This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
Some minor changes for Cygwin
[perl5.git] / README.cygwin
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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
5aabfad6 4
8736538c 5=head1 NAME
5aabfad6 6
f8dbba82 7README.cygwin - Perl for Cygwin
5aabfad6 8
8736538c 9=head1 SYNOPSIS
5aabfad6 10
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11This document will help you configure, make, test and install Perl
12on Cygwin. This document also describes features of Cygwin that will
13affect how Perl behaves at runtime.
5aabfad6 14
f8dbba82 15B<NOTE:> There are pre-built Perl packages available for Cygwin and a
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16version of Perl is provided in the normal Cygwin install. If you do
17not need to customize the configuration, consider using one of those
18packages.
5aabfad6 19
5aabfad6 20
a83b6f46 21=head1 PREREQUISITES FOR COMPILING PERL ON CYGWIN
8736538c 22
f8dbba82 23=head2 Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it)
8736538c 24
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25The Cygwin tools are ports of the popular GNU development tools for Win32
26platforms. They run thanks to the Cygwin library which provides the UNIX
27system calls and environment these programs expect. More information
28about this project can be found at:
8736538c 29
47dafe4d 30 http://www.cygwin.com/
1cab015a 31
f8dbba82 32A recent net or commercial release of Cygwin is required.
8736538c 33
a0457be1 34At the time this document was last updated, Cygwin 1.3.9 was current.
8736538c 35
1cab015a 36
f8dbba82 37=head2 Cygwin Configuration
1cab015a 38
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39While building Perl some changes may be necessary to your Cygwin setup so
40that Perl builds cleanly. These changes are B<not> required for normal
41Perl usage.
1cab015a 42
f8dbba82 43B<NOTE:> The binaries that are built will run on all Win32 versions.
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44They do not depend on your host system (Win9x/WinME, WinNT/Win2K)
45or your Cygwin configuration (I<ntea>, I<ntsec>, binary/text mounts).
46The only dependencies come from hard-coded pathnames like C</usr/local>.
47However, your host system and Cygwin configuration will affect Perl's
48runtime behavior (see L</"TEST">).
1cab015a 49
f8dbba82 50=over 4
1cab015a 51
f8dbba82 52=item * C<PATH>
1cab015a 53
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54Set the C<PATH> environment variable so that Configure finds the Cygwin
55versions of programs. Any Windows directories should be removed or
56moved to the end of your C<PATH>.
1cab015a 57
f8dbba82 58=item * I<nroff>
1cab015a 59
f8dbba82 60If you do not have I<nroff> (which is part of the I<groff> package),
b4bcd662 61Configure will B<not> prompt you to install I<man> pages.
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62
63=item * Permissions
64
65On WinNT with either the I<ntea> or I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> settings, directory
66and file permissions may not be set correctly. Since the build process
125a13ce 67creates directories and files, to be safe you may want to run a `C<chmod
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68-R +w *>' on the entire Perl source tree.
69
70Also, it is a well known WinNT "feature" that files created by a login
71that is a member of the I<Administrators> group will be owned by the
72I<Administrators> group. Depending on your umask, you may find that you
73can not write to files that you just created (because you are no longer
74the owner). When using the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, this is not an
75issue because it "corrects" the ownership to what you would expect on
76a UNIX system.
1cab015a 77
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78=back
79
a83b6f46 80=head1 CONFIGURE PERL ON CYGWIN
8736538c 81
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82The default options gathered by Configure with the assistance of
83F<hints/cygwin.sh> will build a Perl that supports dynamic loading
84(which requires a shared F<libperl.dll>).
f89d6eaa 85
f8dbba82 86This will run Configure and keep a record:
8736538c 87
f8dbba82 88 ./Configure 2>&1 | tee log.configure
8736538c 89
b4bcd662 90If you are willing to accept all the defaults run Configure with B<-de>.
f8dbba82 91However, several useful customizations are available.
5aabfad6 92
a83b6f46 93=head2 Stripping Perl Binaries on Cygwin
5aabfad6 94
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95It is possible to strip the EXEs and DLLs created by the build process.
96The resulting binaries will be significantly smaller. If you want the
97binaries to be stripped, you can either add a B<-s> option when Configure
98prompts you,
8736538c 99
f8dbba82 100 Any additional ld flags (NOT including libraries)? [none] -s
5db16f6a 101 Any special flags to pass to gcc to use dynamic linking? [none] -s
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102 Any special flags to pass to ld2 to create a dynamically loaded library?
103 [none] -s
8736538c 104
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105or you can edit F<hints/cygwin.sh> and uncomment the relevant variables
106near the end of the file.
8736538c 107
a83b6f46 108=head2 Optional Libraries for Perl on Cygwin
8736538c 109
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110Several Perl functions and modules depend on the existence of
111some optional libraries. Configure will find them if they are
112installed in one of the directories listed as being used for library
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113searches. Pre-built packages for most of these are available from
114the Cygwin installer.
8736538c 115
f8dbba82 116=over 4
8736538c 117
f8dbba82 118=item * C<-lcrypt>
8736538c 119
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120The crypt package distributed with Cygwin is a Linux compatible 56-bit
121DES crypt port by Corinna Vinschen.
122
123Alternatively, the crypt libraries in GNU libc have been ported to Cygwin.
1cab015a 124
5db16f6a 125The DES based Ultra Fast Crypt port was done by Alexey Truhan:
1cab015a 126
2ca463cb 127 ftp://ftp.uni-erlangen.de/pub/pc/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/cw32crypt-dist-0.tgz
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128
129NOTE: There are various export restrictions on DES implementations,
130see the glibc README for more details.
1cab015a 131
f8dbba82 132The MD5 port was done by Andy Piper:
1cab015a 133
2ca463cb 134 ftp://ftp.uni-erlangen.de/pub/pc/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/libcrypt.tgz
1cab015a 135
f8dbba82 136=item * C<-lgdbm> (C<use GDBM_File>)
1cab015a 137
a0457be1 138GDBM is available for Cygwin.
125a13ce 139
f8dbba82 140=item * C<-ldb> (C<use DB_File>)
1cab015a 141
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142BerkeleyDB is available for Cygwin. Some details can be found in
143F<ext/DB_File/DB_File.pm>.
1cab015a 144
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145NOTE: The BerkeleyDB library only completely works on NTFS partitions.
146
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147=item * C<-lcygipc> (C<use IPC::SysV>)
148
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149A port of SysV IPC is available for Cygwin.
150
151NOTE: This has B<not> been extensively tested. In particular,
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152C<d_semctl_semun> is undefined because it fails a Configure test
153and on Win9x the I<shm*()> functions seem to hang. It also creates
154a compile time dependency because F<perl.h> includes F<<sys/ipc.h>>
155and F<<sys/sem.h>> (which will be required in the future when compiling
156CPAN modules).
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157
158=back
159
a83b6f46 160=head2 Configure-time Options for Perl on Cygwin
f8dbba82 161
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162The F<INSTALL> document describes several Configure-time options. Some of
163these will work with Cygwin, others are not yet possible. Also, some of
164these are experimental. You can either select an option when Configure
165prompts you or you can define (undefine) symbols on the command line.
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166
167=over 4
168
169=item * C<-Uusedl>
170
0a110db2 171Undefining this symbol forces Perl to be compiled statically.
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172
173=item * C<-Uusemymalloc>
1cab015a 174
f8dbba82 175By default Perl uses the malloc() included with the Perl source. If you
0a110db2 176want to force Perl to build with the system malloc() undefine this symbol.
1cab015a 177
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178=item * C<-Uuseperlio>
179
180Undefining this symbol disables the PerlIO abstraction, which is now the
181default.
182
6b49d266 183=item * C<-Dusemultiplicity>
1cab015a 184
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185Multiplicity is required when embedding Perl in a C program and using
186more than one interpreter instance. This works with the Cygwin port.
1cab015a 187
0a110db2 188=item * C<-Duse64bitint>
1cab015a 189
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190By default Perl uses 32 bit integers. If you want to use larger 64
191bit integers, define this symbol. If there is trouble, check that
192your Cygwin installation is up to date.
1cab015a 193
f8dbba82 194=item * C<-Duselongdouble>
1cab015a 195
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196I<gcc> supports long doubles (12 bytes). However, several additional
197long double math functions are necessary to use them within Perl
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198(I<{atan2, cos, exp, floor, fmod, frexp, isnan, log, modf, pow, sin, sqrt}l,
199strtold>).
f8dbba82 200These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 201
f8dbba82 202=item * C<-Dusethreads>
1cab015a 203
a0457be1 204POSIX threads are B<not> yet implemented in Cygwin completely.
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205
206=item * C<-Duselargefiles>
207
0a110db2 208Although Win32 supports large files, Cygwin currently uses 32-bit integers
5db16f6a 209for internal size and position calculations.
1cab015a 210
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211=item * C<-Dmksymlinks>
212
213Use this to build perl outside of the source tree. This works with Cygwin.
214Details can be found in the F<INSTALL> document.
215
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216=back
217
a83b6f46 218=head2 Suspicious Warnings on Cygwin
1cab015a 219
f8dbba82 220You may see some messages during Configure that seem suspicious.
8736538c 221
f8dbba82 222=over 4
8736538c 223
b4bcd662 224=item * I<dlsym()>
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225
226I<ld2> is needed to build dynamic libraries, but it does not exist
227when dlsym() checking occurs (it is not created until `C<make>' runs).
228You will see the following message:
229
230 Checking whether your dlsym() needs a leading underscore ...
b4bcd662 231 ld2: not found
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232 I can't compile and run the test program.
233 I'm guessing that dlsym doesn't need a leading underscore.
234
235Since the guess is correct, this is not a problem.
236
b4bcd662 237=item * Win9x and C<d_eofnblk>
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238
239Win9x does not correctly report C<EOF> with a non-blocking read on a
240closed pipe. You will see the following messages:
241
242 But it also returns -1 to signal EOF, so be careful!
243 WARNING: you can't distinguish between EOF and no data!
244
245 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
246 The recommended value for $d_eofnblk on this machine was "define"!
247 Keep the recommended value? [y]
248
249At least for consistency with WinNT, you should keep the recommended
250value.
251
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252=item * Compiler/Preprocessor defines
253
254The following error occurs because of the Cygwin C<#define> of
255C<_LONG_DOUBLE>:
256
257 Guessing which symbols your C compiler and preprocessor define...
5d129265 258 try.c:<line#>: parse error
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259
260This failure does not seem to cause any problems.
261
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262=back
263
a83b6f46 264=head1 MAKE ON CYGWIN
5aabfad6 265
b4bcd662 266Simply run I<make> and wait:
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267
268 make 2>&1 | tee log.make
269
a83b6f46 270=head2 Warnings on Cygwin
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271
272Warnings like these are normal:
273
274 warning: overriding commands for target <file>
275 warning: ignoring old commands for target <file>
276
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277 dllwrap: no export definition file provided
278 dllwrap: creating one, but that may not be what you want
f8dbba82 279
a83b6f46 280=head2 ld2 on Cygwin
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281
282During `C<make>', I<ld2> will be created and installed in your $installbin
283directory (where you said to put public executables). It does not
284wait until the `C<make install>' process to install the I<ld2> script,
285this is because the remainder of the `C<make>' refers to I<ld2> without
286fully specifying its path and does this from multiple subdirectories.
287The assumption is that $installbin is in your current C<PATH>. If this
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288is not the case `C<make>' will fail at some point. If this happens,
289just manually copy I<ld2> from the source directory to somewhere in
290your C<PATH>.
f8dbba82 291
a83b6f46 292=head1 TEST ON CYGWIN
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293
294There are two steps to running the test suite:
295
296 make test 2>&1 | tee log.make-test
297
298 cd t;./perl harness 2>&1 | tee ../log.harness
299
300The same tests are run both times, but more information is provided when
301running as `C<./perl harness>'.
5aabfad6 302
f8dbba82 303Test results vary depending on your host system and your Cygwin
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304configuration. If a test can pass in some Cygwin setup, it is always
305attempted and explainable test failures are documented. It is possible
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306for Perl to pass all the tests, but it is more likely that some tests
307will fail for one of the reasons listed below.
1cab015a 308
a83b6f46 309=head2 File Permissions on Cygwin
1cab015a 310
f8dbba82 311UNIX file permissions are based on sets of mode bits for
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312{read,write,execute} for each {user,group,other}. By default Cygwin
313only tracks the Win32 read-only attribute represented as the UNIX file
314user write bit (files are always readable, files are executable if they
315have a F<.{com,bat,exe}> extension or begin with C<#!>, directories are
316always readable and executable). On WinNT with the I<ntea> C<CYGWIN>
317setting, the additional mode bits are stored as extended file attributes.
318On WinNT with the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, permissions use the standard
319WinNT security descriptors and access control lists. Without one of
320these options, these tests will fail:
1cab015a 321
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322 Failed Test List of failed
323 ------------------------------------
324 io/fs.t 5, 7, 9-10
325 lib/anydbm.t 2
326 lib/db-btree.t 20
327 lib/db-hash.t 16
328 lib/db-recno.t 18
329 lib/gdbm.t 2
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330 lib/ndbm.t 2
331 lib/odbm.t 2
332 lib/sdbm.t 2
333 op/stat.t 9, 20 (.tmp not an executable extension)
1cab015a 334
a83b6f46 335=head2 Script Portability on Cygwin
1cab015a 336
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337Cygwin does an outstanding job of providing UNIX-like semantics on top of
338Win32 systems. However, in addition to the items noted above, there are
339some differences that you should know about. This is a very brief guide
340to portability, more information can be found in the Cygwin documentation.
1cab015a 341
f8dbba82 342=over 4
1cab015a 343
f8dbba82 344=item * Pathnames
1cab015a 345
a0457be1 346Cygwin pathnames can be separated by forward (F</>) or backward (F<\\>)
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347slashes. They may also begin with drive letters (F<C:>) or Universal
348Naming Codes (F<//UNC>). DOS device names (F<aux>, F<con>, F<prn>,
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349F<com*>, F<lpt?>, F<nul>) are invalid as base filenames. However, they
350can be used in extensions (e.g., F<hello.aux>). Names may contain all
351printable characters except these:
1cab015a 352
f8dbba82 353 : * ? " < > |
1cab015a 354
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355File names are case insensitive, but case preserving. A pathname that
356contains a backslash or drive letter is a Win32 pathname (and not subject
357to the translations applied to POSIX style pathnames).
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358
359=item * Text/Binary
360
361When a file is opened it is in either text or binary mode. In text mode
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362a file is subject to CR/LF/Ctrl-Z translations. With Cygwin, the default
363mode for an open() is determined by the mode of the mount that underlies
364the file. Perl provides a binmode() function to set binary mode on files
365that otherwise would be treated as text. sysopen() with the C<O_TEXT>
366flag sets text mode on files that otherwise would be treated as binary:
367
368 sysopen(FOO, "bar", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_TEXT)
f8dbba82 369
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370lseek(), tell() and sysseek() only work with files opened in binary mode.
371
372The text/binary issue is covered at length in the Cygwin documentation.
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373
374=item * F<.exe>
375
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376The Cygwin stat(), lstat() and readlink() functions make the F<.exe>
377extension transparent by looking for F<foo.exe> when you ask for F<foo>
378(unless a F<foo> also exists). Cygwin does not require a F<.exe>
379extension, but I<gcc> adds it automatically when building a program.
380However, when accessing an executable as a normal file (e.g., I<cp>
381in a makefile) the F<.exe> is not transparent. The I<install> included
382with Cygwin automatically appends a F<.exe> when necessary.
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383
384=item * chown()
385
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386On WinNT chown() can change a file's user and group IDs. On Win9x chown()
387is a no-op, although this is appropriate since there is no security model.
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388
389=item * Miscellaneous
390
391File locking using the C<F_GETLK> command to fcntl() is a stub that
392returns C<ENOSYS>.
393
f8dbba82 394Win9x can not rename() an open file (although WinNT can).
1cab015a 395
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396The Cygwin chroot() implementation has holes (it can not restrict file
397access by native Win32 programs).
398
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399=back
400
a83b6f46 401=head1 INSTALL PERL ON CYGWIN
f8dbba82 402
b4bcd662 403This will install Perl, including I<man> pages.
f8dbba82 404
a0457be1 405 make install 2>&1 | tee log.make-install
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406
407NOTE: If C<STDERR> is redirected `C<make install>' will B<not> prompt
408you to install I<perl> into F</usr/bin>.
1cab015a 409
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410You may need to be I<Administrator> to run `C<make install>'. If you
411are not, you must have write access to the directories in question.
1cab015a 412
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413Information on installing the Perl documentation in HTML format can be
414found in the F<INSTALL> document.
1cab015a 415
a83b6f46 416=head1 MANIFEST ON CYGWIN
1cab015a 417
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418These are the files in the Perl release that contain references to Cygwin.
419These very brief notes attempt to explain the reason for all conditional
420code. Hopefully, keeping this up to date will allow the Cygwin port to
421be kept as clean as possible.
1cab015a 422
f8dbba82 423=over 4
1cab015a 424
f8dbba82 425=item Documentation
1cab015a 426
47dafe4d 427 INSTALL README.cygwin README.win32 MANIFEST
5d129265 428 Changes Changes5.005 Changes5.004 Changes5.6
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429 pod/perl.pod pod/perlport.pod pod/perlfaq3.pod
430 pod/perldelta.pod pod/perl5004delta.pod pod/perl56delta.pod
431 pod/perlhist.pod pod/perlmodlib.pod pod/buildtoc.PL pod/perltoc.pod
1cab015a 432
f8dbba82 433=item Build, Configure, Make, Install
1cab015a 434
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435 cygwin/Makefile.SHs
436 cygwin/ld2.in
437 cygwin/perlld.in
438 ext/IPC/SysV/hints/cygwin.pl
439 ext/NDBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
440 ext/ODBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
441 hints/cygwin.sh
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442 Configure - help finding hints from uname,
443 shared libperl required for dynamic loading
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444 Makefile.SH - linklibperl
445 Porting/patchls - cygwin in port list
f8dbba82 446 installman - man pages with :: translated to .
5db16f6a 447 installperl - install dll/ld2/perlld, install to pods
6b49d266 448 makedepend.SH - uwinfix
1cab015a 449
f8dbba82 450=item Tests
1cab015a 451
f8dbba82 452 t/io/tell.t - binmode
5d129265 453 t/lib/b.t - ignore Cwd from os_extras
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454 t/lib/glob-basic.t - Win32 directory list access differs from read mode
455 t/op/magic.t - $^X/symlink WORKAROUND, s/.exe//
456 t/op/stat.t - no /dev, skip Win32 ftCreationTime quirk
457 (cache manager sometimes preserves ctime of file
458 previously created and deleted), no -u (setuid)
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459
460=item Compiled Perl Source
461
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462 EXTERN.h - __declspec(dllimport)
463 XSUB.h - __declspec(dllexport)
b4bcd662 464 cygwin/cygwin.c - os_extras (getcwd, spawn)
6b49d266 465 perl.c - os_extras
f8dbba82 466 perl.h - binmode
6b49d266 467 doio.c - win9x can not rename a file when it is open
b4bcd662 468 pp_sys.c - do not define h_errno, pp_system with spawn
47dafe4d 469 util.c - use setenv
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470
471=item Compiled Module Source
472
473 ext/POSIX/POSIX.xs - tzname defined externally
474 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/pair.c
475 - EXTCONST needs to be redefined from EXTERN.h
476 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/sdbm.c
477 - binary open
478
479=item Perl Modules/Scripts
480
6b49d266 481 lib/Cwd.pm - hook to internal Cwd::cwd
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482 lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm
483 - require MM_Cygwin.pm
484 lib/ExtUtils/MM_Cygwin.pm
485 - canonpath, cflags, manifypods, perl_archive
497711e7 486 lib/File/Find.pm - on remote drives stat() always sets st_nlink to 1
6b49d266 487 lib/File/Spec/Unix.pm - preserve //unc
5d129265 488 lib/File/Temp.pm - no directory sticky bit
6b49d266 489 lib/perl5db.pl - use stdin not /dev/tty
6b49d266 490 utils/perldoc.PL - version comment
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491
492=back
f89d6eaa 493
a83b6f46 494=head1 BUGS ON CYGWIN
f8dbba82 495
b4bcd662 496When I<make> starts, it warns about overriding commands for F<perlmain.o>.
f8dbba82 497
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498Support for swapping real and effective user and group IDs is incomplete.
499On WinNT Cygwin provides setuid(), seteuid(), setgid() and setegid().
500However, additional Cygwin calls for manipulating WinNT access tokens
501and security contexts are required.
502
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503=head1 AUTHORS
504
b4bcd662 505Charles Wilson <cwilson@ece.gatech.edu>,
47dafe4d 506Eric Fifer <egf7@columbia.edu>,
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507alexander smishlajev <als@turnhere.com>,
508Steven Morlock <newspost@morlock.net>,
509Sebastien Barre <Sebastien.Barre@utc.fr>,
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510Teun Burgers <burgers@ecn.nl>,
511Gerrit Haase <gh@familiehaase.de>.
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512
513=head1 HISTORY
514
a0457be1 515Last updated: 2002-02-27