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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
4
5=head1 NAME
6
7perlwin32 - Perl under Windows
8
9=head1 SYNOPSIS
10
b906aaa5 11These are instructions for building Perl under Windows 2000 and later.
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12
13=head1 DESCRIPTION
14
15Before you start, you should glance through the README file
16found in the top-level directory to which the Perl distribution
17was extracted. Make sure you read and understand the terms under
18which this software is being distributed.
19
016af039 20Also make sure you read L</BUGS AND CAVEATS> below for the
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21known limitations of this port.
22
23The INSTALL file in the perl top-level has much information that is
24only relevant to people building Perl on Unix-like systems. In
25particular, you can safely ignore any information that talks about
26"Configure".
27
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28You may also want to look at one other option for building a perl that
29will work on Windows: the README.cygwin file, which give a different
30set of rules to build a perl for Windows. This method will probably
31enable you to build a more Unix-compatible perl, but you will also
32need to download and use various other build-time and run-time support
33software described in that file.
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34
35This set of instructions is meant to describe a so-called "native"
b906aaa5 36port of Perl to the Windows platform. This includes both 32-bit and
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3764-bit Windows operating systems. The resulting Perl requires no
38additional software to run (other than what came with your operating
39system). Currently, this port is capable of using one of the
40following compilers on the Intel x86 architecture:
41
912c63ed 42 Microsoft Visual C++ version 6.0 or later
a2b08671 43 Intel C++ Compiler (experimental)
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44 Gcc by mingw.org gcc version 3.4.5 or later
45 with runtime < 3.21
2c3d35a4 46 Gcc by mingw-w64.org gcc version 4.4.3 or later
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47
48Note that the last two of these are actually competing projects both
49delivering complete gcc toolchain for MS Windows:
b906aaa5 50
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51=over 4
52
53=item L<http://mingw.org>
54
55Delivers gcc toolchain targeting 32-bit Windows platform.
b906aaa5 56
2c3d35a4 57=item L<http://mingw-w64.org>
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58
59Delivers gcc toolchain targeting both 64-bit Windows and 32-bit Windows
60platforms (despite the project name "mingw-w64" they are not only 64-bit
61oriented). They deliver the native gcc compilers and cross-compilers
62that are also supported by perl's makefile.
63
64=back
9baed986 65
378eeda7 66The Microsoft Visual C++ compilers are also now being given away free. They are
2a0cb97d 67available as "Visual C++ Toolkit 2003" or "Visual C++ 2005-2019 Express [or
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68Community, from 2017] Edition" (and also as part of the ".NET Framework SDK")
69and are the same compilers that ship with "Visual C++ .NET 2003 Professional"
2a0cb97d 70or "Visual C++ 2005-2019 Professional" respectively.
7241fd28 71
fa58a56f 72This port can also be built on IA64/AMD64 using:
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73
74 Microsoft Platform SDK Nov 2001 (64-bit compiler and tools)
fa58a56f 75 MinGW64 compiler (gcc version 4.4.3 or later)
9baed986 76
c1bde759 77The Windows SDK can be downloaded from L<https://developer.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/sdk-archive>.
2c3d35a4 78The MinGW64 compiler is available at L<http://mingw-w64.org>.
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79The latter is actually a cross-compiler targeting Win64. There's also a trimmed
80down compiler (no java, or gfortran) suitable for building perl available at:
4cef65c2 81L<http://strawberryperl.com/package/kmx/64_gcctoolchain/>
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82
83NOTE: If you're using a 32-bit compiler to build perl on a 64-bit Windows
84operating system, then you should set the WIN64 environment variable to "undef".
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85Also, the trimmed down compiler only passes tests when USE_ITHREADS *= define
86(as opposed to undef) and when the CFG *= Debug line is commented out.
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87
88This port fully supports MakeMaker (the set of modules that
89is used to build extensions to perl). Therefore, you should be
90able to build and install most extensions found in the CPAN sites.
016af039 91See L</Usage Hints for Perl on Windows> below for general hints about this.
9baed986 92
b906aaa5 93=head2 Setting Up Perl on Windows
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94
95=over 4
96
97=item Make
98
99You need a "make" program to build the sources. If you are using
3bdc51af 100Visual C++ or the Windows SDK tools, you can use nmake supplied with Visual C++
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101or Windows SDK. You may also use, for Visual C++ or Windows SDK, dmake or gmake
102instead of nmake. dmake is open source software, but is not included with
103Visual C++ or Windows SDK. Builds using gcc need dmake or gmake. nmake is not
104supported for gcc builds. Parallel building is only supported with dmake and
105gmake, not nmake. When using dmake it is recommended to use dmake 4.13 or newer
106for parallel building. Older dmakes, in parallel mode, have very high CPU usage
107and pound the disk/filing system with duplicate I/O calls in an aggressive
108polling loop.
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109
110A port of dmake for Windows is available from:
111
c23f766f 112L<https://metacpan.org/release/dmake>
9baed986 113
13e18e90 114Fetch and install dmake somewhere on your path.
9baed986 115
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116=item Command Shell
117
8cbe99e5 118Use the default "cmd" shell that comes with Windows. Some versions of the
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119popular 4DOS/NT shell have incompatibilities that may cause you trouble.
120If the build fails under that shell, try building again with the cmd
121shell.
122
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123Make sure the path to the build directory does not contain spaces. The
124build usually works in this circumstance, but some tests will fail.
125
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126=item Microsoft Visual C++
127
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128The nmake that comes with Visual C++ will suffice for building. Visual C++
129requires that certain things be set up in the console before Visual C++ will
f1460a66 130successfully run. To make a console box be able to run the C compiler, you will
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131need to beforehand, run C<vcvarsall.bat x86> to compile for x86-32 and for
132x86-64 C<vcvarsall.bat amd64>. On a typical install of a Microsoft C++
133compiler product, these batch files will already be in your C<PATH>
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134environment variable so you may just type them without an absolute path into
135your console. If you need to find the absolute path to the batch file, it is
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136usually found somewhere like
137C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio 14.0\VC.
f1460a66 138With some newer Microsoft C products (released after ~2004), the installer will
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139put a shortcut in the start menu to launch a new console window with the
140console already set up for your target architecture (x86-32 or x86-64 or IA64).
141With the newer compilers, you may also use the older batch files if you choose
142so.
9baed986 143
2a0cb97d 144=item Microsoft Visual C++ 2008-2019 Express/Community Edition
4a3cf07b 145
2a0cb97d 146These free versions of Visual C++ 2008-2019 Professional contain the same
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147compilers and linkers that ship with the full versions, and also contain
148everything necessary to build Perl, rather than requiring a separate download
149of the Windows SDK like previous versions did.
4a3cf07b 150
2a46176f 151These packages can be downloaded by searching in the Download Center at
71c89d21 152L<https://www.microsoft.com/downloads/search.aspx?displaylang=en>. (Providing exact
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153links to these packages has proven a pointless task because the links keep on
154changing so often.)
4a3cf07b 155
2a0cb97d 156Install Visual C++ 2008-2019 Express/Community, then setup your environment
d8efeb46 157using, e.g.
4a3cf07b 158
f185f654 159 C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 12.0\Common7\Tools\vsvars32.bat
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160
161(assuming the default installation location was chosen).
162
163Perl should now build using the win32/Makefile. You will need to edit that
2a0cb97d 164file to set CCTYPE to one of MSVC90-MSVC142 first.
4a3cf07b 165
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166=item Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 Express Edition
167
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168This free version of Visual C++ 2005 Professional contains the same compiler
169and linker that ship with the full version, but doesn't contain everything
170necessary to build Perl.
171
b906aaa5 172You will also need to download the "Windows SDK" (the "Core SDK" and "MDAC
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173SDK" components are required) for more header files and libraries.
174
175These packages can both be downloaded by searching in the Download Center at
42d76a89 176L<http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/search.aspx?displaylang=en>. (Providing exact
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177links to these packages has proven a pointless task because the links keep on
178changing so often.)
179
b906aaa5 180Try to obtain the latest version of the Windows SDK. Sometimes these packages
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181contain a particular Windows OS version in their name, but actually work on
182other OS versions too. For example, the "Windows Server 2003 R2 Platform SDK"
183also runs on Windows XP SP2 and Windows 2000.
184
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185Install Visual C++ 2005 first, then the Platform SDK. Setup your environment
186as follows (assuming default installation locations were chosen):
187
f185f654 188 SET PlatformSDKDir=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Platform SDK
1c847d4b 189
f185f654 190 SET PATH=%SystemRoot%\system32;%SystemRoot%;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\Common7\IDE;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\BIN;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\Common7\Tools;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\SDK\v2.0\bin;C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\VCPackages;%PlatformSDKDir%\Bin
1c847d4b 191
f185f654 192 SET INCLUDE=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\INCLUDE;%PlatformSDKDir%\include
4246aec1 193
f185f654 194 SET LIB=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\LIB;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\SDK\v2.0\lib;%PlatformSDKDir%\lib
1c847d4b 195
f185f654 196 SET LIBPATH=C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727
1c847d4b 197
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198(The PlatformSDKDir might need to be set differently depending on which version
199you are using. Earlier versions installed into "C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK",
200while the latest versions install into version-specific locations such as
201"C:\Program Files\Microsoft Platform SDK for Windows Server 2003 R2".)
202
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203Perl should now build using the win32/Makefile. You will need to edit that
204file to set
205
3aa3d69a 206 CCTYPE = MSVC80
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207
208and to set CCHOME, CCINCDIR and CCLIBDIR as per the environment setup above.
209
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210=item Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003
211
212This free toolkit contains the same compiler and linker that ship with
1c847d4b 213Visual C++ .NET 2003 Professional, but doesn't contain everything
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214necessary to build Perl.
215
216You will also need to download the "Platform SDK" (the "Core SDK" and "MDAC
217SDK" components are required) for header files, libraries and rc.exe, and
218".NET Framework SDK" for more libraries and nmake.exe. Note that the latter
219(which also includes the free compiler and linker) requires the ".NET
220Framework Redistributable" to be installed first. This can be downloaded and
221installed separately, but is included in the "Visual C++ Toolkit 2003" anyway.
222
223These packages can all be downloaded by searching in the Download Center at
71c89d21 224L<https://www.microsoft.com/downloads/search.aspx?displaylang=en>. (Providing exact
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225links to these packages has proven a pointless task because the links keep on
226changing so often.)
227
b906aaa5 228Try to obtain the latest version of the Windows SDK. Sometimes these packages
1b4f0359 229contain a particular Windows OS version in their name, but actually work on
1c847d4b 230other OS versions too. For example, the "Windows Server 2003 R2 Platform SDK"
1b4f0359 231also runs on Windows XP SP2 and Windows 2000.
7241fd28 232
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233Install the Toolkit first, then the Platform SDK, then the .NET Framework SDK.
234Setup your environment as follows (assuming default installation locations
235were chosen):
236
f185f654 237 SET PlatformSDKDir=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Platform SDK
4246aec1 238
f185f654 239 SET PATH=%SystemRoot%\system32;%SystemRoot%;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\bin;%PlatformSDKDir%\Bin;C:\Program Files\Microsoft.NET\SDK\v1.1\Bin
4246aec1 240
f185f654 241 SET INCLUDE=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\include;%PlatformSDKDir%\include;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003\Vc7\include
1c847d4b 242
f185f654 243 SET LIB=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\lib;%PlatformSDKDir%\lib;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003\Vc7\lib
1c847d4b 244
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245(The PlatformSDKDir might need to be set differently depending on which version
246you are using. Earlier versions installed into "C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK",
247while the latest versions install into version-specific locations such as
248"C:\Program Files\Microsoft Platform SDK for Windows Server 2003 R2".)
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249
250Several required files will still be missing:
251
252=over 4
253
254=item *
255
256cvtres.exe is required by link.exe when using a .res file. It is actually
257installed by the .NET Framework SDK, but into a location such as the
258following:
259
f185f654 260 C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v1.1.4322
7241fd28 261
4246aec1 262Copy it from there to %PlatformSDKDir%\Bin
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263
264=item *
265
266lib.exe is normally used to build libraries, but link.exe with the /lib
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267option also works, so change win32/config.vc to use it instead:
268
269Change the line reading:
270
271 ar='lib'
272
273to:
274
275 ar='link /lib'
276
277It may also be useful to create a batch file called lib.bat in
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278C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\bin containing:
279
280 @echo off
281 link /lib %*
282
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283for the benefit of any naughty C extension modules that you might want to build
284later which explicitly reference "lib" rather than taking their value from
285$Config{ar}.
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286
287=item *
288
289setargv.obj is required to build perlglob.exe (and perl.exe if the USE_SETARGV
290option is enabled). The Platform SDK supplies this object file in source form
4246aec1 291in %PlatformSDKDir%\src\crt. Copy setargv.c, cruntime.h and
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292internal.h from there to some temporary location and build setargv.obj using
293
294 cl.exe /c /I. /D_CRTBLD setargv.c
295
4246aec1 296Then copy setargv.obj to %PlatformSDKDir%\lib
7241fd28 297
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298Alternatively, if you don't need perlglob.exe and don't need to enable the
299USE_SETARGV option then you can safely just remove all mention of $(GLOBEXE)
300from win32/Makefile and setargv.obj won't be required anyway.
301
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302=back
303
304Perl should now build using the win32/Makefile. You will need to edit that
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305file to set
306
307 CCTYPE = MSVC70FREE
308
309and to set CCHOME, CCINCDIR and CCLIBDIR as per the environment setup above.
7241fd28 310
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311=item Microsoft Platform SDK 64-bit Compiler
312
313The nmake that comes with the Platform SDK will suffice for building
314Perl. Make sure you are building within one of the "Build Environment"
315shells available after you install the Platform SDK from the Start Menu.
316
8a217c9a 317=item GCC
9baed986 318
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319Perl can be compiled with gcc from MinGW (version 3.4.5 or later) or from
320MinGW64 (version 4.4.3 or later). It can be downloaded here:
9baed986 321
42d76a89 322L<http://www.mingw.org/>
8a217c9a 323L<http://www.mingw-w64.org/>
7c5b6093 324
15f42aa0 325You also need dmake or gmake. See L</"Make"> above on how to get it.
9baed986 326
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327Note that the MinGW build currently requires a MinGW runtime version earlier
328than 3.21 (check __MINGW32_MAJOR_VERSION and __MINGW32_MINOR_VERSION).
329
330Note also that the C++ mode build currently fails with MinGW 3.4.5 and 4.7.2
331or later, and with MinGW64 64-bit 6.3.0 or later.
332
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333=item Intel C++ Compiler
334
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335Experimental support for using Intel C++ Compiler has been added. Edit
336win32/Makefile and pick the correct CCTYPE for the Visual C that Intel C was
337installed into. Also uncomment __ICC to enable Intel C on Visual C support.
ab473f03 338To set up the build environment, from the Start Menu run
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339IA-32 Visual Studio 20__ mode or Intel 64 Visual Studio 20__ mode as
340appropriate. Then run nmake as usually in that prompt box.
341
342Only Intel C++ Compiler v12.1 has been tested. Other versions probably will
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343work. Using Intel C++ Compiler instead of Visual C has the benefit of C99
344compatibility which is needed by some CPAN XS modules, while maintaining
345compatibility with Visual C object code and Visual C debugging infrastructure
346unlike GCC.
a48cc4c4 347
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348=back
349
350=head2 Building
351
352=over 4
353
354=item *
355
356Make sure you are in the "win32" subdirectory under the perl toplevel.
357This directory contains a "Makefile" that will work with
b906aaa5 358versions of nmake that come with Visual C++ or the Windows SDK, and
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359a GNU make "GNUmakefile" or dmake "makefile.mk" that will work for all
360supported compilers. The defaults in the gmake and dmake makefile are
361setup to build using MinGW/gcc.
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362
363=item *
364
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365Edit the GNUmakefile, makefile.mk (or Makefile, if you're using nmake)
366and change the values of INST_DRV and INST_TOP. You can also enable
367various build flags. These are explained in the makefiles.
9baed986 368
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369Note that it is generally not a good idea to try to build a perl with
370INST_DRV and INST_TOP set to a path that already exists from a previous
371build. In particular, this may cause problems with the
372lib/ExtUtils/t/Embed.t test, which attempts to build a test program and
373may end up building against the installed perl's lib/CORE directory rather
374than the one being tested.
375
dbd54a9f 376You will have to make sure that CCTYPE is set correctly and that
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377CCHOME points to wherever you installed your compiler. For GCC this
378should be the directory that contains the F<bin>, F<include> and
379F<lib> directories.
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380
381If building with the cross-compiler provided by
2c3d35a4 382mingw-w64.org you'll need to uncomment the line that sets
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383GCCCROSS in the makefile.mk. Do this only if it's the cross-compiler - ie
384only if the bin folder doesn't contain a gcc.exe. (The cross-compiler
385does not provide a gcc.exe, g++.exe, ar.exe, etc. Instead, all of these
386executables are prefixed with 'x86_64-w64-mingw32-'.)
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387
388The default value for CCHOME in the makefiles for Visual C++
389may not be correct for some versions. Make sure the default exists
390and is valid.
391
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392If you want build some core extensions statically into perl's dll, specify
393them in the STATIC_EXT macro.
394
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395Be sure to read the instructions near the top of the makefiles carefully.
396
397=item *
398
15f42aa0 399Type "dmake" ("gmake" for GNU make, or "nmake" if you are using that make).
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400
401This should build everything. Specifically, it will create perl.exe,
f69f4f3b 402perl533.dll at the perl toplevel, and various other extension dll's
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403under the lib\auto directory. If the build fails for any reason, make
404sure you have done the previous steps correctly.
405
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406To try dmake's parallel mode, type "dmake -P2", where 2, is the maximum number
407of parallel jobs you want to run. A number of things in the build process will
408run in parallel, but there are serialization points where you will see just 1
409CPU maxed out. This is normal.
410
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411Similarly you can build in parallel with GNU make, type "gmake -j2" to
412build with two parallel jobs, or higher for more.
413
8f5839a9 414If you are advanced enough with building C code, here is a suggestion to speed
ab473f03 415up building perl, and the later C<make test>. Try to keep your PATH environmental
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416variable with the least number of folders possible (remember to keep your C
417compiler's folders there). C<C:\WINDOWS\system32> or C<C:\WINNT\system32>
418depending on your OS version should be first folder in PATH, since "cmd.exe"
419is the most commonly launched program during the build and later testing.
420
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421=back
422
b906aaa5 423=head2 Testing Perl on Windows
9baed986 424
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425Type "dmake test" (or "gmake test", "nmake test"). This will run most
426of the tests from the testsuite (many tests will be skipped).
9baed986 427
b906aaa5 428There should be no test failures.
9baed986 429
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430If you build with Visual C++ 2013 then three tests currently may fail with
431Daylight Saving Time related problems: F<t/io/fs.t>,
cb0ee57a 432F<cpan/HTTP-Tiny/t/110_mirror.t> and F<lib/File/Copy.t>. The failures are
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433caused by bugs in the CRT in VC++ 2013 which are fixed in VC++2015 and
434later, as explained by Microsoft here:
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435L<https://connect.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/feedback/details/811534/utime-sometimes-fails-to-set-the-correct-file-times-in-visual-c-2013>. In the meantime,
436if you need fixed C<stat> and C<utime> functions then have a look at the
437CPAN distribution Win32::UTCFileTime.
3e7c2d43 438
a8325b42 439If you build with Visual C++ 2015 or later then F<ext/XS-APItest/t/locale.t>
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440may crash (after all its tests have passed). This is due to a regression in the
441Universal CRT introduced in the Windows 10 April 2018 Update, and will be fixed
442in the May 2019 Update, as explained here: L<https://developercommunity.visualstudio.com/content/problem/519486/setlocalelc-numeric-iso-latin-16-fails-then-succee.html>.
a8325b42 443
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444If you build with certain versions (e.g. 4.8.1) of gcc from www.mingw.org then
445F<ext/POSIX/t/time.t> may fail test 17 due to a known bug in those gcc builds:
71c89d21 446see L<https://sourceforge.net/p/mingw/bugs/2152/>.
80ccccdf 447
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448Some test failures may occur if you use a command shell other than the
449native "cmd.exe", or if you are building from a path that contains
450spaces. So don't do that.
451
452If you are running the tests from a emacs shell window, you may see
453failures in op/stat.t. Run "dmake test-notty" in that case.
454
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455Furthermore, you should make sure that during C<make test> you do not
456have any GNU tool packages in your path: some toolkits like Unixutils
457include some tools (C<type> for instance) which override the Windows
458ones and makes tests fail. Remove them from your path while testing to
459avoid these errors.
460
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461To see the output of specific failing tests run the harness from the t
462directory:
463
464 # assuming you're starting from the win32 directory
465 cd ..\win32
466 .\perl harness <list of tests>
467
016af039 468Please report any other failures as described under L</BUGS AND CAVEATS>.
9baed986 469
b906aaa5 470=head2 Installation of Perl on Windows
9baed986 471
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472Type "dmake install" (or "gmake install", "nmake install"). This will
473put the newly built perl and the libraries under whatever C<INST_TOP>
474points to in the Makefile. It will also install the pod documentation
475under C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\lib\pod> and HTML versions of the same
476under C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\lib\pod\html>.
9baed986 477
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478To use the Perl you just installed you will need to add a new entry to
479your PATH environment variable: C<$INST_TOP\bin>, e.g.
9baed986 480
00808b83 481 set PATH=c:\perl\bin;%PATH%
9baed986 482
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483If you opted to uncomment C<INST_VER> and C<INST_ARCH> in the makefile
484then the installation structure is a little more complicated and you will
485need to add two new PATH components instead: C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\bin> and
486C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\bin\$ARCHNAME>, e.g.
487
488 set PATH=c:\perl\5.6.0\bin;c:\perl\5.6.0\bin\MSWin32-x86;%PATH%
9baed986 489
b906aaa5 490=head2 Usage Hints for Perl on Windows
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491
492=over 4
493
494=item Environment Variables
495
496The installation paths that you set during the build get compiled
497into perl, so you don't have to do anything additional to start
498using that perl (except add its location to your PATH variable).
499
500If you put extensions in unusual places, you can set PERL5LIB
501to a list of paths separated by semicolons where you want perl
502to look for libraries. Look for descriptions of other environment
503variables you can set in L<perlrun>.
504
505You can also control the shell that perl uses to run system() and
506backtick commands via PERL5SHELL. See L<perlrun>.
507
508Perl does not depend on the registry, but it can look up certain default
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509values if you choose to put them there unless disabled at build time with
510USE_NO_REGISTRY. On Perl process start Perl checks if
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511C<HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Perl> and C<HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Perl>
512exist. If the keys exists, they will be checked for remainder of the Perl
513process's run life for certain entries. Entries in
514C<HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Perl> override entries in
515C<HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Perl>. One or more of the following entries
516(of type REG_SZ or REG_EXPAND_SZ) may be set in the keys:
9baed986 517
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518 lib-$] version-specific standard library path to add to @INC
519 lib standard library path to add to @INC
520 sitelib-$] version-specific site library path to add to @INC
521 sitelib site library path to add to @INC
522 vendorlib-$] version-specific vendor library path to add to @INC
523 vendorlib vendor library path to add to @INC
524 PERL* fallback for all %ENV lookups that begin with "PERL"
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525
526Note the C<$]> in the above is not literal. Substitute whatever version
527of perl you want to honor that entry, e.g. C<5.6.0>. Paths must be
b906aaa5 528separated with semicolons, as usual on Windows.
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529
530=item File Globbing
531
532By default, perl handles file globbing using the File::Glob extension,
533which provides portable globbing.
534
535If you want perl to use globbing that emulates the quirks of DOS
536filename conventions, you might want to consider using File::DosGlob
537to override the internal glob() implementation. See L<File::DosGlob> for
538details.
539
540=item Using perl from the command line
541
542If you are accustomed to using perl from various command-line
543shells found in UNIX environments, you will be less than pleased
544with what Windows offers by way of a command shell.
545
546The crucial thing to understand about the Windows environment is that
547the command line you type in is processed twice before Perl sees it.
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548First, your command shell (usually CMD.EXE) preprocesses the command
549line, to handle redirection, environment variable expansion, and
550location of the executable to run. Then, the perl executable splits
551the remaining command line into individual arguments, using the
552C runtime library upon which Perl was built.
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553
554It is particularly important to note that neither the shell nor the C
555runtime do any wildcard expansions of command-line arguments (so
556wildcards need not be quoted). Also, the quoting behaviours of the
557shell and the C runtime are rudimentary at best (and may, if you are
558using a non-standard shell, be inconsistent). The only (useful) quote
559character is the double quote ("). It can be used to protect spaces
560and other special characters in arguments.
561
41bfb3b6 562The Windows documentation describes the shell parsing rules here:
c1bde759 563L<https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server/administration/windows-commands/cmd>
41bfb3b6 564and the C runtime parsing rules here:
71c89d21 565L<https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/17w5ykft%28v=VS.100%29.aspx>.
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566
567Here are some further observations based on experiments: The C runtime
568breaks arguments at spaces and passes them to programs in argc/argv.
569Double quotes can be used to prevent arguments with spaces in them from
570being split up. You can put a double quote in an argument by escaping
571it with a backslash and enclosing the whole argument within double quotes.
572The backslash and the pair of double quotes surrounding the argument will
573be stripped by the C runtime.
9baed986 574
00808b83 575The file redirection characters "E<lt>", "E<gt>", and "|" can be quoted by
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576double quotes (although there are suggestions that this may not always
577be true). Single quotes are not treated as quotes by the shell or
578the C runtime, they don't get stripped by the shell (just to make
579this type of quoting completely useless). The caret "^" has also
580been observed to behave as a quoting character, but this appears
581to be a shell feature, and the caret is not stripped from the command
582line, so Perl still sees it (and the C runtime phase does not treat
583the caret as a quote character).
584
585Here are some examples of usage of the "cmd" shell:
586
587This prints two doublequotes:
588
589 perl -e "print '\"\"' "
590
591This does the same:
592
593 perl -e "print \"\\\"\\\"\" "
594
595This prints "bar" and writes "foo" to the file "blurch":
596
597 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" > blurch
598
599This prints "foo" ("bar" disappears into nowhereland):
600
601 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2> nul
602
603This prints "bar" and writes "foo" into the file "blurch":
604
605 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 1> blurch
606
607This pipes "foo" to the "less" pager and prints "bar" on the console:
608
609 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" | less
610
611This pipes "foo\nbar\n" to the less pager:
612
613 perl -le "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2>&1 | less
614
615This pipes "foo" to the pager and writes "bar" in the file "blurch":
616
617 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2> blurch | less
618
619
620Discovering the usefulness of the "command.com" shell on Windows 9x
621is left as an exercise to the reader :)
622
623One particularly pernicious problem with the 4NT command shell for
8cbe99e5 624Windows is that it (nearly) always treats a % character as indicating
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625that environment variable expansion is needed. Under this shell, it is
626therefore important to always double any % characters which you want
627Perl to see (for example, for hash variables), even when they are
628quoted.
629
630=item Building Extensions
631
632The Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN) offers a wealth
633of extensions, some of which require a C compiler to build.
71c89d21 634Look in L<https://www.cpan.org/> for more information on CPAN.
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635
636Note that not all of the extensions available from CPAN may work
b906aaa5 637in the Windows environment; you should check the information at
71c89d21 638L<https://www.cpantesters.org/> before investing too much effort into
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639porting modules that don't readily build.
640
641Most extensions (whether they require a C compiler or not) can
642be built, tested and installed with the standard mantra:
643
644 perl Makefile.PL
645 $MAKE
646 $MAKE test
647 $MAKE install
648
649where $MAKE is whatever 'make' program you have configured perl to
650use. Use "perl -V:make" to find out what this is. Some extensions
651may not provide a testsuite (so "$MAKE test" may not do anything or
652fail), but most serious ones do.
653
654It is important that you use a supported 'make' program, and
655ensure Config.pm knows about it. If you don't have nmake, you can
656either get dmake from the location mentioned earlier or get an
657old version of nmake reportedly available from:
658
42d76a89 659L<http://download.microsoft.com/download/vc15/Patch/1.52/W95/EN-US/nmake15.exe>
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660
661Another option is to use the make written in Perl, available from
662CPAN.
663
71c89d21 664L<https://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/Make/>
9baed986 665
15f42aa0 666You may also use dmake or gmake. See L</"Make"> above on how to get it.
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667
668Note that MakeMaker actually emits makefiles with different syntax
669depending on what 'make' it thinks you are using. Therefore, it is
670important that one of the following values appears in Config.pm:
671
672 make='nmake' # MakeMaker emits nmake syntax
673 make='dmake' # MakeMaker emits dmake syntax
674 any other value # MakeMaker emits generic make syntax
675 (e.g GNU make, or Perl make)
676
677If the value doesn't match the 'make' program you want to use,
678edit Config.pm to fix it.
679
680If a module implements XSUBs, you will need one of the supported
681C compilers. You must make sure you have set up the environment for
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682the compiler for command-line compilation before running C<perl Makefile.PL>
683or any invocation of make.
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684
685If a module does not build for some reason, look carefully for
686why it failed, and report problems to the module author. If
687it looks like the extension building support is at fault, report
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688that with full details of how the build failed using the GitHub
689issue tracker at L<https://github.com/Perl/perl5/issues>.
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690
691=item Command-line Wildcard Expansion
692
693The default command shells on DOS descendant operating systems (such
694as they are) usually do not expand wildcard arguments supplied to
695programs. They consider it the application's job to handle that.
696This is commonly achieved by linking the application (in our case,
697perl) with startup code that the C runtime libraries usually provide.
698However, doing that results in incompatible perl versions (since the
699behavior of the argv expansion code differs depending on the
700compiler, and it is even buggy on some compilers). Besides, it may
701be a source of frustration if you use such a perl binary with an
702alternate shell that *does* expand wildcards.
703
704Instead, the following solution works rather well. The nice things
dbd54a9f 705about it are 1) you can start using it right away; 2) it is more
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706powerful, because it will do the right thing with a pattern like
707*/*/*.c; 3) you can decide whether you do/don't want to use it; and
dbd54a9f 7084) you can extend the method to add any customizations (or even
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709entirely different kinds of wildcard expansion).
710
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711 C:\> copy con c:\perl\lib\Wild.pm
712 # Wild.pm - emulate shell @ARGV expansion on shells that don't
713 use File::DosGlob;
714 @ARGV = map {
715 my @g = File::DosGlob::glob($_) if /[*?]/;
716 @g ? @g : $_;
717 } @ARGV;
718 1;
719 ^Z
720 C:\> set PERL5OPT=-MWild
721 C:\> perl -le "for (@ARGV) { print }" */*/perl*.c
722 p4view/perl/perl.c
723 p4view/perl/perlio.c
724 p4view/perl/perly.c
725 perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
726 perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
727 perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
728 perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
729 perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
730 perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
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731
732Note there are two distinct steps there: 1) You'll have to create
733Wild.pm and put it in your perl lib directory. 2) You'll need to
734set the PERL5OPT environment variable. If you want argv expansion
735to be the default, just set PERL5OPT in your default startup
736environment.
737
738If you are using the Visual C compiler, you can get the C runtime's
739command line wildcard expansion built into perl binary. The resulting
740binary will always expand unquoted command lines, which may not be
741what you want if you use a shell that does that for you. The expansion
742done is also somewhat less powerful than the approach suggested above.
743
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744=item Notes on 64-bit Windows
745
746Windows .NET Server supports the LLP64 data model on the Intel Itanium
747architecture.
748
749The LLP64 data model is different from the LP64 data model that is the
750norm on 64-bit Unix platforms. In the former, C<int> and C<long> are
751both 32-bit data types, while pointers are 64 bits wide. In addition,
752there is a separate 64-bit wide integral type, C<__int64>. In contrast,
753the LP64 data model that is pervasive on Unix platforms provides C<int>
754as the 32-bit type, while both the C<long> type and pointers are of
75564-bit precision. Note that both models provide for 64-bits of
756addressability.
757
75864-bit Windows running on Itanium is capable of running 32-bit x86
759binaries transparently. This means that you could use a 32-bit build
760of Perl on a 64-bit system. Given this, why would one want to build
761a 64-bit build of Perl? Here are some reasons why you would bother:
762
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763=over
764
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765=item *
766
767A 64-bit native application will run much more efficiently on
768Itanium hardware.
769
770=item *
771
772There is no 2GB limit on process size.
773
774=item *
775
776Perl automatically provides large file support when built under
77764-bit Windows.
778
779=item *
780
781Embedding Perl inside a 64-bit application.
782
783=back
784
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785=back
786
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787=head2 Running Perl Scripts
788
789Perl scripts on UNIX use the "#!" (a.k.a "shebang") line to
790indicate to the OS that it should execute the file using perl.
b906aaa5 791Windows has no comparable means to indicate arbitrary files are
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792executables.
793
794Instead, all available methods to execute plain text files on
b906aaa5 795Windows rely on the file "extension". There are three methods
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796to use this to execute perl scripts:
797
798=over 8
799
800=item 1
801
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802There is a facility called "file extension associations". This can be
803manipulated via the two commands "assoc" and "ftype" that come
804standard with Windows. Type "ftype /?" for a complete example of how
805to set this up for perl scripts (Say what? You thought Windows
806wasn't perl-ready? :).
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807
808=item 2
809
810Since file associations don't work everywhere, and there are
811reportedly bugs with file associations where it does work, the
812old method of wrapping the perl script to make it look like a
813regular batch file to the OS, may be used. The install process
814makes available the "pl2bat.bat" script which can be used to wrap
815perl scripts into batch files. For example:
816
817 pl2bat foo.pl
818
819will create the file "FOO.BAT". Note "pl2bat" strips any
820.pl suffix and adds a .bat suffix to the generated file.
821
822If you use the 4DOS/NT or similar command shell, note that
823"pl2bat" uses the "%*" variable in the generated batch file to
824refer to all the command line arguments, so you may need to make
825sure that construct works in batch files. As of this writing,
8264DOS/NT users will need a "ParameterChar = *" statement in their
8274NT.INI file or will need to execute "setdos /p*" in the 4DOS/NT
828startup file to enable this to work.
829
830=item 3
831
832Using "pl2bat" has a few problems: the file name gets changed,
833so scripts that rely on C<$0> to find what they must do may not
834run properly; running "pl2bat" replicates the contents of the
835original script, and so this process can be maintenance intensive
836if the originals get updated often. A different approach that
837avoids both problems is possible.
838
839A script called "runperl.bat" is available that can be copied
840to any filename (along with the .bat suffix). For example,
841if you call it "foo.bat", it will run the file "foo" when it is
b906aaa5 842executed. Since you can run batch files on Windows platforms simply
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843by typing the name (without the extension), this effectively
844runs the file "foo", when you type either "foo" or "foo.bat".
845With this method, "foo.bat" can even be in a different location
846than the file "foo", as long as "foo" is available somewhere on
847the PATH. If your scripts are on a filesystem that allows symbolic
848links, you can even avoid copying "runperl.bat".
849
850Here's a diversion: copy "runperl.bat" to "runperl", and type
851"runperl". Explain the observed behavior, or lack thereof. :)
852Hint: .gnidnats llits er'uoy fi ,"lrepnur" eteled :tniH
853
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854=back
855
856=head2 Miscellaneous Things
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857
858A full set of HTML documentation is installed, so you should be
859able to use it if you have a web browser installed on your
860system.
861
862C<perldoc> is also a useful tool for browsing information contained
863in the documentation, especially in conjunction with a pager
b906aaa5 864like C<less> (recent versions of which have Windows support). You may
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865have to set the PAGER environment variable to use a specific pager.
866"perldoc -f foo" will print information about the perl operator
867"foo".
868
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869One common mistake when using this port with a GUI library like C<Tk>
870is assuming that Perl's normal behavior of opening a command-line
871window will go away. This isn't the case. If you want to start a copy
872of C<perl> without opening a command-line window, use the C<wperl>
873executable built during the installation process. Usage is exactly
b906aaa5 874the same as normal C<perl> on Windows, except that options like C<-h>
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875don't work (since they need a command-line window to print to).
876
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877If you find bugs in perl, you can report them to
878L<https://github.com/Perl/perl5/issues>.
9baed986 879
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880=head1 BUGS AND CAVEATS
881
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882Norton AntiVirus interferes with the build process, particularly if
883set to "AutoProtect, All Files, when Opened". Unlike large applications
884the perl build process opens and modifies a lot of files. Having the
a3815e44 885AntiVirus scan each and every one slows build the process significantly.
9baed986 886Worse, with PERLIO=stdio the build process fails with peculiar messages
dbd54a9f 887as the virus checker interacts badly with miniperl.exe writing configure
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888files (it seems to either catch file part written and treat it as suspicious,
889or virus checker may have it "locked" in a way which inhibits miniperl
dbd54a9f 890updating it). The build does complete with
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891
892 set PERLIO=perlio
893
894but that may be just luck. Other AntiVirus software may have similar issues.
895
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896A git GUI shell extension for Windows such as TortoiseGit will cause the build
897and later C<make test> to run much slower since every file is checked for its
898git status as soon as it is created and/or modified. TortoiseGit doesn't cause
899any test failures or build problems unlike the antivirus software described
900above, but it does cause similar slowness. It is suggested to use Task Manager
901to look for background processes which use high CPU amounts during the building
902process.
903
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904Some of the built-in functions do not act exactly as documented in
905L<perlfunc>, and a few are not implemented at all. To avoid
906surprises, particularly if you have had prior exposure to Perl
907in other operating environments or if you intend to write code
00808b83 908that will be portable to other environments, see L<perlport>
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909for a reasonably definitive list of these differences.
910
911Not all extensions available from CPAN may build or work properly
b906aaa5 912in the Windows environment. See L</"Building Extensions">.
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913
914Most C<socket()> related calls are supported, but they may not
915behave as on Unix platforms. See L<perlport> for the full list.
916
917Signal handling may not behave as on Unix platforms (where it
918doesn't exactly "behave", either :). For instance, calling C<die()>
919or C<exit()> from signal handlers will cause an exception, since most
b906aaa5 920implementations of C<signal()> on Windows are severely crippled.
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921Thus, signals may work only for simple things like setting a flag
922variable in the handler. Using signals under this port should
923currently be considered unsupported.
924
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925Please report detailed descriptions of any problems and solutions that
926you may find at E<lt>L<https://github.com/Perl/perl5/issues>E<gt>,
8166b4e0 927along with the output produced by C<perl -V>.
9baed986 928
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929=head1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
930
931The use of a camel with the topic of Perl is a trademark
932of O'Reilly and Associates, Inc. Used with permission.
933
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934=head1 AUTHORS
935
936=over 4
937
938=item Gary Ng E<lt>71564.1743@CompuServe.COME<gt>
939
940=item Gurusamy Sarathy E<lt>gsar@activestate.comE<gt>
941
942=item Nick Ing-Simmons E<lt>nick@ing-simmons.netE<gt>
943
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944=item Jan Dubois E<lt>jand@activestate.comE<gt>
945
2a46176f 946=item Steve Hay E<lt>steve.m.hay@googlemail.comE<gt>
2bfd3252 947
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948=back
949
2bfd3252 950This document is maintained by Jan Dubois.
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951
952=head1 SEE ALSO
953
954L<perl>
955
956=head1 HISTORY
957
958This port was originally contributed by Gary Ng around 5.003_24,
959and borrowed from the Hip Communications port that was available
960at the time. Various people have made numerous and sundry hacks
961since then.
962
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963GCC/mingw32 support was added in 5.005 (Nick Ing-Simmons).
964
965Support for PERL_OBJECT was added in 5.005 (ActiveState Tool Corp).
966
967Support for fork() emulation was added in 5.6 (ActiveState Tool Corp).
968
969Win9x support was added in 5.6 (Benjamin Stuhl).
970
971Support for 64-bit Windows added in 5.8 (ActiveState Corp).
972
71153651 973Last updated: 30 April 2019
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974
975=cut