This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
Import perl5321delta.pod
[perl5.git] / INSTALL
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f1300be0 1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
b0a63d58 2It is written in the POD format (see F<pod/perlpod.pod>) which is specially
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3designed to be readable as is.
4
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5=head1 NAME
6
cb8c159f 7INSTALL - Build and Installation guide for perl 5.
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8
9=head1 SYNOPSIS
10
7df75831 11First, make sure you have an up-to-date version of Perl. If you
ce80d64e 12didn't get your Perl source from CPAN, check the latest version at
f6521f7c 13L<https://www.cpan.org/src/>. Perl uses a version scheme where even-numbered
08854360 14subreleases (like 5.8.x and 5.10.x) are stable maintenance releases and
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15odd-numbered subreleases (like 5.7.x and 5.9.x) are unstable
16development releases. Development releases should not be used in
17production environments. Fixes and new features are first carefully
18tested in development releases and only if they prove themselves to be
19worthy will they be migrated to the maintenance releases.
3ce0d271 20
7df75831 21The basic steps to build and install perl 5 on a Unix system with all
dd3196cd 22the defaults are to run, from a freshly unpacked source tree:
8e07c86e 23
491517e0 24 sh Configure -de
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25 make
26 make test
27 make install
36477c24 28
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29Each of these is explained in further detail below.
30
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31The above commands will install Perl to F</usr/local> (or some other
32platform-specific directory -- see the appropriate file in F<hints/>.)
7df75831 33If that's not okay with you, you can run Configure interactively, by
ff52061e 34just typing "sh Configure" (without the -de args). You can also specify
b0a63d58 35any prefix location by adding C<"-Dprefix='/some/dir'"> to Configure's args.
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36To explicitly name the perl binary, use the command
37"make install PERLNAME=myperl".
491517e0 38
668cbedd 39Building perl from source requires an ANSI compliant C compiler.
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40A minimum of C89 is required. Some features available in C99 will
41be probed for and used when found. The perl build process does not
42rely on anything more than C89.
43
ff52061e 44These options, and many more, are explained in further detail below.
7f678428 45
e0ddbfb2 46If you're building perl from a git repository, you should also consult
b0a63d58 47the documentation in F<pod/perlgit.pod> for information on that special
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48circumstance.
49
8d74ce1c 50If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
ff52061e 51L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
8d74ce1c 52
7beaa944 53For information on what's new in this release, see the
b0a63d58 54F<pod/perldelta.pod> file. For more information about how to find more
9519d2ec 55specific detail about changes, see the Changes file.
c3edaffb 56
1ec51d55 57=head1 DESCRIPTION
edb1cbcb 58
c3edaffb 59This document is written in pod format as an easy way to indicate its
b0a63d58 60structure. The pod format is described in F<pod/perlpod.pod>, but you can
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61read it as is with any pager or editor. Headings and items are marked
62by lines beginning with '='. The other mark-up used is
63
64 B<text> embolden text, used for switches, programs or commands
65 C<code> literal code
66 L<name> A link (cross reference) to name
ce80d64e 67 F<file> A filename
1ec51d55 68
c42e3e15 69Although most of the defaults are probably fine for most users,
ce80d64e 70you should probably at least skim through this document before
1ec51d55 71proceeding.
c3edaffb 72
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73In addition to this file, check if there is a README file specific to
74your operating system, since it may provide additional or different
75instructions for building Perl. If there is a hint file for your
b0a63d58 76system (in the F<hints/> directory) you might also want to read it
dd3196cd 77for even more information.
c42e3e15 78
ce80d64e 79For additional information about porting Perl, see the section on
b0a63d58 80L<"Porting information"> below, and look at the files in the F<Porting/>
ce80d64e 81directory.
d56c5707 82
ce80d64e 83=head1 PRELIMINARIES
c42e3e15 84
ce80d64e 85=head2 Changes and Incompatibilities
c42e3e15 86
b0a63d58 87Please see F<pod/perldelta.pod> for a description of the changes and
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88potential incompatibilities introduced with this release. A few of
89the most important issues are listed below, but you should refer
b0a63d58 90to F<pod/perldelta.pod> for more detailed information.
c42e3e15 91
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92B<WARNING:> This version is not binary compatible with earlier versions
93of Perl. If you have built extensions (i.e. modules that include C code)
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94using an earlier version of Perl, you will need to rebuild and reinstall
95those extensions.
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96
97Pure perl modules without XS or C code should continue to work fine
dd3196cd 98without reinstallation. See the discussion below on
7df75831 99L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5"> for more details.
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100
101The standard extensions supplied with Perl will be handled automatically.
102
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103On a related issue, old modules may possibly be affected by the changes
104in the Perl language in the current release. Please see
b0a63d58 105F<pod/perldelta.pod> for a description of what's changed. See your
ce80d64e 106installed copy of the perllocal.pod file for a (possibly incomplete)
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107list of locally installed modules. Also see the L<CPAN> module's
108C<autobundle> function for one way to make a "bundle" of your currently
109installed modules.
16dc217a 110
aa689395 111=head1 Run Configure
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112
113Configure will figure out various things about your system. Some
114things Configure will figure out for itself, other things it will ask
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115you about. To accept the default, just press RETURN. The default is
116almost always okay. It is normal for some things to be "NOT found",
117since Configure often searches for many different ways of performing
118the same function.
119
ce80d64e 120At any Configure prompt, you can type &-d and Configure will use the
d6baa268 121defaults from then on.
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122
123After it runs, Configure will perform variable substitution on all the
1ec51d55 124*.SH files and offer to run make depend.
8e07c86e 125
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126The results of a Configure run are stored in the config.sh and Policy.sh
127files.
128
ce80d64e 129=head2 Common Configure options
844fc9f4 130
ce80d64e 131Configure supports a number of useful options. Run
844fc9f4 132
ce80d64e 133 Configure -h
d6baa268 134
b0a63d58 135to get a listing. See the F<Porting/Glossary> file for a complete list of
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136Configure variables you can set and their definitions.
137
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138=over 4
139
08854360 140=item C compiler
d6baa268 141
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142To compile with gcc, if it's not the default compiler on your
143system, you should run
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144
145 sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
146
08854360 147This is the preferred way to specify gcc (or any another alternative
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148compiler) so that the hints files can set appropriate defaults.
149
d6baa268 150=item Installation prefix
4633a7c4 151
8e07c86e 152By default, for most systems, perl will be installed in
b0a63d58 153F</usr/local/>{F<bin>, F<lib>, F<man>}. (See L<"Installation Directories">
7df75831 154and L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5"> below for
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155further details.)
156
157You can specify a different 'prefix' for the default installation
ce80d64e 158directory when Configure prompts you, or by using the Configure command
b0a63d58 159line option C<-Dprefix='/some/directory'>, e.g.
8e07c86e 160
25f94b33 161 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl
4633a7c4 162
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163If your prefix contains the string "perl", then the suggested
164directory structure is simplified. For example, if you use
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165C<prefix=/opt/perl>, then Configure will suggest F</opt/perl/lib> instead of
166F</opt/perl/lib/perl5/>. Again, see L<"Installation Directories"> below
167for more details. Do not include a trailing slash, (i.e. F</opt/perl/>)
bc70e9ec 168or you may experience odd test failures.
8e07c86e 169
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170NOTE: You must not specify an installation directory that is the same
171as or below your perl source directory. If you do, installperl will
172attempt infinite recursion.
84902520 173
b0a63d58 174=item F</usr/bin/perl>
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175
176It may seem obvious, but Perl is useful only when users can easily
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177find it. It's often a good idea to have both F</usr/bin/perl> and
178F</usr/local/bin/perl> be symlinks to the actual binary. Be especially
d6baa268 179careful, however, not to overwrite a version of perl supplied by your
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180vendor unless you are sure you know what you are doing. If you insist
181on replacing your vendor's perl, useful information on how it was
182configured may be found with
183
184 perl -V:config_args
185
186(Check the output carefully, however, since this doesn't preserve
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187spaces in arguments to Configure. For that, you have to look carefully
188at config_arg1, config_arg2, etc.)
d6baa268 189
b0a63d58 190By default, Configure will not try to link F</usr/bin/perl> to the current
ce80d64e 191version of perl. You can turn on that behavior by running
d6baa268 192
7d56c962 193 Configure -Dinstallusrbinperl
d6baa268 194
7d56c962 195or by answering 'yes' to the appropriate Configure prompt.
d6baa268 196
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197In any case, system administrators are strongly encouraged to put
198(symlinks to) perl and its accompanying utilities, such as perldoc,
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199into a directory typically found along a user's PATH, or in another
200obvious and convenient place.
201
71c4561b 202=item Building a development release
04d420f9 203
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204For development releases (odd subreleases, like 5.9.x) if you want to
205use Configure -d, you will also need to supply -Dusedevel to Configure,
206because the default answer to the question "do you really want to
207Configure a development version?" is "no". The -Dusedevel skips that
208sanity check.
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209
210=back
8e07c86e 211
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212If you are willing to accept all the defaults, and you want terse
213output, you can run
214
215 sh Configure -des
216
dd3196cd 217=head2 Altering Configure variables for C compiler switches etc.
46bb10fb 218
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219For most users, most of the Configure defaults are fine, or can easily
220be set on the Configure command line. However, if Configure doesn't
221have an option to do what you want, you can change Configure variables
222after the platform hints have been run by using Configure's -A switch.
223For example, here's how to add a couple of extra flags to C compiler
224invocations:
46bb10fb 225
08854360 226 sh Configure -Accflags="-DPERL_EXTERNAL_GLOB -DNO_HASH_SEED"
46bb10fb 227
5247441a 228To clarify, those ccflags values are not Configure options; if passed to
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229Configure directly, they won't do anything useful (they will define a
230variable in config.sh, but without taking any action based upon it).
231But when passed to the compiler, those flags will activate #ifdefd code.
5247441a 232
ce80d64e 233For more help on Configure switches, run
46bb10fb 234
ce80d64e 235 sh Configure -h
46bb10fb 236
ce80d64e 237=head2 Major Configure-time Build Options
46bb10fb 238
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239There are several different ways to Configure and build perl for your
240system. For most users, the defaults are sensible and will work.
241Some users, however, may wish to further customize perl. Here are
242some of the main things you can change.
46bb10fb 243
ce80d64e 244=head3 Threads
cc65bb49 245
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246On some platforms, perl can be compiled with support for threads. To
247enable this, run
4633a7c4 248
ce80d64e 249 sh Configure -Dusethreads
4633a7c4 250
ce80d64e 251The default is to compile without thread support.
cc65bb49 252
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253Perl used to have two different internal threads implementations. The
254current model (available internally since 5.6, and as a user-level module
255since 5.8) is called interpreter-based implementation (ithreads), with
256one interpreter per thread, and explicit sharing of data. The (deprecated)
2575.005 version (5005threads) was removed for release 5.10.
d6baa268 258
ce80d64e 259The 'threads' module is for use with the ithreads implementation. The
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260'Thread' module emulates the old 5005threads interface on top of the
261current ithreads model.
d6baa268 262
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263When using threads, perl uses a dynamically-sized buffer for some of
264the thread-safe library calls, such as those in the getpw*() family.
265This buffer starts small, but it will keep growing until the result
266fits. To get a fixed upper limit, you should compile Perl with
267PERL_REENTRANT_MAXSIZE defined to be the number of bytes you want. One
268way to do this is to run Configure with
08854360 269C<-Accflags=-DPERL_REENTRANT_MAXSIZE=65536>.
d6baa268 270
08854360 271=head3 Large file support
b367e8b0 272
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273Since Perl 5.6.0, Perl has supported large files (files larger than
2742 gigabytes), and in many common platforms like Linux or Solaris this
275support is on by default.
d6baa268 276
ce80d64e 277This is both good and bad. It is good in that you can use large files,
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278seek(), stat(), and -s them. It is bad in that if you are interfacing
279Perl using some extension, the components you are connecting to must also
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280be large file aware: if Perl thinks files can be large but the other
281parts of the software puzzle do not understand the concept, bad things
08854360 282will happen.
d6baa268 283
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284There's also one known limitation with the current large files
285implementation: unless you also have 64-bit integers (see the next
286section), you cannot use the printf/sprintf non-decimal integer formats
287like C<%x> to print filesizes. You can use C<%d>, though.
d6baa268 288
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289If you want to compile perl without large file support, use
290
291 sh Configure -Uuselargefiles
292
08854360 293=head3 64 bit support
d6baa268 294
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295If your platform does not run natively at 64 bits, but can simulate
296them with compiler flags and/or C<long long> or C<int64_t>,
ce80d64e 297you can build a perl that uses 64 bits.
d6baa268 298
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299There are actually two modes of 64-bitness: the first one is achieved
300using Configure -Duse64bitint and the second one using Configure
301-Duse64bitall. The difference is that the first one is minimal and
302the second one maximal. The first works in more places than the second.
d6baa268 303
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304The C<use64bitint> option does only as much as is required to get
30564-bit integers into Perl (this may mean, for example, using "long
306longs") while your memory may still be limited to 2 gigabytes (because
307your pointers could still be 32-bit). Note that the name C<64bitint>
308does not imply that your C compiler will be using 64-bit C<int>s (it
309might, but it doesn't have to). The C<use64bitint> simply means that
310you will be able to have 64 bit-wide scalar values.
d6baa268 311
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312The C<use64bitall> option goes all the way by attempting to switch
313integers (if it can), longs (and pointers) to being 64-bit. This may
314create an even more binary incompatible Perl than -Duse64bitint: the
315resulting executable may not run at all in a 32-bit box, or you may
316have to reboot/reconfigure/rebuild your operating system to be 64-bit
317aware.
d6baa268 318
08854360 319Natively 64-bit systems need neither -Duse64bitint nor -Duse64bitall.
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320On these systems, it might be the default compilation mode, and there
321is currently no guarantee that passing no use64bitall option to the
322Configure process will build a 32bit perl. Implementing -Duse32bit*
1ed7425e 323options is planned for a future release of perl.
d6baa268 324
ce80d64e 325=head3 Long doubles
d6baa268 326
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327In some systems you may be able to use long doubles to enhance the
328range and precision of your double precision floating point numbers
329(that is, Perl's numbers). Use Configure -Duselongdouble to enable
330this support (if it is available).
d6baa268 331
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332Note that the exact format and range of long doubles varies:
333the most common is the x86 80-bit (64 bits of mantissa) format,
334but there are others, with different mantissa and exponent ranges.
335
ce80d64e 336=head3 "more bits"
b367e8b0 337
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338You can "Configure -Dusemorebits" to turn on both the 64-bit support
339and the long double support.
b367e8b0 340
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341=head3 quadmath
342
b7ce25dd 343One option for more precision is that gcc 4.6 and later have a library
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344called quadmath, which implements the IEEE 754 quadruple precision
345(128-bit, 113 bits of mantissa) floating point numbers. The library
346works at least on x86 and ia64 platforms. It may be part of your gcc
347installation, or you may need to install it separately.
348
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349With "Configure -Dusequadmath" you can try enabling its use, but note
350the compiler dependency, you may need to also add "-Dcc=...".
84e6cb05 351At C level the type is called C<__float128> (note, not "long double"),
b7ce25dd 352but Perl source knows it as NV. (This is not "long doubles".)
257c99f5 353
ce80d64e 354=head3 Algorithmic Complexity Attacks on Hashes
504f80c1 355
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356Perl 5.18 reworked the measures used to secure its hash function
357from algorithmic complexity attacks. By default it will build with
358all of these measures enabled along with support for controlling and
359disabling them via environment variables.
360
361You can override various aspects of this feature by defining various
362symbols during configure. An example might be:
363
f0c21bde 364 sh Configure -Accflags=-DPERL_HASH_FUNC_SIPHASH
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365
366B<Unless stated otherwise these options are considered experimental or
367insecure and are not recommended for production use.>
368
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369Since Perl 5.18 we have included support for multiple hash functions,
370although from time to time we change which functions we support,
371and which function is default (currently SBOX+STADTX on 64 bit builds
372and SBOX+ZAPHOD32 for 32 bit builds). You can choose a different
373algorithm by defining one of the following symbols during configure.
055663bc 374Note that there are security implications regarding which hash function you choose
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375to use. The functions are listed roughly by how secure they are believed
376to be, with the one believed to be most secure at release time being PERL_HASH_FUNC_SIPHASH.
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377
378 PERL_HASH_FUNC_SIPHASH
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379 PERL_HASH_FUNC_SIPHASH13
380 PERL_HASH_FUNC_ZAPHOD32
381 PERL_HASH_FUNC_STADTX
382
383In addition, these, (or custom hash functions), may be "fronted" by the
384SBOX32 hash function for keys under a chosen size. This hash function is
385special in that it has proven theoretical security properties, and is very
386fast to hash, but which by nature is restricted to a maximum key length,
387and which has rather expensive setup costs (relatively speaking), both in
388terms of performance and more importantly in terms of memory. SBOX32
389requires 1k of storage per character it can hash, and it must populate that
390storage with 256 32-bit random values as well. In practice the RNG we use
055663bc 391for seeding the SBOX32 storage is very efficient, and populating the table
ab473f03 392required for hashing even fairly long keys is negligible as we only do it
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393during startup. By default we build with SBOX32 enabled, but you can change
394that by setting
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395
396 PERL_HASH_USE_SBOX32_ALSO
397
398to zero in configure. By default Perl will use SBOX32 to hash strings 24 bytes
399or shorter, you can change this length by setting
400
401 SBOX32_MAX_LEN
402
403to the desired length, with the maximum length being 256.
404
405As of Perl 5.18 the order returned by keys(), values(), and each() is
406non-deterministic and distinct per hash, and the insert order for
407colliding keys is randomized as well, and perl allows for controlling this
408by the PERL_PERTURB_KEYS environment setting. You can disable this behavior
409entirely with the define
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410
411 PERL_PERTURB_KEYS_DISABLED
412
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413You can disable the environment variable checks and compile time specify
414the type of key traversal randomization to be used by defining one of these:
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415
416 PERL_PERTURB_KEYS_RANDOM
417 PERL_PERTURB_KEYS_DETERMINISTIC
418
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419Since Perl 5.18 the seed used for the hash function is randomly selected
420at process start, which can be overridden by specifying a seed by setting
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421the PERL_HASH_SEED environment variable.
422
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423You can change this behavior so that your perl is built with a hard coded
424seed with the define
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425
426 NO_HASH_SEED
427
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428Note that if you do this you should modify the code in hv_func.h to specify
429your own key. In the future this define may be renamed and replaced with one
430that requires you to specify the key to use.
504f80c1 431
99111b89 432B<NOTE WELL: Perl has never guaranteed any ordering of the hash keys>, and the
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433ordering has already changed several times during the lifetime of Perl
4345. Also, the ordering of hash keys has always been, and continues to
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435be, affected by the insertion order regardless of whether you build with
436or without the randomization features. Note that because of this
437and especially with randomization that the key order of a hash is *undefined*
438and that things like Data::Dumper, for example, may produce different output
439between different runs of Perl, since Data::Dumper serializes the key in the
440native order for the hash. The use of the Data::Dumper C<Sortkeys> option is
441recommended if you are comparing dumps between different invocations of perl.
504f80c1 442
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443See L<perlrun/PERL_HASH_SEED> and L<perlrun/PERL_PERTURB_KEYS> for
444details on the environment variables, and L<perlsec/Algorithmic
445Complexity Attacks> for further security details.
e6b54db6 446
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447The C<PERL_HASH_SEED> and PERL_PERTURB_KEYS> environment variables can
448be disabled by building configuring perl with
449C<-Accflags=-DNO_PERL_HASH_ENV>.
450
451The C<PERL_HASH_SEED_DEBUG> environment variable can be disabled by
452configuring perl with C<-Accflags=-DNO_PERL_HASH_SEED_DEBUG>.
453
ce80d64e 454=head3 SOCKS
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455
456Perl can be configured to be 'socksified', that is, to use the SOCKS
457TCP/IP proxy protocol library. SOCKS is used to give applications
458access to transport layer network proxies. Perl supports only SOCKS
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459Version 5. The corresponding Configure option is -Dusesocks.
460You can find more about SOCKS from wikipedia at
f6521f7c 461L<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SOCKS>.
1b9c9cf5 462
ce80d64e 463=head3 Dynamic Loading
d6baa268 464
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465By default, Configure will compile perl to use dynamic loading.
466If you want to force perl to be compiled completely
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467statically, you can either choose this when Configure prompts you or
468you can use the Configure command line option -Uusedl.
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469With this option, you won't be able to use any new extension
470(XS) module without recompiling perl itself.
d6baa268 471
ce80d64e 472=head3 Building a shared Perl library
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473
474Currently, for most systems, the main perl executable is built by
475linking the "perl library" libperl.a with perlmain.o, your static
8ba4bff0 476extensions, and various extra libraries, such as -lm.
c3edaffb 477
08854360 478On systems that support dynamic loading, it may be possible to
9d67150a 479replace libperl.a with a shared libperl.so. If you anticipate building
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480several different perl binaries (e.g. by embedding libperl into
481different programs, or by using the optional compiler extension), then
9d67150a 482you might wish to build a shared libperl.so so that all your binaries
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483can share the same library.
484
485The disadvantages are that there may be a significant performance
9d67150a 486penalty associated with the shared libperl.so, and that the overall
aa689395 487mechanism is still rather fragile with respect to different versions
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488and upgrades.
489
490In terms of performance, on my test system (Solaris 2.5_x86) the perl
9d67150a 491test suite took roughly 15% longer to run with the shared libperl.so.
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492Your system and typical applications may well give quite different
493results.
494
495The default name for the shared library is typically something like
08854360 496libperl.so.5.8.8 (for Perl 5.8.8), or libperl.so.588, or simply
9d67150a 497libperl.so. Configure tries to guess a sensible naming convention
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498based on your C library name. Since the library gets installed in a
499version-specific architecture-dependent directory, the exact name
500isn't very important anyway, as long as your linker is happy.
501
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502You can elect to build a shared libperl by
503
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504 sh Configure -Duseshrplib
505
506To build a shared libperl, the environment variable controlling shared
507library search (LD_LIBRARY_PATH in most systems, DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH for
f05550c0 508Darwin, LD_LIBRARY_PATH/SHLIB_PATH
0fd807f7 509for HP-UX, LIBPATH for AIX and z/OS, PATH for Cygwin) must be set up to include
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510the Perl build directory because that's where the shared libperl will
511be created. Configure arranges makefile to have the correct shared
512library search settings. You can find the name of the environment
513variable Perl thinks works in your your system by
514
515 grep ldlibpthname config.sh
516
517However, there are some special cases where manually setting the
518shared library path might be required. For example, if you want to run
519something like the following with the newly-built but not-yet-installed
520./perl:
521
a070ca95 522 ./perl -I. -MTestInit t/misc/failing_test.t
08854360 523
ce80d64e 524or
08854360 525
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526 ./perl -Ilib ~/my_mission_critical_test
527
528then you need to set up the shared library path explicitly.
529You can do this with
530
531 LD_LIBRARY_PATH=`pwd`:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
532
533for Bourne-style shells, or
534
535 setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH `pwd`
536
537for Csh-style shells. (This procedure may also be needed if for some
538unexpected reason Configure fails to set up makefile correctly.) (And
539again, it may be something other than LD_LIBRARY_PATH for you, see above.)
540
541You can often recognize failures to build/use a shared libperl from error
542messages complaining about a missing libperl.so (or libperl.sl in HP-UX),
543for example:
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544
545 18126:./miniperl: /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
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546
547There is also an potential problem with the shared perl library if you
548want to have more than one "flavor" of the same version of perl (e.g.
549with and without -DDEBUGGING). For example, suppose you build and
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550install a standard Perl 5.10.0 with a shared library. Then, suppose you
551try to build Perl 5.10.0 with -DDEBUGGING enabled, but everything else
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552the same, including all the installation directories. How can you
553ensure that your newly built perl will link with your newly built
554libperl.so.8 rather with the installed libperl.so.8? The answer is
555that you might not be able to. The installation directory is encoded
556in the perl binary with the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable (or
557equivalent ld command-line option). On Solaris, you can override that
558with LD_LIBRARY_PATH; on Linux, you can only override at runtime via
559LD_PRELOAD, specifying the exact filename you wish to be used; and on
560Digital Unix, you can override LD_LIBRARY_PATH by setting the
561_RLD_ROOT environment variable to point to the perl build directory.
562
563In other words, it is generally not a good idea to try to build a perl
564with a shared library if $archlib/CORE/$libperl already exists from a
565previous build.
566
567A good workaround is to specify a different directory for the
568architecture-dependent library for your -DDEBUGGING version of perl.
569You can do this by changing all the *archlib* variables in config.sh to
570point to your new architecture-dependent library.
571
575e1338
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572=head3 Environment access
573
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574Perl often needs to write to the program's environment, such as when
575C<%ENV> is assigned to. Many implementations of the C library function
576C<putenv()> leak memory, so where possible perl will manipulate the
577environment directly to avoid these leaks. The default is now to perform
578direct manipulation whenever perl is running as a stand alone interpreter,
579and to call the safe but potentially leaky C<putenv()> function when the
580perl interpreter is embedded in another application. You can force perl
581to always use C<putenv()> by compiling with
582C<-Accflags="-DPERL_USE_SAFE_PUTENV">, see section L</"Altering Configure
583variables for C compiler switches etc.">. You can force an embedded perl
584to use direct manipulation by setting C<PL_use_safe_putenv = 0;> after
585the C<perl_construct()> call.
575e1338 586
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587=head3 External glob
588
589Before File::Glob entered core in 5.6.0 globbing was implemented by shelling
590out. If the environmental variable PERL_EXTERNAL_GLOB is defined and if the
591F<csh> shell is available, perl will still do this the old way.
592
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593=head2 Installation Directories
594
595The installation directories can all be changed by answering the
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596appropriate questions in Configure. For convenience, all the installation
597questions are near the beginning of Configure. Do not include trailing
598slashes on directory names. At any point during the Configure process,
599you can answer a question with &-d and Configure will use the defaults
600from then on. Alternatively, you can
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601
602 grep '^install' config.sh
603
604after Configure has run to verify the installation paths.
605
606The defaults are intended to be reasonable and sensible for most
607people building from sources. Those who build and distribute binary
608distributions or who export perl to a range of systems will probably
609need to alter them. If you are content to just accept the defaults,
610you can safely skip the next section.
611
612The directories set up by Configure fall into three broad categories.
613
614=over 4
615
616=item Directories for the perl distribution
617
0594e0ad 618By default, Configure will use the following directories for 5.33.7.
ce80d64e 619$version is the full perl version number, including subversion, e.g.
8891dd8d 6205.12.3, and $archname is a string like sun4-sunos,
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621determined by Configure. The full definitions of all Configure
622variables are in the file Porting/Glossary.
623
624 Configure variable Default value
625 $prefixexp /usr/local
626 $binexp $prefixexp/bin
627 $scriptdirexp $prefixexp/bin
628 $privlibexp $prefixexp/lib/perl5/$version
629 $archlibexp $prefixexp/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
630 $man1direxp $prefixexp/man/man1
631 $man3direxp $prefixexp/man/man3
632 $html1direxp (none)
633 $html3direxp (none)
634
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635$prefixexp is generated from $prefix, with ~ expansion done to convert
636home directories into absolute paths. Similarly for the other variables
637listed. As file system calls do not do this, you should always reference
638the ...exp variables, to support users who build perl in their home
639directory.
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640
641Actually, Configure recognizes the SVR3-style
642/usr/local/man/l_man/man1 directories, if present, and uses those
643instead. Also, if $prefix contains the string "perl", the library
644directories are simplified as described below. For simplicity, only
645the common style is shown here.
646
647=item Directories for site-specific add-on files
648
649After perl is installed, you may later wish to add modules (e.g. from
650CPAN) or scripts. Configure will set up the following directories to
651be used for installing those add-on modules and scripts.
652
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653 Configure Default
654 variable value
655 $siteprefixexp $prefixexp
656 $sitebinexp $siteprefixexp/bin
657 $sitescriptexp $siteprefixexp/bin
658 $sitelibexp $siteprefixexp/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version
659 $sitearchexp
660 $siteprefixexp/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version/$archname
661 $siteman1direxp $siteprefixexp/man/man1
662 $siteman3direxp $siteprefixexp/man/man3
663 $sitehtml1direxp (none)
664 $sitehtml3direxp (none)
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665
666By default, ExtUtils::MakeMaker will install architecture-independent
667modules into $sitelib and architecture-dependent modules into $sitearch.
668
669=item Directories for vendor-supplied add-on files
670
671Lastly, if you are building a binary distribution of perl for
672distribution, Configure can optionally set up the following directories
673for you to use to distribute add-on modules.
674
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675 Configure Default
676 variable value
677 $vendorprefixexp (none)
678
679 (The next ones are set only if vendorprefix is set.)
680
681 $vendorbinexp $vendorprefixexp/bin
682 $vendorscriptexp $vendorprefixexp/bin
683 $vendorlibexp $vendorprefixexp/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version
684 $vendorarchexp
685 $vendorprefixexp/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version/$archname
686 $vendorman1direxp $vendorprefixexp/man/man1
687 $vendorman3direxp $vendorprefixexp/man/man3
688 $vendorhtml1direxp (none)
689 $vendorhtml3direxp (none)
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690
691These are normally empty, but may be set as needed. For example,
692a vendor might choose the following settings:
693
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694 $prefix /usr
695 $siteprefix /usr/local
696 $vendorprefix /usr
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697
698This would have the effect of setting the following:
699
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700 $binexp /usr/bin
701 $scriptdirexp /usr/bin
702 $privlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/$version
703 $archlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
704 $man1direxp /usr/man/man1
705 $man3direxp /usr/man/man3
706
707 $sitebinexp /usr/local/bin
708 $sitescriptexp /usr/local/bin
709 $sitelibexp /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version
710 $sitearchexp /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version/$archname
711 $siteman1direxp /usr/local/man/man1
712 $siteman3direxp /usr/local/man/man3
713
714 $vendorbinexp /usr/bin
715 $vendorscriptexp /usr/bin
716 $vendorlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version
717 $vendorarchexp /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version/$archname
718 $vendorman1direxp /usr/man/man1
719 $vendorman3direxp /usr/man/man3
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720
721Note how in this example, the vendor-supplied directories are in the
668cbedd 722/usr hierarchy, while the directories reserved for the end user are in
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723the /usr/local hierarchy.
724
725The entire installed library hierarchy is installed in locations with
726version numbers, keeping the installations of different versions distinct.
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727However, later installations of Perl can still be configured to search
728the installed libraries corresponding to compatible earlier versions.
729See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5"> below for more
730details on how Perl can be made to search older version directories.
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731
732Of course you may use these directories however you see fit. For
733example, you may wish to use $siteprefix for site-specific files that
734are stored locally on your own disk and use $vendorprefix for
735site-specific files that are stored elsewhere on your organization's
736network. One way to do that would be something like
737
979b4168 738 sh Configure -Dsiteprefix=/usr/local -Dvendorprefix=/usr/share/perl
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739
740=item otherlibdirs
741
742As a final catch-all, Configure also offers an $otherlibdirs
743variable. This variable contains a colon-separated list of additional
744directories to add to @INC. By default, it will be empty.
745Perl will search these directories (including architecture and
746version-specific subdirectories) for add-on modules and extensions.
747
748For example, if you have a bundle of perl libraries from a previous
749installation, perhaps in a strange place:
750
f0c21bde 751 sh Configure -Dotherlibdirs=/usr/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.1
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752
753=item APPLLIB_EXP
754
755There is one other way of adding paths to @INC at perl build time, and
756that is by setting the APPLLIB_EXP C pre-processor token to a colon-
757separated list of directories, like this
758
759 sh Configure -Accflags='-DAPPLLIB_EXP=\"/usr/libperl\"'
760
761The directories defined by APPLLIB_EXP get added to @INC I<first>,
762ahead of any others, and so provide a way to override the standard perl
763modules should you, for example, want to distribute fixes without
764touching the perl distribution proper. And, like otherlib dirs,
765version and architecture specific subdirectories are also searched, if
766present, at run time. Of course, you can still search other @INC
767directories ahead of those in APPLLIB_EXP by using any of the standard
768run-time methods: $PERLLIB, $PERL5LIB, -I, use lib, etc.
769
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770=item default_inc_excludes_dot
771
988217a0 772Since version 5.26.0, default perl builds no longer includes C<'.'> as the
218f5fa9 773last element of @INC. The old behaviour can restored using
939e7f26 774
f0c21bde 775 sh Configure -Udefault_inc_excludes_dot
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776
777Note that this is likely to make programs run under such a perl
778interpreter less secure.
779
785aa5e3 780=item usesitecustomize
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781
782Run-time customization of @INC can be enabled with:
783
36de116d 784 sh Configure -Dusesitecustomize
20ef40cf 785
785aa5e3
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786which will define USE_SITECUSTOMIZE and $Config{usesitecustomize}.
787When enabled, this makes perl run F<$sitelibexp/sitecustomize.pl> before
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788anything else. This script can then be set up to add additional
789entries to @INC.
790
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791=item Man Pages
792
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793By default, man pages will be installed in $man1dir and $man3dir, which
794are normally /usr/local/man/man1 and /usr/local/man/man3. If you
795want to use a .3pm suffix for perl man pages, you can do that with
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796
797 sh Configure -Dman3ext=3pm
798
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799You can disable installation of man pages completely using
800
801 sh Configure -Dman1dir=none -Dman3dir=none
802
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803=item HTML pages
804
805Currently, the standard perl installation does not do anything with
806HTML documentation, but that may change in the future. Further, some
807add-on modules may wish to install HTML documents. The html Configure
808variables listed above are provided if you wish to specify where such
809documents should be placed. The default is "none", but will likely
810eventually change to something useful based on user feedback.
811
812=back
813
814Some users prefer to append a "/share" to $privlib and $sitelib
815to emphasize that those directories can be shared among different
816architectures.
817
818Note that these are just the defaults. You can actually structure the
819directories any way you like. They don't even have to be on the same
820filesystem.
c3edaffb 821
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822Further details about the installation directories, maintenance and
823development subversions, and about supporting multiple versions are
7df75831 824discussed in L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5"> below.
10c7e831 825
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826If you specify a prefix that contains the string "perl", then the
827library directory structure is slightly simplified. Instead of
828suggesting $prefix/lib/perl5/, Configure will suggest $prefix/lib.
2bf2710f 829
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830Thus, for example, if you Configure with
831-Dprefix=/opt/perl, then the default library directories for 5.9.0 are
2bf2710f 832
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833 Configure variable Default value
834 $privlib /opt/perl/lib/5.9.0
835 $archlib /opt/perl/lib/5.9.0/$archname
836 $sitelib /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.9.0
837 $sitearch /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.9.0/$archname
2bf2710f 838
ce80d64e 839=head2 Changing the installation directory
c3edaffb 840
ce80d64e 841Configure distinguishes between the directory in which perl (and its
7df75831 842associated files) should be installed, and the directory in which it
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843will eventually reside. For most sites, these two are the same; for
844sites that use AFS, this distinction is handled automatically.
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845However, sites that use package management software such as rpm or
846dpkg, or users building binary packages for distribution may also
847wish to install perl into a different directory before moving perl
848to its final destination. There are two ways to do that:
849
850=over 4
851
852=item installprefix
c3edaffb 853
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854To install perl under the /tmp/perl5 directory, use the following
855command line:
c3edaffb 856
7df75831 857 sh Configure -Dinstallprefix=/tmp/perl5
c3edaffb 858
ce80d64e 859(replace /tmp/perl5 by a directory of your choice).
2bf2710f 860
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861Beware, though, that if you go to try to install new add-on
862modules, they too will get installed in under '/tmp/perl5' if you
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863follow this example. That's why it's usually better to use DESTDIR,
864as shown in the next section.
c3edaffb 865
7df75831 866=item DESTDIR
9d67150a 867
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868If you need to install perl on many identical systems, it is convenient
869to compile it once and create an archive that can be installed on
870multiple systems. Suppose, for example, that you want to create an
871archive that can be installed in /opt/perl. One way to do that is by
872using the DESTDIR variable during C<make install>. The DESTDIR is
873automatically prepended to all the installation paths. Thus you
874simply do:
830717a7 875
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876 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -des
877 make
878 make test
879 make install DESTDIR=/tmp/perl5
880 cd /tmp/perl5/opt/perl
881 tar cvf /tmp/perl5-archive.tar .
9d67150a 882
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883=back
884
32878f30 885=head2 Relocatable @INC
886
887To create a relocatable perl tree, use the following command line:
888
889 sh Configure -Duserelocatableinc
890
891Then the paths in @INC (and everything else in %Config) can be
892optionally located via the path of the perl executable.
893
894That means that, if the string ".../" is found at the start of any
895path, it's substituted with the directory of $^X. So, the relocation
896can be configured on a per-directory basis, although the default with
897"-Duserelocatableinc" is that everything is relocated. The initial
898install is done to the original configured prefix.
899
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900This option is not compatible with the building of a shared libperl
901("-Duseshrplib"), because in that case perl is linked with an hard-coded
902rpath that points at the libperl.so, that cannot be relocated.
903
ce80d64e 904=head2 Site-wide Policy settings
55479bb6 905
ce80d64e 906After Configure runs, it stores a number of common site-wide "policy"
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907answers (such as installation directories) in the Policy.sh file.
908If you want to build perl on another system using the same policy
909defaults, simply copy the Policy.sh file to the new system's perl build
910directory, and Configure will use it. This will work even if Policy.sh was
a0a8d9d3 911generated for another version of Perl, or on a system with a
da1b4322 912different architecture and/or operating system. However, in such cases,
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913you should review the contents of the file before using it: for
914example, your new target may not keep its man pages in the same place
915as the system on which the file was generated.
55479bb6 916
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917Alternatively, if you wish to change some or all of those policy
918answers, you should
c3edaffb 919
ce80d64e 920 rm -f Policy.sh
aa689395 921
ce80d64e 922to ensure that Configure doesn't re-use them.
2ae324a7 923
ce80d64e 924Further information is in the Policy_sh.SH file itself.
aa689395 925
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926If the generated Policy.sh file is unsuitable, you may freely edit it
927to contain any valid shell commands. It will be run just after the
928platform-specific hints files.
aa689395 929
ce80d64e 930=head2 Disabling older versions of Perl
aa689395 931
ce80d64e 932Configure will search for binary compatible versions of previously
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933installed perl binaries in the tree that is specified as target tree,
934and these will be used as locations to search for modules by the perl
935being built. The list of perl versions found will be put in the Configure
936variable inc_version_list.
86058a2d 937
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938To disable this use of older perl modules, even completely valid pure
939perl modules, you can specify to not include the paths found:
b2a6d19e 940
ce80d64e 941 sh Configure -Dinc_version_list=none ...
d6baa268 942
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943If you do want to use modules from some previous perl versions, the
944variable must contain a space separated list of directories under the
945site_perl directory, and has to include architecture-dependent
946directories separately, eg.
274ca399 947
4683a5d7 948 sh Configure -Dinc_version_list="5.16.0/x86_64-linux 5.16.0" ...
274ca399 949
ce80d64e 950When using the newer perl, you can add these paths again in the
668cbedd 951PERL5LIB environment variable or with perl's -I runtime option.
86058a2d 952
ce80d64e 953=head2 Building Perl outside of the source directory
86058a2d 954
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955Sometimes it is desirable to build Perl in a directory different from
956where the sources are, for example if you want to keep your sources
957read-only, or if you want to share the sources between different binary
958architectures. You can do this (if your file system supports symbolic
959links) by
06c896bb 960
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961 mkdir /tmp/perl/build/directory
962 cd /tmp/perl/build/directory
963 sh /path/to/perl/source/Configure -Dmksymlinks ...
06c896bb 964
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965This will create in /tmp/perl/build/directory a tree of symbolic links
966pointing to files in /path/to/perl/source. The original files are left
967unaffected. After Configure has finished you can just say
06c896bb 968
ce80d64e 969 make
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970 make test
971 make install
06c896bb 972
ce80d64e 973as usual, and Perl will be built in /tmp/perl/build/directory.
aa689395 974
3bf462b8
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975=head2 Building a debugging perl
976
977You can run perl scripts under the perl debugger at any time with
3fe9a6f1 978B<perl -d your_script>. If, however, you want to debug perl itself,
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979you probably want to have support for perl internal debugging code
980(activated by adding -DDEBUGGING to ccflags), and/or support for the
f075db89 981system debugger by adding -g to the optimisation flags.
eaf812ae 982
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983A perl compiled with the DEBUGGING C preprocessor macro will support the
984C<-D> perl command-line switch, have assertions enabled, and have many
985extra checks compiled into the code; but will execute much more slowly
986(typically 2-3x) and the binary will be much larger (typically 2-3x).
08854360 987
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988As a convenience, debugging code (-DDEBUGGING) and debugging symbols (-g)
989can be enabled jointly or separately using a Configure switch, also
990(somewhat confusingly) named -DDEBUGGING. For a more eye appealing call,
991-DEBUGGING is defined to be an alias for -DDEBUGGING. For both, the -U
992calls are also supported, in order to be able to overrule the hints or
993Policy.sh settings.
eaf812ae 994
7df75831 995Here are the DEBUGGING modes:
3bf462b8 996
7df75831 997=over 4
3bf462b8 998
f075db89 999=item Configure -DDEBUGGING
eaf812ae 1000
f075db89 1001=item Configure -DEBUGGING
eaf812ae 1002
f075db89 1003=item Configure -DEBUGGING=both
eaf812ae 1004
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1005Sets both -DDEBUGGING in the ccflags, and adds -g to optimize.
1006
1007You can actually specify -g and -DDEBUGGING independently (see below),
1008but usually it's convenient to have both.
eaf812ae 1009
f075db89 1010=item Configure -DEBUGGING=-g
eaf812ae 1011
f075db89 1012=item Configure -Doptimize=-g
7df75831 1013
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1014Adds -g to optimize, but does not set -DDEBUGGING.
1015
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1016(Note: Your system may actually require something like cc -g2.
1017Check your man pages for cc(1) and also any hint file for your system.)
1018
f075db89 1019=item Configure -DEBUGGING=none
eaf812ae 1020
f075db89 1021=item Configure -UDEBUGGING
7df75831 1022
eaf812ae
MB
1023Removes -g from optimize, and -DDEBUGGING from ccflags.
1024
1025=back
1026
3bf462b8 1027If you are using a shared libperl, see the warnings about multiple
ef460fb9 1028versions of perl under L</Building a shared Perl library>.
3bf462b8 1029
def5f8a5
DM
1030Note that a perl built with -DDEBUGGING will be much bigger and will run
1031much, much more slowly than a standard perl.
1db12997
DM
1032
1033=head2 DTrace support
1034
979b4168 1035On platforms where DTrace is available, it may be enabled by
ab97e755
MB
1036using the -Dusedtrace option to Configure. DTrace probes are available
1037for subroutine entry (sub-entry) and subroutine exit (sub-exit). Here's a
1db12997
DM
1038simple D script that uses them:
1039
1040 perl$target:::sub-entry, perl$target:::sub-return {
1041 printf("%s %s (%s:%d)\n", probename == "sub-entry" ? "->" : "<-",
1042 copyinstr(arg0), copyinstr(arg1), arg2);
1043 }
1044
1045
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1046=head2 Extensions
1047
80c1f5de 1048Perl ships with a number of standard extensions. These are contained
b0a63d58 1049in the F<ext/> subdirectory.
80c1f5de 1050
8d74ce1c
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1051By default, Configure will offer to build every extension which appears
1052to be supported. For example, Configure will offer to build GDBM_File
7df75831 1053only if it is able to find the gdbm library.
ce80d64e
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1054
1055To disable certain extensions so that they are not built, use the
1056-Dnoextensions=... and -Donlyextensions=... options. They both accept
47bd56ab
DM
1057a space-separated list of extensions, such as C<IPC/SysV>. The extensions
1058listed in
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1059C<noextensions> are removed from the list of extensions to build, while
1060the C<onlyextensions> is rather more severe and builds only the listed
1061extensions. The latter should be used with extreme caution since
1062certain extensions are used by many other extensions and modules:
1063examples of such modules include Fcntl and IO. The order of processing
1064these options is first C<only> (if present), then C<no> (if present).
8d74ce1c
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1065
1066Of course, you may always run Configure interactively and select only
1067the extensions you want.
1068
7df75831
RGS
1069If you unpack any additional extensions in the ext/ directory before
1070running Configure, then Configure will offer to build those additional
1071extensions as well. Most users probably shouldn't have to do this --
1072it is usually easier to build additional extensions later after perl
1073has been installed. However, if you wish to have those additional
1074extensions statically linked into the perl binary, then this offers a
1075convenient way to do that in one step. (It is not necessary, however;
1076you can build and install extensions just fine even if you don't have
1077dynamic loading. See lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm for more details.)
1078Another way of specifying extra modules is described in
1079L<"Adding extra modules to the build"> below.
8d74ce1c 1080
dd3196cd 1081If you re-use an old config.sh but change your system (e.g. by
8d74ce1c
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1082adding libgdbm) Configure will still offer your old choices of extensions
1083for the default answer, but it will also point out the discrepancy to
1084you.
1085
8d74ce1c
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1086=head2 Including locally-installed libraries
1087
7df75831
RGS
1088Perl comes with interfaces to number of libraries, including threads,
1089dbm, ndbm, gdbm, and Berkeley db. For the *db* extension, if
8d74ce1c 1090Configure can find the appropriate header files and libraries, it will
7df75831 1091automatically include that extension. The threading extension needs
27021420 1092to be specified explicitly (see L</Threads>).
7df75831
RGS
1093
1094Those libraries are not distributed with perl. If your header (.h) files
1095for those libraries are not in a directory normally searched by your C
1096compiler, then you will need to include the appropriate -I/your/directory
1097option when prompted by Configure. If your libraries are not in a
1098directory normally searched by your C compiler and linker, then you will
1099need to include the appropriate -L/your/directory option when prompted
1100by Configure. See the examples below.
8d74ce1c 1101
ce80d64e 1102=head3 Examples
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1103
1104=over 4
1105
1106=item gdbm in /usr/local
1107
1108Suppose you have gdbm and want Configure to find it and build the
d6baa268 1109GDBM_File extension. This example assumes you have gdbm.h
8d74ce1c
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1110installed in /usr/local/include/gdbm.h and libgdbm.a installed in
1111/usr/local/lib/libgdbm.a. Configure should figure all the
1112necessary steps out automatically.
1113
1114Specifically, when Configure prompts you for flags for
7df75831
RGS
1115your C compiler, you should include -I/usr/local/include, if it's
1116not here yet. Similarly, when Configure prompts you for linker flags,
1117you should include -L/usr/local/lib.
8d74ce1c
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1118
1119If you are using dynamic loading, then when Configure prompts you for
1120linker flags for dynamic loading, you should again include
1121-L/usr/local/lib.
1122
d6baa268
JH
1123Again, this should all happen automatically. This should also work if
1124you have gdbm installed in any of (/usr/local, /opt/local, /usr/gnu,
1125/opt/gnu, /usr/GNU, or /opt/GNU).
8d74ce1c 1126
e8b9ce60
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1127=item BerkeleyDB in /usr/local/BerkeleyDB
1128
668cbedd 1129The version of BerkeleyDB distributed by Oracle installs in a
e8b9ce60
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1130version-specific directory by default, typically something like
1131/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7. To have Configure find that, you need to add
ab97e755
MB
1132-I/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/include to cc flags, as in the previous
1133example, and you will also have to take extra steps to help Configure
1134find -ldb. Specifically, when Configure prompts you for library
1135directories, add /usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/lib to the list. Also, you
1136will need to add appropriate linker flags to tell the runtime linker
1137where to find the BerkeleyDB shared libraries.
e8b9ce60
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1138
1139It is possible to specify this from the command line (all on one
8d74ce1c
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1140line):
1141
979b4168
KW
1142 sh Configure -de \
1143 -Dlocincpth='/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/include \
1144 /usr/local/include' \
1145 -Dloclibpth='/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/lib /usr/local/lib' \
1146 -Aldflags='-R/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/lib'
8d74ce1c
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1147
1148locincpth is a space-separated list of include directories to search.
1149Configure will automatically add the appropriate -I directives.
1150
1151loclibpth is a space-separated list of library directories to search.
e8b9ce60 1152Configure will automatically add the appropriate -L directives.
8d74ce1c 1153
e8b9ce60
AD
1154The addition to ldflags is so that the dynamic linker knows where to find
1155the BerkeleyDB libraries. For Linux and Solaris, the -R option does that.
1156Other systems may use different flags. Use the appropriate flag for your
1157system.
8d74ce1c
AD
1158
1159=back
1160
b76ca5cc
BF
1161=head2 Specifying a logical root directory
1162
1163If you are cross-compiling, or are using a compiler which has it's own
1164headers and libraries in a nonstandard location, and your compiler
ab97e755
MB
1165understands the C<--sysroot> option, you can use the C<-Dsysroot> option
1166to specify the logical root directory under which all libraries and
1167headers are searched for. This patch adjusts Configure to search under
1168$sysroot, instead of /.
1169
b76ca5cc
BF
1170--sysroot is added to ccflags and friends so that make in
1171ExtUtils::MakeMaker, and other extensions, will use it.
1172
ce80d64e
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1173=head2 Overriding an old config.sh
1174
dd3196cd
RGS
1175If you want to use an old config.sh produced by a previous run of
1176Configure, but override some of the items with command line options, you
1177need to use B<Configure -O>.
ce80d64e
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1178
1179=head2 GNU-style configure
1180
1181If you prefer the GNU-style configure command line interface, you can
1182use the supplied configure.gnu command, e.g.
1183
1184 CC=gcc ./configure.gnu
1185
1186The configure.gnu script emulates a few of the more common configure
1187options. Try
1188
1189 ./configure.gnu --help
1190
1191for a listing.
1192
1193(The file is called configure.gnu to avoid problems on systems
1194that would not distinguish the files "Configure" and "configure".)
1195
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1196=head2 Malloc Issues
1197
1198Perl relies heavily on malloc(3) to grow data structures as needed,
1199so perl's performance can be noticeably affected by the performance of
1200the malloc function on your system. The perl source is shipped with a
1201version of malloc that has been optimized for the typical requests from
1202perl, so there's a chance that it may be both faster and use less memory
1203than your system malloc.
1204
1205However, if your system already has an excellent malloc, or if you are
1206experiencing difficulties with extensions that use third-party libraries
1207that call malloc, then you should probably use your system's malloc.
1208(Or, you might wish to explore the malloc flags discussed below.)
1209
1210=over 4
1211
1212=item Using the system malloc
1213
1214To build without perl's malloc, you can use the Configure command
1215
1216 sh Configure -Uusemymalloc
1217
1218or you can answer 'n' at the appropriate interactive Configure prompt.
1219
73d6d1b0
RGS
1220Note that Perl's malloc isn't always used by default; that actually
1221depends on your system. For example, on Linux and FreeBSD (and many more
1222systems), Configure chooses to use the system's malloc by default.
1223See the appropriate file in the F<hints/> directory to see how the
1224default is set.
1225
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AD
1226=item -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC
1227
1228NOTE: This flag is enabled automatically on some platforms if you just
7df75831 1229run Configure to accept all the defaults.
ce80d64e
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1230
1231Perl's malloc family of functions are normally called Perl_malloc(),
1232Perl_realloc(), Perl_calloc() and Perl_mfree().
1233These names do not clash with the system versions of these functions.
1234
1235If this flag is enabled, however, Perl's malloc family of functions
1236will have the same names as the system versions. This may be required
1237sometimes if you have libraries that like to free() data that may have
1238been allocated by Perl_malloc() and vice versa.
1239
1240Note that enabling this option may sometimes lead to duplicate symbols
1241from the linker for malloc et al. In such cases, the system probably
1242does not allow its malloc functions to be fully replaced with custom
1243versions.
1244
1245=item -DPERL_DEBUGGING_MSTATS
1246
1247This flag enables debugging mstats, which is required to use the
1248Devel::Peek::mstat() function. You cannot enable this unless you are
1249using Perl's malloc, so a typical Configure command would be
1250
7df75831 1251 sh Configure -Accflags=-DPERL_DEBUGGING_MSTATS -Dusemymalloc
ce80d64e
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1252
1253to enable this option.
1254
1255=back
1256
8e07c86e
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1257=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1258
8d74ce1c 1259If you run into problems, try some of the following ideas.
ff52061e 1260If none of them help, then see L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
8d74ce1c 1261
8e07c86e
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1262=over 4
1263
25f94b33
AD
1264=item Running Configure Interactively
1265
1266If Configure runs into trouble, remember that you can always run
1267Configure interactively so that you can check (and correct) its
1268guesses.
1269
1270All the installation questions have been moved to the top, so you don't
aa689395 1271have to wait for them. Once you've handled them (and your C compiler and
1ec51d55 1272flags) you can type &-d at the next Configure prompt and Configure
25f94b33
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1273will use the defaults from then on.
1274
1275If you find yourself trying obscure command line incantations and
1276config.over tricks, I recommend you run Configure interactively
1277instead. You'll probably save yourself time in the long run.
1278
aa689395 1279=item Hint files
8e07c86e 1280
a0a8d9d3
DD
1281Hint files tell Configure about a number of things:
1282
1283=over 4
1284
1285=item o
1286
1287The peculiarities or conventions of particular platforms -- non-standard
1288library locations and names, default installation locations for binaries,
1289and so on.
1290
1291=item o
1292
1293The deficiencies of the platform -- for example, library functions that,
1294although present, are too badly broken to be usable; or limits on
1295resources that are generously available on most platforms.
1296
1297=item o
1298
ab97e755
MB
1299How best to optimize for the platform, both in terms of binary size
1300and/or speed, and for Perl feature support. Because of wide variations in
1301the implementation of shared libraries and of threading, for example,
1302Configure often needs hints in order to be able to use these features.
a0a8d9d3
DD
1303
1304=back
1305
1306The perl distribution includes many system-specific hints files
1307in the hints/ directory. If one of them matches your system, Configure
1308will offer to use that hint file. Unless you have a very good reason
1309not to, you should accept its offer.
8e07c86e
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1310
1311Several of the hint files contain additional important information.
ab97e755
MB
1312If you have any problems, it is a good idea to read the relevant hint
1313file for further information. See hints/solaris_2.sh for an extensive
1314example. More information about writing good hints is in the
1315hints/README.hints file, which also explains hint files known as
1316callback-units.
a0a8d9d3
DD
1317
1318Note that any hint file is read before any Policy file, meaning that
1319Policy overrides hints -- see L</Site-wide Policy settings>.
8e07c86e 1320
73d6d1b0 1321=item WHOA THERE!!!
edb1cbcb 1322
ab97e755
MB
1323If you are re-using an old config.sh, it's possible that Configure
1324detects different values from the ones specified in this file. You will
1325almost always want to keep the previous value, unless you have changed
1326something on your system.
edb1cbcb
PP
1327
1328For example, suppose you have added libgdbm.a to your system
1329and you decide to reconfigure perl to use GDBM_File. When you run
1330Configure again, you will need to add -lgdbm to the list of libraries.
bfb7748a
AD
1331Now, Configure will find your gdbm include file and library and will
1332issue a message:
edb1cbcb
PP
1333
1334 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1335 The previous value for $i_gdbm on this machine was "undef"!
1336 Keep the previous value? [y]
1337
1ec51d55 1338In this case, you do not want to keep the previous value, so you
c3edaffb 1339should answer 'n'. (You'll also have to manually add GDBM_File to
edb1cbcb
PP
1340the list of dynamic extensions to build.)
1341
8e07c86e
AD
1342=item Changing Compilers
1343
1344If you change compilers or make other significant changes, you should
1ec51d55 1345probably not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or
dd3196cd 1346rename it, then rerun Configure with the options you want to use.
8e07c86e 1347
c3edaffb 1348=item Propagating your changes to config.sh
8e07c86e 1349
1ec51d55
CS
1350If you make any changes to config.sh, you should propagate
1351them to all the .SH files by running
1352
1353 sh Configure -S
1354
1355You will then have to rebuild by running
9d67150a
PP
1356
1357 make depend
1358 make
8e07c86e 1359
48370efc
JH
1360=item config.over and config.arch
1361
668cbedd 1362You can also supply a shell script config.over to override
48370efc
JH
1363Configure's guesses. It will get loaded up at the very end, just
1364before config.sh is created. You have to be careful with this,
1365however, as Configure does no checking that your changes make sense.
1366This file is usually good for site-specific customizations.
1367
1368There is also another file that, if it exists, is loaded before the
1369config.over, called config.arch. This file is intended to be per
1370architecture, not per site, and usually it's the architecture-specific
1371hints file that creates the config.arch.
8e07c86e
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1372
1373=item config.h
1374
1ec51d55
CS
1375Many of the system dependencies are contained in config.h.
1376Configure builds config.h by running the config_h.SH script.
1377The values for the variables are taken from config.sh.
8e07c86e 1378
1ec51d55
CS
1379If there are any problems, you can edit config.h directly. Beware,
1380though, that the next time you run Configure, your changes will be
8e07c86e
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1381lost.
1382
1383=item cflags
1384
1385If you have any additional changes to make to the C compiler command
1ec51d55 1386line, they can be made in cflags.SH. For instance, to turn off the
5729ffdd
NC
1387optimizer on toke.c, find the switch structure marked 'or customize here',
1388and add a line for toke.c ahead of the catch-all *) so that it now reads:
1389
1390 : or customize here
1391
1392 case "$file" in
1393 toke) optimize='-g' ;;
1394 *) ;;
1395
ab97e755
MB
1396You should not edit the generated file cflags directly, as your changes
1397will be lost the next time you run Configure, or if you edit config.sh.
8e07c86e 1398
f5b3b617
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1399To explore various ways of changing ccflags from within a hint file,
1400see the file hints/README.hints.
1401
1402To change the C flags for all the files, edit config.sh and change either
1403$ccflags or $optimize, and then re-run
1ec51d55
CS
1404
1405 sh Configure -S
1406 make depend
8e07c86e 1407
aa689395 1408=item No sh
8e07c86e 1409
c42e3e15
GS
1410If you don't have sh, you'll have to copy the sample file
1411Porting/config.sh to config.sh and edit your config.sh to reflect your
1412system's peculiarities. See Porting/pumpkin.pod for more information.
8e07c86e
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1413You'll probably also have to extensively modify the extension building
1414mechanism.
1415
c3edaffb
PP
1416=item Porting information
1417
e6f03d26 1418Specific information for the OS/2, Plan 9, VMS and Win32 ports is in the
1ec51d55
CS
1419corresponding README files and subdirectories. Additional information,
1420including a glossary of all those config.sh variables, is in the Porting
ce80d64e 1421subdirectory. Porting/Glossary should especially come in handy.
c3edaffb 1422
7f678428 1423Ports for other systems may also be available. You should check out
f6521f7c 1424L<https://www.cpan.org/ports> for current information on ports to
7f678428
PP
1425various other operating systems.
1426
ce80d64e 1427If you plan to port Perl to a new architecture, study carefully the
491517e0 1428section titled "Philosophical Issues in Patching and Porting Perl"
c222ef46 1429in the file Porting/pumpkin.pod and the file pod/perlgit.pod.
491517e0
JA
1430Study also how other non-UNIX ports have solved problems.
1431
8e07c86e
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1432=back
1433
ce80d64e 1434=head2 Adding extra modules to the build
fadf0ef5
JH
1435
1436You can specify extra modules or module bundles to be fetched from the
1437CPAN and installed as part of the Perl build. Either use the -Dextras=...
1438command line parameter to Configure, for example like this:
1439
d3df0cfd 1440 Configure -Dextras="Bundle::LWP DBI"
fadf0ef5
JH
1441
1442or answer first 'y' to the question 'Install any extra modules?' and
d3df0cfd 1443then answer "Bundle::LWP DBI" to the 'Extras?' question.
ab97e755
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1444The module or the bundle names are as for the CPAN module 'install'
1445command. This will only work if those modules are to be built as dynamic
a522f097
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1446extensions. If you wish to include those extra modules as static
1447extensions, see L<"Extensions"> above.
fadf0ef5
JH
1448
1449Notice that because the CPAN module will be used to fetch the extra
1450modules, you will need access to the CPAN, either via the Internet,
1451or via a local copy such as a CD-ROM or a local CPAN mirror. If you
1452do not, using the extra modules option will die horribly.
1453
1454Also notice that you yourself are responsible for satisfying any extra
ab97e755
MB
1455dependencies such as external headers or libraries BEFORE trying the
1456build. For example: you will need to have the Foo database specific
fadf0ef5
JH
1457headers and libraries installed for the DBD::Foo module. The Configure
1458process or the Perl build process will not help you with these.
1459
ce80d64e 1460=head2 suidperl
03739d21 1461
172dd959
JV
1462suidperl was an optional component of earlier releases of perl. It is no
1463longer available. Instead, use a tool specifically designed to handle
1464changes in privileges, such as B<sudo>.
03739d21 1465
8e07c86e
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1466=head1 make depend
1467
bfb7748a
AD
1468This will look for all the includes. The output is stored in makefile.
1469The only difference between Makefile and makefile is the dependencies at
1470the bottom of makefile. If you have to make any changes, you should edit
ce80d64e 1471makefile, not Makefile, since the Unix make command reads makefile first.
bfb7748a
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1472(On non-Unix systems, the output may be stored in a different file.
1473Check the value of $firstmakefile in your config.sh if in doubt.)
8e07c86e
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1474
1475Configure will offer to do this step for you, so it isn't listed
1476explicitly above.
1477
1478=head1 make
1479
1480This will attempt to make perl in the current directory.
1481
8d410bc4
YST
1482=head2 Expected errors
1483
f5b5f377 1484These error reports are normal, and can be ignored:
8d410bc4
YST
1485
1486 ...
1487 make: [extra.pods] Error 1 (ignored)
1488 ...
1489 make: [extras.make] Error 1 (ignored)
1490
8d74ce1c
AD
1491=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1492
8e07c86e 1493If you can't compile successfully, try some of the following ideas.
7f678428 1494If none of them help, and careful reading of the error message and
8d74ce1c 1495the relevant manual pages on your system doesn't help,
ff52061e 1496then see L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
8e07c86e
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1497
1498=over 4
1499
1ec51d55 1500=item hints
8e07c86e
AD
1501
1502If you used a hint file, try reading the comments in the hint file
1503for further tips and information.
1504
1ec51d55 1505=item extensions
8e07c86e 1506
1ec51d55 1507If you can successfully build miniperl, but the process crashes
ce80d64e 1508during the building of extensions, run
c3edaffb 1509
3a6175e1 1510 make minitest
c3edaffb
PP
1511
1512to test your version of miniperl.
1513
e57fd563
PP
1514=item locale
1515
bfb7748a
AD
1516If you have any locale-related environment variables set, try unsetting
1517them. I have some reports that some versions of IRIX hang while
1518running B<./miniperl configpm> with locales other than the C locale.
1519See the discussion under L<"make test"> below about locales and the
ab97e755
MB
1520whole L<perllocale/"LOCALE PROBLEMS"> section in the file
1521pod/perllocale.pod. The latter is especially useful if you see something
1522like this
3e6e419a
JH
1523
1524 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
1525 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
1526 LC_ALL = "En_US",
1527 LANG = (unset)
1528 are supported and installed on your system.
1529 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
1530
1531at Perl startup.
e57fd563 1532
06aa495b
DM
1533=item other environment variables
1534
1535Configure does not check for environment variables that can sometimes
1536have a major influence on how perl is built or tested. For example,
1537OBJECT_MODE on AIX determines the way the compiler and linker deal with
1538their objects, but this is a variable that only influences build-time
1539behaviour, and should not affect the perl scripts that are eventually
1540executed by the perl binary. Other variables, like PERL_UNICODE,
adbb55c0 1541PERL5LIB, and PERL5OPT will influence the behaviour of the test suite.
06aa495b
DM
1542So if you are getting strange test failures, you may want to try
1543retesting with the various PERL variables unset.
1544
1ec51d55 1545=item LD_LIBRARY_PATH
c3edaffb
PP
1546
1547If you run into dynamic loading problems, check your setting of
0fd807f7
KW
1548the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable (or on some systems the equivalent
1549with a different name, see L</Building a shared Perl library>). If you're
1550creating a static Perl library (libperl.a rather than libperl.so) it should
1551build fine with LD_LIBRARY_PATH unset, though that may depend on details of
1552your local setup.
c3edaffb 1553
aa689395 1554=item nm extraction
c3edaffb
PP
1555
1556If Configure seems to be having trouble finding library functions,
1557try not using nm extraction. You can do this from the command line
1558with
1559
1560 sh Configure -Uusenm
1561
1562or by answering the nm extraction question interactively.
1ec51d55 1563If you have previously run Configure, you should not reuse your old
c3edaffb
PP
1564config.sh.
1565
bfb7748a
AD
1566=item umask not found
1567
1568If the build processes encounters errors relating to umask(), the problem
1569is probably that Configure couldn't find your umask() system call.
1570Check your config.sh. You should have d_umask='define'. If you don't,
1571this is probably the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above. Also,
1572try reading the hints file for your system for further information.
1573
3fe9a6f1
PP
1574=item do_aspawn
1575
1576If you run into problems relating to do_aspawn or do_spawn, the
1577problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
bfb7748a
AD
1578fork() function. Follow the procedure in the previous item
1579on L<"nm extraction">.
3fe9a6f1 1580
84902520
TB
1581=item __inet_* errors
1582
1583If you receive unresolved symbol errors during Perl build and/or test
1584referring to __inet_* symbols, check to see whether BIND 8.1 is
1585installed. It installs a /usr/local/include/arpa/inet.h that refers to
1586these symbols. Versions of BIND later than 8.1 do not install inet.h
1587in that location and avoid the errors. You should probably update to a
6d240721 1588newer version of BIND (and remove the files the old one left behind).
ab97e755
MB
1589If you can't, you can either link with the updated resolver library
1590provided with BIND 8.1 or rename /usr/local/bin/arpa/inet.h during the
1591Perl build and test process to avoid the problem.
6d240721 1592
73d6d1b0 1593=item .*_r() prototype NOT found
6d240721
JH
1594
1595On a related note, if you see a bunch of complaints like the above about
ab97e755
MB
1596reentrant functions -- specifically networking-related ones -- being
1597present but without prototypes available, check to see if BIND 8.1 (or
1598possibly other BIND 8 versions) is (or has been) installed. They install
1599header files such as netdb.h into places such as /usr/local/include (or
1600into another directory as specified at build/install time), at least
1601optionally. Remove them or put them in someplace that isn't in the C
1602preprocessor's header file include search path (determined by -I options
1603plus defaults, normally /usr/include).
84902520 1604
d6baa268
JH
1605=item #error "No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified"
1606
1607This is a common error when trying to build perl on Solaris 2.6 with a
1608gcc installation from Solaris 2.5 or 2.5.1. The Solaris header files
1609changed, so you need to update your gcc installation. You can either
1610rerun the fixincludes script from gcc or take the opportunity to
1611update your gcc installation.
1612
aa689395 1613=item Optimizer
c3edaffb 1614
9d67150a 1615If you can't compile successfully, try turning off your compiler's
aa689395 1616optimizer. Edit config.sh and change the line
9d67150a
PP
1617
1618 optimize='-O'
1619
bfb7748a 1620to
9d67150a
PP
1621
1622 optimize=' '
1623
1624then propagate your changes with B<sh Configure -S> and rebuild
1625with B<make depend; make>.
1626
4bbc1586 1627=item Missing functions and Undefined symbols
9d67150a 1628
4bbc1586
AD
1629If the build of miniperl fails with a long list of missing functions or
1630undefined symbols, check the libs variable in the config.sh file. It
1631should look something like
1632
1633 libs='-lsocket -lnsl -ldl -lm -lc'
1634
1635The exact libraries will vary from system to system, but you typically
1636need to include at least the math library -lm. Normally, Configure
1637will suggest the correct defaults. If the libs variable is empty, you
1638need to start all over again. Run
1639
1640 make distclean
1641
1642and start from the very beginning. This time, unless you are sure of
1643what you are doing, accept the default list of libraries suggested by
1644Configure.
1645
0ff780f4
MB
1646If the libs variable is missing -lm, there is a chance that libm.so.1
1647is available, but the required (symbolic) link to libm.so is missing.
1648(same could be the case for other libraries like libcrypt.so). You
1649should check your installation for packages that create that link, and
1650if no package is installed that supplies that link or you cannot install
1651them, make the symbolic link yourself e.g.:
1652
c7121961
FC
1653 $ rpm -qf /usr/lib64/libm.so
1654 glibc-devel-2.15-22.17.1.x86_64
1655 $ ls -lgo /usr/lib64/libm.so
1656 lrwxrwxrwx 1 16 Jan 7 2013 /usr/lib64/libm.so -> /lib64/libm.so.6
0ff780f4 1657
c7121961 1658 or
0ff780f4 1659
c7121961 1660 $ sudo ln -s /lib64/libm.so.6 /lib64/libm.so
0ff780f4 1661
4bbc1586
AD
1662If the libs variable looks correct, you might have the
1663L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
1664
668cbedd 1665If you still have missing routines or undefined symbols, you probably
0ff780f4
MB
1666need to add some library or other, make a symbolic link like described
1667above, or you need to undefine some feature that Configure thought was
1668there but is defective or incomplete. If you used a hint file, see if
a3815e44 1669it has any relevant advice. You can also look through config.h
0ff780f4 1670for likely suspects.
8e07c86e 1671
1ec51d55 1672=item toke.c
8e07c86e 1673
1ec51d55
CS
1674Some compilers will not compile or optimize the larger files (such as
1675toke.c) without some extra switches to use larger jump offsets or
1676allocate larger internal tables. You can customize the switches for
ab97e755
MB
1677each file in cflags.SH. It's okay to insert rules for specific files
1678into makefile since a default rule only takes effect in the absence of a
8e07c86e
AD
1679specific rule.
1680
7f678428 1681=item Missing dbmclose
8e07c86e 1682
c3edaffb
PP
1683SCO prior to 3.2.4 may be missing dbmclose(). An upgrade to 3.2.4
1684that includes libdbm.nfs (which includes dbmclose()) may be available.
8e07c86e 1685
1bb125e2
MB
1686=item error: too few arguments to function 'dbmclose'
1687
1688Building ODBM_File on some (Open)SUSE distributions might run into this
1689error, as the header file is broken. There are two ways to deal with this
1690
1691 1. Disable the use of ODBM_FILE
1692
f0c21bde 1693 sh Configure ... -Dnoextensions=ODBM_File
1bb125e2
MB
1694
1695 2. Fix the header file, somewhat like this:
1696
1697 --- a/usr/include/dbm.h 2010-03-24 08:54:59.000000000 +0100
1698 +++ b/usr/include/dbm.h 2010-03-24 08:55:15.000000000 +0100
1699 @@ -59,4 +59,4 @@ extern datum firstkey __P((void));
1700
1701 extern datum nextkey __P((datum key));
1702
1703 -extern int dbmclose __P((DBM *));
1704 +extern int dbmclose __P((void));
1705
44666fef 1706=item Warning (mostly harmless): No library found for -lsomething
7f678428
PP
1707
1708If you see such a message during the building of an extension, but
1709the extension passes its tests anyway (see L<"make test"> below),
1710then don't worry about the warning message. The extension
1711Makefile.PL goes looking for various libraries needed on various
aa689395 1712systems; few systems will need all the possible libraries listed.
74b7c41f 1713Most users will see warnings for the ones they don't have. The
44666fef 1714phrase 'mostly harmless' is intended to reassure you that nothing
74b7c41f 1715unusual is happening, and the build process is continuing.
7f678428
PP
1716
1717On the other hand, if you are building GDBM_File and you get the
1718message
1719
44666fef 1720 Warning (mostly harmless): No library found for -lgdbm
7f678428
PP
1721
1722then it's likely you're going to run into trouble somewhere along
1723the line, since it's hard to see how you can use the GDBM_File
1724extension without the -lgdbm library.
1725
1726It is true that, in principle, Configure could have figured all of
1727this out, but Configure and the extension building process are not
1728quite that tightly coordinated.
1729
aa689395
PP
1730=item sh: ar: not found
1731
1732This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar'
1733was not found. You need to check your PATH environment variable to
1734make sure that it includes the directory with the 'ar' command. This
1ec51d55 1735is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the /usr/ccs/bin
aa689395
PP
1736directory.
1737
1738=item db-recno failure on tests 51, 53 and 55
1739
1740Old versions of the DB library (including the DB library which comes
1741with FreeBSD 2.1) had broken handling of recno databases with modified
1742bval settings. Upgrade your DB library or OS.
1743
6087ac44
JH
1744=item Bad arg length for semctl, is XX, should be ZZZ
1745
c935ba53 1746If you get this error message from the F<cpan/IPC-SysV/t/sem.t> test, your
ab97e755 1747System V IPC may be broken. The XX typically is 20, and that is what ZZZ
6087ac44
JH
1748also should be. Consider upgrading your OS, or reconfiguring your OS
1749to include the System V semaphores.
1750
c935ba53 1751=item cpan/IPC-SysV/t/sem........semget: No space left on device
220f3621
GS
1752
1753Either your account or the whole system has run out of semaphores. Or
1754both. Either list the semaphores with "ipcs" and remove the unneeded
1755ones (which ones these are depends on your system and applications)
1756with "ipcrm -s SEMAPHORE_ID_HERE" or configure more semaphores to your
1757system.
1758
d6baa268
JH
1759=item GNU binutils
1760
1761If you mix GNU binutils (nm, ld, ar) with equivalent vendor-supplied
1762tools you may be in for some trouble. For example creating archives
1763with an old GNU 'ar' and then using a new current vendor-supplied 'ld'
1764may lead into linking problems. Either recompile your GNU binutils
1765under your current operating system release, or modify your PATH not
1766to include the GNU utils before running Configure, or specify the
1767vendor-supplied utilities explicitly to Configure, for example by
1768Configure -Dar=/bin/ar.
1769
16dc217a
GS
1770=item THIS PACKAGE SEEMS TO BE INCOMPLETE
1771
1772The F<Configure> program has not been able to find all the files which
1773make up the complete Perl distribution. You may have a damaged source
1774archive file (in which case you may also have seen messages such as
1775C<gzip: stdin: unexpected end of file> and C<tar: Unexpected EOF on
1776archive file>), or you may have obtained a structurally-sound but
1777incomplete archive. In either case, try downloading again from the
1778official site named at the start of this document. If you do find
1779that any site is carrying a corrupted or incomplete source code
1780archive, please report it to the site's maintainer.
1781
16dc217a
GS
1782=item invalid token: ##
1783
ce80d64e
AD
1784You are using a non-ANSI-compliant C compiler. To compile Perl, you
1785need to use a compiler that supports ANSI C. If there is a README
1786file for your system, it may have further details on your compiler
1787options.
16dc217a 1788
1ec51d55 1789=item Miscellaneous
8e07c86e 1790
7df75831 1791Some additional things that have been reported:
8e07c86e
AD
1792
1793Genix may need to use libc rather than libc_s, or #undef VARARGS.
1794
1795NCR Tower 32 (OS 2.01.01) may need -W2,-Sl,2000 and #undef MKDIR.
1796
668cbedd 1797UTS may need one or more of -K or -g, and #undef LSTAT.
8e07c86e 1798
c935ba53 1799FreeBSD can fail the F<cpan/IPC-SysV/t/sem.t> test if SysV IPC has not been
5cda700b 1800configured in the kernel. Perl tries to detect this, though, and
ce80d64e 1801you will get a message telling you what to do.
6087ac44 1802
6c8d78fb
HS
1803Building Perl on a system that has also BIND (headers and libraries)
1804installed may run into troubles because BIND installs its own netdb.h
1805and socket.h, which may not agree with the operating system's ideas of
1806the same files. Similarly, including -lbind may conflict with libc's
1807view of the world. You may have to tweak -Dlocincpth and -Dloclibpth
1808to avoid the BIND.
1809
8e07c86e
AD
1810=back
1811
58a21a9b
JH
1812=head2 Cross-compilation
1813
e7a3c61b 1814Perl can be cross-compiled. It is just not trivial, cross-compilation
30bba555 1815rarely is. Perl is routinely cross-compiled for several platforms: as of
ae2a00c5 1816June 2019, these include Android, Blackberry 10,
79c32fc2 1817ARM Linux, and Solaris. Previous versions of
30bba555
BF
1818Perl also provided support for Open Zaurus, Symbian, and
1819the IBM OS/400, but it's unknown if those ports are still functional.
ab97e755
MB
1820These platforms are known as the B<target> platforms, while the systems
1821where the compilation takes place are the B<host> platforms.
e7a3c61b
JH
1822
1823What makes the situation difficult is that first of all,
1824cross-compilation environments vary significantly in how they are set
1825up and used, and secondly because the primary way of configuring Perl
1826(using the rather large Unix-tool-dependent Configure script) is not
1827awfully well suited for cross-compilation. However, starting from
30bba555
BF
1828version 5.18.0, the Configure script also knows two ways of supporting
1829cross-compilation, so please keep reading.
e7a3c61b
JH
1830
1831See the following files for more information about compiling Perl for
1832the particular platforms:
1833
1834=over 4
1835
30bba555 1836=item Android
e7a3c61b 1837
ab97e755
MB
1838L<"Cross-compilation" in README.android or
1839perlandroid|perlandroid/Cross-compilation>
e7a3c61b 1840
30bba555 1841=item Blackberry
e7a3c61b 1842
30bba555 1843L<"Cross-compilation" in README.qnx or perlqnx|perlqnx/Cross-compilation>
e7a3c61b 1844
30bba555 1845=item Solaris
e7a3c61b 1846
ab97e755
MB
1847L<"CROSS-COMPILATION" in README.solaris or
1848perlsolaris|perlsolaris/CROSS-COMPILATION>
30bba555
BF
1849
1850=item Linux
1851
1852This document; See below.
e7a3c61b
JH
1853
1854=back
1855
1856Packaging and transferring either the core Perl modules or CPAN
1857modules to the target platform is also left up to the each
1858cross-compilation environment. Often the cross-compilation target
1859platforms are somewhat limited in diskspace: see the section
ef460fb9 1860L</Minimizing the Perl installation> to learn more of the minimal set
e7a3c61b
JH
1861of files required for a functional Perl installation.
1862
1863For some cross-compilation environments the Configure option
ef460fb9 1864C<-Dinstallprefix=...> might be handy, see L</Changing the installation
e7a3c61b
JH
1865directory>.
1866
30bba555 1867About the cross-compilation support of Configure: There's two forms.
ab97e755
MB
1868The more common one requires some way of transferring and running
1869executables in the target system, such as an ssh connection; this is the
1870C<./Configure -Dusecrosscompile -Dtargethost=...> route. The second
1871method doesn't need access to the target system, but requires you to
a3815e44 1872provide a config.sh, and a canned Makefile; the rest of this section
ab97e755 1873describes the former.
e7a3c61b 1874
30bba555 1875This cross-compilation setup of Configure has successfully been used in
ab97e755
MB
1876a wide variety of setups, such as a 64-bit OS X host for an Android ARM
1877target, or an amd64 Linux host targeting x86 Solaris, or even Windows.
e7a3c61b
JH
1878
1879To run Configure in cross-compilation mode the basic switch that
30bba555 1880has to be used is C<-Dusecrosscompile>:
58a21a9b
JH
1881
1882 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile -D...
1883
1884This will make the cpp symbol USE_CROSS_COMPILE and the %Config
30bba555 1885symbol C<usecrosscompile> available.
58a21a9b
JH
1886
1887During the Configure and build, certain helper scripts will be created
1888into the Cross/ subdirectory. The scripts are used to execute a
1889cross-compiled executable, and to transfer files to and from the
1890target host. The execution scripts are named F<run-*> and the
1891transfer scripts F<to-*> and F<from-*>. The part after the dash is
1892the method to use for remote execution and transfer: by default the
1893methods are B<ssh> and B<scp>, thus making the scripts F<run-ssh>,
1894F<to-scp>, and F<from-scp>.
1895
1896To configure the scripts for a target host and a directory (in which
1897the execution will happen and which is to and from where the transfer
1898happens), supply Configure with
1899
1900 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st -Dtargetdir=/tar/get/dir
1901
1902The targethost is what e.g. ssh will use as the hostname, the targetdir
93bc48fa
JH
1903must exist (the scripts won't create it), the targetdir defaults to /tmp.
1904You can also specify a username to use for ssh/rsh logins
58a21a9b
JH
1905
1906 -Dtargetuser=luser
1907
30bba555 1908but in case you don't, "root" will be used. Similarly, you can specify
ab97e755
MB
1909a non-standard (i.e. not 22) port for the connection, if applicable,
1910through
30bba555
BF
1911
1912 -Dtargetport=2222
58a21a9b 1913
30bba555
BF
1914If the name of C<cc> has the usual GNU C semantics for cross
1915compilers, that is, CPU-OS-gcc, the target architecture (C<targetarch>),
1916plus names of the C<ar>, C<nm>, and C<ranlib> will also be automatically
1917chosen to be CPU-OS-ar and so on.
1918(The C<ld> requires more thought and will be chosen later by Configure
1919as appropriate). This will also aid in guessing the proper
1920operating system name for the target, which has other repercussions, like
ab97e755
MB
1921better defaults and possibly critical fixes for the platform. If
1922Configure isn't guessing the OS name properly, you may need to either add
1923a hint file redirecting Configure's guess, or modify Configure to make
1924the correct choice.
30bba555
BF
1925
1926If your compiler doesn't follow that convention, you will also need to
1927specify which target environment to use, as well as C<ar> and friends:
58a21a9b
JH
1928
1929 -Dtargetarch=arm-linux
30bba555
BF
1930 -Dcc=mycrossgcc
1931 -Dar=...
1932
1933Additionally, a cross-compilation toolchain will usually install it's own
ab97e755 1934logical system root somewhere -- that is, it'll create a directory
a95b3d6a
KW
1935somewhere which includes subdirectories like C<'include'> or C<'lib'>. For
1936example, you may end up with F</skiff/local/arm-linux>, where
1937F</skiff/local/arm-linux/bin> holds the binaries for cross-compilation,
1938F</skiff/local/arm-linux/include> has the headers, and
1939F</skiff/local/arm-linux/lib> has the library files.
30bba555
BF
1940If this is the case, and you are using a compiler that understands
1941C<--sysroot>, like gcc or clang, you'll want to specify the
1942C<-Dsysroot> option for Configure:
1943
1944 -Dsysroot=/skiff/local/arm-linux
1945
1946However, if your don't have a suitable directory to pass to C<-Dsysroot>,
1947you will also need to specify which target environment to use:
1948
58a21a9b
JH
1949 -Dusrinc=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include
1950 -Dincpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include
1951 -Dlibpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/lib
1952
58a21a9b
JH
1953In addition to the default execution/transfer methods you can also
1954choose B<rsh> for execution, and B<rcp> or B<cp> for transfer,
1955for example:
1956
1957 -Dtargetrun=rsh -Dtargetto=rcp -Dtargetfrom=cp
1958
1959Putting it all together:
1960
1961 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
93bc48fa 1962 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st \
30bba555 1963 -Dtargetdir=/tar/get/dir \
58a21a9b
JH
1964 -Dtargetuser=root \
1965 -Dtargetarch=arm-linux \
1966 -Dcc=arm-linux-gcc \
30bba555 1967 -Dsysroot=/skiff/local/arm-linux \
58a21a9b
JH
1968 -D...
1969
e7a3c61b 1970or if you are happy with the defaults:
93bc48fa
JH
1971
1972 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
1973 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st \
1974 -Dcc=arm-linux-gcc \
1975 -D...
1976
e7a3c61b
JH
1977Another example where the cross-compiler has been installed under
1978F</usr/local/arm/2.95.5>:
1979
1980 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
1981 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st \
1982 -Dcc=/usr/local/arm/2.95.5/bin/arm-linux-gcc \
30bba555
BF
1983 -Dsysroot=/usr/local/arm/2.95.5
1984
1985There is also a C<targetenv> option for Configure which can be used
1986to modify the environment of the target just before testing begins
1987during 'make test'. For example, if the target system has a nonstandard
1988/tmp location, you could do this:
1989
1990 -Dtargetenv="export TMPDIR=/other/tmp;"
1991
ab97e755
MB
1992If you are planning on cross-compiling to several platforms, or some
1993other thing that would involve running Configure several times, there are
1994two options that can be used to speed things up considerably.
30bba555
BF
1995As a bit of background, when you
1996call Configure with C<-Dusecrosscompile>, it begins by actually partially
1997building a miniperl on the host machine, as well as the generate_uudmap
1998binary, and we end up using that during the build.
ab97e755
MB
1999So instead of building that new perl every single time, you can build it
2000just once in a separate directory, and then pass the resulting binaries
2001to Configure like this:
30bba555
BF
2002
2003 -Dhostperl=/path/to/second/build/dir/miniperl
2004 -Dhostgenerate=/path/to/second/build/dir/generate_uudmap
2005
2006Much less commonly, if you are cross-compiling from an ASCII host to an
2007EBCDIC target, or vise versa, you'll have to pass C<-Uhostgenerate> to
2008Configure, to signify that you want to build a generate_uudmap binary
2009that, during make, will be run on the target system.
e7a3c61b 2010
8e07c86e
AD
2011=head1 make test
2012
d6baa268
JH
2013This will run the regression tests on the perl you just made. If
2014'make test' doesn't say "All tests successful" then something went
36bded94 2015wrong.
84902520 2016
84902520 2017Note that you can't run the tests in background if this disables
fb73857a
PP
2018opening of /dev/tty. You can use 'make test-notty' in that case but
2019a few tty tests will be skipped.
c3edaffb 2020
c4f23d77
AD
2021=head2 What if make test doesn't work?
2022
1ec51d55 2023If make test bombs out, just cd to the t directory and run ./TEST
36bded94 2024by hand to see if it makes any difference.
8e07c86e 2025
36bded94
AD
2026One way to get more detailed information about failed tests and
2027individual subtests is to run the harness from the t directory:
aa689395 2028
785aa5e3 2029 cd t ; ./perl harness <list of tests>
aa689395 2030
fb73857a 2031(this assumes that most basic tests succeed, since harness uses
785aa5e3
RGS
2032complicated constructs). If no list of tests is provided, harness
2033will run all tests.
10c7e831 2034
36bded94
AD
2035If individual tests fail, you can often run them by hand (from the main
2036perl directory), e.g.,
2037
524a2f33 2038 ./perl -I. -MTestInit t/op/groups.t
36bded94 2039
fb73857a 2040You should also read the individual tests to see if there are any helpful
10c7e831
JH
2041comments that apply to your system. You may also need to setup your
2042shared library path if you get errors like:
2043
2044 /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
2045
36bded94
AD
2046The file t/README in the t subdirectory contains more information about
2047running and modifying tests.
2048
10c7e831 2049See L</"Building a shared Perl library"> earlier in this document.
c3edaffb 2050
c4f23d77
AD
2051=over 4
2052
2053=item locale
2054
1ec51d55 2055Note: One possible reason for errors is that some external programs
c07a80fd 2056may be broken due to the combination of your environment and the way
785aa5e3 2057'make test' exercises them. For example, this may happen if you have
1ec51d55
CS
2058one or more of these environment variables set: LC_ALL LC_CTYPE
2059LC_COLLATE LANG. In some versions of UNIX, the non-English locales
e57fd563
PP
2060are known to cause programs to exhibit mysterious errors.
2061
2062If you have any of the above environment variables set, please try
aa689395
PP
2063
2064 setenv LC_ALL C
2065
2066(for C shell) or
2067
2068 LC_ALL=C;export LC_ALL
2069
1ec51d55
CS
2070for Bourne or Korn shell) from the command line and then retry
2071make test. If the tests then succeed, you may have a broken program that
aa689395 2072is confusing the testing. Please run the troublesome test by hand as
e57fd563 2073shown above and see whether you can locate the program. Look for
1ec51d55
CS
2074things like: exec, `backquoted command`, system, open("|...") or
2075open("...|"). All these mean that Perl is trying to run some
e57fd563 2076external program.
eed2e782 2077
0740bb5b
AD
2078=item Timing problems
2079
c29923ff
JH
2080Several tests in the test suite check timing functions, such as
2081sleep(), and see if they return in a reasonable amount of time.
9341413f
JH
2082If your system is quite busy and doesn't respond quickly enough,
2083these tests might fail. If possible, try running the tests again
2084with the system under a lighter load. These timing-sensitive
2085and load-sensitive tests include F<t/op/alarm.t>,
d0b0e707
TH
2086F<dist/Time-HiRes/t/alarm.t>, F<dist/Time-HiRes/t/clock.t>,
2087F<dist/Time-HiRes/t/itimer.t>, F<dist/Time-HiRes/t/usleep.t>,
1543af16 2088F<dist/threads-shared/t/waithires.t>,
c935ba53 2089F<dist/threads-shared/t/stress.t>, F<lib/Benchmark.t>,
9341413f 2090F<lib/Memoize/t/expmod_t.t>, and F<lib/Memoize/t/speed.t>.
0740bb5b 2091
f89caa8d
RGS
2092You might also experience some failures in F<t/op/stat.t> if you build
2093perl on an NFS filesystem, if the remote clock and the system clock are
2094different.
2095
c4f23d77
AD
2096=item Out of memory
2097
2098On some systems, particularly those with smaller amounts of RAM, some
2099of the tests in t/op/pat.t may fail with an "Out of memory" message.
7970f296
GS
2100For example, on my SparcStation IPC with 12 MB of RAM, in perl5.5.670,
2101test 85 will fail if run under either t/TEST or t/harness.
c4f23d77
AD
2102
2103Try stopping other jobs on the system and then running the test by itself:
2104
524a2f33 2105 ./perl -I. -MTestInit t/op/pat.t
c4f23d77
AD
2106
2107to see if you have any better luck. If your perl still fails this
2108test, it does not necessarily mean you have a broken perl. This test
2109tries to exercise the regular expression subsystem quite thoroughly,
2110and may well be far more demanding than your normal usage.
2111
a55bb48b
AD
2112=item libgcc_s.so.1: cannot open shared object file
2113
2114This message has been reported on gcc-3.2.3 and earlier installed with
2115a non-standard prefix. Setting the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable
2116(or equivalent) to include gcc's lib/ directory with the libgcc_s.so.1
2117shared library should fix the problem.
2118
4f76e5ba
AD
2119=item Failures from lib/File/Temp/t/security saying "system possibly insecure"
2120
2121First, such warnings are not necessarily serious or indicative of a
2122real security threat. That being said, they bear investigating.
2123
2124Note that each of the tests is run twice. The first time is in the
2125directory returned by File::Spec->tmpdir() (often /tmp on Unix
2126systems), and the second time in the directory from which the test was
2127run (usually the 't' directory, if the test was run as part of 'make
2128test').
2129
2130The tests may fail for the following reasons:
2131
2132(1) If the directory the tests are being run in is owned by somebody
2133other than the user running the tests, or by root (uid 0).
2134
2135This failure can happen if the Perl source code distribution is
668cbedd 2136unpacked in such a way that the user IDs in the distribution package
4f76e5ba
AD
2137are used as-is. Some tar programs do this.
2138
2139(2) If the directory the tests are being run in is writable by group or
2140by others, and there is no sticky bit set for the directory. (With
2141UNIX/POSIX semantics, write access to a directory means the right to
2142add or remove files in that directory. The 'sticky bit' is a feature
2143used in some UNIXes to give extra protection to files: if the bit is
2144set for a directory, no one but the owner (or root) can remove that
2145file even if the permissions would otherwise allow file removal by
2146others.)
2147
2148This failure may or may not be a real problem: it depends on the
2149permissions policy used on this particular system. This failure can
2150also happen if the system either doesn't support the sticky bit (this
2151is the case with many non-UNIX platforms: in principle File::Temp
2152should know about these platforms and skip the tests), or if the system
2153supports the sticky bit but for some reason or reasons it is not being
2154used. This is, for example, the case with HP-UX: as of HP-UX release
215511.00, the sticky bit is very much supported, but HP-UX doesn't use it
2156on its /tmp directory as shipped. Also, as with the permissions, some
2157local policy might dictate that the stickiness is not used.
781948c1 2158
b2b23189
JH
2159(3) If the system supports the POSIX 'chown giveaway' feature and if
2160any of the parent directories of the temporary file back to the root
2161directory are 'unsafe', using the definitions given above in (1) and
4f76e5ba
AD
2162(2). For Unix systems, this is usually not an issue if you are
2163building on a local disk. See the documentation for the File::Temp
2164module for more information about 'chown giveaway'.
781948c1
JH
2165
2166See the documentation for the File::Temp module for more information
4f76e5ba 2167about the various security aspects of temporary files.
781948c1 2168
c4f23d77
AD
2169=back
2170
5ee651a9 2171The core distribution can now run its regression tests in parallel on
ab97e755
MB
2172Unix-like platforms. Instead of running C<make test>, set C<TEST_JOBS>
2173in your environment to the number of tests to run in parallel, and run
5ee651a9
NC
2174C<make test_harness>. On a Bourne-like shell, this can be done as
2175
2176 TEST_JOBS=3 make test_harness # Run 3 tests in parallel
2177
ab97e755
MB
2178An environment variable is used, rather than parallel make itself,
2179because L<TAP::Harness> needs to be able to schedule individual
2180non-conflicting test scripts itself, and there is no standard interface
2181to C<make> utilities to interact with their job schedulers.
5ee651a9 2182
8e07c86e
AD
2183=head1 make install
2184
2185This will put perl into the public directory you specified to
ab97e755
MB
2186Configure; by default this is /usr/local/bin. It will also try to put
2187the man pages in a reasonable place. It will not nroff the man pages,
2188however. You may need to be root to run B<make install>. If you are not
2189root, you must still have permission to install into the directories
ce80d64e
AD
2190in question and you should ignore any messages about chown not working.
2191
19f4563d 2192If "make install" just says "'install' is up to date" or something
ce80d64e
AD
2193similar, you may be on a case-insensitive filesystems such as Mac's HFS+,
2194and you should say "make install-all". (This confusion is brought to you
2195by the Perl distribution having a file called INSTALL.)
8e07c86e 2196
dd64f1c3
AD
2197=head2 Installing perl under different names
2198
2199If you want to install perl under a name other than "perl" (for example,
2200when installing perl with special features enabled, such as debugging),
2201indicate the alternate name on the "make install" line, such as:
2202
2203 make install PERLNAME=myperl
2204
beb13193 2205You can separately change the base used for versioned names (like
be8498a1 2206"perl5.8.9") by setting PERLNAME_VERBASE, like
beb13193
RS
2207
2208 make install PERLNAME=perl5 PERLNAME_VERBASE=perl
2209
ab97e755
MB
2210This can be useful if you have to install perl as "perl5" (e.g. to avoid
2211conflicts with an ancient version in /usr/bin supplied by your vendor).
be8498a1 2212Without this the versioned binary would be called "perl55.8.8".
beb13193 2213
ce80d64e
AD
2214=head2 Installing perl under a different directory
2215
2216You can install perl under a different destination directory by using
2217the DESTDIR variable during C<make install>, with a command like
2218
2219 make install DESTDIR=/tmp/perl5
2220
2221DESTDIR is automatically prepended to all the installation paths. See
7df75831 2222the example in L<"DESTDIR"> above.
ce80d64e 2223
dd64f1c3
AD
2224=head2 Installed files
2225
8e07c86e
AD
2226If you want to see exactly what will happen without installing
2227anything, you can run
4633a7c4 2228
8e07c86e
AD
2229 ./perl installperl -n
2230 ./perl installman -n
2231
1ec51d55 2232make install will install the following:
8e07c86e 2233
d56c5707
JH
2234 binaries
2235
8e07c86e 2236 perl,
be8498a1 2237 perl5.n.n where 5.n.n is the current release number. This
8e07c86e 2238 will be a link to perl.
d56c5707
JH
2239
2240 scripts
2241
979b4168
KW
2242 cppstdin This is used by the deprecated switch perl -P,
2243 if your cc -E can't read from stdin.
979b4168
KW
2244 corelist Shows versions of modules that come with
2245 different
668cbedd
KW
2246 versions of perl.
2247 cpan The CPAN shell.
668cbedd 2248 enc2xs Encoding module generator.
979b4168
KW
2249 h2ph Extract constants and simple macros from C
2250 headers.
8e07c86e 2251 h2xs Converts C .h header files to Perl extensions.
73d6d1b0
RGS
2252 instmodsh A shell to examine installed modules.
2253 libnetcfg Configure libnet.
24b3df7f 2254 perlbug Tool to report bugs in Perl.
8e07c86e 2255 perldoc Tool to read perl's pod documentation.
668cbedd 2256 perlivp Perl Installation Verification Procedure.
73d6d1b0 2257 piconv A Perl implementation of the encoding conversion
668cbedd
KW
2258 utility iconv.
2259 pl2pm Convert Perl 4 .pl files to Perl 5 .pm modules.
8e07c86e 2260 pod2html, Converters from perl's pod documentation format
d56c5707
JH
2261 pod2man,
2262 pod2text,
d56c5707 2263 pod2usage
668cbedd
KW
2264 podchecker POD syntax checker.
2265 podselect Prints sections of POD documentation.
2266 prove A command-line tool for running tests.
2267 psed A Perl implementation of sed.
2268 ptar A Perl implementation of tar.
2269 ptardiff A diff for tar archives.
2270 ptargrep A grep for tar archives.
668cbedd
KW
2271 shasum A tool to print or check SHA checksums.
2272 splain Describe Perl warnings and errors.
2273 xsubpp Compiler to convert Perl XS code into C code.
979b4168 2274 zipdetails display the internal structure of zip files
8e07c86e 2275
d56c5707
JH
2276 library files
2277
2278 in $privlib and $archlib specified to
8e07c86e 2279 Configure, usually under /usr/local/lib/perl5/.
d56c5707
JH
2280
2281 documentation
2282
d6baa268
JH
2283 man pages in $man1dir, usually /usr/local/man/man1.
2284 module man
2285 pages in $man3dir, usually /usr/local/man/man3.
8e07c86e
AD
2286 pod/*.pod in $privlib/pod/.
2287
33cceb07 2288installperl will also create the directories listed above
d6baa268 2289in L<"Installation Directories">.
4633a7c4 2290
d56c5707 2291Perl's *.h header files and the libperl library are also installed
d6baa268 2292under $archlib so that any user may later build new modules, run the
56c6f531
JH
2293optional Perl compiler, or embed the perl interpreter into another
2294program even if the Perl source is no longer available.
8e07c86e 2295
6baaafe3 2296=head2 Installing with a version-specific suffix
33cceb07 2297
6baaafe3
DC
2298Sometimes you only want to install the perl distribution with a
2299version-specific suffix. For example, you may wish to install a newer
2300version of perl alongside an already installed production version.
d56c5707
JH
2301To only install the version-specific parts of the perl installation, run
2302
2303 Configure -Dversiononly
2304
2305or answer 'y' to the appropriate Configure prompt. Alternatively,
2306you can just manually run
2307
2308 ./perl installperl -v
2309
2310and skip installman altogether.
33cceb07 2311
d56c5707
JH
2312See also L<"Maintaining completely separate versions"> for another
2313approach.
2314
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2315=head1 cd /usr/include; h2ph *.h sys/*.h
2316
2317Some perl scripts need to be able to obtain information from the
2318system header files. This command will convert the most commonly used
2319header files in /usr/include into files that can be easily interpreted
2320by perl. These files will be placed in the architecture-dependent
2321library ($archlib) directory you specified to Configure.
2322
668cbedd 2323Note: Due to differences in the C and perl languages, the conversion
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2324of the header files is not perfect. You will probably have to
2325hand-edit some of the converted files to get them to parse correctly.
2326For example, h2ph breaks spectacularly on type casting and certain
2327structures.
2328
2329=head1 installhtml --help
2330
2331Some sites may wish to make perl documentation available in HTML
2332format. The installhtml utility can be used to convert pod
2333documentation into linked HTML files and install them.
2334
2335Currently, the supplied ./installhtml script does not make use of the
2336html Configure variables. This should be fixed in a future release.
2337
2338The following command-line is an example of one used to convert
2339perl documentation:
2340
2341 ./installhtml \
2342 --podroot=. \
2343 --podpath=lib:ext:pod:vms \
2344 --recurse \
2345 --htmldir=/perl/nmanual \
2346 --htmlroot=/perl/nmanual \
2347 --splithead=pod/perlipc \
2348 --splititem=pod/perlfunc \
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2349 --verbose
2350
2351See the documentation in installhtml for more details. It can take
2352many minutes to execute a large installation and you should expect to
2353see warnings like "no title", "unexpected directive" and "cannot
2354resolve" as the files are processed. We are aware of these problems
2355(and would welcome patches for them).
2356
2357You may find it helpful to run installhtml twice. That should reduce
2358the number of "cannot resolve" warnings.
2359
2360=head1 cd pod && make tex && (process the latex files)
2361
2362Some sites may also wish to make the documentation in the pod/ directory
2363available in TeX format. Type
2364
2365 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
2366
2367=head1 Starting all over again
2368
668cbedd 2369If you wish to rebuild perl from the same build directory, you should
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2370clean it out with the command
2371
2372 make distclean
2373
2374or
2375
2376 make realclean
2377
2378The only difference between the two is that make distclean also removes
dd8235d9 2379your old config.sh and Policy.sh files. (A plain 'make clean' is now
54f6f377 2380equivalent to 'make realclean'.)
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2381
2382If you are upgrading from a previous version of perl, or if you
2383change systems or compilers or make other significant changes, or if
668cbedd 2384you are experiencing difficulties building perl, you should not reuse
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2385your old config.sh.
2386
2387If your reason to reuse your old config.sh is to save your particular
2388installation choices, then you can probably achieve the same effect by
2389using the Policy.sh file. See the section on L<"Site-wide Policy
2390settings"> above.
2391
ff52061e
RGS
2392=head1 Reporting Problems
2393
8166b4e0
DB
2394Please report problems to the GitHub issue tracker at
2395https://github.com/Perl/perl5/issues, which will ask for the
2396appropriate summary configuration information about your perl, which
2397may help us track down problems far more quickly. But first you should
2398read the advice in this file, carefully re-read the error message and
2399check the relevant manual pages on your system, as these may help you
2400find an immediate solution. Once you've exhausted the documentation,
2401please report bugs to us using the GitHub tracker.
2402
2403The summary configuration information can be printed with C<perl -V>.
2404If the install fails, or you want to report problems with C<make test>
2405without installing perl, then you can run it by hand from this source
2406directory with C<./perl -V>.
2407
2408If the build fails too early to run perl, then please
2409B<run> the C<./myconfig> shell script, and include its output along
2410with an accurate description of your problem.
ff52061e
RGS
2411
2412If Configure itself fails, and does not generate a config.sh file
8166b4e0 2413(needed to run C<./myconfig>), then please open an issue with the
ff52061e 2414description of how Configure fails along with details of your system
8166b4e0 2415-- for example the output from running C<uname -a>.
ff52061e
RGS
2416
2417Please try to make your message brief but clear. Brief, clear bug
2418reports tend to get answered more quickly. Please don't worry if your
668cbedd 2419written English is not great -- what matters is how well you describe
ff52061e
RGS
2420the important technical details of the problem you have encountered,
2421not whether your grammar and spelling is flawless.
2422
2423Trim out unnecessary information. Do not include large files (such as
2424config.sh or a complete Configure or make log) unless absolutely
2425necessary. Do not include a complete transcript of your build
2426session. Just include the failing commands, the relevant error
2427messages, and whatever preceding commands are necessary to give the
8166b4e0 2428appropriate context.
ff52061e 2429
87c118b9 2430If the bug you are reporting has security implications which make it
8166b4e0 2431inappropriate to send to a public issue tracker, then see
87c118b9
DM
2432L<perlsec/SECURITY VULNERABILITY CONTACT INFORMATION>
2433for details of how to report the issue.
5acb7768 2434
ff52061e
RGS
2435If you are unsure what makes a good bug report please read "How to
2436report Bugs Effectively" by Simon Tatham:
f6521f7c 2437L<https://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/bugs.html>
ff52061e 2438
7df75831 2439=head1 Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5
4633a7c4 2440
0594e0ad 2441Perl 5.33.7 is not binary compatible with earlier versions of Perl.
cc65bb49 2442In other words, you will have to recompile your XS modules.
14eee2f1 2443
725c980e
SH
2444In general, you can usually safely upgrade from one stable version of Perl
2445(e.g. 5.30.0) to another similar minor version (e.g. 5.30.1) without
33cceb07 2446re-compiling all of your extensions. You can also safely leave the old
ab97e755
MB
2447version around in case the new version causes you problems for some
2448reason.
693762b4 2449
be8498a1
RGS
2450Usually, most extensions will probably not need to be recompiled to be
2451used with a newer version of Perl. Here is how it is supposed to work.
ce80d64e 2452(These examples assume you accept all the Configure defaults.)
693762b4 2453
33cceb07
RGS
2454Suppose you already have version 5.8.7 installed. The directories
2455searched by 5.8.7 are typically like:
d6baa268 2456
33cceb07
RGS
2457 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.7/$archname
2458 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.7
2459 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7/$archname
2460 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7
d6baa268 2461
33cceb07
RGS
2462Now, suppose you install version 5.8.8. The directories
2463searched by version 5.8.8 will be:
d6baa268 2464
33cceb07
RGS
2465 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.8/$archname
2466 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.8
2467 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8/$archname
2468 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8
d6baa268 2469
33cceb07
RGS
2470 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7/$archname
2471 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7
c42e3e15 2472 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
bfb7748a 2473
c42e3e15 2474Notice the last three entries -- Perl understands the default structure
d6baa268 2475of the $sitelib directories and will look back in older, compatible
33cceb07
RGS
2476directories. This way, modules installed under 5.8.7 will continue
2477to be usable by 5.8.7 but will also accessible to 5.8.8. Further,
d6baa268 2478suppose that you upgrade a module to one which requires features
33cceb07
RGS
2479present only in 5.8.8. That new module will get installed into
2480/usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8 and will be available to 5.8.8,
2481but will not interfere with the 5.8.7 version.
bfb7748a 2482
c42e3e15 2483The last entry, /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/, is there so that
fe23a901 24845.6.0 and above will look for 5.004-era pure perl modules.
d6baa268 2485
33cceb07
RGS
2486Lastly, suppose you now install 5.10.0, which is not binary compatible
2487with 5.8.x. The directories searched by 5.10.0 (if you don't change the
fe23a901
RF
2488Configure defaults) will be:
2489
33cceb07
RGS
2490 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.10.0/$archname
2491 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.10.0
2492 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.10.0/$archname
2493 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.10.0
d6baa268 2494
33cceb07 2495 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8
d6baa268 2496
33cceb07 2497 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7
fe23a901 2498
d6baa268 2499 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
bfb7748a 2500
cc65bb49
AD
2501Note that the earlier $archname entries are now gone, but pure perl
2502modules from earlier versions will still be found.
2503
0a08c020
GS
2504This way, you can choose to share compatible extensions, but also upgrade
2505to a newer version of an extension that may be incompatible with earlier
2506versions, without breaking the earlier versions' installations.
693762b4
AD
2507
2508=head2 Maintaining completely separate versions
4633a7c4 2509
1ec51d55 2510Many users prefer to keep all versions of perl in completely
d6baa268 2511separate directories. This guarantees that an update to one version
0a08c020
GS
2512won't interfere with another version. (The defaults guarantee this for
2513libraries after 5.6.0, but not for executables. TODO?) One convenient
2514way to do this is by using a separate prefix for each version, such as
d52d4e46 2515
0594e0ad 2516 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl5.33.7
d52d4e46 2517
0594e0ad 2518and adding /opt/perl5.33.7/bin to the shell PATH variable. Such users
d52d4e46
PP
2519may also wish to add a symbolic link /usr/local/bin/perl so that
2520scripts can still start with #!/usr/local/bin/perl.
2521
693762b4 2522Others might share a common directory for maintenance sub-versions
33cceb07 2523(e.g. 5.10 for all 5.10.x versions), but change directory with
693762b4
AD
2524each major version.
2525
6877a1cf
AD
2526If you are installing a development subversion, you probably ought to
2527seriously consider using a separate directory, since development
2528subversions may not have all the compatibility wrinkles ironed out
2529yet.
2530
0594e0ad 2531=head2 Upgrading from 5.33.6 or earlier
693762b4 2532
0594e0ad 2533B<Perl 5.33.7 may not be binary compatible with Perl 5.33.6 or
4683a5d7 2534earlier Perl releases.> Perl modules having binary parts
e655887d 2535(meaning that a C compiler is used) will have to be recompiled to be
0594e0ad
RL
2536used with 5.33.7. If you find you do need to rebuild an extension with
25375.33.7, you may safely do so without disturbing the older
7df75831 2538installations. (See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5">
e655887d 2539above.)
c42e3e15
GS
2540
2541See your installed copy of the perllocal.pod file for a (possibly
2542incomplete) list of locally installed modules. Note that you want
cc65bb49 2543perllocal.pod, not perllocale.pod, for installed module information.
693762b4 2544
8ebf57cf
JH
2545=head1 Minimizing the Perl installation
2546
2547The following section is meant for people worrying about squeezing the
2548Perl installation into minimal systems (for example when installing
2549operating systems, or in really small filesystems).
2550
c8214fdf 2551Leaving out as many extensions as possible is an obvious way:
5cda700b
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2552Encode, with its big conversion tables, consumes a lot of
2553space. On the other hand, you cannot throw away everything. The
2554Fcntl module is pretty essential. If you need to do network
c8214fdf
JH
2555programming, you'll appreciate the Socket module, and so forth: it all
2556depends on what do you need to do.
2557
8ebf57cf
JH
2558In the following we offer two different slimmed down installation
2559recipes. They are informative, not normative: the choice of files
2560depends on what you need.
2561
2562Firstly, the bare minimum to run this script
2563
2564 use strict;
2565 use warnings;
2566 foreach my $f (</*>) {
2567 print("$f\n");
2568 }
2569
0594e0ad 2570in Linux with perl-5.33.7 is as follows (under $Config{prefix}):
8ebf57cf
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2571
2572 ./bin/perl
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2573 ./lib/perl5/5.33.7/strict.pm
2574 ./lib/perl5/5.33.7/warnings.pm
2575 ./lib/perl5/5.33.7/i686-linux/File/Glob.pm
2576 ./lib/perl5/5.33.7/feature.pm
2577 ./lib/perl5/5.33.7/XSLoader.pm
2578 ./lib/perl5/5.33.7/i686-linux/auto/File/Glob/Glob.so
8ebf57cf 2579
ab97e755
MB
2580Secondly, for perl-5.10.1, the Debian perl-base package contains 591
2581files, (of which 510 are for lib/unicore) totaling about 3.5MB in its
2582i386 version. Omitting the lib/unicore/* files for brevity, the
2583remaining files are:
8ebf57cf 2584
bfe08c74 2585 /usr/bin/perl
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2586 /usr/bin/perl5.10.1
2587 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Config.pm
2588 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Config_git.pl
2589 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Config_heavy.pl
2590 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Cwd.pm
2591 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/DynaLoader.pm
2592 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Errno.pm
2593 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Fcntl.pm
2594 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/File/Glob.pm
2595 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Hash/Util.pm
2596 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO.pm
2597 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/File.pm
2598 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Handle.pm
2599 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Pipe.pm
2600 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Seekable.pm
2601 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Select.pm
2602 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Socket.pm
2603 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Socket/INET.pm
2604 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Socket/UNIX.pm
2605 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/List/Util.pm
2606 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/POSIX.pm
2607 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Scalar/Util.pm
2608 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Socket.pm
2609 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/XSLoader.pm
2610 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/Cwd/Cwd.so
2611 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/DynaLoader/autosplit.ix
2612 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_expandspec.al
2613 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_find_symbol_anywhere.al
2614 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_findfile.al
2615 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/Fcntl/Fcntl.so
2616 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/File/Glob/Glob.so
2617 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/Hash/Util/Util.so
2618 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/IO/IO.so
2619 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/List/Util/Util.so
2620 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/POSIX/POSIX.so
2621 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/POSIX/autosplit.ix
2622 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/POSIX/load_imports.al
2623 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/Socket/Socket.so
2624 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/lib.pm
2625 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/re.pm
8ebf57cf 2626 /usr/share/doc/perl/AUTHORS.gz
bfe08c74 2627 /usr/share/doc/perl/Documentation
00930d57 2628 /usr/share/doc/perl/README.Debian
8ebf57cf 2629 /usr/share/doc/perl/changelog.Debian.gz
bfe08c74 2630 /usr/share/doc/perl/copyright
00930d57 2631 /usr/share/lintian/overrides/perl-base
8ebf57cf 2632 /usr/share/man/man1/perl.1.gz
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2633 /usr/share/man/man1/perl5.10.1.1.gz
2634 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/AutoLoader.pm
2635 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Carp.pm
2636 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Carp/Heavy.pm
2637 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Exporter.pm
2638 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Exporter/Heavy.pm
2639 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/File/Spec.pm
2640 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/File/Spec/Unix.pm
2641 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/FileHandle.pm
2642 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Getopt/Long.pm
2643 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/IPC/Open2.pm
2644 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/IPC/Open3.pm
2645 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/SelectSaver.pm
2646 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Symbol.pm
2647 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Text/ParseWords.pm
2648 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Text/Tabs.pm
2649 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Text/Wrap.pm
2650 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Tie/Hash.pm
2651 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/attributes.pm
2652 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/base.pm
2653 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/bytes.pm
2654 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/bytes_heavy.pl
2655 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/constant.pm
2656 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/fields.pm
2657 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/integer.pm
2658 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/locale.pm
2659 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/overload.pm
2660 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/strict.pm
2661 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/unicore/*
2662 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/utf8.pm
2663 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/utf8_heavy.pl
2664 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/vars.pm
2665 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/warnings.pm
2666 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/warnings/register.pm
8ebf57cf 2667
e7a3c61b
JH
2668A nice trick to find out the minimal set of Perl library files you will
2669need to run a Perl program is
2670
a0a8d9d3 2671 perl -e 'do "prog.pl"; END { print "$_\n" for sort keys %INC }'
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JH
2672
2673(this will not find libraries required in runtime, unfortunately, but
2674it's a minimal set) and if you want to find out all the files you can
2675use something like the below
2676
979b4168
KW
2677 strace perl -le 'do "x.pl"' 2>&1 \
2678 | perl -nle '/^open\(\"(.+?)"/ && print $1'
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JH
2679
2680(The 'strace' is Linux-specific, other similar utilities include 'truss'
2681and 'ktrace'.)
2682
c19ccd8c
RGS
2683=head2 C<-DNO_MATHOMS>
2684
2685If you configure perl with C<-Accflags=-DNO_MATHOMS>, the functions from
2686F<mathoms.c> will not be compiled in. Those functions are no longer used
2687by perl itself; for source compatibility reasons, though, they weren't
2688completely removed.
2689
d6295071
TC
2690=head2 C<-DNO_PERL_INTERNAL_RAND_SEED>
2691X<PERL_INTERNAL_RAND_SEED>
2692
2693If you configure perl with C<-Accflags=-DNO_PERL_INTERNAL_RAND_SEED>,
ab473f03 2694perl will ignore the C<PERL_INTERNAL_RAND_SEED> environment variable.
d6295071 2695
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2696=head1 DOCUMENTATION
2697
bfb7748a 2698Read the manual entries before running perl. The main documentation
b0a63d58 2699is in the F<pod/> subdirectory and should have been installed during the
8e07c86e 2700build process. Type B<man perl> to get started. Alternatively, you
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2701can type B<perldoc perl> to use the supplied perldoc script. This is
2702sometimes useful for finding things in the library modules.
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2703
2704=head1 AUTHOR
2705
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2706Original author: Andy Dougherty doughera@lafayette.edu , borrowing very
2707heavily from the original README by Larry Wall, with lots of helpful
2708feedback and additions from the perl5-porters@perl.org folks.
fb73857a 2709
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2710If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
2711L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
2712
2713=head1 REDISTRIBUTION
2714
2715This document is part of the Perl package and may be distributed under
d6baa268 2716the same terms as perl itself, with the following additional request:
f5b3b617 2717If you are distributing a modified version of perl (perhaps as part of
d6baa268 2718a larger package) please B<do> modify these installation instructions
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DH
2719and the contact information to match your distribution. Additional
2720information for packagers is in F<PACKAGING>.