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perldiag: note the exceptions for "once" warnings
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
466416ed 23below. E.g. C<(W closed)> means a warning in the C<closed> category.
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24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
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27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
4438c4b7
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
6df41af2
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
04f74579 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s in %s
ef54e1a4 58
1109a392
MHM
59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
c2e66d9e
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
7c7af292 88(S ambiguous) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
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89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
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92=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
93
7c7af292 94(S ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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95bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
96(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
97like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
98assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
99clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
100really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 101
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102=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
103
104(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
105asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
106named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 107the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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108function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
109and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
110
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111=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
112
113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 114
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115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
116the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1172 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
118might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
119foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
120that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
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121
122In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
123to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
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124C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
125by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
126want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
127unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
128that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
129off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 130
bdac9d71 131=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
397d0f13 132
7c7af292 133(S ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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134string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
135the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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136write C<-foo()>.
137
6df41af2 138=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 139
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140(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
141redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
142redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 143
6df41af2 144=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 145
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146(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
147redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
148into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
149though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
150which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 151
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152 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
153 while (<STDIN>) {
154 print;
155 print OUT;
156 }
157 close OUT;
c9f97d15 158
6df41af2 159=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 160
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161(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
162transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 163one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 164a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
165hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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166you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
167alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 168
6df41af2 169=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 170
6df41af2 171(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 172
b0fdf69e 173=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 174
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175(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
176subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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177
178 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 179 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 180 &do_something
a0d0e21e 181
8ea97a1e 182=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 183
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184(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
185such as:
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186
187 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 188 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 189
8ea97a1e 190or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 191
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192 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
193 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 194
6df41af2 195=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 196
6df41af2 197(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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198name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
199error.
a0d0e21e 200
f86702cc 201=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 202
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203(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
204that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
205will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 206
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207=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
208
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209(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
210system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
211take care of transforming data between external and internal
212representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
213point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
214didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
215result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 216
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217=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
218
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219(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
220spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 221
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222=item A sequence of multiple spaces in a charnames alias definition is deprecated
223
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224(D deprecated) You defined a character name which had multiple space
225characters in a row. Change them to single spaces. Usually these
226names are defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but
227they could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>.
228See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
bd299e29 229
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230=item assertion botched: %s
231
21b5e840 232(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
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233
234=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
235
21b5e840 236(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 237
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FC
238=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
239
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240(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
241the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 242
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243=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
244
245(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
246must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
247know which context to supply to the right side.
248
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249=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
250
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251(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily
252the main thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
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253Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
254created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
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255thread. See L<threads>.
256
2393f1b9 257=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 258
49293501 259(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 260the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 261
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262=item Attempt to bless into a freed package
263
264(F) You wrote C<bless $foo> with one argument after somehow causing
265the current package to be freed. Perl cannot figure out what to
266do, so it throws up in hands in despair.
267
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268=item Attempt to bless into a reference
269
270(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 271the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
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272supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
273
274 bless $self, $proto;
275
276when you intended
277
278 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
279
280If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
281of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
282example by:
283
284 bless $self, "$proto";
285
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286=item Attempt to clear deleted array
287
288(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
289Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
290can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
291callback on the array.
292
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293=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
294
295(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
296which is not in its key set.
297
298=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
299
300(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
301declared readonly from a restricted hash.
302
de42a5a9 303=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 304
f84fe999 305(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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306that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
307outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 308
12578ffb 309=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 310
f84fe999 311(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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312strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
313strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
314of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 315
7d5b40b4 316=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 317
f84fe999 318(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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319free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
320SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
321free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
322try to free it.
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323
324=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
325
f84fe999 326(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 327
7d5b40b4 328=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 329
8f7e4d2c 330(S internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
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331see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
332earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
333This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
334that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
335mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
336corrupted.
a0d0e21e 337
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338=item Attempt to join self
339
340(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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341impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
342to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 343
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344=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
345
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346(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
347function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
348means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
349invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
350literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
351avoid this warning.
84902520 352
087b5369
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353=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
354
355(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
356compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
357unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
358L<perlvar/%INC>.
359
1b20cd17
NC
360=item Attempt to set length of freed array
361
0c5c527f
FC
362(W misc) You tried to set the length of an array which has
363been freed. You can do this by storing a reference to the
364scalar representing the last index of an array and later
365assigning through that reference. For example
1b20cd17
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366
367 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
368 $$r = 503
369
b7a902f4
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370=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
371
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372(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
373used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
374dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 375
c32124fe
NC
376=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
377
57dedab9
FC
378(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the
379"locked" attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is
380obsolete, has had no effect since 5005 threads were removed, and
381will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
c32124fe 382
f1a3ce43
NC
383=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
384
57dedab9
FC
385(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify
386the "unique" attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference.
387The :unique attribute has had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and
388will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 389
ccce04a4
FC
390=item av_reify called on tied array
391
392(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
393confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
394
de42a5a9 395=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 396
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397(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
398or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 399S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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400S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
401
7a95317d
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402=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
403
496a33f5 404(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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405substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
406most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
407
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408=item Bad filehandle: %s
409
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410(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
411symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
412open(), or did it in another package.
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413
414=item Bad free() ignored
415
be771a83 416(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 417been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 418setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 419
9ea8bc6d 420This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 421dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 422which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 423
aa689395
PP
424=item Bad hash
425
426(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
427
6df41af2
GS
428=item Badly placed ()'s
429
430(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
431of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
432Perl yourself.
433
a7cb8dae 434=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 435
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436(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
437didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
438of quotes, so
a0d0e21e
LW
439
440 $var = 'myvar';
441 $sym = mypack::$var;
442
443is not the same as
444
445 $var = 'myvar';
446 $sym = "mypack::$var";
447
88e1f1a2
JV
448=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
449
450(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
451plugin API.
452
4ad56ec9
IZ
453=item Bad realloc() ignored
454
6903afa2
FC
455(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
456had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
457be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 458
a0d0e21e
LW
459=item Bad symbol for array
460
461(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
462wasn't a symbol table entry.
463
4df3f177
SP
464=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
465
466(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
467that wasn't a symbol table entry.
468
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LW
469=item Bad symbol for filehandle
470
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471(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
472that wasn't a symbol table entry.
a0d0e21e
LW
473
474=item Bad symbol for hash
475
476(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
477wasn't a symbol table entry.
478
34d09196
GS
479=item Bareword found in conditional
480
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481(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
482conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
483of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
484
485 open FOO || die;
486
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487It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
488a bareword:
34d09196
GS
489
490 use constant TYPO => 1;
491 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
492
493The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
494
6df41af2
GS
495=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
496
497(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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498subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
499symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
500
501=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
502
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503(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
504compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
505you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 506
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507=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
508
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509(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
510subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
511exited.
a0d0e21e 512
68dc0745
PP
513=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
514
515(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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516implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
517occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
518be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
519depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 520
6df41af2
GS
521=item \1 better written as $1
522
be771a83
GS
523(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
524The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
525substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
526because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
527there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 528
252aa082
JH
529=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
530
e476b1b5 531(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
532(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
533L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 534
69282e91 535=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 536
be771a83
GS
537(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
538check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 539
c289d2f7
JH
540=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
541
542(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 543Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 544
d7bb0749 545=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" or "\b[{]" instead in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
f866a7cd 546
d7bb0749 547=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" or "\B[{]" instead in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
f866a7cd 548
3c664d1a 549(D deprecated) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following
a38411bc
FC
550a C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
551itself in a future release. You can either precede the brace
552with a backslash, or enclose it in square brackets; the latter
553is the way to go if the pattern delimiters are C<{}>.
f866a7cd 554
c5a0f51a
JH
555=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
556
e476b1b5 557(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 558
043c750c 559=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 560
be771a83 561(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
ab830aa0 562copiable.
4633a7c4 563
5a25739d
FC
564=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
565
434f489b 566(P) When starting a new thread or returning values from a thread, Perl
5a25739d
FC
567encountered an invalid data type.
568
f675dbe5
CB
569=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
570
be771a83
GS
571(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
572iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
573which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 574
a0d0e21e
LW
575=item Callback called exit
576
4929bf7b 577(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
578exited by calling exit.
579
6df41af2 580=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 581
be771a83
GS
582(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
583parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
584that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
585early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
586subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
587checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
588function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
589the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 590
49704364 591=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
592
593(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
594compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
595attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
596See L<perlfunc/pack>.
597
49704364 598=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
599
600(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
601format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
602
5c1f4d79
NC
603=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
604
6903afa2
FC
605(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
606in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
607The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
608no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 609
4040665a 610=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
611
612(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 613be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 614
b5d97229
RGS
615=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
616
617(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
618either with open() or binmode().
619
7355df7e
FC
620=item Cannot set tied @DB::args
621
622(F) C<caller> tried to set C<@DB::args>, but found it tied. Tying C<@DB::args>
623is not supported. (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)
624
ce65bc73
FC
625=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
626
627(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
628keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
629do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
630Perl code, but are only used internally.
631
96ebfdd7
RK
632=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
633
634(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
635integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
636to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
637
a0d0e21e
LW
638=item Can't bless non-reference value
639
640(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
641encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
642
dc57907a
RGS
643=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
644
0d863452 645(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
6903afa2 646a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
0d863452
RH
647
648=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 649
0d863452
RH
650(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
651
6df41af2
GS
652=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
653
654(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
655object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
656like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
657
658 $BADREF = undef;
659 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
660 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
661
a0d0e21e
LW
662=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
663
54310121 664(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
665ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
666didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
667object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
668
669=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
670
671(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
672object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
673defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
674Something like this will reproduce the error:
675
676 $BADREF = 42;
677 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
678 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
679
dfe378f1
FC
680=item Can't call mro_isa_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
681
682(P) Perl got confused as to whether a hash was a plain hash or a
683symbol table hash when trying to update @ISA caches.
684
2bf7e7b2
FC
685=item Can't call mro_method_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
686
687(F) An XS module tried to call C<mro_method_changed_in> on a hash that was
688not attached to the symbol table.
689
a0d0e21e
LW
690=item Can't chdir to %s
691
f703fc96 692(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but F</foo/bar> is not a directory
a0d0e21e
LW
693that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
694
0545a864 695=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 696
be771a83
GS
697(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
698nosuid.
104d25b7 699
22e74366 700=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
701
702(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 703(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
704say things like:
705
706 *foo += 1;
707
708You CAN say
709
710 $foo = *foo;
711 $foo += 1;
712
713but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
714
0d863452 715=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 716
0d863452
RH
717(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
718or C<default> block.
719
a0d0e21e
LW
720=item Can't create pipe mailbox
721
be771a83
GS
722(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
723quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 724
eb64745e
GS
725=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
726
30c282f6
NC
727(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
728"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 729
fc7debfb
FC
730=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
731
732(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
733C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
734issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
735error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
736
6df41af2
GS
737=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
738
be771a83 739(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
df7075a8 740a file in /dev, a FIFO or an uneditable directory. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 741
a0d0e21e
LW
742=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
743
be771a83
GS
744(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
745reason.
a0d0e21e 746
54310121 747=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 748
be771a83
GS
749(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
750reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
751C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 752
10f9c03d 753=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 754
e476b1b5 755(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
756characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
757inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 758
a0d0e21e
LW
759=item Can't do waitpid with flags
760
be771a83
GS
761(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
762waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 763
a0d0e21e
LW
764=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
765
be771a83
GS
766(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
767point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
768line.
a0d0e21e 769
1109a392
MHM
770=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
771
772(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
773or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
774little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
775See L<perlfunc/pack>.
776
a0d0e21e
LW
777=item Can't exec "%s": %s
778
d1be9408 779(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
780named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
781permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
782C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
783architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
784can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
785#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
786
787=item Can't exec %s
788
be771a83
GS
789(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
790that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
791need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
792
793=item Can't execute %s
794
be771a83
GS
795(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
796found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 797
6df41af2 798=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 799
be771a83
GS
800(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
801is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 802
56ca2fc0
JH
803=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
804
805(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
6903afa2 806could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
e1b711da 807See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
9b73678d 808for a complete list of available official properties.
56ca2fc0 809
6df41af2
GS
810=item Can't find label %s
811
be771a83
GS
812(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
813possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
814
815=item Can't find %s on PATH
816
be771a83
GS
817(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
818found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 819
6df41af2 820=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 821
be771a83
GS
822(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
823found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
824script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
825
826=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
827
be771a83
GS
828(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
829that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
830nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 831
fb73857a
PP
832 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
833
97b3d10f 834If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
835included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
836may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
837a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
838L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 839
660a4616
ST
840=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
841
5f8ad6b6
FC
842(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
843property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
fa816bf3 844letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 845L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
6903afa2 846for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
fa816bf3
FC
847mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by
848C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 849until C<\E>).
660a4616 850
b3647a36 851=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 852
be771a83
GS
853(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
854pipeline.
a0d0e21e 855
b3647a36
SR
856=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
857
c973c02e 858(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
859after five seconds.
860
748a9306
LW
861=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
862
be771a83
GS
863(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
864between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
865Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
866the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
867account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
868the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 869the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
870the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
871if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
872because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
873appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
874and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
875routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
876shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
877only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 878
a0d0e21e
LW
879=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
880
be771a83
GS
881(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
882pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
883
884=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
885
748a9306
LW
886(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
887mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 888
6df41af2 889=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 890
be771a83
GS
891(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
892loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
893
894=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
895
be771a83
GS
896(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
897a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
898you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
899See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 900
5a25739d
FC
901=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
902
903(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
904"string" or block.
905
9850bf21 906=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 907
9850bf21
RH
908(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
909comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
910as the reduce() function in List::Util).
911
6df41af2
GS
912=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
913
be771a83
GS
914(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
915subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
916cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
917routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 918
0b5b802d
GS
919=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
920
be771a83
GS
921(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
922signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
923signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
924processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
925situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
926may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 927
e2c0f81f
DG
928=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
929
930(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
931attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
932process identifier.
933
6df41af2 934=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 935
6df41af2 936(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
937except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
938block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
939block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
940usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
941inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
942L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 943
2c7d6b9c
RGS
944=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
945
946(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
947package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
948
b8170e59
JB
949=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
950
6903afa2
FC
951(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
952This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
953that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
954to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
955dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
956that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
957dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 958
748a9306
LW
959=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
960
2ba9eb46 961(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
962lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
963want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
964the package name.
748a9306 965
6df41af2 966=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 967
6df41af2
GS
968(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
969handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 970pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 971that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 972
ea071790 973=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 974
fa816bf3
FC
975(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
976Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
977the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
978to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
979extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
980to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
981L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 982
6df41af2
GS
983=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
984
be771a83
GS
985(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
986autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
987are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
988the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 989
b8170e59
JB
990=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
991
992(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 993for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
994unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
995
a0d0e21e
LW
996=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
997
998(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
999functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 1000method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1001
1002=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
1003
be771a83
GS
1004(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
1005doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 1006
2f7da168
RK
1007=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
1008
1009(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
1010e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
1011
f4ad53f4 1012=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 1013
be771a83
GS
1014(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
1015VMS.
3e3baf6d 1016
cd40cd58
NC
1017=item Can't make loaded symbols global on this platform while loading %s
1018
ff9c1ae8 1019(S) A module passed the flag 0x01 to DynaLoader::dl_load_file() to request
cd40cd58
NC
1020that symbols from the stated file are made available globally within the
1021process, but that functionality is not available on this platform. Whilst
1022the module likely will still work, this may prevent the perl interpreter
1023from loading other XS-based extensions which need to link directly to
1024functions defined in the C or XS code in the stated file.
1025
a0d0e21e
LW
1026=item Can't modify %s in %s
1027
be771a83
GS
1028(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
1029to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 1030
54310121 1031=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
1032
1033(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
1034a NULL.
1035
6df41af2
GS
1036=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
1037
1038(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1039such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1040
5f05dabc 1041=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1042
5f05dabc 1043(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1044buffer.
1045
6df41af2
GS
1046=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1047
1048(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1049there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1050count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1051grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1052though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1053once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1054
46fa9b26
FC
1055=item Can't open %s
1056
1057(F) You tried to run a perl built with MAD support with
1058the PERL_XMLDUMP environment variable set, but the file
1059named by that variable could not be opened.
1060
a0d0e21e
LW
1061=item Can't open %s: %s
1062
c47ff5f1 1063(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1064filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1065switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1066this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1067you named on the command line.
1068
1069(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1070your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1071
9a869a14
RGS
1072=item Can't open a reference
1073
1074(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1075using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1076
1077 open FH, '>', $ref;
1078
1079but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1080open is not supported.
1081
a0d0e21e
LW
1082=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1083
be771a83
GS
1084(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1085You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1086as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1087">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1088
748a9306
LW
1089=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1090
be771a83
GS
1091(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1092redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1093the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1094
1095=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1096
be771a83
GS
1097(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1098redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1099command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1100
1101=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1102
be771a83
GS
1103(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1104redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1105the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1106
1107=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1108
be771a83
GS
1109(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1110redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1111for stdout.
748a9306 1112
3b1cf97d 1113=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1114
1115(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1116
fa3aa65a
JC
1117If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1118shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1119you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1120
6df41af2
GS
1121=item Can't read CRTL environ
1122
1123(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1124from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1125missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1126or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1127searched.
6df41af2 1128
6df41af2
GS
1129=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1130
1131(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1132there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1133count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1134or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1135though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1136loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1137
64977eb6 1138=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1139
be771a83
GS
1140(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1141file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1142the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1143
a0d0e21e
LW
1144=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1145
e476b1b5 1146(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1147probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1148
748a9306
LW
1149=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1150
be771a83
GS
1151(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1152to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1153
4f12ec0e
FC
1154=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1155
1156(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1157all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1158the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1159supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1160
fe13d51d 1161=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1162
1fa582fa
FC
1163(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1164opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1165package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1166
cd06dffe
GS
1167=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1168
be771a83
GS
1169(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1170temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1171is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1172
96ebfdd7
RK
1173=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1174
1175(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1176there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1177
78f9721b
SM
1178=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1179
6903afa2
FC
1180(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1181subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1182think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1183write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1184Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1185
a0d0e21e
LW
1186=item Can't stat script "%s"
1187
be771a83
GS
1188(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1189open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1190
a0d0e21e
LW
1191=item Can't take log of %g
1192
fb73857a 1193(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1194negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1195standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1196negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1197
1198=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1199
1200(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1201negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1202with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1203
1204=item Can't undef active subroutine
1205
1206(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1207however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1208redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1209
c81225bc 1210=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1211
be771a83
GS
1212(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1213into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1214specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1215indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1216
6651ba0b
FC
1217=item Can't use '%c' after -mname
1218
1219(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-m> switch, but you put something
1220other than "=" after the module name.
1221
1db89ea5
BS
1222=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1223
e27ad1f2 1224(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1225table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1226for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1227
96ebfdd7
RK
1228=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1229
1230(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1231be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1232
6df41af2
GS
1233=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1234
be771a83
GS
1235(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1236references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1237
90b75b61 1238=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1239
20561843 1240(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1241Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1242provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1243
1109a392
MHM
1244=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1245
1246(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1247byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1248allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1249
6df41af2
GS
1250=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1251
be771a83
GS
1252(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1253foreach.
6df41af2 1254
aab6a793 1255=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1256
be771a83
GS
1257(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1258is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1259(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1260have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1261weren't.
1262
6d3b25aa
RGS
1263=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1264
1265(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1266that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1267For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1268is inside a big-endian group.
1269
c07a80fd
PP
1270=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1271
1272(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1273You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1274and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1275Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1276lexical variable.
1277
a0d0e21e
LW
1278=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1279
1280(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1281reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1282test the type of the reference, if need be.
1283
748a9306 1284=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1285
5e634d20
FC
1286=item Can't use string ("%s"...) as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1287
b41bf23f
FC
1288(F) You've told Perl to dereference a string, something which
1289C<use strict> blocks to prevent it happening accidentally. See
1290L<perlref/"Symbolic references">. This can be triggered by an C<@> or C<$>
1291in a double-quoted string immediately before interpolating a variable,
1292for example in C<"user @$twitter_id">, which says to treat the contents
1293of C<$twitter_id> as an array reference; use a C<\> to have a literal C<@>
1294symbol followed by the contents of C<$twitter_id>: C<"user \@$twitter_id">.
a0d0e21e 1295
748a9306
LW
1296=item Can't use subscript on %s
1297
1298(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1299subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1300didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1301
6df41af2
GS
1302=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1303
75b44862
GS
1304(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1305creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1306backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1307expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1308value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1309instead.
6df41af2 1310
810b8aa5
GS
1311=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1312
1313(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1314references can be weakened.
1315
fc7debfb
FC
1316=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1317
1318(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1319loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1320from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1321or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1322
5f05dabc 1323=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1324
be771a83
GS
1325(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1326with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1327Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1328
4a68bf9d 1329=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1330
3c664d1a 1331(F)(D deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
675fa9ff
FC
1332It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl v5.20. In
1333the cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
17a3df4c
KW
1334derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1335
c9faaf04
KW
1336Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well,
1337and using non-printable ones will be deprecated starting in v5.18.
f9d13529 1338
f337b084 1339=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1340
1341(W pack) You said
1342
1343 pack("C", $x)
1344
1345where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1346only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1347and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1348
1349 pack("C", $x & 255)
1350
1351If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1352instead.
1353
f337b084 1354=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1355
1356(W pack) You said
1357
1358 pack("c", $x)
1359
1360where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1361is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1362and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1363
1364 pack("c", $x & 255);
1365
1366If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1367instead.
1368
f337b084
TH
1369=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1370
1371(W unpack) You tried something like
1372
1373 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1374
1a147d38 1375where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1376below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1377value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1378
1379 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1380
5a25739d
FC
1381=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1382
1383(W pack) You said
1384
1385 pack("U0W", $x)
1386
1387where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1388expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1389as if you meant:
1390
1391 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1392
f337b084
TH
1393=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1394
1395(W pack) You tried something like
1396
1397 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1398
1a147d38 1399where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1400value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1401uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1402
1403 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1404
1405=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1406
1407(W unpack) You tried something like
1408
1409 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1410
1a147d38 1411where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1412value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1413uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1414
1415 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1416
f866a7cd
FC
1417=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1418
1419(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1420to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1421evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
c9faaf04 1422ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.20. Just use a
f866a7cd
FC
1423semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1424
1425=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1426
1427(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1428non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1429written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1430characters.
1431
6651ba0b
FC
1432=item Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
1433
1434(F) Creating a new thread inside the C<s///> operator is not supported.
1435
abc7ecad
SP
1436=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1437
1438(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1439a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1440
5a25739d
FC
1441=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1442
1443(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1444
541ed3a9
FC
1445=item Closure prototype called
1446
1447(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1448handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1449This subroutine cannot be called.
1450
49704364
LW
1451=item Code missing after '/'
1452
6903afa2
FC
1453(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1454another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1455
6fbc9859
MH
1456=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, all \p{} matches fail; all \P{} matches
1457succeed
9ae3ac1a 1458
5a25739d
FC
1459=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1460
e2f4a215 1461(S utf8, non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1b64326b
FC
1462of U+10FFFF.
1463
1464Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, up
1465to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on your system,
1466but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. At one time,
1467it was legal in some standards to have code points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF,
1468but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a
146932 bit word.
0876b9a0 1470
9ae3ac1a
KW
1471None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1472code point. For example,
1473
1474 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1475
1476will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1477
1478 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1479
1480will match.
1481
94b42e47
KW
1482This may be counterintuitive at times, as both these fail:
1483
f9d4ccdc
FC
1484 chr(0x110000) =~ /\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True}/ # Fails.
1485 chr(0x110000) =~ /\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False}/ # Also fails!
94b42e47
KW
1486
1487and both these succeed:
1488
f9d4ccdc
FC
1489 chr(0x110000) =~ /\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True}/ # Succeeds.
1490 chr(0x110000) =~ /\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False}/ # Also succeeds!
94b42e47 1491
6df41af2
GS
1492=item %s: Command not found
1493
a892b81a
FC
1494(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> or another shell
1495shell instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
1496into Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
8f721816
MM
1497
1498 #!/usr/bin/perl -w
6df41af2 1499
7a2e2cd6
PP
1500=item Compilation failed in require
1501
1502(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1503Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1504encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1505
c3464db5
DD
1506=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1507
be771a83
GS
1508(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1509situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1510to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1511arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1512recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1513under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1514in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1515that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1516on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1517
38875929
DM
1518=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1519
6903afa2
FC
1520(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to
1521call cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked.
1522The cond_broadcast() function is used to wake up another thread
1523that is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't
1524sent before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it
1525is usual for the signaling thread first to wait for a lock on
1526variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the other
1527thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.
38875929 1528
38875929
DM
1529=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1530
6903afa2
FC
1531(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to
1532call cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The
1533cond_signal() function is used to wake up another thread that
1534is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't
1535sent before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it
1536is usual for the signaling thread first to wait for a lock on
1537variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the other
1538thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.
38875929 1539
69282e91 1540=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1541
be771a83
GS
1542(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1543to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1544L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1545
e21e7c6a
FC
1546=item Constant(%s): Call to &{$^H{%s}} did not return a defined value
1547
1548(F) The subroutine registered to handle constant overloading
1549(see L<overload>) or a custom charnames handler (see
1550L<charnames/CUSTOM TRANSLATORS>) returned an undefined value.
1551
1552=item Constant(%s): $^H{%s} is not defined
1553
1554(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to define an
1555overloaded constant. Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding
1556L<overload> pragma?.
1557
779c5bc9
GS
1558=item Constant is not %s reference
1559
1560(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1561is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1562The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1563usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1564See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1565
4cee8e80
CS
1566=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1567
aeb94125
FC
1568(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1569been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1570for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1571
9607fc9c
PP
1572=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1573
be771a83
GS
1574(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1575for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1576workarounds.
9607fc9c 1577
5a25739d
FC
1578=item Constant(%s) unknown
1579
1580(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting
1581to define an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the
1582character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1583forgot to load the corresponding L<overload> pragma?.
1584
e7ea3e70
IZ
1585=item Copy method did not return a reference
1586
6903afa2 1587(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1588L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1589
4aaa4757
FC
1590=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1591
1592(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1593with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1594in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1595called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1596
1597 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1598 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1599
6798c92b
GS
1600=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1601
1602(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1603
675fa9ff
FC
1604=item Corrupted regexp opcode %d > %d
1605
1606(P) This is either an error in Perl, or, if you're using
1607one, your L<custom regular expression engine|perlreapi>. If not the
1608latter, report the problem through the L<perlbug> utility.
1609
a0d0e21e
LW
1610=item corrupted regexp pointers
1611
1612(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1613expression compiler gave it.
1614
1615=item corrupted regexp program
1616
be771a83
GS
1617(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1618valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1619
de42a5a9 1620=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1621
1622(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1623
49704364
LW
1624=item Count after length/code in unpack
1625
1626(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1627you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1628L<perlfunc/pack>.
1629
6651ba0b
FC
1630=item Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
1631
a0d0e21e
LW
1632=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1633
be771a83
GS
1634(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1635100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1636infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1637which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1638
aad1d01f
NC
1639This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1640setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1641
f10b0346 1642=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1643
be771a83
GS
1644(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1645checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1646array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1647
f10b0346 1648=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1649
f0ec9725
KR
1650(D deprecated) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes and has been
1651discouraged since 5.004.
1652
1653Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1654becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1655weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1656These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice.
1657
1658If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1659context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
16546e45
KR
1660
1661 if (%hash) {
1662 # not empty
1663 }
1664
f0ec9725
KR
1665If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1666variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1667a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1668it's loaded, etc.
1669
69794302 1670
6fbc9859
MH
1671=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
1672m/%s/
bcb95744 1673
6903afa2 1674(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1675most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1676of the C<....> part.
1677
9e3ec65c 1678The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
bcb95744
FC
1679discovered.
1680
62658f4d
PM
1681=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1682
1683(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1684there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1685
fc36a67e
PP
1686=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1687
be771a83
GS
1688(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1689long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1690that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1691
6d3b25aa
RGS
1692=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1693
fa816bf3
FC
1694(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
1695has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 1696not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 1697conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 1698static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 1699relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 1700declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1701
6d3b25aa
RGS
1702 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1703
1704becomes
1705
1706 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1707
fa816bf3
FC
1708Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to have
1709lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
1710
1711 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1712
500ab966
RGS
1713=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1714
1715(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
1716just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
1717than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 1718
3cdd684c
TP
1719=item Did not produce a valid header
1720
1721See Server error.
1722
6df41af2
GS
1723=item %s did not return a true value
1724
1725(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1726it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1727traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1728do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1729
cc507455 1730=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1731
413ff9f6
FC
1732(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1733some such.
4633a7c4 1734
cc507455 1735=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1736
be771a83
GS
1737(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1738variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1739seems superfluous.
33633739 1740
cc507455 1741=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1742
be771a83
GS
1743(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1744@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1745carried away.
748a9306 1746
7e1af8bc 1747=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1748
1749(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1750you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1751
3cdd684c
TP
1752=item Document contains no data
1753
1754See Server error.
1755
62658f4d
PM
1756=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1757
1758(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
943fc58e 1759define a C<$VERSION>.
62658f4d 1760
49704364
LW
1761=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1762
1763(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1764See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1765
4021c788 1766=item Don't know how to handle magic of type \%o
a0d0e21e
LW
1767
1768(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1769
1770=item do_study: out of memory
1771
1772(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1773
6df41af2
GS
1774=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1775
56da5a46
RGS
1776(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1777"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1778name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1779because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1780"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1781something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1782subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1783"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1784
ac206dc8
RGS
1785=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1786
1787(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1788qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1789
84d78eb7
YO
1790=item dump is not supported
1791
1792(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1793
a0d0e21e
LW
1794=item Duplicate free() ignored
1795
be771a83
GS
1796(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1797already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1798
1109a392
MHM
1799=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1800
35f0cd76
FC
1801(W unpack) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a
1802type in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1109a392 1803
4633a7c4
LW
1804=item elseif should be elsif
1805
fa816bf3
FC
1806(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
1807it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1808named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1809unlikely to be what you want.
1810
c608e803 1811=item Empty \%c{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 1812
af6f566e 1813(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 1814described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 1815a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1816
85ab1d1d 1817=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1818
85ab1d1d 1819(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1820effective uids or gids failed.
1821
c038024b
RGS
1822=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1823
1824(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1825aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 1826program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 1827
748a9306
LW
1828=item Error converting file specification %s
1829
5f05dabc 1830(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1831specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1832single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1833an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1834conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1835
ff56e4f1
KW
1836=item Escape literal pattern white space under /x
1837
1838(D deprecated) You compiled a regular expression pattern with C</x> to
1839ignore white space, and you used, as a literal, one of the characters
1840that Perl plans to eventually treat as white space. The character must
1841be escaped somehow, or it will work differently on a future Perl that
1842does treat it as white space. The easiest way is to insert a backslash
1843immediately before it, or to enclose it with square brackets. This
1844change is to bring Perl into conformance with Unicode recommendations.
1845Here are the five characters that generate this warning:
1846U+0085 NEXT LINE,
1847U+200E LEFT-TO-RIGHT MARK,
1848U+200F RIGHT-TO-LEFT MARK,
1849U+2028 LINE SEPARATOR,
1850and
1851U+2029 PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR.
1852
ad19ef22 1853=item Eval-group in insecure regular expression
e4d48cc9 1854
be771a83
GS
1855(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1856expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1857is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1858
ad19ef22 1859=item Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
e4d48cc9 1860
be771a83
GS
1861(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1862C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1863pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1864it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1865C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1866interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1867L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1868
ad19ef22 1869=item Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
6df41af2 1870
be771a83
GS
1871(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1872assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1873pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1874
6fbc9859
MH
1875=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
1876m/%s/
1a147d38
YO
1877
1878(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 1879any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38 1880
9e3ec65c 1881The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
1882discovered.
1883
fc36a67e
PP
1884=item Excessively long <> operator
1885
1886(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1887Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1888filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1889variable and glob that.
1890
ed9aa3b7
SG
1891=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1892
af8bb25a 1893(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 1894OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 1895
fe13d51d 1896=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1897
1898(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1899
1900=item Exiting eval via %s
1901
be771a83
GS
1902(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1903goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1904
1905=item Exiting format via %s
1906
9a2ff54b 1907(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1908goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1909
0a753a76
PP
1910=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1911
be771a83
GS
1912(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1913sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1914loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1915
a0d0e21e
LW
1916=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1917
be771a83
GS
1918(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1919as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1920
1921=item Exiting substitution via %s
1922
be771a83
GS
1923(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1924as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1925
c608e803
KW
1926=item Expecting close bracket in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1927
675fa9ff 1928(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
1929
1930 (?13
1931
1932to denote a capturing group of the form
1933L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>,
1934but omitted the C<")">.
1935
27350048
FC
1936=item Expecting '(?flags:(?[...' in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1937
8b6fbf55
FC
1938(F) The C<(?[...])> extended character class regular expression construct
1939only allows character classes (including character class escapes like
1940C<\d>), operators, and parentheses. The one exception is C<(?flags:...)>
1941containing at least one flag and exactly one C<(?[...])> construct.
27350048
FC
1942This allows a regular expression containing just C<(?[...])> to be
1943interpolated. If you see this error message, then you probably
1944have some other C<(?...)> construct inside your character class. See
1945L<perlrecharclass/Extended Bracketed Character Classes>.
1946
e7d0b801
FC
1947=item Experimental "%s" subs not enabled
1948
1949(F) To use lexical subs, you must first enable them:
1950
f1d34ca8 1951 no warnings 'experimental::lexical_subs';
e7d0b801
FC
1952 use feature 'lexical_subs';
1953 my sub foo { ... }
1954
7b8d334a
GS
1955=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1956
be771a83
GS
1957(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1958the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1959usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1960e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1961
6df41af2
GS
1962=item %s: Expression syntax
1963
be771a83
GS
1964(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1965Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1966
1967=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1968
3c10abe3
AG
1969(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1970CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1971queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1972
7253e4e3 1973=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1974
4f2e2aa2 1975(W regexp)(F) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3 1976character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
3c6ca74a
FC
1977in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". In a C<(?[...])>
1978construct, this is an error, rather than a warning. Consider quoting
1979the "-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression
1980the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1981
1b1ee2ef 1982=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1983
be771a83
GS
1984(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1985system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1986details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1987you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1988
1989=item fcntl is not implemented
1990
1991(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1992PDP-11 or something?
1993
22846ab4
AB
1994=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1995
1996(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1997is not possible.
1998
f337b084
TH
1999=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
2000
d8b5cc61 2001(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string starts with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
2002which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
2003a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 2004C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 2005
af8c498a 2006=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 2007
6c8d78fb
HS
2008(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
2009it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
2010"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
2011write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 2012
af8c498a 2013=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 2014
6c8d78fb
HS
2015(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
2016you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
2017with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
2018read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
2019is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
2020output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
2021
2022=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
2023
2024(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 2025as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
2026previously.
2027
2028=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
2029
2030(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 2031as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
2032
2033=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
2034
2035(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
2036a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
2037happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
2038name.
a0d0e21e 2039
56e90b21
GS
2040=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
2041
be771a83 2042(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 2043some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
2044filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
2045same name?
56e90b21 2046
6df41af2
GS
2047=item Format not terminated
2048
2049(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
2050to the end of your file without finding such a line.
2051
a0d0e21e
LW
2052=item Format %s redefined
2053
e476b1b5 2054(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
2055
2056 {
271595cc 2057 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
2058 eval "format NAME =...";
2059 }
2060
a0d0e21e
LW
2061=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
2062
e476b1b5 2063(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
2064
2065 if ($foo = 123)
2066
2067when you meant
2068
2069 if ($foo == 123)
2070
2071(or something like that).
2072
6df41af2
GS
2073=item %s found where operator expected
2074
56da5a46
RGS
2075(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
2076If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
2077operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
2078operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 2079
a0d0e21e
LW
2080=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
2081
2082(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
2083
2084=item gethostent not implemented
2085
2086(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
2087because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
2088on the Internet.
2089
69282e91 2090=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2091
be771a83
GS
2092(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
2093socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 2094
748a9306
LW
2095=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
2096
2097(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2098C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2099
6df41af2
GS
2100=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2101
be771a83
GS
2102(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2103forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2104L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2105
0f539b13
BF
2106=item given is experimental
2107
675fa9ff
FC
2108(S experimental::smartmatch) C<given> depends on smartmatch, which
2109is experimental, so its behavior may change or even be removed
2110in any future release of perl. See the explanation under
2111L<perlsyn/Experimental Details on given and when>.
0f539b13 2112
6df41af2
GS
2113=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
2114
a4edf47d 2115(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2116that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2117declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2118which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2119
e476b1b5
GS
2120=item glob failed (%s)
2121
5ead438e 2122(S glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
73c4e9dc
FC
2123for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2124pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2125nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2126resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2127is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2128in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2129if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2130all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2131think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2132C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2133
a0d0e21e
LW
2134=item Glob not terminated
2135
2136(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2137a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2138not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2139earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2140
bcd05b94 2141=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2142
e9200be3 2143(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2144it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2145date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2146not-a-number value).
2147
bcd05b94 2148=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2149
e9200be3 2150(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2151it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2152
6df41af2 2153=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2154
6df41af2
GS
2155(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2156version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2157
2158=item goto must have label
2159
2160(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2161unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2162
6651ba0b
FC
2163=item Goto undefined subroutine%s
2164
2165(F) You tried to call a subroutine with C<goto &sub> syntax, but
2166the indicated subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2167has since been undefined.
2168
6fbc9859
MH
2169=item Group name must start with a non-digit word character in regex; marked by
2170<-- HERE in m/%s/
1f4f6bf1
YO
2171
2172(F) Group names must follow the rules for perl identifiers, meaning
f26c79ba
FC
2173they must start with a non-digit word character. A common cause of
2174this error is using (?&0) instead of (?0). See L<perlre>.
1f4f6bf1 2175
5a25739d
FC
2176=item ()-group starts with a count
2177
2178(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2179something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2180
fe13d51d 2181=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2182
2183(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2184
a0d0e21e
LW
2185=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2186
be771a83
GS
2187(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2188to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2189created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
2190
2191=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
2192
be771a83
GS
2193(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
2194spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 2195
6df41af2
GS
2196=item %s has too many errors
2197
2198(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2199Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2200
252aa082
JH
2201=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2202
e476b1b5 2203(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2204(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2205L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2206
8903cb82
PP
2207=item Identifier too long
2208
2209(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2210about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2211names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2212of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2213
b33c0c71 2214=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
fc8cd66c 2215
b5e3739b
FC
2216(W regexp) Named Unicode character escapes C<(\N{...})> may return a
2217zero-length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
2218its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2219been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2220
6df41af2 2221=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2222
6df41af2 2223(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2224
6df41af2 2225=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2226
be771a83
GS
2227(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2228binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2229offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2230
6597eb22
FC
2231=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2232
2233(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
f791a21a
PM
2234The '_' in a prototype must be followed by a ';', indicating the rest of
2235the parameters are optional, or one of '@' or '%', since those two will
2236accept 0 or more final parameters.
6597eb22 2237
78d0fecf 2238=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2239
d5898338 2240(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2241would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2242when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2243version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2244to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2245
d37a9538
ST
2246=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2247
197afce1 2248(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2249Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
d37a9538 2250
904d85c5
RGS
2251=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2252
2253(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2254you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2255
8e742a20
MHM
2256=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2257
6903afa2 2258(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2259
a0d0e21e
LW
2260=item Illegal division by zero
2261
be771a83
GS
2262(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2263your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2264meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2265
6df41af2
GS
2266=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2267
be771a83
GS
2268(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2269A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2270number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2271
a0d0e21e
LW
2272=item Illegal modulus zero
2273
be771a83
GS
2274(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2275numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2276
6df41af2 2277=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2278
6df41af2
GS
2279(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2280two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2281
2282=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2283
d1be9408 2284(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2285
399388f4 2286=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2287
d1be9408 2288(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2289Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2290
c608e803
KW
2291=item Illegal pattern in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2292
675fa9ff 2293(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2294
2295 (?+foo)
2296
2297The C<"+"> is valid only when followed by digits, indicating a
2298capturing group. See
2299L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>.
2300
fe13d51d 2301=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2302
6df41af2 2303(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2304following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2305
6df41af2 2306=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2307
75b44862 2308(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2309internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2310delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2311
6df41af2 2312=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2313
be771a83
GS
2314(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2315name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2316didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2317ignored.
54310121 2318
6df41af2 2319=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2320
be771a83
GS
2321(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2322the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2323system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2324times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2325would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2326
be771a83
GS
2327Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2328also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2329
0d0b4b3b
KW
2330=item Incomplete expression within '(?[ ])' in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2331
675fa9ff 2332(F) There was a syntax error within the C<(?[ ])>. This can happen if the
0d0b4b3b
KW
2333expression inside the construct was completely empty, or if there are
2334too many or few operands for the number of operators. Perl is not smart
2335enough to give you a more precise indication as to what is wrong.
2336
6fbc9859
MH
2337=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on
2338parent '%s'
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2339
2340(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2341C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2342documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2343
979699d9
JH
2344=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2345
2346(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2347Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2348encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2349
6a2ed79a 2350=item Infinite recursion in regex
1a147d38
YO
2351
2352(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2353text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2354either consume text or fail.
2355
6dbe9451
NC
2356=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2357
6903afa2
FC
2358(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the
2359initialization of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write
2360C<state ($a) = 42> as C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar
2361context. Constructions such as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be
2362supported in a future perl release.
6dbe9451 2363
a0d0e21e
LW
2364=item Insecure dependency in %s
2365
8b1a09fc 2366(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2367The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2368setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2369tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2370from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2371such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2372L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2373
2374=item Insecure directory in %s
2375
be771a83
GS
2376(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2377setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2378the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2379See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2380
62f468fc 2381=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2382
2383(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2384setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2385C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2386supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2387the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2388
0e9be77f
DM
2389=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2390
2391(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2392expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2393function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2394See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2395
675fa9ff
FC
2396=item In '(?...)', splitting the initial '(?' is deprecated in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2397
2398(D regexp, deprecated) The two-character sequence C<"(?"> in
2399this context in a regular expression pattern should be an
2400indivisible token, with nothing intervening between the C<"(">
2401and the C<"?">, but you separated them. Due to an accident of
2402implementation, this prohibition was not enforced, but we do
2403plan to forbid it in a future Perl version. This message
2404serves as giving you fair warning of this pending change.
2405
b9ef414d
FC
2406=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2407
2408(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2409or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2410integers for your architecture.
2411
a7ae9550
GS
2412=item Integer overflow in %s number
2413
35928bc5 2414(S overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2415either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2416your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2417On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2418representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
24190b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2420transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2421internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2422operations.
bbce6d69 2423
fc89ca81
FC
2424=item Integer overflow in srand
2425
2426(S overflow) The number you have passed to srand is too big to fit
2427in your architecture's integer representation. The number has been
2428replaced with the largest integer supported (0xFFFFFFFF on 32-bit
2429architectures). This means you may be getting less randomness than
2430you expect, because different random seeds above the maximum will
2431return the same sequence of random numbers.
2432
46314c13
JP
2433=item Integer overflow in version
2434
18da5252
FC
2435=item Integer overflow in version %d
2436
784d71ed
FC
2437(W overflow) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for
2438the size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
f084e84f 2439because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use an
784d71ed
FC
2440element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by trying
2441to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like 100/9.
46314c13 2442
7253e4e3 2443=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2444
2445(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
9e3ec65c 2446The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2447discovered.
2448
748a9306
LW
2449=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2450
be771a83
GS
2451(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2452you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2453to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2454L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2455Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2456terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2457
870978ae
FC
2458=item internal %<num>p might conflict with future printf extensions
2459
2460(S internal) Perl's internal routine that handles C<printf> and C<sprintf>
2461formatting follows a slightly different set of rules when called from
2462C or XS code. Specifically, formats consisting of digits followed
2463by "p" (e.g., "%7p") are reserved for future use. If you see this
2464message, then an XS module tried to call that routine with one such
2465reserved format.
2466
7253e4e3 2467=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2468
fa816bf3 2469(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
9e3ec65c 2470<-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
7253e4e3 2471discovered.
a0d0e21e 2472
6df41af2
GS
2473=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2474
75b44862 2475(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2476followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2477operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2478L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2479
09bef843
SB
2480=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2481
a4a4c9e2 2482(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2483by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2484
2485=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2486
a4a4c9e2 2487(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2488recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2489
225fb84f
KW
2490=item Invalid character in charnames alias definition; marked by <-- HERE in '%s
2491
2492(F) You tried to create a custom alias for a character name, with
2493the C<:alias> option to C<use charnames> and the specified character in
2494the indicated name isn't valid. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2495
5a25739d
FC
2496=item Invalid character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s}
2497
2498(F) Only certain characters are valid for character names. The
2499indicated one isn't. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2500
c635e13b
PP
2501=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2502
be771a83
GS
2503(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2504L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2505
6fbc9859
MH
2506=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
2507m/%s/
9e08bc66
ST
2508
2509(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2510didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2511from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2512The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
9e3ec65c 2513The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
9e08bc66
ST
2514escape was discovered.
2515
8149aa9f
FC
2516=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2517
6fbc9859
MH
2518=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
2519m/%s/
aec0ef10 2520
8149aa9f 2521(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2522number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
25230 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2524
6651ba0b
FC
2525=item Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
2526
2527(F) The module argument to perl's B<-m> and B<-M> command-line options
2528cannot contain single colons in the module name, but only in the
2529arguments after "=". In other words, B<-MFoo::Bar=:baz> is ok, but
2530B<-MFoo:Bar=baz> is not.
2531
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2532=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2533
162a3e34
FC
2534(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2535where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2536the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2537a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2538
40e4140b
FC
2539=item Invalid negative number (%s) in chr
2540
2541(W utf8) You passed a negative number to C<chr>. Negative numbers are
2542not valid characters numbers, so it return the Unicode replacement
2543character (U+FFFD).
2544
6651ba0b
FC
2545=item invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
2546
8ff21bfe
FC
2547(S debugging) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags. Call perl
2548with the B<-D> option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.
982c4ecb 2549See also L<perlrun/-Dletters>.
6651ba0b 2550
7253e4e3 2551=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2552
2553(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2554greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2555C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
9e3ec65c 2556up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 2557problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2558
d1573ac7 2559=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2560
2561(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2562character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2563
09bef843
SB
2564=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2565
0120eecf 2566(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2567elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2568parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2569See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2570
b4581f09
JH
2571=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2572
2bfc5f71
FC
2573(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2574than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2575If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2576list was terminated too soon.
2577
2c86d456
DG
2578=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2579
fa816bf3 2580(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2581A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2582decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2583v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2584The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2585See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2586
49704364 2587=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2588
49704364
LW
2589(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2590See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 2591
49704364 2592(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2593silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2594
2c86d456
DG
2595=item Invalid version format (%s)
2596
fa816bf3 2597(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2598A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2599decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
2600v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
2601must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
2602optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
2603trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
2604after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
2605text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
2606for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 2607
798ae1b7
DG
2608=item Invalid version object
2609
fa816bf3
FC
2610(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
2611Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
2612an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 2613
675fa9ff
FC
2614=item In '(*VERB...)', splitting the initial '(*' is deprecated in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2615
2616(D regexp, deprecated) The two-character sequence C<"(*"> in
2617this context in a regular expression pattern should be an
2618indivisible token, with nothing intervening between the C<"(">
f26c79ba 2619and the C<"*">, but you separated them. Due to an accident of
675fa9ff
FC
2620implementation, this prohibition was not enforced, but we do
2621plan to forbid it in a future Perl version. This message
2622serves as giving you fair warning of this pending change.
2623
a0d0e21e
LW
2624=item ioctl is not implemented
2625
2626(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2627strange for a machine that supports C.
2628
c289d2f7
JH
2629=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2630
2631(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2632Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2633
fe13d51d 2634=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2635
2636(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2637you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2638with 'useperlio'.
2639
80cbd5ad
JH
2640=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2641
2642(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2643neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2644
4f650b80 2645=item $* is no longer supported
b4581f09 2646
4f650b80
NC
2647(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
2648perls, has been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In
2649previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2650matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2651
2652Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
6903afa2
FC
2653modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2654with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
570dedd4 2655then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2656
8ae1fe26
RGS
2657=item $# is no longer supported
2658
a58ac25e 2659(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
6903afa2 2660perls, has been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You
a58ac25e 2661should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2662
ccf3535a 2663=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 2664
6903afa2
FC
2665(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
2666overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
2667an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 2668
ccf3535a 2669=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 2670
04a80ee0
RGS
2671(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2672unaware of.
6ad11d81 2673
5a25739d
FC
2674=item -i used with no filenames on the command line, reading from STDIN
2675
2676(S inplace) The C<-i> option was passed on the command line, indicating
2677that the script is intended to edit files in place, but no files were
2678given. This is usually a mistake, since editing STDIN in place doesn't
2679make sense, and can be confusing because it can make perl look like
2680it is hanging when it is really just trying to read from STDIN. You
2681should either pass a filename to edit, or remove C<-i> from the command
2682line. See L<perlrun> for more details.
2683
aec0ef10 2684=item Junk on end of regexp in regex m/%s/
a0d0e21e
LW
2685
2686(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2687
2688=item Label not found for "last %s"
2689
be771a83
GS
2690(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2691of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2692L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2693
2694=item Label not found for "next %s"
2695
2696(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2697that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2698L<perlfunc/last>.
2699
2700=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2701
2702(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2703that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2704L<perlfunc/last>.
2705
85ab1d1d 2706=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2707
85ab1d1d 2708(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2709effective uids or gids failed.
2710
49704364
LW
2711=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2712
d7f8936a 2713(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
2714length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2715an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 2716
25e26107 2717=item length() used on %s (did you mean "scalar(%s)"?)
e508c8a4 2718
0d46a4e7
FC
2719(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
2720probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
2721
2722Array size can be obtained by doing:
2723
2724 scalar(@array);
2725
2726The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
2727
2728 scalar(keys %hash);
2729
f0e67a1d
Z
2730=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2731
d4fe7078
RS
2732(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2733(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
2734couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2735of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
6903afa2 2736it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2737
2738=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2739
2740(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2741detectable way.
2742
69282e91 2743=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2744
be771a83
GS
2745(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2746to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2747L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2748
6651ba0b
FC
2749=item List form of piped open not implemented
2750
2751(F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments
2752form of C<open> does not support pipes, such as C<open($pipe, '|-', @args)>.
2753Use the two-argument C<open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')> form instead.
2754
bcd05b94 2755=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2756
e9200be3 2757(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
fc003d4b 2758than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
6903afa2 2759wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2760not-a-number value).
2761
bcd05b94 2762=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2763
e9200be3 2764(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
fc003d4b 2765than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
e7a1a147 2766wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2767
58e23c8d 2768=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2769
2770(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
6903afa2 2771handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2772
b88df990
NC
2773=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2774
e63e8a91
FC
2775(W imprecision) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one
2776is too large for the underlying floating point representation to store
2777accurately, hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this
2778warning because it has already switched from integers to floating point
2779when values are too large for integers, and now even floating point is
2780insufficient. You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
b88df990 2781
93fad930 2782=item lstat() on filehandle%s
2f7da168
RK
2783
2784(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2785by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2786instead on the filehandle.)
2787
345d70e3 2788=item lvalue attribute %s already-defined subroutine
bb3abb05 2789
345d70e3
FC
2790(W misc) Although L<attributes.pm|attributes> allows this, turning the lvalue
2791attribute on or off on a Perl subroutine that is already defined
2792does not always work properly. It may or may not do what you
2793want, depending on what code is inside the subroutine, with exact
2794details subject to change between Perl versions. Only do this
2795if you really know what you are doing.
bb3abb05 2796
885ef6f5
GG
2797=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2798
345d70e3
FC
2799(W misc) Using the C<:lvalue> declarative syntax to make a Perl
2800subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined is
2801not permitted. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine,
2802add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the C<sub
2803foo :lvalue;> declaration before the definition.
2804
2805See also L<attributes.pm|attributes>.
885ef6f5 2806
2db62bbc 2807=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 2808
2db62bbc 2809(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2810are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2811
2812=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2813
2db62bbc 2814(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2815are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2816
6df41af2
GS
2817=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2818
2819(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2820
2821 prefix1;prefix2
2822
2823or
6df41af2
GS
2824 prefix1 prefix2
2825
be771a83
GS
2826with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2827a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2828appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2829"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2830
2f758a16
ST
2831=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2832
d37a9538
ST
2833(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2834syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2835obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2836when the function is called.
2f758a16 2837
ba210ebe
JH
2838=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2839
4d6f11e5 2840(S utf8)(F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2575c402 2841encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2842
2575c402
JW
2843One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2844you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
6903afa2 28458-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2575c402
JW
2846
2847If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2848sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2849set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2850message.
2851
2852See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2853
107160e2
KW
2854=item Malformed UTF-8 character immediately after '%s'
2855
2856(F) You said C<use utf8>, but the program file doesn't comply with UTF-8
2857encoding rules. The message prints out the properly encoded characters
2858just before the first bad one. If C<utf8> warnings are enabled, a
2859warning is generated that gives more details about the type of
2860malformation.
2861
bde9e88d 2862=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N{%s} immediately after '%s'
ff3f963a
KW
2863
2864(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2865
4a5d3a93
FC
2866=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2867
2868(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2869rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2870
f337b084
TH
2871=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2872
2873(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2874rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2875
2876=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2877
2878(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2879rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2880
4a5d3a93 2881=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 2882
4a5d3a93
FC
2883(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2884doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2885
2886=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2887
2888(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
2889regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
9e3ec65c 2890shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
4a5d3a93 2891See L<perlre>.
f337b084 2892
de42a5a9 2893=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2894
6903afa2 2895(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2896usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2897too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2898resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
6903afa2 2899safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2563cec5 2900
25f58aea
PN
2901=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2902
2903(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2904interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2905"use" or "my".
2906
0d2487cd 2907=item '%' may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2908
2909(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2910checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2911See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2912
a0d0e21e
LW
2913=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2914
2915(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2916doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2917
3cdd684c
TP
2918=item Method %s not permitted
2919
2920See Server error.
2921
a0d0e21e
LW
2922=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2923
2924(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2925by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2926ended earlier on the current line.
2927
2928=item Misplaced _ in number
2929
d4ced10d
JH
2930(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2931separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2932
7baa4690
HS
2933=item Missing argument in %s
2934
2935(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2936supplied.
2937
9e81e6a1
RGS
2938=item Missing argument to -%c
2939
2940(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2941immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2942
ff3f963a 2943=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2944
aec0ef10
FC
2945=item Missing braces on \N{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2946
4a2d328f 2947(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
2948double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
2949(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2950This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
2951follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 2952
f0a2b745
KW
2953=item Missing braces on \o{}
2954
2955(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2956
a0d0e21e
LW
2957=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2958
2959(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2960"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2961
06eaf0bc
GS
2962=item Missing command in piped open
2963
be771a83
GS
2964(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2965C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2966blank.
06eaf0bc 2967
961ce445
RGS
2968=item Missing control char name in \c
2969
2970(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2971character name.
2972
8767b1ab 2973=item Missing name in "%s sub"
6df41af2 2974
be771a83
GS
2975(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2976they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2977
2978=item Missing $ on loop variable
2979
be771a83
GS
2980(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2981are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2982can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2983
cc507455 2984=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2985
56da5a46
RGS
2986(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2987"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2988
aec0ef10 2989=item Missing right brace on \%c{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 2990
ff3f963a
KW
2991(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2992
4a68bf9d 2993=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2994
d32207c9
FC
2995(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
2996
2997The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
2998meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
fa816bf3 2999name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
d32207c9
FC
3000double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
3001it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
3002
3003Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
3004in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
3005for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
3006
3007This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
3008by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
3009form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
3010means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
30113; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
3012C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
3013
3014However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
3015mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
3016If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
3017escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 3018
d98d5fff 3019=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 3020
be771a83
GS
3021(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
3022ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
3023were last editing.
a0d0e21e 3024
6df41af2
GS
3025=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
3026
56da5a46
RGS
3027(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
3028"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
3029the previous line just because you saw this message.
3030
a0d0e21e
LW
3031=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
3032
3033(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 3034constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
3035catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
3036
3037 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
3038 mod(2);
3039
3040Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
3041
c5674021
PDF
3042Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
3043is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
3044
b7e4ecc1
FC
3045 $x = 1;
3046 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
3047 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to
3048 } # modify the 2
c5674021 3049
7a4340ed 3050=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
3051
3052(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
3053subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
3054backwards.
3055
7a4340ed 3056=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 3057
be771a83
GS
3058(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
3059couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
3060
3061=item Module name must be constant
3062
3063(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
3064
be98fb35 3065=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 3066
be98fb35
GS
3067(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
3068you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
3069about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 3070
fe13d51d 3071=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7 3072
6903afa2 3073(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
ed9aa3b7
SG
3074can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
3075list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
3076See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
3077
92951bce
FC
3078=item mprotect for %p %u failed with %d
3079
3080=item mprotect RW for %p %u failed with %d
3081
3082(S) You compiled perl with B<-D>PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_OPS (see
3083L<perlhacktips>), but an op tree could not be made read-only, or a
3084read-only op tree could not be made mutable before freeing the ops.
3085
a0d0e21e
LW
3086=item msg%s not implemented
3087
3088(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
3089
3090=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
3091
75b44862
GS
3092(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
3093They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 3094
49704364 3095=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 3096
49704364
LW
3097(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
3098follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
3099See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
3100
3101=item "my sub" not yet implemented
3102
be771a83
GS
3103(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
3104that yet.
6df41af2 3105
5a25739d
FC
3106=item "my %s" used in sort comparison
3107
3108(W syntax) The package variables $a and $b are used for sort comparisons.
3109You used $a or $b in as an operand to the C<< <=> >> or C<cmp> operator inside a
3110sort comparison block, and the variable had earlier been declared as a
3111lexical variable. Either qualify the sort variable with the package
3112name, or rename the lexical variable.
3113
fd1b7234 3114=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 3115
be771a83
GS
3116(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
3117sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
3118local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 3119
8149aa9f
FC
3120=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
3121
3122(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
3123If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
3124again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
3125provided for this purpose.
3126
3127NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
3128%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
3129the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
9ec237a1
RS
3130will not trigger this warning. Symbols beginning with an underscore and
3131symbols using special identifiers (q.v. L<perldata>) are exempt from this
3132warning.
8149aa9f 3133
0d0b4b3b
KW
3134=item Need exactly 3 octal digits in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3135
3136(F) Within S<C<(?[ ])>>, all constants interpreted as octal need to be
3137exactly 3 digits long. This helps catch some ambiguities. If your
3138constant is too short, add leading zeros, like
3139
3140 (?[ [ \078 ] ]) # Syntax error!
3141 (?[ [ \0078 ] ]) # Works
3142 (?[ [ \007 8 ] ]) # Clearer
3143
3144The maximum number this construct can express is C<\777>. If you
675fa9ff
FC
3145need a larger one, you need to use L<\o{}|perlrebackslash/Octal escapes> instead. If you meant
3146two separate things, you need to separate them:
0d0b4b3b
KW
3147
3148 (?[ [ \7776 ] ]) # Syntax error!
3149 (?[ [ \o{7776} ] ]) # One meaning
3150 (?[ [ \777 6 ] ]) # Another meaning
3151 (?[ [ \777 \006 ] ]) # Still another
3152
49704364
LW
3153=item Negative '/' count in unpack
3154
3155(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
3156negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3157
a0d0e21e
LW
3158=item Negative length
3159
be771a83
GS
3160(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
3161length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 3162
ed9aa3b7
SG
3163=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
3164
3165(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
3166greater than or equal to zero.
3167
7253e4e3 3168=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 3169
6903afa2 3170(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses.
9e3ec65c
FC
3171So things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows
3172whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 3173
7253e4e3 3174Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 3175C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3176
6df41af2 3177=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 3178
be771a83
GS
3179(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
3180scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 3181
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3182=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
3183
3184(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
3185real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
3186See L<mro>.
3187
5a25739d
FC
3188=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...} in regex;
3189marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3190
3191(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in
3192a bracketed character class, for the same reason that C<.> in
3193a character class loses its specialness: it matches almost
3194everything, which is probably not what you want.
3195
3196=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3197
3198(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or
3199sequence was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that
3200bypass the lexer, such as using single-quotish context, or an extra
3201backslash in double-quotish:
3202
3203 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
3204 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
3205 /$re/;
3206
3207Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
3208
3209 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
3210 /$re/;
3211
3212The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
3213components:
3214
3215 $re = '\N';
3216 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
3217
3218It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and
3219it doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
3220
3221Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
3222C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
3223
3224 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
3225 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
3226
a0d0e21e
LW
3227=item No %s allowed while running setuid
3228
be771a83
GS
3229(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
3230setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
3231will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
3232securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 3233
6651ba0b
FC
3234=item No code specified for -%c
3235
3236(F) Perl's B<-e> and B<-E> command-line options require an argument. If
3237you want to run an empty program, pass the empty string as a separate
3238argument or run a program consisting of a single 0 or 1:
3239
3240 perl -e ""
3241 perl -e0
3242 perl -e1
3243
a0d0e21e
LW
3244=item No comma allowed after %s
3245
6903afa2
FC
3246(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is
3247not allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
a0d0e21e
LW
3248Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
3249
6903afa2
FC
3250One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported
3251a constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
3252importing took place, it may for example be that your operating
3253system does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did
3254use an explicit import list for the constants you expect to see;
3255please see L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an
3256explicit import list would probably have caught this error earlier
3257it naturally does not remedy the fact that your operating system
3258still does not support that constant. Maybe you have a typo in
3259the constants of the symbol import list of B<use> or B<import> or in the
3260constant name at the line where this error was triggered?
0a753a76 3261
748a9306
LW
3262=item No command into which to pipe on command line
3263
be771a83
GS
3264(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3265redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
3266doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 3267
a0d0e21e
LW
3268=item No DB::DB routine defined
3269
be771a83 3270(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
f7af5ce1 3271for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
ccafdc96
RGS
3272module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
3273statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
3274
3275=item No dbm on this machine
3276
3277(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 3278supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 3279
ccafdc96 3280=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 3281
ccafdc96
RGS
3282(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
3283for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
3284module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
3285of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 3286
6651ba0b
FC
3287=item No directory specified for -I
3288
3289(F) The B<-I> command-line switch requires a directory name as part of the
3290I<same> argument. Use B<-Ilib>, for instance. B<-I lib> won't work.
3291
c47ff5f1 3292=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 3293
be771a83
GS
3294(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3295redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
3296find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 3297
49704364
LW
3298=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
3299
3300(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
6903afa2 3301matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 3302
c47ff5f1 3303=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 3304
be771a83
GS
3305(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3306redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
3307name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 3308
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3309=item No next::method '%s' found for %s