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9133bbab 1This document is written in pod format hence there are punctuation
92ad49c1 2characters in odd places. Do not worry, you have apparently got the
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3ASCII->EBCDIC translation worked out correctly. You can read more
4about pod in pod/perlpod.pod or the short summary in the INSTALL file.
9d116dd7 5
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6=head1 NAME
7
de2902a6 8perlos390 - building and installing Perl for OS/390 and z/OS
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9
10=head1 SYNOPSIS
11
12This document will help you Configure, build, test and install Perl
37a78d01 13on OS/390 (aka z/OS) Unix System Services.
8fde188e 14
2b7f2baa 15B<This document needs to be updated, but we don't know what it should say.
8166b4e0 16Please submit comments to L<https://github.com/Perl/perl5/issues>.>
2b7f2baa 17
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18=head1 DESCRIPTION
19
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20This is a fully ported Perl for OS/390 Version 2 Release 3, 5, 6, 7,
218, and 9. It may work on other versions or releases, but those are
92ad49c1 22the ones we have tested it on.
8fde188e 23
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24You may need to carry out some system configuration tasks before
25running the Configure script for Perl.
8fde188e 26
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27
28=head2 Tools
29
30The z/OS Unix Tools and Toys list may prove helpful and contains links
f110302f 31to ports of much of the software helpful for building Perl.
4b05bc8e 32L<http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html>
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33
34
a83b6f46 35=head2 Unpacking Perl distribution on OS/390
9d116dd7 36
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37If using ftp remember to transfer the distribution in binary format.
38
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39Gunzip/gzip for OS/390 is discussed at:
40
08d7a6b2 41 http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1ty1.html
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42
43to extract an ASCII tar archive on OS/390, try this:
44
45 pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < latest.tar
46
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47or
48
49 zcat latest.tar.Z | pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r
50
0e7519cd 51If you get lots of errors of the form
bbee22da 52
e46aa1dd 53 tar: FSUM7171 ...: cannot set uid/gid: EDC5139I Operation not permitted
bbee22da 54
92ad49c1 55you did not read the above and tried to use tar instead of pax, you'll
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56first have to remove the (now corrupt) perl directory
57
58 rm -rf perl-...
59
60and then use pax.
bbee22da 61
a83b6f46 62=head2 Setup and utilities for Perl on OS/390
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63
64Be sure that your yacc installation is in place including any necessary
65parser template files. If you have not already done so then be sure to:
66
67 cp /samples/yyparse.c /etc
68
9133bbab 69This may also be a good time to ensure that your /etc/protocol file
8fde188e 70and either your /etc/resolv.conf or /etc/hosts files are in place.
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71The IBM document that described such USS system setup issues was
72SC28-1890-07 "OS/390 UNIX System Services Planning", in particular
73Chapter 6 on customizing the OE shell.
8fde188e 74
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75GNU make for OS/390, which is recommended for the build of perl (as
76well as building CPAN modules and extensions), is available from the
77L</Tools>.
9d116dd7 78
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79Some people have reported encountering "Out of memory!" errors while
80trying to build Perl using GNU make binaries. If you encounter such
81trouble then try to download the source code kit and build GNU make
82from source to eliminate any such trouble. You might also find GNU make
83(as well as Perl and Apache) in the red-piece/book "Open Source Software
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84for OS/390 UNIX", SG24-5944-00 from IBM.
85
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86If instead of the recommended GNU make you would like to use the system
87supplied make program then be sure to install the default rules file
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88properly via the shell command:
89
90 cp /samples/startup.mk /etc
91
92and be sure to also set the environment variable _C89_CCMODE=1 (exporting
93_C89_CCMODE=1 is also a good idea for users of GNU make).
94
f2766b05 95You might also want to have GNU groff for OS/390 installed before
b432a672 96running the "make install" step for Perl.
f2766b05 97
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98There is a syntax error in the /usr/include/sys/socket.h header file
99that IBM supplies with USS V2R7, V2R8, and possibly V2R9. The problem with
100the header file is that near the definition of the SO_REUSEPORT constant
101there is a spurious extra '/' character outside of a comment like so:
102
103 #define SO_REUSEPORT 0x0200 /* allow local address & port
104 reuse */ /
105
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106You could edit that header yourself to remove that last '/', or you might
107note that Language Environment (LE) APAR PQ39997 describes the problem
eae55d03 108and PTF's UQ46272 and UQ46271 are the (R8 at least) fixes and apply them.
9133bbab 109If left unattended that syntax error will turn up as an inability for Perl
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110to build its "Socket" extension.
111
9133bbab 112For successful testing you may need to turn on the sticky bit for your
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113world readable /tmp directory if you have not already done so (see man chmod).
114
a83b6f46 115=head2 Configure Perl on OS/390
8fde188e 116
92ad49c1 117Once you have unpacked the distribution, run "sh Configure" (see INSTALL
9133bbab 118for a full discussion of the Configure options). There is a "hints" file
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119for os390 that specifies the correct values for most things. Some things
120to watch out for include:
121
92ad49c1 122=head3 Shell
8fde188e 123
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124A message of the form:
125
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126 (I see you are using the Korn shell. Some ksh's blow up on Configure,
127 mainly on older exotic systems. If yours does, try the Bourne shell instead.)
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128
129is nothing to worry about at all.
130
92ad49c1 131=head3 Samples
eae55d03 132
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133Some of the parser default template files in /samples are needed in /etc.
134In particular be sure that you at least copy /samples/yyparse.c to /etc
eae55d03 135before running Perl's Configure. This step ensures successful extraction
c67aee7a 136of EBCDIC versions of parser files such as perly.c and perly.h.
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137This has to be done before running Configure the first time. If you failed
138to do so then the easiest way to re-Configure Perl is to delete your
139misconfigured build root and re-extract the source from the tar ball.
140Then you must ensure that /etc/yyparse.c is properly in place before
59c9e5d6 141attempting to re-run Configure.
8fde188e 142
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143=head3 Dynamic loading
144
145Dynamic loading is required if you want to use XS modules from CPAN (like
146DBI (and DBD's), JSON::XS, and Text::CSV_XS) or update CORE modules from
147CPAN with newer versions (like Encode) without rebuilding all of the perl
148binary.
8fde188e 149
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150This port will support dynamic loading, but it is not selected by
151default. If you would like to experiment with dynamic loading then
152be sure to specify -Dusedl in the arguments to the Configure script.
153See the comments in hints/os390.sh for more information on dynamic loading.
154If you build with dynamic loading then you will need to add the
155$archlibexp/CORE directory to your LIBPATH environment variable in order
156for perl to work. See the config.sh file for the value of $archlibexp.
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157If in trying to use Perl you see an error message similar to:
158
159 CEE3501S The module libperl.dll was not found.
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160 From entry point __dllstaticinit at compile unit offset +00000194
161 at
59c9e5d6 162
9133bbab 163then your LIBPATH does not have the location of libperl.x and either
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164libperl.dll or libperl.so in it. Add that directory to your LIBPATH and
165proceed.
8fde188e 166
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167In hints/os390.sh, selecting -Dusedl will default to *also* select
168-Duseshrplib. Having a shared plib not only requires LIBPATH to be set to
169the correct location of libperl.so but also makes it close to impossible
170to run more than one different perl that was built this way at the same
171time.
172
173All objects that are involved in -Dusedl builds should be compiled for
174this, probably by adding to all ccflags
175
176 -qexportall -qxplink -qdll -Wc,XPLINK,dll,EXPORTALL -Wl,XPLINK,dll
177
178=head3 Optimizing
9d116dd7 179
eae55d03 180Do not turn on the compiler optimization flag "-O". There is
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181a bug in either the optimizer or perl that causes perl to
182not work correctly when the optimizer is on.
9d116dd7 183
92ad49c1 184=head3 Config files
9d116dd7 185
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186Some of the configuration files in /etc used by the
187networking APIs are either missing or have the wrong
188names. In particular, make sure that there's either
eae55d03 189an /etc/resolv.conf or an /etc/hosts, so that
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190gethostbyname() works, and make sure that the file
191/etc/proto has been renamed to /etc/protocol (NOT
192/etc/protocols, as used by other Unix systems).
59c9e5d6 193You may have to look for things like HOSTNAME and DOMAINORIGIN
9133bbab 194in the "//'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'" PDS member in order to
59c9e5d6 195properly set up your /etc networking files.
9d116dd7 196
a83b6f46 197=head2 Build, Test, Install Perl on OS/390
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198
199Simply put:
200
201 sh Configure
202 make
203 make test
204
eae55d03 205if everything looks ok (see the next section for test/IVP diagnosis) then:
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206
207 make install
208
209this last step may or may not require UID=0 privileges depending
210on how you answered the questions that Configure asked and whether
211or not you have write access to the directories you specified.
212
a83b6f46 213=head2 Build Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
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214
215"Out of memory!" messages during the build of Perl are most often fixed
216by re building the GNU make utility for OS/390 from a source code kit.
217
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218Building debugging-enabled binaries (with -g or -g3) will increase the
219chance of getting these errors. Prevent -g if possible.
220
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221Another memory limiting item to check is your MAXASSIZE parameter in your
222'SYS1.PARMLIB(BPXPRMxx)' data set (note too that as of V2R8 address space
9133bbab 223limits can be set on a per user ID basis in the USS segment of a RACF
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224profile). People have reported successful builds of Perl with MAXASSIZE
225parameters as small as 503316480 (and it may be possible to build Perl
226with a MAXASSIZE smaller than that).
227
9133bbab 228Within USS your /etc/profile or $HOME/.profile may limit your ulimit
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229settings. Check that the following command returns reasonable values:
230
231 ulimit -a
232
233To conserve memory you should have your compiler modules loaded into the
234Link Pack Area (LPA/ELPA) rather than in a link list or step lib.
235
236If the c89 compiler complains of syntax errors during the build of the
237Socket extension then be sure to fix the syntax error in the system
238header /usr/include/sys/socket.h.
239
a83b6f46 240=head2 Testing Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
eae55d03 241
b432a672 242The "make test" step runs a Perl Verification Procedure, usually before
eae55d03 243installation. You might encounter STDERR messages even during a successful
b432a672 244run of "make test". Here is a guide to some of the more commonly seen
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245anomalies:
246
92ad49c1 247=head3 Signals
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248
249A message of the form:
250
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251 io/openpid...........CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
252 CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
253 CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
254 ok
255
256indicates that the t/io/openpid.t test of Perl has passed but done so
257with extraneous messages on stderr from CEE.
258
92ad49c1 259=head3 File::Temp
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260
261A message of the form:
262
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263 lib/ftmp-security....File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/)
264 is not safe (sticky bit not set when world writable?) at
265 lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
266 File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/) is not safe (sticky
267 bit not set when world writable?) at lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
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268 ok
269
270indicates a problem with the permissions on your /tmp directory within the HFS.
271To correct that problem issue the command:
272
92ad49c1 273 chmod a+t /tmp
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274
275from an account with write access to the directory entry for /tmp.
276
92ad49c1 277=head3 Out of Memory!
9133bbab 278
f858446f 279Recent perl test suite is quite memory hungry. In addition to the comments
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280above on memory limitations it is also worth checking for _CEE_RUNOPTS
281in your environment. Perl now has (in miniperlmain.c) a C #pragma
210b36aa 282to set CEE run options, but the environment variable wins.
9133bbab 283
210b36aa 284The C code asks for:
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285
286 #pragma runopts(HEAP(2M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K) STACK(,,ANY,) ALL31(ON))
287
288The important parts of that are the second argument (the increment) to HEAP,
289and allowing the stack to be "Above the (16M) line". If the heap
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290increment is too small then when perl (for example loading unicode/Name.pl) tries
291to create a "big" (400K+) string it cannot fit in a single segment
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292and you get "Out of Memory!" - even if there is still plenty of memory
293available.
294
295A related issue is use with perl's malloc. Perl's malloc uses C<sbrk()>
296to get memory, and C<sbrk()> is limited to the first allocation so in this
297case something like:
298
299 HEAP(8M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K)
300
301is needed to get through the test suite.
302
a83b6f46 303=head2 Installation Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
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304
305The installman script will try to run on OS/390. There will be fewer errors
9133bbab 306if you have a roff utility installed. You can obtain GNU groff from the
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307Redbook SG24-5944-00 ftp site.
308
a83b6f46 309=head2 Usage Hints for Perl on OS/390
64d55c8a 310
9d116dd7 311When using perl on OS/390 please keep in mind that the EBCDIC and ASCII
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312character sets are different. See perlebcdic.pod for more on such character
313set issues. Perl builtin functions that may behave differently under
eae55d03 314EBCDIC are also mentioned in the perlport.pod document.
9d116dd7 315
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316Open Edition (UNIX System Services) from V2R8 onward does support
317#!/path/to/perl script invocation. There is a PTF available from
eae55d03 318IBM for V2R7 that will allow shell/kernel support for #!. USS
9133bbab 319releases prior to V2R7 did not support the #! means of script invocation.
eae55d03 320If you are running V2R6 or earlier then see:
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321
322 head `whence perldoc`
323
324for an example of how to use the "eval exec" trick to ask the shell to
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325have Perl run your scripts on those older releases of Unix System Services.
326
59c9e5d6 327If you are having trouble with square brackets then consider switching your
9133bbab 328rlogin or telnet client. Try to avoid older 3270 emulators and ISHELL for
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329working with Perl on USS.
330
a83b6f46 331=head2 Floating Point Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
35a77668 332
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333There appears to be a bug in the floating point implementation on S/390
334systems such that calling int() on the product of a number and a small
335magnitude number is not the same as calling int() on the quotient of
336that number and a large magnitude number. For example, in the following
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337Perl code:
338
339 my $x = 100000.0;
340 my $y = int($x * 1e-5) * 1e5; # '0'
341 my $z = int($x / 1e+5) * 1e5; # '100000'
342 print "\$y is $y and \$z is $z\n"; # $y is 0 and $z is 100000
343
9133bbab 344Although one would expect the quantities $y and $z to be the same and equal
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345to 100000 they will differ and instead will be 0 and 100000 respectively.
346
347The problem can be further examined in a roughly equivalent C program:
348
349 #include <stdio.h>
350 #include <math.h>
351 main()
352 {
353 double r1,r2;
354 double x = 100000.0;
355 double y = 0.0;
356 double z = 0.0;
357 x = 100000.0 * 1e-5;
358 r1 = modf (x,&y);
359 x = 100000.0 / 1e+5;
360 r2 = modf (x,&z);
361 printf("y is %e and z is %e\n",y*1e5,z*1e5);
362 /* y is 0.000000e+00 and z is 1.000000e+05 (with c89) */
363 }
364
a83b6f46 365=head2 Modules and Extensions for Perl on OS/390
eae55d03 366
393dcb6c 367Pure Perl (that is non XS) modules may be installed via the usual:
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368
369 perl Makefile.PL
370 make
371 make test
372 make install
373
f2766b05 374If you built perl with dynamic loading capability then that would also
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375be the way to build XS based extensions. However, if you built perl with
376the default static linking you can still build XS based extensions for OS/390
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377but you will need to follow the instructions in ExtUtils::MakeMaker for
378building statically linked perl binaries. In the simplest configurations
92ad49c1 379building a static perl + XS extension boils down to:
9d116dd7 380
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381 perl Makefile.PL
382 make
383 make perl
384 make test
385 make install
386 make -f Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl
8fde188e 387
9133bbab 388In most cases people have reported better results with GNU make rather
eae55d03 389than the system's /bin/make program, whether for plain modules or for
92ad49c1 390XS based extensions.
8fde188e 391
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392If the make process encounters trouble with either compilation or
393linking then try setting the _C89_CCMODE to 1. Assuming sh is your
394login shell then run:
395
396 export _C89_CCMODE=1
397
398If tcsh is your login shell then use the setenv command.
399
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400=head1 AUTHORS
401
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402David Fiander and Peter Prymmer with thanks to Dennis Longnecker
403and William Raffloer for valuable reports, LPAR and PTF feedback.
404Thanks to Mike MacIsaac and Egon Terwedow for SG24-5944-00.
35a77668 405Thanks to Ignasi Roca for pointing out the floating point problems.
f2766b05 406Thanks to John Goodyear for dynamic loading help.
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407
408=head1 SEE ALSO
409
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410L<INSTALL>, L<perlport>, L<perlebcdic>, L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>.
411
e46aa1dd 412 http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html
eae55d03 413
e46aa1dd 414 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/SG245944.html
eae55d03 415
e46aa1dd 416 http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1ty1.html#opensrc
eae55d03 417
e46aa1dd 418 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
8fde188e 419
e46aa1dd 420 http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/ceea3030/
9133bbab 421
e46aa1dd 422 http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/CBCUG030/
9133bbab 423
a83b6f46 424=head2 Mailing list for Perl on OS/390
8fde188e 425
043fec90 426If you are interested in the z/OS (formerly known as OS/390)
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427and POSIX-BC (BS2000) ports of Perl then see the perl-mvs mailing list.
428To subscribe, send an empty message to perl-mvs-subscribe@perl.org.
9d116dd7 429
3f66d419 430See also:
35a77668 431
fdee78a1 432 https://lists.perl.org/list/perl-mvs.html
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433
434There are web archives of the mailing list at:
eae55d03 435
cba88c42 436 https://www.nntp.perl.org/group/perl.mvs/
9d116dd7 437
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438=head1 HISTORY
439
440This document was originally written by David Fiander for the 5.005
441release of Perl.
442
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443This document was podified for the 5.005_03 release of Perl 11 March 1999.
444
445Updated 12 November 2000 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
8fde188e 446
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447Updated 15 January 2001 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
448
449Updated 24 January 2001 to mention dynamic loading.
35a77668 450
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451Updated 12 March 2001 to mention //'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'.
452
453Updated 28 November 2001 for broken URLs.
f2766b05 454
88d446a9 455Updated 03 October 2019 for perl-5.33.3+
59c9e5d6 456
8fde188e 457=cut
eae55d03 458