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Remove bad advice from perllocale.pod
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
12 (S) A severe warning (mandatory).
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
15 (X) A very fatal error (non-trappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
748a9306 18Optional warnings are enabled by using the B<-w> switch. Warnings may
8b1a09fc 19be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}> to a reference to a routine that will be
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20called on each warning instead of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
21Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
22L<perlfunc/eval>.
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23
24Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 25just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
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26The symbols C<"%-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
27
28=over 4
29
30=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
31
32(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
33to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
34if you want to localize a package variable.
35
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36=item "my" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same scope
37
38(S) A lexical variable has been redeclared in the same scope, effectively
39eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost always
8b1a09fc 40a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
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41until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
42destroyed.
43
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44=item "no" not allowed in expression
45
46(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
47no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
48
49=item "use" not allowed in expression
50
51(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
52no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
53
54=item % may only be used in unpack
55
5f05dabc 56(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
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57checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
58way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
59
60=item %s (...) interpreted as function
61
62(W) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 63by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 64found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
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65
66=item %s argument is not a HASH element
67
5f05dabc 68(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash element, such as
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69
70 $foo{$bar}
71 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
72
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73=item %s argument is not a HASH element or slice
74
75(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash element, such as
76
77 $foo{$bar}
78 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
79
80or a hash slice, such as
81
82 @foo{$bar, $baz, $xyzzy}
83 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
84
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85=item %s did not return a true value
86
87(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
88it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
89traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
90do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
91
92=item %s found where operator expected
93
94(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
95sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
96it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
97delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
98
99=item %s had compilation errors.
100
101(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
102
103=item %s has too many errors.
104
105(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
106Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
107
108=item %s matches null string many times
109
110(W) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
111regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
112
113=item %s never introduced
114
115(S) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
116before it could possibly have been used.
117
118=item %s syntax OK
119
120(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
121
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122=item %s: Command not found.
123
124(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
8b1a09fc 125of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
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126into Perl yourself.
127
128=item %s: Expression syntax.
129
130(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
8b1a09fc 131of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
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132into Perl yourself.
133
134=item %s: Undefined variable.
135
136(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
8b1a09fc 137of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
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138into Perl yourself.
139
140=item %s: not found
141
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142(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
143instead of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
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144into Perl yourself.
145
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146=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
147
148(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
149which provides a race condition that breaks security.
150
151=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
152
153(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
154know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
155
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156=item 500 Server error
157
158See Server error.
159
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160=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
161
162(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
163if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
164
165=item @ outside of string
166
2ba9eb46 167(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
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168the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
169
170=item accept() on closed fd
171
172(W) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
173the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
174
175=item Allocation too large: %lx
176
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177(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MSDOS machine.
178
179=item Allocation too large
180
181(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes.
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182
183=item Arg too short for msgsnd
184
185(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
186
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187=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
188
189(W)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
190you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 191a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 192
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193=item Args must match #! line
194
195(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
196with match the arguments specified on the #! line.
197
198=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric
199
200(W) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
201expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
202will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
203
204=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
205
206(D) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
207is now heavily deprecated.
208
209=item assertion botched: %s
210
211(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
212
213=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
214
215(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
216
217=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
218
219(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
220must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
221know which context to supply to the right side.
222
223=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
224
225(P) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
226be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
227of those arenas.
228
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229=item Attempt to free non-existent shared string
230
231(P) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
232optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
233indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
234that can no longer be found in the table.
235
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236=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
237
238(W) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
239routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
240the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
241routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
242it.
243
244=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
245
246(P) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
247
248=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
249
250(W) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
251would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
252and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
253could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
254SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
255when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
256
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257=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
258
259(W) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 260as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
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261dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
262
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263=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
264
265(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 266shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 267S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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268S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
269
270=item Bad associative array
271
272(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
273
274=item Bad filehandle: %s
275
276(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
277has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
278did it in another package.
279
280=item Bad free() ignored
281
282(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
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283malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
284setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
285
286This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
287"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
288C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
289system malloc().
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290
291=item Bad name after %s::
292
293(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
294finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
295so
296
297 $var = 'myvar';
298 $sym = mypack::$var;
299
300is not the same as
301
302 $var = 'myvar';
303 $sym = "mypack::$var";
304
305=item Bad symbol for array
306
307(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
308wasn't a symbol table entry.
309
310=item Bad symbol for filehandle
311
312(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
313wasn't a symbol table entry.
314
315=item Bad symbol for hash
316
317(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
318wasn't a symbol table entry.
319
8b1a09fc 320=item Badly placed ()'s
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321
322(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
8b1a09fc 323of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
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324into Perl yourself.
325
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326=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
327
328(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
329Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
330
331=item bind() on closed fd
332
333(W) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
334the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
335
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336=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
337
338(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
339
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340=item Callback called exit
341
342(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via perl_call_sv()
343exited by calling exit.
344
345=item Can't "last" outside a block
346
347(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
348except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
349current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
350"loopish" block. You can usually double the curlies to get the same
5f05dabc 351effect though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block
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352that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
353
354=item Can't "next" outside a block
355
356(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
357there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
358count as a "loopish" block. You can usually double the curlies to get
5f05dabc 359the same effect though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block
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360that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
361
362=item Can't "redo" outside a block
363
364(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
365there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
366count as a "loopish" block. You can usually double the curlies to get
5f05dabc 367the same effect though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block
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368that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
369
370=item Can't bless non-reference value
371
372(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
373encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
374
375=item Can't break at that line
376
377(S) A warning intended for while running within the debugger, indicating
378the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
379be stopped at.
380
381=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
382
383(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
384functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
385in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
386
387=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
388
389(F) A method call must know what package it's supposed to run in. It
390ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
391you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
392an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
393
394=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
395
396(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
397object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
398neither an object reference nor a package name. (Perhaps it's null?)
399Something like this will reproduce the error:
400
401 $BADREF = undef;
402 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
403 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
404
405=item Can't chdir to %s
406
407(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
408that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
409
410=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
411
412(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 413(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
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414say things like:
415
416 *foo += 1;
417
418You CAN say
419
420 $foo = *foo;
421 $foo += 1;
422
423but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
424
425=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
426
427(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 428(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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429
430=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
431
432(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 433(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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434
435=item Can't create pipe mailbox
436
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437(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
438or other plumbing problems.
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439
440=item Can't declare %s in my
441
5f05dabc 442(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as lexical variables.
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443They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
444
445=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
446
447(S) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
448
5f05dabc 449=item Can't do in-place edit without backup
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450
451(F) You're on a system such as MSDOS that gets confused if you try reading
452from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say B<-i>C<.bak>, or some
453such.
454
8b1a09fc 455=item Can't do inplace edit: %s E<gt> 14 characters
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456
457(S) There isn't enough room in the filename to make a backup name for the file.
458
459=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
460
461(S) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
462/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
463
464=item Can't do setegid!
465
466(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
467of suidperl.
468
469=item Can't do seteuid!
470
471(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
472
473=item Can't do setuid
474
475(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
476do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
477form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
478under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
479If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
480your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
481
482=item Can't do waitpid with flags
483
484(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
485without flags is emulated.
486
8b1a09fc 487=item Can't do {n,m} with n E<gt> m
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488
489(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
490your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
491
492=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
493
494(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
495For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
496
497=item Can't exec "%s": %s
498
5f05dabc 499(W) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
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500program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
501were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
502executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
503#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
504similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
505
506=item Can't exec %s
507
508(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
509what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
510mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
511
512=item Can't execute %s
513
514(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
515in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions.
516
517=item Can't find label %s
518
519(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
520for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
521
522=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
523
524(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 525the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
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526levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
527
528 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.)
529
530=item Can't fork
531
532(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
533
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534=item Unsupported function fork
535
536(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
537
538Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
539Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
540the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
541
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542=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
543
544(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
545access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
546access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
547that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
548assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
549it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
550retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
551but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 552routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
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553appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
554returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
555knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
556see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
557code takes stat buffers lightly.)
558
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559=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
560
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561(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
562can't retrieve its name for later use.
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563
564=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
565
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566(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
567mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
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568
569=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
570
571(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
572call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 573you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
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574L<perlfunc/goto>.
575
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576=item Can't localize a reference
577
578(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which is not allowed because
579the compiler can't determine whether $ref will end up pointing to anything
580with a symbol table entry, and a symbol table entry is necessary to
581do a local.
582
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583=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
584
2ba9eb46 585(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
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586lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
587localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
588package name.
589
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590=item Can't locate %s in @INC
591
592(F) You said to do (or require, or use) a file that couldn't be found
593in any of the libraries mentioned in @INC. Perhaps you need to set
594the PERL5LIB environment variable to say where the extra library is,
595or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or maybe
596you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>.
597
598=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
599
600(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
601functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 602method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
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603
604=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
605
606(W) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
607to exist.
608
609=item Can't mktemp()
610
611(F) The mktemp() routine failed for some reason while trying to process
612a B<-e> switch. Maybe your /tmp partition is full, or clobbered.
613
614=item Can't modify %s in %s
615
616(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 617change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e
LW
618
619=item Can't modify non-existent substring
620
621(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
622a NULL.
623
5f05dabc 624=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 625
5f05dabc 626(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
627buffer.
628
629=item Can't open %s: %s
630
631(S) An inplace edit couldn't open the original file for the indicated reason.
632Usually this is because you don't have read permission for the file.
633
634=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
635
636(W) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
637try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
7e1af8bc 638IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using "E<gt>",
a0d0e21e
LW
639and then read it in under a different file handle.
640
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641=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
642
643(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
644couldn't open the file specified after '2E<gt>' or '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the
645command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
646
647=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
648
649(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 650couldn't open the file specified after 'E<lt>' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
651
652=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
653
654(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
655couldn't open the file specified after 'E<gt>' or 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command
656line for writing.
748a9306
LW
657
658=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
659
660(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
661couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
662
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LW
663=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
664
665(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
666
667=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
668
669(S) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason, probably because
670you don't have write permission to the directory.
671
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672=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
673
674(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
675reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
676
a0d0e21e
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677=item Can't reswap uid and euid
678
679(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
680of suidperl.
681
682=item Can't return outside a subroutine
683
684(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
685there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
686
687=item Can't stat script "%s"
688
689(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
690it open already. Bizarre.
691
692=item Can't swap uid and euid
693
694(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
695of suidperl.
696
697=item Can't take log of %g
698
5f05dabc 699(F) Logarithms are defined on only positive real numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
700
701=item Can't take sqrt of %g
702
703(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
704negative number. There's a Complex package available for Perl, though,
705if you really want to do that.
706
707=item Can't undef active subroutine
708
709(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
710however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
711redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
712
713=item Can't unshift
714
715(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
716as the main Perl stack.
717
718=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
719
720(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
721it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
722so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
723message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
724
725=item Can't upgrade to undef
726
727(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
728of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
729code calling sv_upgrade.
730
c07a80fd
PP
731=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
732
733(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
8b1a09fc 734You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the E<lt>=E<gt> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
735and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
736Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
737lexical variable.
738
a0d0e21e
LW
739=item Can't use %s for loop variable
740
741(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
742
743=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
744
745(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
746reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
747test the type of the reference, if need be.
748
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LW
749=item Can't use \1 to mean $1 in expression
750
751(W) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
752a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 753to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
LW
754Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
755out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
756
44a8e56a
PP
757=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while \"strict refs\" in use
758
759(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
760are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
761
748a9306 762=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
763
764(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
765are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
766
767=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
768
769(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
770be a defined value. This helps to de-lurk some insidious errors.
771
a0d0e21e
LW
772=item Can't use global %s in "my"
773
774(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 775not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
a0d0e21e
LW
776the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
777variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
778weren't.
779
748a9306
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780=item Can't use subscript on %s
781
782(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
783subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
784didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
785
a0d0e21e
LW
786=item Can't write to temp file for B<-e>: %s
787
788(F) The write routine failed for some reason while trying to process
789a B<-e> switch. Maybe your /tmp partition is full, or clobbered.
790
5f05dabc 791=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
792
793(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
794an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
795Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
796
797=item Cannot open temporary file
798
8b1a09fc 799(F) The create routine failed for some reason while trying to process
a0d0e21e
LW
800a B<-e> switch. Maybe your /tmp partition is full, or clobbered.
801
802=item chmod: mode argument is missing initial 0
803
804(W) A novice will sometimes say
805
806 chmod 777, $filename
807
808not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
809to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
810
8b1a09fc 811=item Close on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
812
813(W) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
814
815=item connect() on closed fd
816
817(W) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
818the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
819
4cee8e80
CS
820=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
821
822(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
823inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
824workarounds.
825
a0d0e21e
LW
826=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
827
828(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
829
830=item corrupted regexp pointers
831
832(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
833expression compiler gave it.
834
835=item corrupted regexp program
836
837(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
838a valid magic number.
839
840=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
841
842(W) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
843times than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
844recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
845case it indicates something else.
846
4633a7c4
LW
847=item Did you mean &%s instead?
848
849(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
850
748a9306 851=item Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?
a0d0e21e 852
748a9306
LW
853(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
854On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
855
7e1af8bc 856=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
857
858(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
859you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
860
861=item Do you need to pre-declare %s?
748a9306
LW
862
863(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
864found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
865name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
866because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
867"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
868referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
869to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
870can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
871declaration.
a0d0e21e
LW
872
873=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
874
875(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
876
877=item do_study: out of memory
878
879(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
880
881=item Duplicate free() ignored
882
883(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
884been freed.
885
4633a7c4
LW
886=item elseif should be elsif
887
888(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
889ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
890named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
891unlikely to be what you want.
892
a0d0e21e
LW
893=item END failed--cleanup aborted
894
895(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing an END subroutine.
896The interpreter is immediately exited.
897
748a9306
LW
898=item Error converting file specification %s
899
5f05dabc 900(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
901specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
902single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
903passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
904case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
905
a0d0e21e
LW
906=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
907
908(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
909
910=item Exiting eval via %s
911
8b1a09fc 912(W) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
913a goto, or a loop control statement.
914
915=item Exiting subroutine via %s
916
8b1a09fc 917(W) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
918a goto, or a loop control statement.
919
920=item Exiting substitution via %s
921
8b1a09fc 922(W) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
923a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
924
748a9306 925=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 926
748a9306
LW
927(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
928service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
929filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
930the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
931
932=item fcntl is not implemented
933
934(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
935PDP-11 or something?
936
937=item Filehandle %s never opened
938
939(W) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
940You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
941the FileHandle package.
942
5f05dabc 943=item Filehandle %s opened for only input
a0d0e21e
LW
944
945(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
946intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 947"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 948you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 949L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 950
5f05dabc 951=item Filehandle opened for only input
a0d0e21e
LW
952
953(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
954intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 955"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 956you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 957L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
958
959=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
960
961(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
962a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
963that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
964the name.
965
966=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
967
968(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
969a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
970that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
971the name.
972
973=item Format %s redefined
974
975(W) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
976
977 {
978 local $^W = 0;
979 eval "format NAME =...";
980 }
981
982=item Format not terminated
983
984(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
985to the end of your file without finding such a line.
986
987=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
988
989(W) You said
990
991 if ($foo = 123)
992
993when you meant
994
995 if ($foo == 123)
996
997(or something like that).
998
999=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1000
1001(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1002
1003=item gethostent not implemented
1004
1005(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1006because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1007on the Internet.
1008
1009=item get{sock,peer}name() on closed fd
1010
1011(W) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
1012Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1013
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LW
1014=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1015
1016(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1017C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1018
1019
a0d0e21e
LW
1020=item Glob not terminated
1021
1022(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1023a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1024finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1025the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1026
1027=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1028
1029(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables must
1030either be lexically scoped (using "my"), or explicitly qualified to
1031say which package the global variable is in (using "::").
1032
1033=item goto must have label
1034
1035(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1036unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1037
1038=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1039
1040(S) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
1041existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1042an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1043
1044=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1045
1046(D) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
1047is now heavily deprecated.
1048
8b1a09fc 1049=item Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter
a0d0e21e 1050
8b1a09fc
PP
1051(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. A logical name was encountered when preparing
1052to iterate over %ENV which violates the syntactic rules governing logical
5f05dabc
PP
1053names. Because it cannot be translated normally, it is skipped, and will not
1054appear in %ENV. This may be a benign occurrence, as some software packages
8b1a09fc
PP
1055might directly modify logical name tables and introduce non-standard names,
1056or it may indicate that a logical name table has been corrupted.
a0d0e21e
LW
1057
1058=item Illegal division by zero
1059
1060(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1061logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1062
1063=item Illegal modulus zero
1064
1065(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1066don't take to this kindly.
1067
1068=item Illegal octal digit
1069
1070(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1071
748a9306
LW
1072=item Illegal octal digit ignored
1073
1074(W) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
1075of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1076
a0d0e21e
LW
1077=item Insecure dependency in %s
1078
8b1a09fc 1079(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1080The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1081or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1082labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1083who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1084used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1085for more information.
1086
1087=item Insecure directory in %s
1088
1089(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1090script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1091See L<perlsec>.
1092
1093=item Insecure PATH
1094
1095(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
8b1a09fc 1096setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> is derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1097potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1098known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1099
bbce6d69
PP
1100=item Integer overflow in hex number
1101
1102(S) The literal hex number you have specified is too big for your
1103architecture. On a 32-bit architecture the largest hex literal is
11040xFFFFFFFF.
1105
1106=item Integer overflow in octal number
1107
1108(S) The literal octal number you have specified is too big for your
1109architecture. On a 32-bit architecture the largest octal literal is
1110037777777777.
1111
748a9306
LW
1112=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1113
1114(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1115of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1116whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
748a9306
LW
1117script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/exec>). Somehow, this count
1118has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1119this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1120and execute the specified command.
1121
a0d0e21e
LW
1122=item internal disaster in regexp
1123
1124(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1125
1126=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1127
1128(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1129
1130=item invalid [] range in regexp
1131
1132(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
1133greater than the maximum character. See L<perlre>.
1134
1135=item ioctl is not implemented
1136
1137(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1138strange for a machine that supports C.
1139
1140=item junk on end of regexp
1141
1142(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1143
1144=item Label not found for "last %s"
1145
1146(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1147loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1148See L<perlfunc/last>.
1149
1150=item Label not found for "next %s"
1151
1152(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1153that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1154L<perlfunc/last>.
1155
1156=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1157
1158(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1159that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1160L<perlfunc/last>.
1161
1162=item listen() on closed fd
1163
1164(W) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1165the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1166
1167=item Literal @%s now requires backslash
1168
1169(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1170array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was
1171first used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and
1172ambiguous instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by putting a
1173backslash to indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array
1174within the program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply
1175assume that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1176
1177=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1178
1179(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 1180doesn't somehow point to a valid method. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1181
1182=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1183
1184(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1185by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1186ended earlier on the current line.
1187
1188=item Misplaced _ in number
1189
1190(W) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
1191
1192=item Missing $ on loop variable
1193
8b1a09fc
PP
1194(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1195mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1196one line to the next.
1197
1198=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1199
1200(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1201"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1202
748a9306
LW
1203=item Missing operator before %s?
1204
1205(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1206found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1207
a0d0e21e
LW
1208=item Missing right bracket
1209
1210(F) The lexer counted more opening curly brackets (braces) than closing ones.
1211As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you were last
1212editing.
1213
1214=item Missing semicolon on previous line?
1215
1216(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1217found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
1218the previous line just because you saw this message.
1219
1220=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1221
1222(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1223constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1224catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1225
1226 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1227 mod(2);
1228
1229Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1230
1231=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, subscript %d
1232
1233(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1234subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1235backwards.
1236
1237=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
1238
1239(F) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
1240be created for some peculiar reason.
1241
1242=item Module name must be constant
1243
1244(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1245
1246=item msg%s not implemented
1247
1248(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1249
1250=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1251
8b1a09fc
PP
1252(W) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
1253like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1254
1255=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1256
1257(W) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names. If you
1258had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
1259again somehow to suppress the message (the C<use vars> pragma is
1260provided for just this purpose).
a0d0e21e
LW
1261
1262=item Negative length
1263
1264(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1265that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1266
1267=item nested *?+ in regexp
1268
5f05dabc 1269(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1270things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1271
5f05dabc 1272Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1273to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1274
1275=item No #! line
1276
1277(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1278even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1279
1280=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1281
1282(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1283script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1284another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1285See L<perlsec>.
1286
1287=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1288
1289(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1290
1291=item No comma allowed after %s
1292
1293(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1294allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1295Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1296
748a9306
LW
1297=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1298
1299(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
1300and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know whither you
1301want to pipe the output from this command.
1302
a0d0e21e
LW
1303=item No DB::DB routine defined
1304
1305(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1306but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1307didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1308statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1309automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1310right.
1311
1312=item No dbm on this machine
1313
1314(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1315supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1316
1317=item No DBsub routine
1318
1319(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1320but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1321didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1322ordinary subroutine call.
1323
8b1a09fc 1324=item No error file after 2E<gt> or 2E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1325
1326(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1327and found a '2E<gt>' or a '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find
1328the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 1329
8b1a09fc 1330=item No input file after E<lt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1331
1332(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1333and found a 'E<lt>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
1334from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 1335
8b1a09fc 1336=item No output file after E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1337
1338(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1339and found a lone 'E<gt>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
1340whither you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 1341
8b1a09fc 1342=item No output file after E<gt> or E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1343
1344(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1345and found a 'E<gt>' or a 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find the
1346name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 1347
a0d0e21e
LW
1348=item No Perl script found in input
1349
1350(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
1351with #! and containing the word "perl".
1352
1353=item No setregid available
1354
1355(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
1356your system.
1357
1358=item No setreuid available
1359
1360(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
1361your system.
1362
1363=item No space allowed after B<-I>
1364
1365(F) The argument to B<-I> must follow the B<-I> immediately with no
1366intervening space.
1367
748a9306
LW
1368=item No such pipe open
1369
1370(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
1371close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
1372an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
1373
a0d0e21e
LW
1374=item No such signal: SIG%s
1375
1376(W) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
1377Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
1378
1379=item Not a CODE reference
1380
1381(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1382subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1383use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1384See also L<perlref>.
1385
1386=item Not a format reference
1387
1388(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
1389format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
1390
1391=item Not a GLOB reference
1392
55497cff 1393(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
1394a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
1395something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
1396what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1397
1398=item Not a HASH reference
1399
1400(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
1401found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1402function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1403
1404=item Not a perl script
1405
1406(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1407even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
1408mention perl.
1409
1410=item Not a SCALAR reference
1411
1412(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
1413found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1414function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1415
1416=item Not a subroutine reference
1417
1418(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1419subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1420use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1421See also L<perlref>.
1422
1423=item Not a subroutine reference in %OVERLOAD
1424
1425(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 1426doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1427
1428=item Not an ARRAY reference
1429
1430(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
1431found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1432function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1433
1434=item Not enough arguments for %s
1435
1436(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
1437
1438=item Not enough format arguments
1439
1440(W) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
1441See L<perlform>.
1442
1443=item Null filename used
1444
5f05dabc 1445(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
1446that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
1447
55497cff
PP
1448=item Null picture in formline
1449
1450(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
1451specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
1452supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
1453
a0d0e21e
LW
1454=item NULL OP IN RUN
1455
1456(P) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
1457
1458=item Null realloc
1459
1460(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
1461
1462=item NULL regexp argument
1463
5f05dabc 1464(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
1465
1466=item NULL regexp parameter
1467
1468(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
1469
1470=item Odd number of elements in hash list
1471
1472(S) You specified an odd number of elements to a hash list, which is odd,
5f05dabc 1473because hash lists come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 1474
bbce6d69
PP
1475=item Offset outside string
1476
1477(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
1478pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
1479The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
1480will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
1481
a0d0e21e
LW
1482=item oops: oopsAV
1483
1484(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1485
1486=item oops: oopsHV
1487
1488(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1489
1490=item Operation `%s' %s: no method found,
1491
1492(F) An attempt was made to use an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 1493somehow no longer points to a valid method. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 1494
44a8e56a
PP
1495=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
1496
1497(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importing stubs.
1498Stubs should never be implicitely created, but explicit calls to C<can>
1499may break this.
1500
1501=item Cannot resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `s'
1502
1503(P) Internal error trying to resolve overloading specified by a method
1504name (as opposed to a subroutine reference).
1505
748a9306
LW
1506=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
1507
1508(S) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
1509expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
1510to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
1511For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
1512if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
1513
a0d0e21e
LW
1514=item Out of memory for yacc stack
1515
1516(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
1517but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
1518
1519=item Out of memory!
1520
55497cff 1521(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
eff9c6e2
CS
1522remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
1523
1524The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
1525depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
1526However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
1527an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff
PP
1528error is trappable I<once>.
1529
1530=item Out of memory during request for %s
1531
1532(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
1533remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
1534the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
1535a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
1536
a0d0e21e
LW
1537=item page overflow
1538
1539(W) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
1540See L<perlform>.
1541
1542=item panic: ck_grep
1543
1544(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
1545
1546=item panic: ck_split
1547
1548(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
1549
1550=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
1551
1552(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
1553are in the savestack.
1554
1555=item panic: die %s
1556
1557(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
1558it wasn't an eval context.
1559
1560=item panic: do_match
1561
1562(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1563
1564=item panic: do_split
1565
1566(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
1567
1568=item panic: do_subst
1569
1570(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1571
1572=item panic: do_trans
1573
1574(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1575
1576=item panic: goto
1577
1578(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
1579and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
1580
1581=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
1582
1583(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
1584
1585=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
1586
1587(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
1588
1589=item panic: last
1590
1591(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
1592it wasn't a block context.
1593
1594=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
1595
5f05dabc 1596(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
1597
1598=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
1599
1600(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
1601invalid enum on the top of it.
1602
1603=item panic: malloc
1604
1605(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
1606
1607=item panic: mapstart
1608
1609(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
1610
1611=item panic: null array
1612
1613(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
1614
1615=item panic: pad_alloc
1616
1617(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1618and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1619
1620=item panic: pad_free curpad
1621
1622(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1623and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1624
1625=item panic: pad_free po
1626
1627(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1628
1629=item panic: pad_reset curpad
1630
1631(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1632and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1633
1634=item panic: pad_sv po
1635
1636(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1637
1638=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
1639
1640(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1641and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1642
1643=item panic: pad_swipe po
1644
1645(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1646
1647=item panic: pp_iter
1648
1649(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
1650
1651=item panic: realloc
1652
1653(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
1654
1655=item panic: restartop
1656
1657(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
1658didn't supply the destination.
1659
1660=item panic: return
1661
1662(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
1663then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
1664
1665=item panic: scan_num
1666
1667(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
1668
1669=item panic: sv_insert
1670
1671(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
1672was string.
1673
1674=item panic: top_env
1675
1676(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
1677
1678=item panic: yylex
1679
1680(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
1681
5f05dabc 1682=item Pareneses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e
LW
1683
1684(W) You said something like
1685
1686 my $foo, $bar = @_;
1687
1688when you meant
1689
1690 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
1691
1692Remember that "my" and "local" bind closer than comma.
1693
1694=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
1695
1696(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
1697than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
1698anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
1699
1700=item Permission denied
1701
1702(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
1703
748a9306
LW
1704=item pid %d not a child
1705
1706(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
1707isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
1708perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
1709
a0d0e21e
LW
1710=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
1711
1712(F) Your C compiler uses POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
1713the BSD version, which takes a pid.
1714
bbce6d69
PP
1715=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
1716
5f05dabc 1717(W) You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69
PP
1718
1719 qw( a # a comment
1720 b # another comment
1721 ) ;
1722
1723when you should have written this:
1724
1725 qw( a
1726 b
1727 ) ;
1728
1729=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
1730
5f05dabc 1731(W) You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69
PP
1732
1733 qw( a, b, c );
1734
1735when you should have written this:
1736
1737 qw( a b c );
1738
a0d0e21e
LW
1739=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
1740
1741(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
1742Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
1743end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
1744Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
1745
1746=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
1747
1748(S) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 1749
a0d0e21e
LW
1750 open FOO || die;
1751
1752is now misinterpreted as
1753
1754 open(FOO || die);
1755
1756because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary and
1757list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must put
5f05dabc 1758parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator instead of "||".
a0d0e21e
LW
1759
1760=item print on closed filehandle %s
1761
1762(W) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
1763Check your logic flow.
1764
1765=item printf on closed filehandle %s
1766
1767(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
1768Check your logic flow.
1769
1770=item Probable precedence problem on %s
1771
1772(W) The compiler found a bare word where it expected a conditional,
1773which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
1774last argument of the previous construct, for example:
1775
1776 open FOO || die;
1777
4633a7c4
LW
1778=item Prototype mismatch: (%s) vs (%s)
1779
5f05dabc 1780(S) The subroutine being defined had a pre-declared (forward) declaration
4633a7c4
LW
1781with a different function prototype.
1782
8b1a09fc 1783=item Read on closed filehandle E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
1784
1785(W) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
1786Check your logic flow.
1787
1788=item Reallocation too large: %lx
1789
1790(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MSDOS machine.
1791
1792=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
1793
1794(F) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
1795desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
1796which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
1797
1798=item Recursive inheritance detected
1799
1800(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
1801an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
1802
1803=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
1804
1805(W) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
1806reference count of other than 1.
1807
1808=item regexp memory corruption
1809
1810(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1811expression compiler gave it.
1812
1813=item regexp out of space
1814
1815(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
1816
1817=item regexp too big
1818
2ba9eb46 1819(F) The current implementation of regular expressions uses shorts as
a0d0e21e
LW
1820address offsets within a string. Unfortunately this means that if
1821the regular expression compiles to longer than 32767, it'll blow up.
1822Usually when you want a regular expression this big, there is a better
1823way to do it with multiple statements. See L<perlre>.
1824
1825=item Reversed %s= operator
1826
1827(W) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
1828comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
1829
1830=item Runaway format
1831
1832(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
1833produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
1834199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
1835themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
1836shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
1837
1838=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
1839
a6006777 1840(W) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 1841an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc
PP
1842The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
1843assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 1844like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 1845subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 1846
748a9306 1847On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 1848element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
1849Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
1850L<perlref>.
1851
a6006777
PP
1852=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
1853
1854(W) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
1855a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
1856The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
1857assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
1858like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
1859subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
1860
1861On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
1862element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
1863Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
1864L<perlref>.
1865
a0d0e21e
LW
1866=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
1867
1868(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script with its setuid
8b1a09fc 1869or setgid bit not set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
1870
1871=item Search pattern not terminated
1872
1873(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
1874construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
1875
1876=item seek() on unopened file
1877
1878(W) You tried to use the seek() function on a filehandle that was either
1879never opened or has been closed since.
1880
1881=item select not implemented
1882
1883(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
1884
1885=item sem%s not implemented
1886
1887(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
1888
1889=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
1890
1891(S) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
1892that had previously been marked as free.
1893
1894=item Semicolon seems to be missing
1895
1896(W) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
1897or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
1898
1899=item Send on closed socket
1900
1901(W) The filehandle you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
1902Check your logic flow.
1903
1904=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
1905
1906(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 1907parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1908
1909=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
1910
1911(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
1912but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
1913
1914=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
1915
1916(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
1917See L<perlre>.
1918
a5f75d66
AD
1919=item Server error
1920
1921Also known as "500 Server error". This is a CGI error, not a Perl
1922error. You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible
1923by the user CGI is running the script under (which is probably not
1924the user account you tested it under), does not rely on any environment
1925variables (like PATH) from the user it isn't running under, and isn't
1926in a location where the CGI server can't find it, basically, more or less.
1927
a0d0e21e
LW
1928=item setegid() not implemented
1929
8b1a09fc 1930(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
1931the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
1932think so.
1933
1934=item seteuid() not implemented
1935
8b1a09fc 1936(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<gt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
1937the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
1938think so.
1939
1940=item setrgid() not implemented
1941
8b1a09fc 1942(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
1943the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
1944think so.
1945
1946=item setruid() not implemented
1947
8b1a09fc 1948(F) You tried to assign to C<$<lt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
1949the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
1950think so.
1951
1952=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
1953
1954(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
1955because the world might have written on it already.
1956
1957=item shm%s not implemented
1958
1959(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
1960
1961=item shutdown() on closed fd
1962
1963(W) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
1964
1965=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined.
1966
1967(W) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
1968put it into the wrong package?
1969
1970=item sort is now a reserved word
1971
1972(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
1973But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
1974
1975=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
1976
1977(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
4633a7c4 1978it by not using C<E<lt>=E<gt>> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
1979See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1980
1981=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
1982
1983(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
1984or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1985
1986=item Split loop
1987
1988(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
1989more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
1990See L<perlfunc/split>.
1991
8b1a09fc 1992=item Stat on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
1993
1994(W) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
1995on a filehandle that was either never opened or has been closed since.
1996
1997=item Statement unlikely to be reached
1998
1999(W) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
2000This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
2001there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
2002which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
2003by itself.
2004
2005=item Subroutine %s redefined
2006
2007(W) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
2008
2009 {
2010 local $^W = 0;
2011 eval "sub name { ... }";
2012 }
2013
2014=item Substitution loop
2015
2016(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
2017substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
2018input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2019L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2020
2021=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2022
2023(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2024construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
2025
2026=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2027
2028(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2029construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
2030
2031=item substr outside of string
2032
2033(W) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a string.
2034That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the length of
2035the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
2036
2037=item suidperl is no longer needed since...
2038
2039(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2040version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2041
2042=item syntax error
2043
2044(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2045
2046 A keyword is misspelled.
2047 A semicolon is missing.
2048 A comma is missing.
2049 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2050 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2051 A closing quote is missing.
2052
2053Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2054error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2055The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2056it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2057before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2058Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2059the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2060C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2061if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2062
cb1a09d0
AD
2063=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2064
8b1a09fc
PP
2065(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
2066instead of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2067into Perl yourself.
2068
a0d0e21e
LW
2069=item System V IPC is not implemented on this machine
2070
5f05dabc 2071(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem", "shm",
a0d0e21e
LW
2072or "msg". See L<perlfunc/semctl>, for example.
2073
2074=item Syswrite on closed filehandle
2075
2076(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2077Check your logic flow.
2078
2079=item tell() on unopened file
2080
2081(W) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
2082never opened or has been closed since.
2083
8b1a09fc 2084=item Test on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2085
2086(W) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
2087open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2088
2089=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2090
8b1a09fc 2091(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2092a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2093
2094 $[ = 0;
2095 $[ = 1;
2096 ...
2097 local $[ = 0;
2098 local $[ = 1;
2099 ...
2100
2101This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2102out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2103
2104=item The %s function is unimplemented
2105
2106The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2107to the probings of Configure.
2108
2109=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia.
2110
2111(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2112probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 2113think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
2114will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
2115will deny it.
2116
2117=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
2118
2119(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
2120if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
2121the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
2122
2123=item times not implemented
2124
2125(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
2126you're not running on Unix.
2127
2128=item Too few args to syscall
2129
2130(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
2131system call to call, silly dilly.
2132
cb1a09d0
AD
2133=item Too many ('s
2134
2135=item Too many )'s
2136
2137(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
8b1a09fc 2138of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2139into Perl yourself.
2140
a0d0e21e
LW
2141=item Too many args to syscall
2142
5f05dabc 2143(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
2144
2145=item Too many arguments for %s
2146
2147(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
2148
2149=item trailing \ in regexp
2150
2151(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
2152it. See L<perlre>.
2153
2154=item Translation pattern not terminated
2155
2156(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
2157construct.
2158
2159=item Translation replacement not terminated
2160
2161(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
2162construct.
2163
2164=item truncate not implemented
2165
2166(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
2167Configure knows about.
2168
2169=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
2170
2171(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
2172certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
2173%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
2174{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
2175
2176=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
2177
5f05dabc 2178(W) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal literals
a0d0e21e
LW
2179always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
2180
4633a7c4
LW
2181=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
2182
2183(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
2184
a0d0e21e
LW
2185=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
2186
2187(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
2188contexts were entered and left.
2189
2190=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
2191
2192(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
2193values were temporarily localized.
2194
2195=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
2196
2197(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
2198were entered and left.
2199
2200=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
2201
2202(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
2203scalars were allocated and freed.
2204
2205=item Undefined format "%s" called
2206
2207(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2208another package? See L<perlform>.
2209
2210=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
2211
2212(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
2213it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2214
2215=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
2216
2217(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2218has since been undefined.
2219
2220=item Undefined subroutine called
2221
2222(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
2223or if it was, it has since been undefined.
2224
2225=item Undefined subroutine in sort
2226
2227(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
2228have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2229
4633a7c4
LW
2230=item Undefined top format "%s" called
2231
2232(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2233another package? See L<perlform>.
2234
a0d0e21e
LW
2235=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
2236
2237(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
2238representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
2239
2240=item Unknown BYTEORDER
2241
5f05dabc 2242(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e
LW
2243
2244=item unmatched () in regexp
2245
2246(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
2247expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 2248the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2249
2250=item Unmatched right bracket
2251
2252(F) The lexer counted more closing curly brackets (braces) than opening
2253ones, so you're probably missing an opening bracket. As a general
2254rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the place you were
2255last editing.
2256
2257=item unmatched [] in regexp
2258
2259(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
2260include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
2261See L<perlre>.
2262
2263=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2264
2265(W) You used a bare word that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
2266It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
2267an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
2268
2269=item Unrecognized character \%03o ignored
2270
2271(S) A garbage character was found in the input, and ignored, in case it's
2272a weird control character on an EBCDIC machine, or some such.
2273
2274=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
2275
2276(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
2277Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
2278
2279=item Unrecognized switch: -%s
2280
2281(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
2282(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
2283supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
2284
2285=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
2286
2287(W) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
2288failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
2289because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chop>.
2290
2291=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
2292
2293(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
2294
2295=item Unsupported function %s
2296
2297(F) This machines doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
2298At least, Configure doesn't think so.
2299
2300=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
2301
2302(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
2303least that's what Configure thought.
2304
8b1a09fc 2305=item Unterminated E<lt>E<gt> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
2306
2307(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
2308a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
2309finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
2310the line, and you really meant a "less than".
2311
2312=item Use of $# is deprecated
2313
8b1a09fc 2314(D) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
2315Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
2316
2317=item Use of $* is deprecated
2318
5f05dabc 2319(D) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
2320you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
2321use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
2322action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
2323
748a9306
LW
2324=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
2325
5f05dabc
PP
2326(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
2327only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 2328
a0d0e21e
LW
2329=item Use of %s is deprecated
2330
2331(D) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
2332because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
2333bad side effects.
2334
8b1a09fc 2335=item Use of bare E<lt>E<lt> to mean E<lt>E<lt>"" is deprecated
4633a7c4
LW
2336
2337(D) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
2338wish to use a blank line as the terminator of the here-document.
2339
a0d0e21e
LW
2340=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
2341
2342(D) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
2343subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
2344a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
2345
2346=item Use of uninitialized value
2347
2348(W) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
2349interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
2350warning assign an initial value to your variables.
2351
2352=item Useless use of %s in void context
2353
2354(W) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
2355with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
2356from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
2357this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
2358your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
2359if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
2360
2361 $one, $two = 1, 2;
2362
2363when you meant to say
2364
2365 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
2366
748a9306
LW
2367Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
2368reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
2369example, if you say
2370
2371 $array = (1,2);
2372
2373when you should have said
2374
2375 $array = [1,2];
2376
2377The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
2378while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
2379a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
2380throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
2381L<perlref> for more on this.
2382
55497cff
PP
2383=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
2384
2385(W) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
2386valid when C<untie> was called.
2387
8ebc5c01 2388=item Value of %s construct can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777
PP
2389
2390(W) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), or
8ebc5c01 2391C<readdir> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
a6006777 2392value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which
8ebc5c01 2393is probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in
a6006777
PP
2394conditional expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
2395
4633a7c4
LW
2396=item Variable "%s" is not exported
2397
2398(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
2399that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
2400something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
2401by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
2402on the front of your variable.
2403
44a8e56a
PP
2404=item Variable "%s" may be unavailable
2405
2406(W) An inner (nested) I<anonymous> subroutine is inside a I<named>
2407subroutine, and outside that is another subroutine; and the anonymous
2408(innermost) subroutine is referencing a lexical variable defined in
2409the outermost subroutine. For example:
2410
2411 sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }
2412
2413If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or
2414indirectly) from the outermost subroutine, it will share the variable
2415as you would expect. But if the anonymous subroutine is called or
2416referenced when the outermost subroutine is not active, it will see
2417the value of the shared variable as it was before and during the
2418*first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is probably not what
2419you want.
2420
2421In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle
2422subroutine anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. Perl has specific
2423support for shared variables in nested anonymous subroutines; a named
2424subroutine in between interferes with this feature.
2425
2426=item Variable "%s" will not stay shared
2427
2428(W) An inner (nested) I<named> subroutine is referencing a lexical
2429variable defined in an outer subroutine.
2430
2431When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value of
2432the outer subroutine's variable as it was before and during the
2433*first* call to the outer subroutine; in this case, after the first
2434call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer
2435subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable. In
2436other words, the variable will no longer be shared.
2437
2438Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a
2439lexical variable outside itself, then the outer and inner subroutines
2440will I<never> share the given variable.
2441
2442This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine
2443anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. When inner anonymous subs that
2444reference variables in outer subroutines are called or referenced,
2445they are automatically re-bound to the current values of such
2446variables.
2447
cb1a09d0
AD
2448=item Variable syntax.
2449
2450(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
8b1a09fc 2451of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2452into Perl yourself.
2453
7e1af8bc 2454=item Warning: something's wrong
5f05dabc
PP
2455
2456(W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of C<warn "">) or
2457you called it with no args and C<$_> was empty.
2458
a0d0e21e
LW
2459=item Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly.
2460
8b1a09fc 2461(S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the
5f05dabc 2462close(). This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.
a0d0e21e 2463
5f05dabc 2464=item Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
a0d0e21e
LW
2465
2466(S) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
2467binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or
2468unary operator. For instance, if you know that the rand function
2469has a default argument of 1.0, and you write
2470
2471 rand + 5;
2472
2473you may THINK you wrote the same thing as
2474
2475 rand() + 5;
2476
2477but in actual fact, you got
2478
2479 rand(+5);
2480
5f05dabc 2481So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.
a0d0e21e
LW
2482
2483=item Write on closed filehandle
2484
2485(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2486Check your logic flow.
2487
2488=item X outside of string
2489
2490(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position before
2491the beginning of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2492
2493=item x outside of string
2494
2495(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after
2496the end of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2497
2498=item Xsub "%s" called in sort
2499
2500(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
2501
2502=item Xsub called in sort
2503
2504(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
2505
2506=item You can't use C<-l> on a filehandle
2507
2508(F) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it
2509already went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.
2510Use a filename instead.
2511
2512=item YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
2513
5f05dabc 2514(F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the
a0d0e21e
LW
2515sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip
2516about what you want. Your best bet is to use the wrapsuid script in
2517the eg directory to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.
2518
2519=item You need to quote "%s"
2520
2521(W) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name. Unfortunately, you
2522already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5
2523will try to call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is
2524probably not what you want. (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)
2525
2526=item [gs]etsockopt() on closed fd
2527
2528(W) You tried to get or set a socket option on a closed socket.
2529Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
2530See L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2531
2532=item \1 better written as $1
2533
2534(W) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables. The use
5f05dabc 2535of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
a0d0e21e
LW
2536substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
2537because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better
2538if there are more than 9 backreferences.
2539
8b1a09fc 2540=item '|' and 'E<lt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
2541
2542(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
2543found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using
8b1a09fc 2544'E<lt>'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
748a9306 2545
8b1a09fc 2546=item '|' and 'E<gt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
2547
2548(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
2549thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another
2550command. You need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you
2551from piping into a program or Perl script which 'splits' output into two
2552streams, such as
2553
2554 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
2555 while (<STDIN>) {
2556 print;
2557 print OUT;
2558 }
2559 close OUT;
2560
33c8a3fe
IZ
2561=item Got an error from DosAllocMem:
2562
2563(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you use an obsolete version
5f05dabc 2564of perl, and this should not happen anyway.
33c8a3fe
IZ
2565
2566=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2567
2568(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2569
2570 prefix1;prefix2
2571
2572or
2573
2574 prefix1 prefix2
2575
2576with non-empty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2577a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may appear
2578if components are not found, or are too long. See L<perlos2/"PERLLIB_PREFIX">.
2579
2580=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
2581
2582(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
2583C<sh>-shell in. See L<perlos2/"PERL_SH_DIR">.
2584
2585=item Process terminated by SIG%s
2586
2587(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
2588applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
2589port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
2590L<perlipc/"Signals">. See L<perlos2/"Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT">.
2591
a0d0e21e
LW
2592=back
2593