This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
perldiag: s/about where/whereabouts/
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
CommitLineData
a0d0e21e
LW
1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
a0d0e21e
LW
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
e476b1b5
GS
20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
e476b1b5
GS
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
4438c4b7
JH
34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
6df41af2
GS
38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
a0d0e21e
LW
44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
be771a83
GS
49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
1109a392
MHM
59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
be771a83
GS
65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
6df41af2
GS
69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
be771a83
GS
76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
c2e66d9e
GS
79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
7c7af292 88(S ambiguous) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
6df41af2
GS
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
d8225693
JM
92=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
93
7c7af292 94(S ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
3303f755
FC
95bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
96(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
97like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
98assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
99clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
100really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 101
1ef43bca
JM
102=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
103
104(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
105asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
106named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 107the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
1ef43bca
JM
108function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
109and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
110
e850844c
FC
111=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
112
113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 114
fa816bf3
FC
115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
116the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1172 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
118might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
119foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
120that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
ccaaf480
FC
121
122In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
123to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
fa816bf3
FC
124C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
125by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
126want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
127unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
128that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
129off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 130
bdac9d71 131=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
397d0f13 132
7c7af292 133(S ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
a7f6e211
FC
134string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
135the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
397d0f13
JM
136write C<-foo()>.
137
6df41af2 138=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 139
be771a83
GS
140(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
141redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
142redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 143
6df41af2 144=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 145
be771a83
GS
146(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
147redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
148into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
149though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
150which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 151
6df41af2
GS
152 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
153 while (<STDIN>) {
154 print;
155 print OUT;
156 }
157 close OUT;
c9f97d15 158
6df41af2 159=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 160
496a33f5
SC
161(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
162transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 163one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 164a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
165hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
be771a83
GS
166you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
167alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 168
6df41af2 169=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 170
6df41af2 171(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 172
b0fdf69e 173=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 174
cc1c2e42
FC
175(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
176subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
a0d0e21e
LW
177
178 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 179 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 180 &do_something
a0d0e21e 181
8ea97a1e 182=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 183
06e52bfa
FC
184(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
185such as:
5f05dabc
PP
186
187 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 188 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 189
8ea97a1e 190or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 191
6df41af2
GS
192 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
193 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 194
6df41af2 195=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 196
6df41af2 197(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
be771a83
GS
198name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
199error.
a0d0e21e 200
f86702cc 201=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 202
be771a83
GS
203(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
204that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
205will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 206
b4581f09
JH
207=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
208
a534ac11
FC
209(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
210system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
211take care of transforming data between external and internal
212representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
213point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
214didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
215result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 216
a0d0e21e
LW
217=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
218
75b44862
GS
219(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
220spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e
LW
221
222=item assertion botched: %s
223
21b5e840 224(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
a0d0e21e
LW
225
226=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
227
21b5e840 228(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 229
82122228
FC
230=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
231
7d345e3d
FC
232(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
233the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 234
a0d0e21e
LW
235=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
236
237(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
238must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
239know which context to supply to the right side.
240
96ebfdd7
RK
241=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
242
b92a77e8
FC
243(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily
244the main thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
111a855e
FC
245Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
246created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
96ebfdd7
RK
247thread. See L<threads>.
248
2393f1b9 249=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 250
49293501 251(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 252the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 253
81689caa
HS
254=item Attempt to bless into a reference
255
256(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 257the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
81689caa
HS
258supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
259
260 bless $self, $proto;
261
262when you intended
263
264 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
265
266If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
267of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
268example by:
269
270 bless $self, "$proto";
271
a730510a
FC
272=item Attempt to clear deleted array
273
274(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
275Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
276can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
277callback on the array.
278
96ebfdd7
RK
279=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
280
281(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
282which is not in its key set.
283
284=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
285
286(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
287declared readonly from a restricted hash.
288
de42a5a9 289=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 290
f84fe999 291(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
be771a83
GS
292that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
293outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 294
12578ffb 295=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 296
f84fe999 297(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
be771a83
GS
298strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
299strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
300of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 301
7d5b40b4 302=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 303
f84fe999 304(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
be771a83
GS
305free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
306SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
307free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
308try to free it.
a0d0e21e
LW
309
310=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
311
f84fe999 312(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 313
7d5b40b4 314=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 315
8f7e4d2c 316(S internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
be771a83
GS
317see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
318earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
319This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
320that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
321mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
322corrupted.
a0d0e21e 323
dcdda58d
GS
324=item Attempt to join self
325
326(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
be771a83
GS
327impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
328to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 329
84902520
TB
330=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
331
be771a83
GS
332(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
333function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
334means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
335invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
336literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
337avoid this warning.
84902520 338
087b5369
RD
339=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
340
341(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
342compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
343unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
344L<perlvar/%INC>.
345
1b20cd17
NC
346=item Attempt to set length of freed array
347
0c5c527f
FC
348(W misc) You tried to set the length of an array which has
349been freed. You can do this by storing a reference to the
350scalar representing the last index of an array and later
351assigning through that reference. For example
1b20cd17
NC
352
353 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
354 $$r = 503
355
b7a902f4
PP
356=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
357
be771a83
GS
358(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
359used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
360dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 361
c32124fe
NC
362=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
363
57dedab9
FC
364(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the
365"locked" attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is
366obsolete, has had no effect since 5005 threads were removed, and
367will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
c32124fe 368
f1a3ce43
NC
369=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
370
57dedab9
FC
371(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify
372the "unique" attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference.
373The :unique attribute has had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and
374will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 375
ccce04a4
FC
376=item av_reify called on tied array
377
378(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
379confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
380
de42a5a9 381=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 382
be771a83
GS
383(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
384or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 385S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
a0d0e21e
LW
386S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
387
7a95317d
GS
388=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
389
496a33f5 390(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
7a95317d
GS
391substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
392most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
393
a0d0e21e
LW
394=item Bad filehandle: %s
395
be771a83
GS
396(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
397symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
398open(), or did it in another package.
a0d0e21e
LW
399
400=item Bad free() ignored
401
be771a83 402(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 403been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 404setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 405
9ea8bc6d 406This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 407dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 408which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 409
aa689395
PP
410=item Bad hash
411
412(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
413
6df41af2
GS
414=item Badly placed ()'s
415
416(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
417of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
418Perl yourself.
419
a7cb8dae 420=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 421
be771a83
GS
422(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
423didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
424of quotes, so
a0d0e21e
LW
425
426 $var = 'myvar';
427 $sym = mypack::$var;
428
429is not the same as
430
431 $var = 'myvar';
432 $sym = "mypack::$var";
433
88e1f1a2
JV
434=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
435
436(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
437plugin API.
438
4ad56ec9
IZ
439=item Bad realloc() ignored
440
6903afa2
FC
441(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
442had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
443be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 444
a0d0e21e
LW
445=item Bad symbol for array
446
447(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
448wasn't a symbol table entry.
449
4df3f177
SP
450=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
451
452(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
453that wasn't a symbol table entry.
454
a0d0e21e
LW
455=item Bad symbol for filehandle
456
be771a83
GS
457(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
458that wasn't a symbol table entry.
a0d0e21e
LW
459
460=item Bad symbol for hash
461
462(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
463wasn't a symbol table entry.
464
34d09196
GS
465=item Bareword found in conditional
466
be771a83
GS
467(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
468conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
469of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
470
471 open FOO || die;
472
be771a83
GS
473It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
474a bareword:
34d09196
GS
475
476 use constant TYPO => 1;
477 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
478
479The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
480
6df41af2
GS
481=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
482
483(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
be771a83
GS
484subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
485symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
486
487=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
488
be771a83
GS
489(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
490compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
491you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 492
a0d0e21e
LW
493=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
494
be771a83
GS
495(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
496subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
497exited.
a0d0e21e 498
68dc0745
PP
499=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
500
501(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
be771a83
GS
502implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
503occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
504be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
505depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 506
6df41af2
GS
507=item \1 better written as $1
508
be771a83
GS
509(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
510The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
511substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
512because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
513there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 514
252aa082
JH
515=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
516
e476b1b5 517(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
518(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
519L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 520
69282e91 521=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 522
be771a83
GS
523(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
524check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 525
c289d2f7
JH
526=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
527
528(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 529Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 530
f866a7cd
FC
531=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" instead
532
533=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" instead
534
535(W deprecated, regexp) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following a
536C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
537itself in a future release.
538
c5a0f51a
JH
539=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
540
e476b1b5 541(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 542
043c750c 543=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 544
be771a83 545(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
4dcecea4 546copiable.
4633a7c4 547
f675dbe5
CB
548=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
549
be771a83
GS
550(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
551iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
552which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 553
7fcfef4d
FC
554=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
555
556(P) When starting a new thread or return values from a thread, Perl
557encountered an invalid data type.
558
a0d0e21e
LW
559=item Callback called exit
560
4929bf7b 561(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
562exited by calling exit.
563
6df41af2 564=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 565
be771a83
GS
566(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
567parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
568that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
569early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
570subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
571checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
572function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
573the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 574
49704364 575=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
576
577(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
578compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
579attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
580See L<perlfunc/pack>.
581
49704364 582=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
583
584(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
585format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
586
5c1f4d79
NC
587=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
588
6903afa2
FC
589(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
590in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
591The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
592no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 593
4040665a 594=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
595
596(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 597be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 598
b5d97229
RGS
599=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
600
601(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
602either with open() or binmode().
603
7355df7e
FC
604=item Cannot set tied @DB::args
605
606(F) C<caller> tried to set C<@DB::args>, but found it tied. Tying C<@DB::args>
607is not supported. (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)
608
ce65bc73
FC
609=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
610
611(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
612keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
613do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
614Perl code, but are only used internally.
615
96ebfdd7
RK
616=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
617
618(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
619integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
620to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
621
a0d0e21e
LW
622=item Can't bless non-reference value
623
624(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
625encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
626
dc57907a
RGS
627=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
628
0d863452 629(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
6903afa2 630a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
0d863452
RH
631
632=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 633
0d863452
RH
634(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
635
6df41af2
GS
636=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
637
638(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
639object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
640like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
641
642 $BADREF = undef;
643 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
644 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
645
a0d0e21e
LW
646=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
647
54310121 648(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
649ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
650didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
651object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
652
653=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
654
655(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
656object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
657defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
658Something like this will reproduce the error:
659
660 $BADREF = 42;
661 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
662 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
663
a0d0e21e
LW
664=item Can't chdir to %s
665
666(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
667that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
668
0545a864 669=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 670
be771a83
GS
671(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
672nosuid.
104d25b7 673
22e74366 674=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
675
676(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 677(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
678say things like:
679
680 *foo += 1;
681
682You CAN say
683
684 $foo = *foo;
685 $foo += 1;
686
687but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
688
0d863452 689=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 690
0d863452
RH
691(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
692or C<default> block.
693
a0d0e21e
LW
694=item Can't create pipe mailbox
695
be771a83
GS
696(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
697quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 698
eb64745e
GS
699=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
700
30c282f6
NC
701(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
702"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 703
fc7debfb
FC
704=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
705
706(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
707C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
708issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
709error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
710
6df41af2
GS
711=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
712
be771a83 713(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
df7075a8 714a file in /dev, a FIFO or an uneditable directory. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 715
a0d0e21e
LW
716=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
717
be771a83
GS
718(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
719reason.
a0d0e21e 720
54310121 721=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 722
be771a83
GS
723(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
724reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
725C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 726
10f9c03d 727=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 728
e476b1b5 729(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
730characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
731inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 732
a0d0e21e
LW
733=item Can't do waitpid with flags
734
be771a83
GS
735(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
736waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 737
a0d0e21e
LW
738=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
739
be771a83
GS
740(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
741point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
742line.
a0d0e21e 743
1109a392
MHM
744=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
745
746(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
747or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
748little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
749See L<perlfunc/pack>.
750
a0d0e21e
LW
751=item Can't exec "%s": %s
752
d1be9408 753(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
754named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
755permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
756C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
757architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
758can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
759#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
760
761=item Can't exec %s
762
be771a83
GS
763(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
764that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
765need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
766
767=item Can't execute %s
768
be771a83
GS
769(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
770found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 771
6df41af2 772=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 773
be771a83
GS
774(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
775is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 776
56ca2fc0
JH
777=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
778
779(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
6903afa2 780could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
e1b711da
KW
781See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
782for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 783
6df41af2
GS
784=item Can't find label %s
785
be771a83
GS
786(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
787possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
788
789=item Can't find %s on PATH
790
be771a83
GS
791(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
792found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 793
6df41af2 794=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 795
be771a83
GS
796(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
797found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
798script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
799
800=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
801
be771a83
GS
802(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
803that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
804nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 805
fb73857a
PP
806 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
807
97b3d10f 808If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
809included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
810may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
811a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
812L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 813
660a4616
ST
814=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
815
5f8ad6b6
FC
816(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
817property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
fa816bf3 818letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 819L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
6903afa2 820for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
fa816bf3
FC
821mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by
822C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 823until C<\E>).
660a4616 824
b3647a36 825=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 826
be771a83
GS
827(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
828pipeline.
a0d0e21e 829
b3647a36
SR
830=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
831
c973c02e 832(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
833after five seconds.
834
748a9306
LW
835=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
836
be771a83
GS
837(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
838between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
839Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
840the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
841account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
842the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 843the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
844the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
845if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
846because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
847appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
848and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
849routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
850shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
851only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 852
a0d0e21e
LW
853=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
854
be771a83
GS
855(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
856pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
857
858=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
859
748a9306
LW
860(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
861mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 862
6df41af2 863=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 864
be771a83
GS
865(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
866loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
867
868=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
869
be771a83
GS
870(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
871a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
872you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
873See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 874
9850bf21 875=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 876
9850bf21
RH
877(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
878comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
879as the reduce() function in List::Util).
880
c74ace89 881=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 882
be771a83 883(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 884"string" or block.
b150fb22 885
6df41af2
GS
886=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
887
be771a83
GS
888(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
889subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
890cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
891routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 892
0b5b802d
GS
893=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
894
be771a83
GS
895(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
896signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
897signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
898processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
899situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
900may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 901
e2c0f81f
DG
902=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
903
904(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
905attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
906process identifier.
907
6df41af2 908=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 909
6df41af2 910(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
911except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
912block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
913block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
914usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
915inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
916L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 917
2c7d6b9c
RGS
918=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
919
920(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
921package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
922
b8170e59
JB
923=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
924
6903afa2
FC
925(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
926This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
927that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
928to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
929dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
930that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
931dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 932
748a9306
LW
933=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
934
2ba9eb46 935(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
936lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
937want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
938the package name.
748a9306 939
6df41af2 940=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 941
6df41af2
GS
942(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
943handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 944pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 945that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 946
ea071790 947=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 948
fa816bf3
FC
949(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
950Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
951the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
952to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
953extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
954to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
955L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 956
6df41af2
GS
957=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
958
be771a83
GS
959(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
960autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
961are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
962the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 963
b8170e59
JB
964=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
965
966(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 967for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
968unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
969
a0d0e21e
LW
970=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
971
972(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
973functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 974method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
975
976=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
977
be771a83
GS
978(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
979doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 980
2f7da168
RK
981=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
982
983(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
984e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
985
f4ad53f4 986=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 987
be771a83
GS
988(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
989VMS.
3e3baf6d 990
a0d0e21e
LW
991=item Can't modify %s in %s
992
be771a83
GS
993(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
994to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 995
54310121 996=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
997
998(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
999a NULL.
1000
6df41af2
GS
1001=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
1002
1003(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1004such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1005
5f05dabc 1006=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1007
5f05dabc 1008(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1009buffer.
1010
6df41af2
GS
1011=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1012
1013(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1014there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1015count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1016grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1017though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1018once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1019
46fa9b26
FC
1020=item Can't open %s
1021
1022(F) You tried to run a perl built with MAD support with
1023the PERL_XMLDUMP environment variable set, but the file
1024named by that variable could not be opened.
1025
a0d0e21e
LW
1026=item Can't open %s: %s
1027
c47ff5f1 1028(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1029filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1030switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1031this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1032you named on the command line.
1033
1034(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1035your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1036
9a869a14
RGS
1037=item Can't open a reference
1038
1039(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1040using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1041
1042 open FH, '>', $ref;
1043
1044but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1045open is not supported.
1046
a0d0e21e
LW
1047=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1048
be771a83
GS
1049(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1050You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1051as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1052">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1053
748a9306
LW
1054=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1055
be771a83
GS
1056(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1057redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1058the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1059
1060=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1061
be771a83
GS
1062(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1063redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1064command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1065
1066=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1067
be771a83
GS
1068(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1069redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1070the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1071
1072=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1073
be771a83
GS
1074(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1075redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1076for stdout.
748a9306 1077
3b1cf97d 1078=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1079
1080(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1081
fa3aa65a
JC
1082If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1083shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1084you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1085
6df41af2
GS
1086=item Can't read CRTL environ
1087
1088(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1089from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1090missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1091or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1092searched.
6df41af2 1093
6df41af2
GS
1094=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1095
1096(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1097there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1098count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1099or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1100though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1101loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1102
64977eb6 1103=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1104
be771a83
GS
1105(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1106file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1107the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1108
a0d0e21e
LW
1109=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1110
e476b1b5 1111(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1112probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1113
748a9306
LW
1114=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1115
be771a83
GS
1116(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1117to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1118
4f12ec0e
FC
1119=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1120
1121(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1122all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1123the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1124supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1125
fe13d51d 1126=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1127
1fa582fa
FC
1128(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1129opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1130package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1131
cd06dffe
GS
1132=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1133
be771a83
GS
1134(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1135temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1136is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1137
96ebfdd7
RK
1138=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1139
1140(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1141there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1142
78f9721b
SM
1143=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1144
6903afa2
FC
1145(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1146subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1147think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1148write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1149Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1150
a0d0e21e
LW
1151=item Can't stat script "%s"
1152
be771a83
GS
1153(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1154open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1155
a0d0e21e
LW
1156=item Can't take log of %g
1157
fb73857a 1158(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1159negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1160standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1161negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1162
1163=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1164
1165(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1166negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1167with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1168
1169=item Can't undef active subroutine
1170
1171(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1172however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1173redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1174
c81225bc 1175=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1176
be771a83
GS
1177(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1178into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1179specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1180indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1181
6651ba0b
FC
1182=item Can't use '%c' after -mname
1183
1184(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-m> switch, but you put something
1185other than "=" after the module name.
1186
1db89ea5
BS
1187=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1188
e27ad1f2 1189(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1190table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1191for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1192
96ebfdd7
RK
1193=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1194
1195(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1196be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1197
6df41af2
GS
1198=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1199
be771a83
GS
1200(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1201references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1202
90b75b61 1203=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1204
20561843 1205(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1206Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1207provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1208
1109a392
MHM
1209=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1210
1211(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1212byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1213allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1214
6df41af2
GS
1215=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1216
be771a83
GS
1217(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1218foreach.
6df41af2 1219
aab6a793 1220=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1221
be771a83
GS
1222(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1223is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1224(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1225have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1226weren't.
1227
6d3b25aa
RGS
1228=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1229
1230(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1231that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1232For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1233is inside a big-endian group.
1234
c07a80fd
PP
1235=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1236
1237(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1238You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1239and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1240Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1241lexical variable.
1242
a0d0e21e
LW
1243=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1244
1245(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1246reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1247test the type of the reference, if need be.
1248
748a9306 1249=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1250
b41bf23f
FC
1251(F) You've told Perl to dereference a string, something which
1252C<use strict> blocks to prevent it happening accidentally. See
1253L<perlref/"Symbolic references">. This can be triggered by an C<@> or C<$>
1254in a double-quoted string immediately before interpolating a variable,
1255for example in C<"user @$twitter_id">, which says to treat the contents
1256of C<$twitter_id> as an array reference; use a C<\> to have a literal C<@>
1257symbol followed by the contents of C<$twitter_id>: C<"user \@$twitter_id">.
a0d0e21e 1258
748a9306
LW
1259=item Can't use subscript on %s
1260
1261(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1262subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1263didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1264
6df41af2
GS
1265=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1266
75b44862
GS
1267(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1268creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1269backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1270expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1271value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1272instead.
6df41af2 1273
810b8aa5
GS
1274=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1275
1276(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1277references can be weakened.
1278
fc7debfb
FC
1279=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1280
1281(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1282loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1283from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1284or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1285
5f05dabc 1286=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1287
be771a83
GS
1288(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1289with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1290Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1291
4a68bf9d 1292=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1293
1fa582fa 1294(F)(W deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
79ef86ee 1295It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl 5.18. In the
17a3df4c
KW
1296cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
1297derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1298
1299Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well.
f9d13529 1300
f337b084 1301=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1302
1303(W pack) You said
1304
1305 pack("C", $x)
1306
1307where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1308only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1309and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1310
1311 pack("C", $x & 255)
1312
1313If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1314instead.
1315
f337b084
TH
1316=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1317
1318(W pack) You said
1319
1320 pack("U0W", $x)
1321
6903afa2
FC
1322where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1323expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1324as if you meant:
f337b084
TH
1325
1326 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1327
1328=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1329
1330(W pack) You said
1331
1332 pack("c", $x)
1333
1334where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1335is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1336and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1337
1338 pack("c", $x & 255);
1339
1340If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1341instead.
1342
f337b084
TH
1343=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1344
1345(W unpack) You tried something like
1346
1347 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1348
1a147d38 1349where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1350below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1351value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1352
1353 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1354
1355=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1356
1357(W pack) You tried something like
1358
1359 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1360
1a147d38 1361where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1362value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1363uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1364
1365 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1366
1367=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1368
1369(W unpack) You tried something like
1370
1371 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1372
1a147d38 1373where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1374value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1375uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1376
1377 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1378
f866a7cd
FC
1379=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1380
1381(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1382to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1383evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
79ef86ee 1384ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.18. Just use a
f866a7cd
FC
1385semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1386
1387=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1388
1389(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1390non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1391written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1392characters.
1393
6651ba0b
FC
1394=item Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
1395
1396(F) Creating a new thread inside the C<s///> operator is not supported.
1397
96ebfdd7
RK
1398=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1399
1400(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1401
abc7ecad
SP
1402=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1403
1404(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1405a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1406
541ed3a9
FC
1407=item Closure prototype called
1408
1409(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1410handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1411This subroutine cannot be called.
1412
49704364
LW
1413=item Code missing after '/'
1414
6903afa2
FC
1415(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1416another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1417
0876b9a0
KW
1418=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1419
c634fdd3 1420=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, all \p{} matches fail; all \P{} matches succeed
9ae3ac1a 1421
e2f4a215 1422(S utf8, non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1b64326b
FC
1423of U+10FFFF.
1424
1425Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, up
1426to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on your system,
1427but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. At one time,
1428it was legal in some standards to have code points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF,
1429but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a
143032 bit word.
0876b9a0 1431
9ae3ac1a
KW
1432None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1433code point. For example,
1434
1435 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1436
1437will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1438
1439 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1440
1441will match.
1442
94b42e47
KW
1443This may be counterintuitive at times, as both these fail:
1444
f9d4ccdc
FC
1445 chr(0x110000) =~ /\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True}/ # Fails.
1446 chr(0x110000) =~ /\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False}/ # Also fails!
94b42e47
KW
1447
1448and both these succeed:
1449
f9d4ccdc
FC
1450 chr(0x110000) =~ /\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True}/ # Succeeds.
1451 chr(0x110000) =~ /\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False}/ # Also succeeds!
94b42e47 1452
6df41af2
GS
1453=item %s: Command not found
1454
a892b81a
FC
1455(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> or another shell
1456shell instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
1457into Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
8f721816
MM
1458
1459 #!/usr/bin/perl -w
6df41af2 1460
7a2e2cd6
PP
1461=item Compilation failed in require
1462
1463(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1464Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1465encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1466
c3464db5
DD
1467=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1468
be771a83
GS
1469(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1470situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1471to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1472arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1473recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1474under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1475in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1476that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1477on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1478
38875929
DM
1479=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1480
6903afa2
FC
1481(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to
1482call cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked.
1483The cond_broadcast() function is used to wake up another thread
1484that is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't
1485sent before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it
1486is usual for the signaling thread first to wait for a lock on
1487variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the other
1488thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.
38875929 1489
38875929
DM
1490=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1491
6903afa2
FC
1492(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to
1493call cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The
1494cond_signal() function is used to wake up another thread that
1495is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't
1496sent before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it
1497is usual for the signaling thread first to wait for a lock on
1498variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the other
1499thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.
38875929 1500
69282e91 1501=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1502
be771a83
GS
1503(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1504to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1505L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1506
41ab332f 1507=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1508
be771a83
GS
1509(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1510an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1511specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
fbb93542 1512corresponding L<overload> pragma?.
6df41af2 1513
fc8cd66c
YO
1514=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1515
1a147d38 1516(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
fbb93542 1517the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape.
fc8cd66c 1518
779c5bc9
GS
1519=item Constant is not %s reference
1520
1521(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1522is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1523The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1524usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1525See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1526
4cee8e80
CS
1527=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1528
aeb94125
FC
1529(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1530been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1531for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1532
9607fc9c
PP
1533=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1534
be771a83
GS
1535(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1536for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1537workarounds.
9607fc9c 1538
e7ea3e70
IZ
1539=item Copy method did not return a reference
1540
6903afa2 1541(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1542L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1543
4aaa4757
FC
1544=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1545
1546(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1547with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1548in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1549called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1550
1551 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1552 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1553
6798c92b
GS
1554=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1555
1556(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1557
a0d0e21e
LW
1558=item corrupted regexp pointers
1559
1560(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1561expression compiler gave it.
1562
1563=item corrupted regexp program
1564
be771a83
GS
1565(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1566valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1567
de42a5a9 1568=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1569
1570(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1571
49704364
LW
1572=item Count after length/code in unpack
1573
1574(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1575you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1576L<perlfunc/pack>.
1577
6651ba0b
FC
1578=item Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
1579
a0d0e21e
LW
1580=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1581
be771a83
GS
1582(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1583100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1584infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1585which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1586
aad1d01f
NC
1587This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1588setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1589
f10b0346 1590=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1591
be771a83
GS
1592(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1593checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1594array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1595
f10b0346 1596=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1597
f0ec9725
KR
1598(D deprecated) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes and has been
1599discouraged since 5.004.
1600
1601Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1602becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1603weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1604These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice.
1605
1606If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1607context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
16546e45
KR
1608
1609 if (%hash) {
1610 # not empty
1611 }
1612
f0ec9725
KR
1613If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1614variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1615a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1616it's loaded, etc.
1617
69794302 1618
bcb95744
FC
1619=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1620
6903afa2 1621(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1622most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1623of the C<....> part.
1624
9e3ec65c 1625The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
bcb95744
FC
1626discovered.
1627
62658f4d
PM
1628=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1629
1630(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1631there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1632
fc36a67e
PP
1633=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1634
be771a83
GS
1635(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1636long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1637that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1638
6d3b25aa
RGS
1639=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1640
fa816bf3
FC
1641(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
1642has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 1643not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 1644conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 1645static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 1646relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 1647declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1648
6d3b25aa
RGS
1649 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1650
1651becomes
1652
1653 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1654
fa816bf3
FC
1655Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to have
1656lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
1657
1658 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1659
500ab966
RGS
1660=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1661
1662(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
1663just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
1664than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 1665
3cdd684c
TP
1666=item Did not produce a valid header
1667
1668See Server error.
1669
6df41af2
GS
1670=item %s did not return a true value
1671
1672(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1673it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1674traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1675do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1676
cc507455 1677=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1678
413ff9f6
FC
1679(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1680some such.
4633a7c4 1681
cc507455 1682=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1683
be771a83
GS
1684(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1685variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1686seems superfluous.
33633739 1687
cc507455 1688=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1689
be771a83
GS
1690(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1691@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1692carried away.
748a9306 1693
7e1af8bc 1694=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1695
1696(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1697you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1698
3cdd684c
TP
1699=item Document contains no data
1700
1701See Server error.
1702
62658f4d
PM
1703=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1704
1705(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1706define a C<$VERSION.>
1707
49704364
LW
1708=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1709
1710(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1711See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1712
a0d0e21e
LW
1713=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1714
1715(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1716
1717=item do_study: out of memory
1718
1719(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1720
6df41af2
GS
1721=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1722
56da5a46
RGS
1723(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1724"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1725name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1726because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1727"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1728something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1729subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1730"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1731
ac206dc8
RGS
1732=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1733
1734(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1735qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1736
84d78eb7
YO
1737=item dump is not supported
1738
1739(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1740
a0d0e21e
LW
1741=item Duplicate free() ignored
1742
be771a83
GS
1743(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1744already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1745
1109a392
MHM
1746=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1747
35f0cd76
FC
1748(W unpack) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a
1749type in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1109a392 1750
4633a7c4
LW
1751=item elseif should be elsif
1752
fa816bf3
FC
1753(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
1754it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1755named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1756unlikely to be what you want.
1757
ab13f0c7
JH
1758=item Empty %s
1759
af6f566e 1760(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 1761described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 1762a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1763
85ab1d1d 1764=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1765
85ab1d1d 1766(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1767effective uids or gids failed.
1768
c038024b
RGS
1769=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1770
1771(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1772aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 1773program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 1774
748a9306
LW
1775=item Error converting file specification %s
1776
5f05dabc 1777(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1778specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1779single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1780an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1781conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1782
ad19ef22 1783=item Eval-group in insecure regular expression
e4d48cc9 1784
be771a83
GS
1785(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1786expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1787is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1788
ad19ef22 1789=item Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
e4d48cc9 1790
be771a83
GS
1791(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1792C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1793pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1794it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1795C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1796interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1797L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1798
ad19ef22 1799=item Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
6df41af2 1800
be771a83
GS
1801(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1802assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1803pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1804
1a147d38
YO
1805=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1806
1807(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 1808any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38 1809
9e3ec65c 1810The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
1811discovered.
1812
fc36a67e
PP
1813=item Excessively long <> operator
1814
1815(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1816Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1817filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1818variable and glob that.
1819
ed9aa3b7
SG
1820=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1821
af8bb25a 1822(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 1823OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 1824
fe13d51d 1825=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1826
1827(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1828
1829=item Exiting eval via %s
1830
be771a83
GS
1831(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1832goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1833
1834=item Exiting format via %s
1835
9a2ff54b 1836(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1837goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1838
0a753a76
PP
1839=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1840
be771a83
GS
1841(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1842sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1843loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1844
a0d0e21e
LW
1845=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1846
be771a83
GS
1847(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1848as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1849
1850=item Exiting substitution via %s
1851
be771a83
GS
1852(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1853as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1854
e7d0b801
FC
1855=item Experimental "%s" subs not enabled
1856
1857(F) To use lexical subs, you must first enable them:
1858
f1d34ca8 1859 no warnings 'experimental::lexical_subs';
e7d0b801
FC
1860 use feature 'lexical_subs';
1861 my sub foo { ... }
1862
7b8d334a
GS
1863=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1864
be771a83
GS
1865(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1866the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1867usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1868e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1869
6df41af2
GS
1870=item %s: Expression syntax
1871
be771a83
GS
1872(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1873Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1874
1875=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1876
3c10abe3
AG
1877(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1878CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1879queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1880
7253e4e3 1881=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1882
be771a83 1883(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1884character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1885in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
9e3ec65c 1886"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 1887problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1888
1b1ee2ef 1889=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1890
be771a83
GS
1891(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1892system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1893details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1894you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1895
1896=item fcntl is not implemented
1897
1898(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1899PDP-11 or something?
1900
22846ab4
AB
1901=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1902
1903(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1904is not possible.
1905
f337b084
TH
1906=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1907
d8b5cc61 1908(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string starts with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
1909which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1910a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 1911C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 1912
af8c498a 1913=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1914
6c8d78fb
HS
1915(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1916it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1917"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1918write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1919
af8c498a 1920=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1921
6c8d78fb
HS
1922(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1923you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
1924with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
1925read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
1926is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
1927output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1928
1929=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1930
1931(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 1932as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1933previously.
1934
1935=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1936
1937(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 1938as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1939
1940=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1941
1942(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1943a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1944happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1945name.
a0d0e21e 1946
56e90b21
GS
1947=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1948
be771a83 1949(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1950some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1951filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1952same name?
56e90b21 1953
6df41af2
GS
1954=item Format not terminated
1955
1956(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1957to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1958
a0d0e21e
LW
1959=item Format %s redefined
1960
e476b1b5 1961(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1962
1963 {
271595cc 1964 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1965 eval "format NAME =...";
1966 }
1967
a0d0e21e
LW
1968=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1969
e476b1b5 1970(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1971
1972 if ($foo = 123)
1973
1974when you meant
1975
1976 if ($foo == 123)
1977
1978(or something like that).
1979
6df41af2
GS
1980=item %s found where operator expected
1981
56da5a46
RGS
1982(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1983If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1984operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1985operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1986
a0d0e21e
LW
1987=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1988
1989(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1990
1991=item gethostent not implemented
1992
1993(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1994because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1995on the Internet.
1996
69282e91 1997=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1998
be771a83
GS
1999(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
2000socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 2001
748a9306
LW
2002=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
2003
2004(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2005C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2006
6df41af2
GS
2007=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2008
be771a83
GS
2009(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2010forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2011L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2012
2013=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
2014
a4edf47d 2015(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2016that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2017declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2018which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2019
e476b1b5
GS
2020=item glob failed (%s)
2021
5ead438e 2022(S glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
73c4e9dc
FC
2023for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2024pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2025nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2026resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2027is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2028in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2029if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2030all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2031think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2032C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2033
a0d0e21e
LW
2034=item Glob not terminated
2035
2036(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2037a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2038not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2039earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2040
bcd05b94 2041=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2042
e9200be3 2043(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2044it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2045date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2046not-a-number value).
2047
bcd05b94 2048=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2049
e9200be3 2050(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2051it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2052
6df41af2 2053=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2054
6df41af2
GS
2055(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2056version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2057
2058=item goto must have label
2059
2060(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2061unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2062
6651ba0b
FC
2063=item Goto undefined subroutine%s
2064
2065(F) You tried to call a subroutine with C<goto &sub> syntax, but
2066the indicated subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2067has since been undefined.
2068
49704364 2069=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 2070
bca4a986
FC
2071(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2072something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 2073
1f4f6bf1
YO
2074=item Group name must start with a non-digit word character in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2075
2076(F) Group names must follow the rules for perl identifiers, meaning
2077they must start with a non-digit word character. A common cause of
2078this error is using (?&0) instead of (?0). See L<perlre>.
2079
fe13d51d 2080=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2081
2082(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2083
a0d0e21e
LW
2084=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2085
be771a83
GS
2086(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2087to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2088created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
2089
2090=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
2091
be771a83
GS
2092(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
2093spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 2094
6df41af2
GS
2095=item %s has too many errors
2096
2097(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2098Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2099
252aa082
JH
2100=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2101
e476b1b5 2102(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2103(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2104L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2105
82f96200
JL
2106=item -i used with no filenames on the command line, reading from STDIN
2107
2108(S inplace) The C<-i> option was passed on the command line, indicating
2109that the script is intended to edit files inplace, but no files were
0421bbaa
FC
2110given. This is usually a mistake, since editing STDIN inplace doesn't
2111make sense, and can be confusing because it can make perl look like
2112it is hanging when it is really just trying to read from STDIN. You
2113should either pass a filename to edit, or remove C<-i> from the command
2114line. See L<perlrun> for more details.
82f96200 2115
8903cb82
PP
2116=item Identifier too long
2117
2118(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2119about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2120names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2121of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2122
c3c41406 2123=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 2124
20561843 2125(W) Named Unicode character escapes C<(\N{...})> may return a zero-length
6903afa2
FC
2126sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class its
2127behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2128been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2129
6df41af2 2130=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2131
6df41af2 2132(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2133
6df41af2 2134=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2135
be771a83
GS
2136(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2137binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2138offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2139
6597eb22
FC
2140=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2141
2142(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2143Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
2144
78d0fecf 2145=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2146
d5898338 2147(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2148would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2149when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2150version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2151to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2152
d37a9538
ST
2153=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2154
197afce1 2155(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2156Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
d37a9538 2157
904d85c5
RGS
2158=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2159
2160(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2161you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2162
8e742a20
MHM
2163=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2164
6903afa2 2165(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2166
a0d0e21e
LW
2167=item Illegal division by zero
2168
be771a83
GS
2169(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2170your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2171meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2172
6df41af2
GS
2173=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2174
be771a83
GS
2175(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2176A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2177number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2178
a0d0e21e
LW
2179=item Illegal modulus zero
2180
be771a83
GS
2181(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2182numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2183
6df41af2 2184=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2185
6df41af2
GS
2186(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2187two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2188
2189=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2190
d1be9408 2191(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2192
399388f4 2193=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2194
d1be9408 2195(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2196Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2197
fe13d51d 2198=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2199
6df41af2 2200(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2201following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2202
6df41af2 2203=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2204
75b44862 2205(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2206internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2207delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2208
6df41af2 2209=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2210
be771a83
GS
2211(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2212name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2213didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2214ignored.
54310121 2215
6df41af2 2216=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2217
be771a83
GS
2218(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2219the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2220system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2221times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2222would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2223
be771a83
GS
2224Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2225also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2226
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2227=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2228
2229(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2230C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2231documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2232
979699d9
JH
2233=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2234
2235(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2236Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2237encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2238
1a147d38
YO
2239=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2240
2241(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2242text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2243either consume text or fail.
2244
9e3ec65c 2245The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
2246discovered.
2247
6dbe9451
NC
2248=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2249
6903afa2
FC
2250(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the
2251initialization of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write
2252C<state ($a) = 42> as C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar
2253context. Constructions such as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be
2254supported in a future perl release.
6dbe9451 2255
a0d0e21e
LW
2256=item Insecure dependency in %s
2257
8b1a09fc 2258(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2259The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2260setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2261tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2262from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2263such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2264L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2265
2266=item Insecure directory in %s
2267
be771a83
GS
2268(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2269setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2270the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2271See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2272
62f468fc 2273=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2274
2275(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2276setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2277C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2278supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2279the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2280
0e9be77f
DM
2281=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2282
2283(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2284expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2285function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2286See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2287
b9ef414d
FC
2288=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2289
2290(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2291or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2292integers for your architecture.
2293
a7ae9550
GS
2294=item Integer overflow in %s number
2295
35928bc5 2296(S overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2297either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2298your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2299On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2300representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
23010b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2302transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2303internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2304operations.
bbce6d69 2305
fc89ca81
FC
2306=item Integer overflow in srand
2307
2308(S overflow) The number you have passed to srand is too big to fit
2309in your architecture's integer representation. The number has been
2310replaced with the largest integer supported (0xFFFFFFFF on 32-bit
2311architectures). This means you may be getting less randomness than
2312you expect, because different random seeds above the maximum will
2313return the same sequence of random numbers.
2314
46314c13
JP
2315=item Integer overflow in version
2316
18da5252
FC
2317=item Integer overflow in version %d
2318
784d71ed
FC
2319(W overflow) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for
2320the size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
f084e84f 2321because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use an
784d71ed
FC
2322element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by trying
2323to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like 100/9.
46314c13 2324
7253e4e3 2325=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2326
2327(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
9e3ec65c 2328The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2329discovered.
2330
748a9306
LW
2331=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2332
be771a83
GS
2333(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2334you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2335to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2336L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2337Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2338terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2339
7253e4e3 2340=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2341
fa816bf3 2342(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
9e3ec65c 2343<-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
7253e4e3 2344discovered.
a0d0e21e 2345
6df41af2
GS
2346=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2347
75b44862 2348(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2349followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2350operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2351L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2352
09bef843
SB
2353=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2354
a4a4c9e2 2355(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2356by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2357
2358=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2359
a4a4c9e2 2360(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2361recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2362
4d7cd482
KW
2363=item Invalid character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s}
2364
2365(F) Only certain characters are valid for character names. The
2366indicated one isn't. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2367
225fb84f
KW
2368=item Invalid character in charnames alias definition; marked by <-- HERE in '%s
2369
2370(F) You tried to create a custom alias for a character name, with
2371the C<:alias> option to C<use charnames> and the specified character in
2372the indicated name isn't valid. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2373
c635e13b
PP
2374=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2375
be771a83
GS
2376(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2377L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2378
9e08bc66
ST
2379=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2380
2381(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2382didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2383from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2384The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
9e3ec65c 2385The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
9e08bc66
ST
2386escape was discovered.
2387
8149aa9f
FC
2388=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2389
aec0ef10
FC
2390=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2391
8149aa9f 2392(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2393number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
23940 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2395
6651ba0b
FC
2396=item Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
2397
2398(F) The module argument to perl's B<-m> and B<-M> command-line options
2399cannot contain single colons in the module name, but only in the
2400arguments after "=". In other words, B<-MFoo::Bar=:baz> is ok, but
2401B<-MFoo:Bar=baz> is not.
2402
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2403=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2404
162a3e34
FC
2405(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2406where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2407the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2408a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2409
40e4140b
FC
2410=item Invalid negative number (%s) in chr
2411
2412(W utf8) You passed a negative number to C<chr>. Negative numbers are
2413not valid characters numbers, so it return the Unicode replacement
2414character (U+FFFD).
2415
6651ba0b
FC
2416=item invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
2417
8ff21bfe
FC
2418(S debugging) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags. Call perl
2419with the B<-D> option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.
0341637c 2420See also L<perlrun/B<-D>I<letters>>.
6651ba0b 2421
7253e4e3 2422=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2423
2424(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2425greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2426C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
9e3ec65c 2427up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 2428problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2429
d1573ac7 2430=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2431
2432(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2433character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2434
09bef843
SB
2435=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2436
0120eecf 2437(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2438elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2439parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2440See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2441
b4581f09
JH
2442=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2443
2bfc5f71
FC
2444(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2445than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2446If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2447list was terminated too soon.
2448
2c86d456
DG
2449=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2450
fa816bf3 2451(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2452A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2453decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2454v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2455The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2456See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2457
49704364 2458=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2459
49704364
LW
2460(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2461See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 2462
49704364 2463(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2464silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2465
2c86d456
DG
2466=item Invalid version format (%s)
2467
fa816bf3 2468(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2469A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2470decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
2471v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
2472must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
2473optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
2474trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
2475after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
2476text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
2477for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 2478
798ae1b7
DG
2479=item Invalid version object
2480
fa816bf3
FC
2481(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
2482Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
2483an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 2484
a0d0e21e
LW
2485=item ioctl is not implemented
2486
2487(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2488strange for a machine that supports C.
2489
c289d2f7
JH
2490=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2491
2492(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2493Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2494
fe13d51d 2495=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2496
2497(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2498you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2499with 'useperlio'.
2500
80cbd5ad
JH
2501=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2502
2503(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2504neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2505
b4581f09
JH
2506=item $* is no longer supported
2507
a58ac25e 2508(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
6903afa2 2509perls, has been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In
a58ac25e
FC
2510previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2511matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2512
2513Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
6903afa2
FC
2514modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2515with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
570dedd4 2516then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2517
8ae1fe26
RGS
2518=item $# is no longer supported
2519
a58ac25e 2520(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
6903afa2 2521perls, has been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You
a58ac25e 2522should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2523
ccf3535a 2524=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 2525
6903afa2
FC
2526(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
2527overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
2528an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 2529
ccf3535a 2530=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 2531
04a80ee0
RGS
2532(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2533unaware of.
6ad11d81 2534
aec0ef10 2535=item Junk on end of regexp in regex m/%s/
a0d0e21e
LW
2536
2537(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2538
2539=item Label not found for "last %s"
2540
be771a83
GS
2541(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2542of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2543L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2544
2545=item Label not found for "next %s"
2546
2547(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2548that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2549L<perlfunc/last>.
2550
2551=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2552
2553(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2554that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2555L<perlfunc/last>.
2556
85ab1d1d 2557=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2558
85ab1d1d 2559(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2560effective uids or gids failed.
2561
49704364
LW
2562=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2563
d7f8936a 2564(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
2565length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2566an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 2567
e508c8a4
MH
2568=item length() used on %s
2569
0d46a4e7
FC
2570(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
2571probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
2572
2573Array size can be obtained by doing:
2574
2575 scalar(@array);
2576
2577The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
2578
2579 scalar(keys %hash);
2580
f0e67a1d
Z
2581=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2582
2583(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
6903afa2
FC
2584(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
2585couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2586of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
2587it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2588
2589=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2590
2591(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2592detectable way.
2593
69282e91 2594=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2595
be771a83
GS
2596(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2597to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2598L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2599
6651ba0b
FC
2600=item List form of piped open not implemented
2601
2602(F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments
2603form of C<open> does not support pipes, such as C<open($pipe, '|-', @args)>.
2604Use the two-argument C<open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')> form instead.
2605
bcd05b94 2606=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2607
e9200be3 2608(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
fc003d4b 2609than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
6903afa2 2610wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2611not-a-number value).
2612
bcd05b94 2613=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2614
e9200be3 2615(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
fc003d4b 2616than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
e7a1a147 2617wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2618
58e23c8d 2619=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2620
2621(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
6903afa2 2622handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2623
b88df990
NC
2624=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2625
e63e8a91
FC
2626(W imprecision) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one
2627is too large for the underlying floating point representation to store
2628accurately, hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this
2629warning because it has already switched from integers to floating point
2630when values are too large for integers, and now even floating point is
2631insufficient. You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
b88df990 2632
93fad930 2633=item lstat() on filehandle%s
2f7da168
RK
2634
2635(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2636by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2637instead on the filehandle.)
2638
345d70e3 2639=item lvalue attribute %s already-defined subroutine
bb3abb05 2640
345d70e3
FC
2641(W misc) Although L<attributes.pm|attributes> allows this, turning the lvalue
2642attribute on or off on a Perl subroutine that is already defined
2643does not always work properly. It may or may not do what you
2644want, depending on what code is inside the subroutine, with exact
2645details subject to change between Perl versions. Only do this
2646if you really know what you are doing.
bb3abb05 2647
885ef6f5
GG
2648=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2649
345d70e3
FC
2650(W misc) Using the C<:lvalue> declarative syntax to make a Perl
2651subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined is
2652not permitted. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine,
2653add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the C<sub
2654foo :lvalue;> declaration before the definition.
2655
2656See also L<attributes.pm|attributes>.
885ef6f5 2657
2db62bbc 2658=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 2659
2db62bbc 2660(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2661are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2662
2663=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2664
2db62bbc 2665(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2666are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2667
6df41af2
GS
2668=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2669
2670(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2671
2672 prefix1;prefix2
2673
2674or
6df41af2
GS
2675 prefix1 prefix2
2676
be771a83
GS
2677with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2678a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2679appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2680"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2681
2f758a16
ST
2682=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2683
d37a9538
ST
2684(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2685syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2686obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2687when the function is called.
2f758a16 2688
ba210ebe
JH
2689=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2690
4d6f11e5 2691(S utf8)(F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2575c402 2692encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2693
2575c402
JW
2694One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2695you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
6903afa2 26968-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2575c402
JW
2697
2698If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2699sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2700set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2701message.
2702
2703See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2704
107160e2
KW
2705=item Malformed UTF-8 character immediately after '%s'
2706
2707(F) You said C<use utf8>, but the program file doesn't comply with UTF-8
2708encoding rules. The message prints out the properly encoded characters
2709just before the first bad one. If C<utf8> warnings are enabled, a
2710warning is generated that gives more details about the type of
2711malformation.
2712
bde9e88d 2713=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N{%s} immediately after '%s'
ff3f963a
KW
2714
2715(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2716
4a5d3a93
FC
2717=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2718
2719(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2720rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2721
f337b084
TH
2722=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2723
2724(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2725rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2726
2727=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2728
2729(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2730rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2731
4a5d3a93 2732=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 2733
4a5d3a93
FC
2734(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2735doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2736
2737=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2738
2739(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
2740regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
9e3ec65c 2741shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
4a5d3a93 2742See L<perlre>.
f337b084 2743
de42a5a9 2744=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2745
6903afa2 2746(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2747usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2748too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2749resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
6903afa2 2750safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2563cec5 2751
25f58aea
PN
2752=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2753
2754(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2755interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2756"use" or "my".
2757
0d2487cd 2758=item '%' may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2759
2760(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2761checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2762See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2763
a0d0e21e
LW
2764=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2765
2766(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2767doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2768
3cdd684c
TP
2769=item Method %s not permitted
2770
2771See Server error.
2772
a0d0e21e
LW
2773=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2774
2775(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2776by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2777ended earlier on the current line.
2778
2779=item Misplaced _ in number
2780
d4ced10d
JH
2781(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2782separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2783
7baa4690
HS
2784=item Missing argument in %s
2785
2786(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2787supplied.
2788
9e81e6a1
RGS
2789=item Missing argument to -%c
2790
2791(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2792immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2793
ff3f963a 2794=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2795
aec0ef10
FC
2796=item Missing braces on \N{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2797
4a2d328f 2798(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
2799double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
2800(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2801This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
2802follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 2803
f0a2b745
KW
2804=item Missing braces on \o{}
2805
2806(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2807
a0d0e21e
LW
2808=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2809
2810(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2811"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2812
06eaf0bc
GS
2813=item Missing command in piped open
2814
be771a83
GS
2815(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2816C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2817blank.
06eaf0bc 2818
961ce445
RGS
2819=item Missing control char name in \c
2820
2821(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2822character name.
2823
8767b1ab 2824=item Missing name in "%s sub"
6df41af2 2825
be771a83
GS
2826(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2827they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2828
2829=item Missing $ on loop variable
2830
be771a83
GS
2831(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2832are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2833can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2834
cc507455 2835=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2836
56da5a46
RGS
2837(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2838"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2839
aec0ef10 2840=item Missing right brace on \%c{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 2841
ff3f963a
KW
2842(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2843
4a68bf9d 2844=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2845
d32207c9
FC
2846(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
2847
2848The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
2849meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
fa816bf3 2850name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
d32207c9
FC
2851double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
2852it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
2853
2854Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
2855in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
2856for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
2857
2858This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
2859by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
2860form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
2861means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
28623; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
2863C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2864
2865However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
2866mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
2867If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
2868escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2869
d98d5fff 2870=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2871
be771a83
GS
2872(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2873ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2874were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2875
6df41af2
GS
2876=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2877
56da5a46
RGS
2878(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2879"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2880the previous line just because you saw this message.
2881
a0d0e21e
LW
2882=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2883
2884(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2885constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2886catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2887
2888 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2889 mod(2);
2890
2891Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2892
c5674021
PDF
2893Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2894is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2895
b7e4ecc1
FC
2896 $x = 1;
2897 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2898 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to
2899 } # modify the 2
c5674021 2900
7a4340ed 2901=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2902
2903(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2904subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2905backwards.
2906
7a4340ed 2907=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2908
be771a83
GS
2909(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2910couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2911
2912=item Module name must be constant
2913
2914(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2915
be98fb35 2916=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2917
be98fb35
GS
2918(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2919you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2920about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2921
fe13d51d 2922=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7 2923
6903afa2 2924(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
ed9aa3b7
SG
2925can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2926list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2927See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2928
a0d0e21e
LW
2929=item msg%s not implemented
2930
2931(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2932
2933=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2934
75b44862
GS
2935(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2936They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2937
49704364 2938=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2939
49704364
LW
2940(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2941follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2942See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2943
2944=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2945
be771a83
GS
2946(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2947that yet.
6df41af2 2948
fd1b7234 2949=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2950
be771a83
GS
2951(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2952sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2953local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2954
8149aa9f
FC
2955=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2956
2957(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
2958If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2959again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
2960provided for this purpose.
2961
2962NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2963%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2964the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2965will not trigger this warning.
2966
aec0ef10 2967=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
ff3f963a 2968
c3c41406 2969(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
f4e361c7
FC
2970character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses
2971its specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not
2972what you want.
c3c41406 2973
aec0ef10 2974=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
c3c41406 2975
f4e361c7
FC
2976(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or
2977sequence was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that
2978bypass the lexer, such as using single-quotish context, or an extra
7fae04b9 2979backslash in double-quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2980
2981 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2982 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2983 /$re/;
2984
b09c05e6 2985Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2986
2987 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2988 /$re/;
2989
2990The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2991components:
2992
2993 $re = '\N';
2994 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2995
2996It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2997doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2998
2999Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
3000C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
3001
3002 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
3003 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 3004
49704364
LW
3005=item Negative '/' count in unpack
3006
3007(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
3008negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3009
a0d0e21e
LW
3010=item Negative length
3011
be771a83
GS
3012(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
3013length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 3014
ed9aa3b7
SG
3015=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
3016
3017(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
3018greater than or equal to zero.
3019
7253e4e3 3020=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 3021
6903afa2 3022(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses.
9e3ec65c
FC
3023So things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows
3024whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 3025
7253e4e3 3026Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 3027C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3028
6df41af2 3029=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 3030
be771a83
GS
3031(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
3032scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 3033
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3034=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
3035
3036(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
3037real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
3038See L<mro>.
3039
a0d0e21e
LW
3040=item No %s allowed while running setuid
3041
be771a83
GS
3042(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
3043setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
3044will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
3045securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 3046
6651ba0b
FC
3047=item No code specified for -%c
3048
3049(F) Perl's B<-e> and B<-E> command-line options require an argument. If
3050you want to run an empty program, pass the empty string as a separate
3051argument or run a program consisting of a single 0 or 1:
3052
3053 perl -e ""
3054 perl -e0
3055 perl -e1
3056
a0d0e21e
LW
3057=item No comma allowed after %s
3058
6903afa2
FC
3059(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is
3060not allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
a0d0e21e
LW
3061Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
3062
6903afa2
FC
3063One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported
3064a constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
3065importing took place, it may for example be that your operating
3066system does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did
3067use an explicit import list for the constants you expect to see;
3068please see L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an
3069explicit import list would probably have caught this error earlier
3070it naturally does not remedy the fact that your operating system
3071still does not support that constant. Maybe you have a typo in
3072the constants of the symbol import list of B<use> or B<import> or in the
3073constant name at the line where this error was triggered?
0a753a76 3074
748a9306
LW
3075=item No command into which to pipe on command line
3076
be771a83
GS
3077(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3078redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
3079doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 3080
a0d0e21e
LW
3081=item No DB::DB routine defined
3082
be771a83 3083(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
f7af5ce1 3084for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
ccafdc96
RGS
3085module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
3086statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
3087
3088=item No dbm on this machine
3089
3090(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 3091supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 3092
ccafdc96 3093=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 3094
ccafdc96
RGS
3095(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
3096for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
3097module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
3098of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 3099
6651ba0b
FC
3100=item No directory specified for -I
3101
3102(F) The B<-I> command-line switch requires a directory name as part of the
3103I<same> argument. Use B<-Ilib>, for instance. B<-I lib> won't work.
3104
c47ff5f1 3105=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 3106
be771a83
GS
3107(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3108redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
3109find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 3110
49704364
LW
3111=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
3112
3113(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
6903afa2 3114matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 3115
c47ff5f1 3116=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 3117
be771a83
GS
3118(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3119redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
3120name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 3121
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3122=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
3123
3124(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
3125in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
3126it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
fa816bf3 3127or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2c7d6b9c 3128
6df41af2
GS
3129=item "no" not allowed in expression
3130
be771a83
GS
3131(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
3132returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 3133
c47ff5f1 3134=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 3135
be771a83
GS
3136(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3137redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
3138doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 3139
c47ff5f1 3140=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 3141
be771a83
GS
3142(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3143redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
3144find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 3145
1ec3e8de
GS
3146=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
3147
be771a83
GS
3148(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
3149declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
3150semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 3151
a0d0e21e
LW
3152=item No Perl script found in input
3153
3154(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
3155with #! and containing the word "perl".
3156
3157=item No setregid available
3158
3159(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
3160your system.
3161
3162=item No setreuid available
3163
3164(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
3165your system.
3166
e75d1f10
RD
3167=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
3168
b7e4ecc1
FC
3169(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed
3170variable but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type.
3171The indicated package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the
3172L<fields> pragma.
e75d1f10 3173
2c692339
RGS
3174=item No such class %s
3175
dc7e5945
FC
3176(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state"
3177declaration, but this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2c692339 3178
3c20a832
SP
3179=item No such hook: %s
3180
dc7e5945
FC
3181(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl.
3182Currently, Perl accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks.
3c20a832 3183
6df41af2
GS
3184=item No such pipe open
3185
3186(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
3187close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
3188earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 3189
a0d0e21e
LW
3190=item No such signal: SIG%s
3191
be771a83
GS
3192(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
3193not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
3194names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
3195
3196=item Not a CODE reference
3197
3198(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3199subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3200use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3201also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3202
a0d0e21e
LW
3203=item Not a GLOB reference
3204
be771a83
GS
3205(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3206symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3207something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3208kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3209
3210=item Not a HASH reference
3211
be771a83
GS
3212(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3213reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3214find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3215
6df41af2
GS
3216=item Not an ARRAY reference
3217
be771a83
GS
3218(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3219a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3220to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3221
d4fc4415
FC
3222=item Not an unblessed ARRAY reference
3223
3224(F) You passed a reference to a blessed array to C<push>, C<shift> or
3225another array function. These only accept unblessed array references
3226or arrays beginning explicitly with C<@>.
3227
a0d0e21e
LW
3228=item Not a SCALAR reference
3229
be771a83
GS
3230(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3231a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3232to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3233
3234=item Not a subroutine reference
3235
3236(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3237subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3238use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3239also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3240
e7ea3e70 3241=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3242
3243(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3244doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3245
a0d0e21e
LW
3246=item Not enough arguments for %s
3247
3248(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3249
6df41af2
GS
3250=item Not enough format arguments
3251
be771a83
GS
3252(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3253supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3254
3255=item %s: not found
3256
be771a83
GS
3257(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3258of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3259yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3260
3261=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3262
6df41af2
GS
3263(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3264timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3265to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3266F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3267need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3268
f0a2b745
KW
3269=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3270
fa816bf3
FC
3271(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was
3272unexpectedly encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value
3273is as indicated.
f0a2b745 3274
4ef2275c
GA
3275=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3276
3277(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3278Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
6903afa2 3279select. See L<perlfunc/select>.
4ef2275c 3280
a0d0e21e
LW
3281=item Null filename used
3282
be771a83
GS
3283(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3284machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3285
6df41af2
GS
3286=item NULL OP IN RUN
3287