e
LW
1777=item ioctl is not implemented
1778
1779(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1780strange for a machine that supports C.
1781
1782=item junk on end of regexp
1783
1784(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1785
1786=item Label not found for "last %s"
1787
1788(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1789loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1790See L<perlfunc/last>.
1791
1792=item Label not found for "next %s"
1793
1794(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1795that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1796L<perlfunc/last>.
1797
1798=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1799
1800(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1801that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1802L<perlfunc/last>.
1803
85ab1d1d 1804=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1805
85ab1d1d 1806(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1807effective uids or gids failed.
1808
69282e91 1809=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1810
e476b1b5 1811(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
a0d0e21e
LW
1812the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1813
cd06dffe
GS
1814=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
1815
1816(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
1817values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context.
1818See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
1819
a0d0e21e
LW
1820=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1821
1822(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1823doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 1824
3cdd684c
TP
1825=item Method %s not permitted
1826
1827See Server error.
1828
a0d0e21e
LW
1829=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1830
1831(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1832by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1833ended earlier on the current line.
1834
1835=item Misplaced _ in number
1836
e476b1b5 1837(W syntax) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
a0d0e21e
LW
1838
1839=item Missing $ on loop variable
1840
8b1a09fc
PP
1841(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1842mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1843one line to the next.
1844
4a2d328f 1845=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 1846
4a2d328f 1847(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
1848double-quotish context.
1849
a0d0e21e
LW
1850=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1851
1852(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1853"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1854
06eaf0bc
GS
1855=item Missing command in piped open
1856
e476b1b5 1857(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or C<open(FH, "command |")>
06eaf0bc
GS
1858construction, but the command was missing or blank.
1859
cc507455 1860=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306
LW
1861
1862(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1863found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1864
d98d5fff 1865=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 1866
d98d5fff
GS
1867(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than
1868closing ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place
1869you were last editing.
a0d0e21e 1870
a0d0e21e
LW
1871=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1872
1873(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1874constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1875catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1876
1877 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1878 mod(2);
1879
1880Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1881
4fe4fdb3 1882=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, subscript %d
a0d0e21e
LW
1883
1884(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1885subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1886backwards.
1887
4fe4fdb3 1888=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
a0d0e21e 1889
19a09eb8 1890(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
a0d0e21e
LW
1891be created for some peculiar reason.
1892
1893=item Module name must be constant
1894
1895(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1896
1897=item msg%s not implemented
1898
1899(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1900
1901=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1902
e476b1b5 1903(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
8b1a09fc
PP
1904like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1905
09bef843
SB
1906=item Missing name in "my sub"
1907
1908(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that they
1909have a name with which they can be found.
1910
8b1a09fc
PP
1911=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1912
e476b1b5 1913(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
68dc0745 1914If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention
77ca0c92
LW
1915it again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
1916provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1917
1918=item Negative length
1919
1920(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1921that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1922
1923=item nested *?+ in regexp
1924
5f05dabc 1925(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1926things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1927
5f05dabc 1928Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1929to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1930
1931=item No #! line
1932
1933(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1934even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1935
1936=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1937
1938(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1939script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1940another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1941See L<perlsec>.
1942
1943=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1944
1945(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1946
a67e862a
GS
1947=item No %s specified for -%c
1948
1949(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
1950you haven't specified one.
1951
a0d0e21e
LW
1952=item No comma allowed after %s
1953
1954(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1955allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1956Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1957
0a753a76
PP
1958One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
1959constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
1960importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
1961does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
1962explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
1963L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
1964would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
1965remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
1966constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
1967list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
1968this error was triggered?
1969
748a9306
LW
1970=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1971
1972(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
54310121 1973and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you
748a9306
LW
1974want to pipe the output from this command.
1975
a0d0e21e
LW
1976=item No DB::DB routine defined
1977
1978(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1979but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1980didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1981statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1982automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1983right.
1984
1985=item No dbm on this machine
1986
1987(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1988supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1989
1990=item No DBsub routine
1991
1992(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1993but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1994didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1995ordinary subroutine call.
1996
c47ff5f1 1997=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306
LW
1998
1999(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
c47ff5f1 2000and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't find
8b1a09fc 2001the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2002
c47ff5f1 2003=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306
LW
2004
2005(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
c47ff5f1 2006and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
8b1a09fc 2007from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2008
c47ff5f1 2009=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306
LW
2010
2011(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
c47ff5f1 2012and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
54310121 2013where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2014
c47ff5f1 2015=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306
LW
2016
2017(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
c47ff5f1 2018and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't find the
8b1a09fc 2019name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2020
1ec3e8de
GS
2021=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2022
2023(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our" declarations,
2024because that doesn't make much sense under existing semantics. Such
2025syntax is reserved for future extensions.
2026
a0d0e21e
LW
2027=item No Perl script found in input
2028
2029(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2030with #! and containing the word "perl".
2031
2032=item No setregid available
2033
2034(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2035your system.
2036
2037=item No setreuid available
2038
2039(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2040your system.
2041
a67e862a 2042=item No space allowed after -%c
a0d0e21e 2043
a67e862a
GS
2044(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow immediately
2045after the switch, without intervening spaces.
a0d0e21e 2046
88e9b055 2047=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s"
57079c46 2048
88e9b055 2049(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
57079c46
GA
2050not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
2051array indices for that to work.
2052
88e9b055 2053=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
f1192cee
GA
2054
2055(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type
2056does not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in
2057the %FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash
2058is usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
2059
748a9306
LW
2060=item No such pipe open
2061
2062(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
2063close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
2064an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
2065
a0d0e21e
LW
2066=item No such signal: SIG%s
2067
e476b1b5 2068(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
a0d0e21e
LW
2069Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
2070
bd3fa61c
CB
2071=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
2072
db7c17d7 2073(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
f675dbe5
CB
2074timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
2075to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL>
2076to translate to the number of seconds which need to be added to UTC to
2077get local time.
2078
a0d0e21e
LW
2079=item Not a CODE reference
2080
2081(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2082subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
2083use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
2084See also L<perlref>.
2085
2086=item Not a format reference
2087
2088(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2089format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2090
2091=item Not a GLOB reference
2092
55497cff 2093(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
2094a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2095something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
2096what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2097
2098=item Not a HASH reference
2099
2100(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
2101found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2102function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2103
2104=item Not a perl script
2105
2106(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2107even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2108mention perl.
2109
2110=item Not a SCALAR reference
2111
2112(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
2113found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2114function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2115
2116=item Not a subroutine reference
2117
2118(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2119subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
2120use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
2121See also L<perlref>.
2122
e7ea3e70 2123=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2124
2125(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2126doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2127
2128=item Not an ARRAY reference
2129
2130(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
2131found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2132function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2133
2134=item Not enough arguments for %s
2135
2136(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2137
2138=item Not enough format arguments
2139
e476b1b5 2140(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
a0d0e21e
LW
2141See L<perlform>.
2142
2143=item Null filename used
2144
5f05dabc 2145(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
2146that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
2147
55497cff
PP
2148=item Null picture in formline
2149
2150(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2151specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2152supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2153
a0d0e21e
LW
2154=item NULL OP IN RUN
2155
e476b1b5 2156(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
a0d0e21e
LW
2157
2158=item Null realloc
2159
2160(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2161
2162=item NULL regexp argument
2163
5f05dabc 2164(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2165
2166=item NULL regexp parameter
2167
2168(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2169
fc36a67e
PP
2170=item Number too long
2171
2172(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to about
2173about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future versions of
2174Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In the meantime,
2175try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of "1_000_000").
2176
252aa082
JH
2177=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2178
e476b1b5 2179(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1 (4294967295)
9e24b6e2
JH
2180and therefore non-portable between systems. See L<perlport> for more
2181on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2182
2183See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2184
3cb0bbe5
GS
2185=item Octal number in vector unsupported
2186
2187(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors. The
2188octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a future
2189version.
2190
1930e939 2191=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2192
e476b1b5 2193(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash, which
1930e939 2194is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2195
bbce6d69
PP
2196=item Offset outside string
2197
2198(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
2199pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
2200The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
2201will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
2202
a0d0e21e
LW
2203=item oops: oopsAV
2204
e476b1b5 2205(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
2206
2207=item oops: oopsHV
2208
e476b1b5 2209(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 2210
56f7f34b 2211=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2212
e7ea3e70
IZ
2213(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which
2214no handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in
2215terms of other handlers, there is no default handler for any
2216operation, unless C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be
2217true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2218
748a9306
LW
2219=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2220
e476b1b5 2221(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
748a9306
LW
2222expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
2223to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
2224For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
2225if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
2226
a80b8354
GS
2227=item Out of memory!
2228
2229(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2230remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl
2231has no option but to exit immediately.
2232
a0d0e21e
LW
2233=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2234
2235(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
2236but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
2237
1b979e0a 2238=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2239
55497cff 2240(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
54310121 2241remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2242
2243The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2244depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
2245However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
2246an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff
PP
2247error is trappable I<once>.
2248
1b979e0a 2249=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
55497cff
PP
2250
2251(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2252remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
2253the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
2254a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
2255
1b979e0a
IZ
2256=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2257
2258(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
2259is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g., C<$arr[time]>
2260instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
2261
a0d0e21e
LW
2262=item page overflow
2263
e476b1b5 2264(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
a0d0e21e
LW
2265See L<perlform>.
2266
2267=item panic: ck_grep
2268
2269(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
2270
2271=item panic: ck_split
2272
2273(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
2274
2275=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
2276
2277(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
2278are in the savestack.
2279
810b8aa5
GS
2280=item panic: del_backref
2281
2282(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
2283reference.
2284
a0d0e21e
LW
2285=item panic: die %s
2286
2287(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
2288it wasn't an eval context.
2289
2290=item panic: do_match
2291
2292(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2293
2294=item panic: do_split
2295
2296(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
2297
2298=item panic: do_subst
2299
2300(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2301
2302=item panic: do_trans
2303
2304(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2305
c635e13b
PP
2306=item panic: frexp
2307
2308(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2309
a0d0e21e
LW
2310=item panic: goto
2311
2312(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2313and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2314
2315=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2316
2317(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2318
2319=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2320
2321(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2322
e446cec8
IZ
2323=item panic: kid popen errno read
2324
2325(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2326
a0d0e21e
LW
2327=item panic: last
2328
2329(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2330it wasn't a block context.
2331
2332=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2333
5f05dabc 2334(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2335
2336=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2337
2338(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2339invalid enum on the top of it.
2340
2341=item panic: malloc
2342
2343(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2344
810b8aa5
GS
2345=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
2346
2347(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
2348references to an object.
2349
a0d0e21e
LW
2350=item panic: mapstart
2351
2352(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2353
2354=item panic: null array
2355
2356(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2357
2358=item panic: pad_alloc
2359
2360(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2361and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2362
2363=item panic: pad_free curpad
2364
2365(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2366and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2367
2368=item panic: pad_free po
2369
2370(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2371
2372=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2373
2374(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2375and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2376
2377=item panic: pad_sv po
2378
2379(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2380
2381=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2382
2383(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2384and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2385
2386=item panic: pad_swipe po
2387
2388(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2389
2390=item panic: pp_iter
2391
2392(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2393
2394=item panic: realloc
2395
2396(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2397
2398=item panic: restartop
2399
2400(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2401didn't supply the destination.
2402
2403=item panic: return
2404
2405(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2406then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2407
2408=item panic: scan_num
2409
2410(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2411
2412=item panic: sv_insert
2413
2414(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2415was string.
2416
2417=item panic: top_env
2418
6224f72b 2419(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
2420
2421=item panic: yylex
2422
2423(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
2424
b3c9acc1
IZ
2425=item panic: %s
2426
2427(P) An internal error.
2428
7b8d334a 2429=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e 2430
e476b1b5 2431(W parenthesis) You said something like
a0d0e21e
LW
2432
2433 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2434
2435when you meant
2436
2437 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2438
54884818 2439Remember that "my", "our", and "local" bind tighter than comma.
a0d0e21e
LW
2440
2441=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
2442
2443(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
2444than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
2445anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
2446
2447=item Permission denied
2448
2449(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2450
bd3fa61c 2451=item pid %x not a child
748a9306 2452
e476b1b5 2453(W exec) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
748a9306
LW
2454isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
2455perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
2456
a0d0e21e
LW
2457=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2458
81777298 2459(F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
a0d0e21e
LW
2460the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2461
6bc102ca
GS
2462=item Possible Y2K bug: %s
2463
e476b1b5 2464(W y2k) You are concatenating the number 19 with another number, which
6bc102ca
GS
2465could be a potential Year 2000 problem.
2466
bbce6d69
PP
2467=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2468
e476b1b5 2469(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
774d564b
PP
2470strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated
2471as literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
7b8d334a 2472parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2473
774d564b
PP
2474You probably wrote something like this:
2475
54310121 2476 @list = qw(
774d564b 2477 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2478 b # another comment
774d564b 2479 );
bbce6d69
PP
2480
2481when you should have written this:
2482
774d564b 2483 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
2484 a
2485 b
774d564b
PP
2486 );
2487
2488If you really want comments, build your list the
2489old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2490
2491 @list = (
2492 'a', # a comment
2493 'b', # another comment
2494 );
bbce6d69
PP
2495
2496=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2497
e476b1b5 2498(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore commas
68dc0745 2499aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used different
774d564b
PP
2500delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
2501used.)
bbce6d69 2502
54310121 2503You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2504
774d564b
PP
2505 qw! a, b, c !;
2506
2507which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2508commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2509
774d564b 2510 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2511
a0d0e21e
LW
2512=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2513
2514(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2515Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2516end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2517Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2518
8cd79558
GS
2519=item pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME : ATTRS" instead
2520
4375e838 2521(W deprecated) You have written something like this:
8cd79558
GS
2522
2523 sub doit
2524 {
2525 use attrs qw(locked);
2526 }
2527
2528You should use the new declaration syntax instead.
2529
2530 sub doit : locked
2531 {
2532 ...
2533
2534The C<use attrs> pragma is now obsolete, and is only provided for
2535backward-compatibility. See L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes">.
2536
a0d0e21e
LW
2537=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2538
e476b1b5 2539(S precedence) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2540
a0d0e21e
LW
2541 open FOO || die;
2542
2543is now misinterpreted as
2544
2545 open(FOO || die);
2546
68dc0745
PP
2547because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary
2548and list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must
2549put parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator
2550instead of "||".
a0d0e21e 2551
3cdd684c
TP
2552=item Premature end of script headers
2553
2554See Server error.
2555
9a7dcd9c 2556=item print() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2557
e476b1b5 2558(W closed) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
a0d0e21e
LW
2559Check your logic flow.
2560
9a7dcd9c 2561=item printf() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2562
e476b1b5 2563(W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
a0d0e21e
LW
2564Check your logic flow.
2565
3fe9a6f1 2566=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2567
e476b1b5 2568(S unsafe) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been declared
3fe9a6f1 2569or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2570
89ea2908
GA
2571=item Range iterator outside integer range
2572
2573(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2574are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
2575One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string
2576increment by prepending "0" to your numbers.
2577
9a7dcd9c 2578=item readline() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2579
e476b1b5 2580(W closed) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
a0d0e21e
LW
2581Check your logic flow.
2582
4ad56ec9
IZ
2583=item realloc() of freed memory ignored
2584
e476b1b5 2585(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had already
4ad56ec9
IZ
2586been freed.
2587
a0d0e21e
LW
2588=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2589
54310121 2590(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e
LW
2591
2592=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2593
e476b1b5 2594(F debugging) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
a0d0e21e
LW
2595desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
2596which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2597
3e0ccd42 2598=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2599
2600(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2601an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2602
3e0ccd42
JP
2603=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method '%s' in package '%s'
2604
2605(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking a
2606method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2607
1930e939
TP
2608=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2609
e476b1b5 2610(W misc) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list with
1930e939
TP
2611an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This
2612usually means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant
2613to use parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2614
2615 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2616 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2617 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2618 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2619
810b8aa5
GS
2620=item Reference is already weak
2621
e476b1b5 2622(W misc) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.
810b8aa5
GS
2623Doing so has no effect.
2624
a0d0e21e
LW
2625=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2626
e476b1b5 2627(W internal) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
a0d0e21e
LW
2628reference count of other than 1.
2629
fb73857a
PP
2630=item regexp *+ operand could be empty
2631
2632(F) The part of the regexp subject to either the * or + quantifier
2633could match an empty string.
2634
a0d0e21e
LW
2635=item regexp memory corruption
2636
2637(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2638expression compiler gave it.
2639
2640=item regexp out of space
2641
2642(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
2643
7a95317d
GS
2644=item Repeat count in pack overflows
2645
2646(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
2647your signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2648
2649=item Repeat count in unpack overflows
2650
2651(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
2652your signed integers. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
2653
a0d0e21e
LW
2654=item Reversed %s= operator
2655
e476b1b5 2656(W syntax) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
a0d0e21e
LW
2657comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
2658
2659=item Runaway format
2660
2661(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2662produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2663199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2664themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2665shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2666
2667=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2668
e476b1b5 2669(W syntax) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 2670an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc
PP
2671The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2672assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 2673like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 2674subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2675
748a9306 2676On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2677element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2678Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2679L<perlref>.
2680
a6006777
PP
2681=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2682
e476b1b5 2683(W syntax) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a6006777
PP
2684a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
2685The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2686assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
2687like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
2688subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
2689
2690On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
2691element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
2692Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2693L<perlref>.
2694
a0d0e21e
LW
2695=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2696
54310121
PP
2697(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2698or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2699
2700=item Search pattern not terminated
2701
2702(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2703construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2704Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2705
96e4d5b1 2706=item %sseek() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2707
e476b1b5 2708(W unopened) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a filehandle that
96e4d5b1 2709was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2710
2711=item select not implemented
2712
2713(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2714
2715=item sem%s not implemented
2716
2717(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
2718
2719=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2720
e476b1b5 2721(S internal) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
a0d0e21e
LW
2722that had previously been marked as free.
2723
2724=item Semicolon seems to be missing
2725
e476b1b5 2726(W semicolon) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
a0d0e21e
LW
2727or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
2728
69282e91 2729=item send() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2730
e476b1b5 2731(W closed) The socket you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
a0d0e21e
LW
2732Check your logic flow.
2733
1b1626e4 2734=item Sequence (? incomplete
7b8d334a 2735
1b1626e4
G
2736(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?.
2737See L<perlre>.
2738
a0d0e21e
LW
2739=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
2740
2741(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 2742parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2743
2744=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
2745
2746(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
2747but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
2748
2749=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
2750
2751(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
2752See L<perlre>.
2753
a5f75d66
AD
2754=item Server error
2755
3cdd684c
TP
2756This is the error message generally seen in a browser window when trying
2757to run a CGI program (including SSI) over the web. The actual error
2758text varies widely from server to server. The most frequently-seen
2759variants are "500 Server error", "Method (something) not permitted",
2760"Document contains no data", "Premature end of script headers", and
2761"Did not produce a valid header".
9607fc9c
PP
2762
2763B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
2764
2765You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the user
2766CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user account you
2767tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables (like PATH)
2768from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a location where the CGI
2769server can't find it, basically, more or less. Please see the following
2770for more information:
2771
be94a901
GS
2772 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/idiots-guide.html
2773 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/perl-cgi-faq.html
9607fc9c
PP
2774 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
2775 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
2776 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 2777
be94a901
GS
2778You should also look at L<perlfaq9>.
2779
a0d0e21e
LW
2780=item setegid() not implemented
2781
8b1a09fc 2782(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2783the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2784think so.
2785
2786=item seteuid() not implemented
2787
c47ff5f1 2788(F) You tried to assign to C<< $> >>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2789the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2790think so.
2791
81777298
GS
2792=item setpgrp can't take arguments
2793
2794(F) Your system has the setpgrp() from BSD 4.2, which takes no arguments,
2795unlike POSIX setpgid(), which takes a process ID and process group ID.
2796
a0d0e21e
LW
2797=item setrgid() not implemented
2798
8b1a09fc 2799(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2800the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2801think so.
2802
2803=item setruid() not implemented
2804
c47ff5f1 2805(F) You tried to assign to C<$<>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2806the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2807think so.
2808
2809=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
2810
2811(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
2812because the world might have written on it already.
2813
2814=item shm%s not implemented
2815
2816(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
2817
69282e91 2818=item shutdown() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2819
e476b1b5 2820(W closed) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
a0d0e21e 2821
f86702cc 2822=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e 2823
e476b1b5 2824(W signal) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
a0d0e21e
LW
2825put it into the wrong package?
2826
2827=item sort is now a reserved word
2828
2829(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
2830But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
2831
2832=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
2833
2834(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
c47ff5f1 2835it by not using C<< <=> >> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
2836See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2837
2838=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
2839
2840(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
2841or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2842
2843=item Split loop
2844
2845(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
2846more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
2847See L<perlfunc/split>.
2848
c47ff5f1 2849=item Stat on unopened file <%s>
a0d0e21e 2850
e476b1b5 2851(W unopened) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
54310121 2852on a filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2853
2854=item Statement unlikely to be reached
2855
e476b1b5 2856(W exec) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
a0d0e21e
LW
2857This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
2858there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
2859which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
2860by itself.
2861
17feb5d5
DD
2862=item Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression
2863
e476b1b5 2864(W regexp) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where it
17feb5d5
DD
2865makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion.
2866Try putting the quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example,
2867the way to match "abc" provided that it is followed by three
2868repetitions of "xyz" is C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
2869
e7ea3e70
IZ
2870=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
2871
2872(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation stubs.
4375e838 2873Stubs should never be implicitly created, but explicit calls to C<can>
e7ea3e70
IZ
2874may break this.
2875
a0d0e21e
LW
2876=item Subroutine %s redefined
2877
e476b1b5 2878(W redefine) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
2879
2880 {
4438c4b7 2881 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
2882 eval "sub name { ... }";
2883 }
2884
2885=item Substitution loop
2886
2887(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
2888substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
68dc0745 2889input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2890L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2891
2892=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2893
2894(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2895construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2896Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2897
2898=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2899
2900(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2901construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2902Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2903
2904=item substr outside of string
2905
e476b1b5 2906(W substr),(F) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a
3e3baf6d
TB
2907string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
2908length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is
e476b1b5 2909fatal if substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side
3e3baf6d 2910of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 2911
f86702cc 2912=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2913
2914(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2915version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2916
85ab1d1d
JH
2917=item switching effective %s is not implemented
2918
2919(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, we cannot switch the
2920real and effective uids or gids.
2921
a0d0e21e
LW
2922=item syntax error
2923
2924(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2925
2926 A keyword is misspelled.
2927 A semicolon is missing.
2928 A comma is missing.
2929 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2930 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2931 A closing quote is missing.
2932
2933Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2934error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2935The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2936it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2937before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2938Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2939the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2940C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2941if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2942
cb1a09d0
AD
2943=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2944
8b1a09fc 2945(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 2946instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2947into Perl yourself.
2948
6087ac44 2949=item System V %s is not implemented on this machine
a0d0e21e 2950
6087ac44
JH
2951(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem",
2952"shm", or "msg" but that System V IPC is not implemented in your
2953machine. In some machines the functionality can exist but be
2954unconfigured. Consult your system support.
a0d0e21e 2955
69282e91 2956=item syswrite() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2957
e476b1b5 2958(W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
a0d0e21e
LW
2959Check your logic flow.
2960
fc36a67e
PP
2961=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
2962
2963(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply
2964nested for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
2965
8903cb82 2966=item tell() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2967
e476b1b5 2968(W unopened) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
8903cb82 2969never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 2970
c47ff5f1 2971=item Test on unopened file <%s>
a0d0e21e 2972
e476b1b5 2973(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
a0d0e21e
LW
2974open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2975
2976=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2977
8b1a09fc 2978(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2979a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2980
2981 $[ = 0;
2982 $[ = 1;
2983 ...
2984 local $[ = 0;
2985 local $[ = 1;
2986 ...
2987
2988This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2989out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2990
2991=item The %s function is unimplemented
2992
2993The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2994to the probings of Configure.
2995
f86702cc 2996=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
2997
2998(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2999probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 3000think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
3001will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
3002will deny it.
3003
3004=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
3005
3006(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
3007if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
3008the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
3009
437784d6 3010=item This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s)
f675dbe5
CB
3011
3012=item This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
3013
e476b1b5 3014(W internal) Warnings peculiar to VMS. You tried to change or delete an element
f675dbe5
CB
3015of the CRTL's internal environ array, but your copy of Perl wasn't
3016built with a CRTL that contained the setenv() function. You'll need to
3017rebuild Perl with a CRTL that does, or redefine F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see
3018L<perlvms>) so that the environ array isn't the target of the change to
3019%ENV which produced the warning.
3020
a0d0e21e
LW
3021=item times not implemented
3022
3023(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
3024you're not running on Unix.
3025
3026=item Too few args to syscall
3027
3028(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
3029system call to call, silly dilly.
3030
9607fc9c
PP
3031=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
3032
3033(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb
PP
3034B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
3035This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
3036script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
3037So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 3038
9607fc9c
PP
3039If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
3040mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed
3041by editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's
3042first argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 3043
9607fc9c
PP
3044If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
3045B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 3046
8cc95fdb
PP
3047=item Too late for "-%s" option
3048
3049(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
3050B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options
3051are not intended for use inside scripts. Use the C<use> pragma instead.
3052
ddda08b7
GS
3053=item Too late to run %s block
3054
3055(W void) A CHECK or INIT block is being defined during run time proper,
3056when the opportunity to run them has already passed. Perhaps you are
3057loading a file with C<require> or C<do> when you should be using
3058C<use> instead. Or perhaps you should put the C<require> or C<do>
3059inside a BEGIN block.
3060
cb1a09d0
AD
3061=item Too many ('s
3062
3063=item Too many )'s
3064
3065(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
3066of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
3067Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 3068
a0d0e21e
LW
3069=item Too many args to syscall
3070
5f05dabc 3071(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
3072
3073=item Too many arguments for %s
3074
3075(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
3076
3077=item trailing \ in regexp
3078
3079(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
3080it. See L<perlre>.
3081
2c268ad5 3082=item Transliteration pattern not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
3083
3084(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
fb73857a
PP
3085or y/// or y[][] construct. Missing the leading C<$> from variables
3086C<$tr> or C<$y> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 3087
2c268ad5 3088=item Transliteration replacement not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
3089
3090(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
3091construct.
3092
3093=item truncate not implemented
3094
3095(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
3096Configure knows about.
3097
3098=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
3099
3100(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
3101certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
3102%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
3103{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
3104
3105=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
3106
e476b1b5 3107(W umask) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal
eec2d3df
GS
3108literals always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
3109
3110=item umask not implemented
3111
3112(F) Your machine doesn't implement the umask function and you tried
3113to use it to restrict permissions for yourself (EXPR & 0700).
a0d0e21e 3114
4633a7c4
LW
3115=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
3116
3117(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
3118
a0d0e21e
LW
3119=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
3120
e476b1b5 3121(W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
a0d0e21e
LW
3122contexts were entered and left.
3123
3124=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
3125
e476b1b5 3126(W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
a0d0e21e
LW
3127values were temporarily localized.
3128
3129=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
3130
e476b1b5 3131(W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
a0d0e21e
LW
3132were entered and left.
3133
3134=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
3135
e476b1b5 3136(W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
a0d0e21e
LW
3137scalars were allocated and freed.
3138
3139=item Undefined format "%s" called
3140
3141(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
3142another package? See L<perlform>.
3143
3144=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
3145
3146(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
3147it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3148
3149=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
3150
3151(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
3152has since been undefined.
3153
3154=item Undefined subroutine called
3155
3156(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
3157or if it was, it has since been undefined.
3158
3159=item Undefined subroutine in sort
3160
3161(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
3162have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3163
4633a7c4
LW
3164=item Undefined top format "%s" called
3165
3166(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
3167another package? See L<perlform>.
3168
20408e3c
GS
3169=item Undefined value assigned to typeglob
3170
e476b1b5 3171(W misc) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la C<*foo = undef>.
20408e3c
GS
3172This does nothing. It's possible that you really mean C<undef *foo>.
3173
a0d0e21e
LW
3174=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
3175
3176(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
3177representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
3178
3179=item Unknown BYTEORDER
3180
5f05dabc 3181(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e 3182
6170680b
IZ
3183=item Unknown open() mode '%s'
3184
437784d6 3185(F) The second argument of 3-argument open() is not among the list
c47ff5f1
GS
3186of valid modes: C<< < >>, C<< > >>, C<<< >> >>>, C<< +< >>,
3187C<< +> >>, C<<< +>> >>>, C<-|>, C<|->.
6170680b 3188
f675dbe5
CB
3189=item Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s
3190
3191(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl was reading values for %ENV before
3192iterating over it, and someone else stuck a message in the stream of
3193data Perl expected. Someone's very confused, or perhaps trying to
3194subvert Perl's population of %ENV for nefarious purposes.
3195
a0d0e21e
LW
3196=item unmatched () in regexp
3197
3198(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
3199expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 3200the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3201
d98d5fff 3202=item Unmatched right %s bracket
a0d0e21e 3203
d98d5fff
GS
3204(F) The lexer counted more closing curly or square brackets than
3205opening ones, so you're probably missing a matching opening bracket.
3206As a general rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the
3207place you were last editing.
a0d0e21e
LW
3208
3209=item unmatched [] in regexp
3210
3211(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
3212include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
3213See L<perlre>.
3214
3215=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
3216
e476b1b5 3217(W reserved) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
a0d0e21e
LW
3218It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
3219an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
3220
54310121 3221=item Unrecognized character %s
a0d0e21e 3222
54310121
PP
3223(F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character
3224in your Perl script (or eval). Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
3225script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.
a0d0e21e 3226
c9f97d15
IZ
3227=item Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
3228
e476b1b5 3229(W misc) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
c9f97d15
IZ
3230by Perl.
3231
a0d0e21e
LW
3232=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
3233
3234(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
3235Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
3236
90248788 3237=item Unrecognized switch: -%s (-h will show valid options)
a0d0e21e
LW
3238
3239(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
3240(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
3241supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
3242
3243=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
3244
e476b1b5 3245(W newline) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
a0d0e21e 3246failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
54310121 3247because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chomp>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3248
3249=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
3250
3251(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
3252
54310121
PP
3253=item Unsupported function fork
3254
3255(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
3256
3257Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
3258Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
3259the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
3260
a0d0e21e
LW
3261=item Unsupported function %s
3262
7b8d334a 3263(F) This machine doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
a0d0e21e
LW
3264At least, Configure doesn't think so.
3265
3266=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
3267
3268(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
3269least that's what Configure thought.
3270
c47ff5f1 3271=item Unterminated <> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
3272
3273(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
3274a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
3275finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
3276the line, and you really meant a "less than".
3277
09bef843
SB
3278=item Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list
3279
3280(F) The lexer saw an opening (left) parenthesis character while parsing an
3281attribute list, but the matching closing (right) parenthesis
3282character was not found. You may need to add (or remove) a backslash
3283character to get your parentheses to balance. See L<attributes>.
3284
3285=item Unterminated attribute list
3286
3287(F) The lexer found something other than a simple identifier at the start
3288of an attribute, and it wasn't a semicolon or the start of a
3289block. Perhaps you terminated the parameter list of the previous attribute
3290too soon. See L<attributes>.
3291
a0d0e21e
LW
3292=item Use of $# is deprecated
3293
e476b1b5 3294(D deprecated) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
3295Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
3296
3297=item Use of $* is deprecated
3298
e476b1b5 3299(D deprecated) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
3300you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
3301use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
3302action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
3303
748a9306
LW
3304=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
3305
5f05dabc
PP
3306(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
3307only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 3308
c47ff5f1 3309=item Use of bare << to mean <<"" is deprecated
4633a7c4 3310
e476b1b5 3311(D deprecated) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
3fe9a6f1 3312wish to use an empty line as the terminator of the here-document.
4633a7c4 3313
a0d0e21e
LW
3314=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
3315
e476b1b5 3316(D deprecated) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
a0d0e21e
LW
3317subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
3318a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
3319
dc848c6f
PP
3320=item Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
3321
c47ff5f1
GS
3322(D deprecated) As an (ahem) accidental feature, C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines are
3323looked up as methods (using the C<@ISA> hierarchy) even when the subroutines
3324to be autoloaded were called as plain functions (e.g. C<Foo::bar()>),
3325not as methods (e.g. C<< Foo->bar() >> or C<< $obj->bar() >>).
dc848c6f
PP
3326
3327This bug will be rectified in Perl 5.005, which will use method lookup
3328only for methods' C<AUTOLOAD>s. However, there is a significant base
3329of existing code that may be using the old behavior. So, as an
3330interim step, Perl 5.004 issues an optional warning when non-methods
3331use inherited C<AUTOLOAD>s.
3332
3333The simple rule is: Inheritance will not work when autoloading
3334non-methods. The simple fix for old code is: In any module that used to
3335depend on inheriting C<AUTOLOAD> for non-methods from a base class named
3336C<BaseClass>, execute C<*AUTOLOAD = \&BaseClass::AUTOLOAD> during startup.
3337
fb73857a
PP
3338In code that currently says C<use AutoLoader; @ISA = qw(AutoLoader);> you
3339should remove AutoLoader from @ISA and change C<use AutoLoader;> to
7b8d334a 3340C<use AutoLoader 'AUTOLOAD';>.
fb73857a 3341
85b81015
LW
3342=item Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated
3343
e476b1b5 3344(D deprecated) The indicated bareword is a reserved word. Future versions of perl
85b81015
LW
3345may use it as a keyword, so you're better off either explicitly quoting
3346the word in a manner appropriate for its context of use, or using a
3347different name altogether. The warning can be suppressed for subroutine
3348names by either adding a C<&> prefix, or using a package qualifier,
3349e.g. C<&our()>, or C<Foo::our()>.
3350
dc848c6f
PP
3351=item Use of %s is deprecated
3352
e476b1b5 3353(D deprecated) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
dc848c6f
PP
3354because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
3355bad side effects.
3356
cc95b072 3357=item Use of uninitialized value%s
a0d0e21e 3358
e476b1b5 3359(W uninitialized) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
a0d0e21e 3360interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
5311ebfa 3361warning assign a defined value to your variables.
a0d0e21e 3362
8202fd39
G
3363=item Useless use of "re" pragma
3364
3365(W) You did C<use re;> without any arguments. That isn't very useful.
3366
a0d0e21e
LW
3367=item Useless use of %s in void context
3368
e476b1b5 3369(W void) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
a0d0e21e
LW
3370with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
3371from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
3372this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
3373your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
3374if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
3375
3376 $one, $two = 1, 2;
3377
3378when you meant to say
3379
3380 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
3381
748a9306
LW
3382Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
3383reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
3384example, if you say
3385
3386 $array = (1,2);
3387
3388when you should have said
3389
3390 $array = [1,2];
3391
3392The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
3393while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
3394a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
3395throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
3396L<perlref> for more on this.
3397
55497cff
PP
3398=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
3399
e476b1b5 3400(W untie) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
55497cff
PP
3401valid when C<untie> was called.
3402
68dc0745 3403=item Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777 3404
e476b1b5 3405(W misc) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), C<each()>,
68dc0745
PP
3406or C<readdir()> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
3407value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which is
3408probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in conditional
3409expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
a6006777 3410
f675dbe5
CB
3411=item Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long
3412
e476b1b5 3413(W misc) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the value of an %ENV
f675dbe5
CB
3414element from a CLI symbol table, and found a resultant string longer
3415than 1024 characters. The return value has been truncated to 1024
3416characters.
3417
9607fc9c 3418=item Variable "%s" is not imported%s
4633a7c4
LW
3419
3420(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
3421that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
3422something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
3423by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
3424on the front of your variable.
3425
44a8e56a
PP
3426=item Variable "%s" may be unavailable
3427
e476b1b5 3428(W closure) An inner (nested) I<anonymous> subroutine is inside a I<named>
44a8e56a
PP
3429subroutine, and outside that is another subroutine; and the anonymous
3430(innermost) subroutine is referencing a lexical variable defined in
3431the outermost subroutine. For example:
3432
3433 sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }
3434
3435If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or
3436indirectly) from the outermost subroutine, it will share the variable
3437as you would expect. But if the anonymous subroutine is called or
3438referenced when the outermost subroutine is not active, it will see
3439the value of the shared variable as it was before and during the
3440*first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is probably not what
3441you want.
3442
3443In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle
3444subroutine anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. Perl has specific
3445support for shared variables in nested anonymous subroutines; a named
3446subroutine in between interferes with this feature.
3447
3448=item Variable "%s" will not stay shared
3449
e476b1b5 3450(W closure) An inner (nested) I<named> subroutine is referencing a lexical
44a8e56a
PP
3451variable defined in an outer subroutine.
3452
3453When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value of
3454the outer subroutine's variable as it was before and during the
3455*first* call to the outer subroutine; in this case, after the first
3456call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer
3457subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable. In
3458other words, the variable will no longer be shared.
3459
3460Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a
3461lexical variable outside itself, then the outer and inner subroutines
3462will I<never> share the given variable.
3463
3464This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine
3465anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. When inner anonymous subs that
3466reference variables in outer subroutines are called or referenced,
54310121 3467they are automatically rebound to the current values of such
44a8e56a
PP
3468variables.
3469
f86702cc 3470=item Variable syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
3471
3472(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
3473of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
3474Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 3475
084610c0
GS
3476=item Version number must be a constant number
3477
3478(P) The attempt to translate a C<use Module n.n LIST> statement into
3479its equivalent C<BEGIN> block found an internal inconsistency with
3480the version number.
3481
3e6e419a
JH
3482=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3483
3484(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
3485
3486 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3487 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
3488 LC_ALL = "En_US",
3489 LANG = (unset)
3490 are supported and installed on your system.
3491 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
3492
3493Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
3494settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
3495This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your system
3496administrator have set up the so-called variable system but Perl could
3497not use those settings. This was not dead serious, fortunately: there