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toke.c: Avoid a conversion to/from UTF-8
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a0ed51b3
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1/* utf8.c
2 *
1129b882 3 * Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
b94e2f88 4 * by Larry Wall and others
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5 *
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8 *
9 */
10
11/*
4ac71550
TC
12 * 'What a fix!' said Sam. 'That's the one place in all the lands we've ever
13 * heard of that we don't want to see any closer; and that's the one place
14 * we're trying to get to! And that's just where we can't get, nohow.'
15 *
cdad3b53 16 * [p.603 of _The Lord of the Rings_, IV/I: "The Taming of Sméagol"]
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17 *
18 * 'Well do I understand your speech,' he answered in the same language;
19 * 'yet few strangers do so. Why then do you not speak in the Common Tongue,
4ac71550 20 * as is the custom in the West, if you wish to be answered?'
cdad3b53 21 * --Gandalf, addressing Théoden's door wardens
4ac71550
TC
22 *
23 * [p.508 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/vi: "The King of the Golden Hall"]
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24 *
25 * ...the travellers perceived that the floor was paved with stones of many
26 * hues; branching runes and strange devices intertwined beneath their feet.
4ac71550
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27 *
28 * [p.512 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/vi: "The King of the Golden Hall"]
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29 */
30
31#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 32#define PERL_IN_UTF8_C
a0ed51b3 33#include "perl.h"
b992490d 34#include "invlist_inline.h"
a0ed51b3 35
806547a7 36static const char malformed_text[] = "Malformed UTF-8 character";
27da23d5 37static const char unees[] =
806547a7 38 "Malformed UTF-8 character (unexpected end of string)";
760c7c2f 39static const char cp_above_legal_max[] =
147e3846 40 "Use of code point 0x%" UVXf " is deprecated; the permissible max is 0x%" UVXf;
760c7c2f 41
114d9c4d 42#define MAX_NON_DEPRECATED_CP ((UV) (IV_MAX))
901b21bf 43
48ef279e 44/*
ccfc67b7 45=head1 Unicode Support
7fefc6c1 46These are various utility functions for manipulating UTF8-encoded
72d33970 47strings. For the uninitiated, this is a method of representing arbitrary
61296642 48Unicode characters as a variable number of bytes, in such a way that
56da48f7
DM
49characters in the ASCII range are unmodified, and a zero byte never appears
50within non-zero characters.
166f8a29 51
eaf7a4d2
CS
52=cut
53*/
54
9cbfb8ab
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55void
56Perl__force_out_malformed_utf8_message(pTHX_
57 const U8 *const p, /* First byte in UTF-8 sequence */
58 const U8 * const e, /* Final byte in sequence (may include
59 multiple chars */
60 const U32 flags, /* Flags to pass to utf8n_to_uvchr(),
61 usually 0, or some DISALLOW flags */
62 const bool die_here) /* If TRUE, this function does not return */
63{
64 /* This core-only function is to be called when a malformed UTF-8 character
65 * is found, in order to output the detailed information about the
66 * malformation before dieing. The reason it exists is for the occasions
67 * when such a malformation is fatal, but warnings might be turned off, so
68 * that normally they would not be actually output. This ensures that they
69 * do get output. Because a sequence may be malformed in more than one
70 * way, multiple messages may be generated, so we can't make them fatal, as
71 * that would cause the first one to die.
72 *
73 * Instead we pretend -W was passed to perl, then die afterwards. The
74 * flexibility is here to return to the caller so they can finish up and
75 * die themselves */
76 U32 errors;
77
78 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__FORCE_OUT_MALFORMED_UTF8_MESSAGE;
79
80 ENTER;
81 SAVESPTR(PL_dowarn);
82 SAVESPTR(PL_curcop);
83
84 PL_dowarn = G_WARN_ALL_ON|G_WARN_ON;
85 if (PL_curcop) {
86 PL_curcop->cop_warnings = pWARN_ALL;
87 }
88
89 (void) utf8n_to_uvchr_error(p, e - p, NULL, flags & ~UTF8_CHECK_ONLY, &errors);
90
91 LEAVE;
92
93 if (! errors) {
94 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: _force_out_malformed_utf8_message should"
95 " be called only when there are errors found");
96 }
97
98 if (die_here) {
99 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-8 character (fatal)");
100 }
101}
102
eaf7a4d2 103/*
378516de 104=for apidoc uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags
eebe1485 105
a27992cc 106THIS FUNCTION SHOULD BE USED IN ONLY VERY SPECIALIZED CIRCUMSTANCES.
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107Instead, B<Almost all code should use L</uvchr_to_utf8> or
108L</uvchr_to_utf8_flags>>.
a27992cc 109
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110This function is like them, but the input is a strict Unicode
111(as opposed to native) code point. Only in very rare circumstances should code
112not be using the native code point.
949cf498 113
efa9cd84 114For details, see the description for L</uvchr_to_utf8_flags>.
949cf498 115
eebe1485
SC
116=cut
117*/
118
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119#define HANDLE_UNICODE_SURROGATE(uv, flags) \
120 STMT_START { \
121 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE) { \
122 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE), \
147e3846 123 "UTF-16 surrogate U+%04" UVXf, uv); \
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124 } \
125 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE) { \
126 return NULL; \
127 } \
128 } STMT_END;
129
130#define HANDLE_UNICODE_NONCHAR(uv, flags) \
131 STMT_START { \
132 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR) { \
133 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NONCHAR), \
147e3846 134 "Unicode non-character U+%04" UVXf " is not " \
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135 "recommended for open interchange", uv); \
136 } \
137 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR) { \
138 return NULL; \
139 } \
140 } STMT_END;
141
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142/* Use shorter names internally in this file */
143#define SHIFT UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT
144#undef MARK
145#define MARK UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK
146#define MASK UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK
147
dfe13c55 148U8 *
378516de 149Perl_uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)
a0ed51b3 150{
378516de 151 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UVOFFUNI_TO_UTF8_FLAGS;
7918f24d 152
2d1545e5 153 if (OFFUNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
4c8cd605 154 *d++ = LATIN1_TO_NATIVE(uv);
d9432125
KW
155 return d;
156 }
facc1dc2 157
3ea68d71 158 if (uv <= MAX_UTF8_TWO_BYTE) {
facc1dc2
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159 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(( uv >> SHIFT) | UTF_START_MARK(2));
160 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(( uv & MASK) | MARK);
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161 return d;
162 }
d9432125 163
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164 /* Not 2-byte; test for and handle 3-byte result. In the test immediately
165 * below, the 16 is for start bytes E0-EF (which are all the possible ones
166 * for 3 byte characters). The 2 is for 2 continuation bytes; these each
167 * contribute SHIFT bits. This yields 0x4000 on EBCDIC platforms, 0x1_0000
168 * on ASCII; so 3 bytes covers the range 0x400-0x3FFF on EBCDIC;
169 * 0x800-0xFFFF on ASCII */
170 if (uv < (16 * (1U << (2 * SHIFT)))) {
171 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(( uv >> ((3 - 1) * SHIFT)) | UTF_START_MARK(3));
172 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(((uv >> ((2 - 1) * SHIFT)) & MASK) | MARK);
173 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(( uv /* (1 - 1) */ & MASK) | MARK);
174
175#ifndef EBCDIC /* These problematic code points are 4 bytes on EBCDIC, so
176 aren't tested here */
177 /* The most likely code points in this range are below the surrogates.
178 * Do an extra test to quickly exclude those. */
179 if (UNLIKELY(uv >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST)) {
180 if (UNLIKELY( UNICODE_IS_32_CONTIGUOUS_NONCHARS(uv)
181 || UNICODE_IS_END_PLANE_NONCHAR_GIVEN_NOT_SUPER(uv)))
182 {
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183 HANDLE_UNICODE_NONCHAR(uv, flags);
184 }
185 else if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv))) {
186 HANDLE_UNICODE_SURROGATE(uv, flags);
760c7c2f 187 }
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188 }
189#endif
190 return d;
191 }
192
193 /* Not 3-byte; that means the code point is at least 0x1_0000 on ASCII
194 * platforms, and 0x4000 on EBCDIC. There are problematic cases that can
195 * happen starting with 4-byte characters on ASCII platforms. We unify the
196 * code for these with EBCDIC, even though some of them require 5-bytes on
197 * those, because khw believes the code saving is worth the very slight
198 * performance hit on these high EBCDIC code points. */
199
200 if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_SUPER(uv))) {
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201 if ( UNLIKELY(uv > MAX_NON_DEPRECATED_CP)
202 && ckWARN_d(WARN_DEPRECATED))
203 {
204 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_DEPRECATED),
205 cp_above_legal_max, uv, MAX_NON_DEPRECATED_CP);
206 }
207 if ( (flags & UNICODE_WARN_SUPER)
208 || ( UNICODE_IS_ABOVE_31_BIT(uv)
209 && (flags & UNICODE_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT)))
210 {
211 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE),
212
213 /* Choose the more dire applicable warning */
214 (UNICODE_IS_ABOVE_31_BIT(uv))
147e3846
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215 ? "Code point 0x%" UVXf " is not Unicode, and not portable"
216 : "Code point 0x%" UVXf " is not Unicode, may not be portable",
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217 uv);
218 }
219 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER
220 || ( UNICODE_IS_ABOVE_31_BIT(uv)
221 && (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT)))
222 {
223 return NULL;
224 }
225 }
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226 else if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_END_PLANE_NONCHAR_GIVEN_NOT_SUPER(uv))) {
227 HANDLE_UNICODE_NONCHAR(uv, flags);
507b9800 228 }
d9432125 229
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230 /* Test for and handle 4-byte result. In the test immediately below, the
231 * 8 is for start bytes F0-F7 (which are all the possible ones for 4 byte
232 * characters). The 3 is for 3 continuation bytes; these each contribute
233 * SHIFT bits. This yields 0x4_0000 on EBCDIC platforms, 0x20_0000 on
234 * ASCII, so 4 bytes covers the range 0x4000-0x3_FFFF on EBCDIC;
235 * 0x1_0000-0x1F_FFFF on ASCII */
236 if (uv < (8 * (1U << (3 * SHIFT)))) {
237 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(( uv >> ((4 - 1) * SHIFT)) | UTF_START_MARK(4));
238 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(((uv >> ((3 - 1) * SHIFT)) & MASK) | MARK);
239 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(((uv >> ((2 - 1) * SHIFT)) & MASK) | MARK);
240 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(( uv /* (1 - 1) */ & MASK) | MARK);
241
242#ifdef EBCDIC /* These were handled on ASCII platforms in the code for 3-byte
243 characters. The end-plane non-characters for EBCDIC were
244 handled just above */
245 if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_32_CONTIGUOUS_NONCHARS(uv))) {
246 HANDLE_UNICODE_NONCHAR(uv, flags);
d528804a 247 }
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248 else if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv))) {
249 HANDLE_UNICODE_SURROGATE(uv, flags);
250 }
251#endif
252
253 return d;
254 }
255
256 /* Not 4-byte; that means the code point is at least 0x20_0000 on ASCII
257 * platforms, and 0x4000 on EBCDIC. At this point we switch to a loop
258 * format. The unrolled version above turns out to not save all that much
259 * time, and at these high code points (well above the legal Unicode range
260 * on ASCII platforms, and well above anything in common use in EBCDIC),
261 * khw believes that less code outweighs slight performance gains. */
262
d9432125 263 {
5aaebcb3 264 STRLEN len = OFFUNISKIP(uv);
1d72bdf6
NIS
265 U8 *p = d+len-1;
266 while (p > d) {
4c8cd605 267 *p-- = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8((uv & UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK) | UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK);
1d72bdf6
NIS
268 uv >>= UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT;
269 }
4c8cd605 270 *p = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8((uv & UTF_START_MASK(len)) | UTF_START_MARK(len));
1d72bdf6
NIS
271 return d+len;
272 }
a0ed51b3 273}
a5bf80e0 274
646ca15d 275/*
07693fe6
KW
276=for apidoc uvchr_to_utf8
277
bcb1a2d4 278Adds the UTF-8 representation of the native code point C<uv> to the end
f2fc1b45 279of the string C<d>; C<d> should have at least C<UVCHR_SKIP(uv)+1> (up to
c749c9fd
KW
280C<UTF8_MAXBYTES+1>) free bytes available. The return value is the pointer to
281the byte after the end of the new character. In other words,
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282
283 d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, uv);
284
285is the recommended wide native character-aware way of saying
286
287 *(d++) = uv;
288
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289This function accepts any UV as input, but very high code points (above
290C<IV_MAX> on the platform) will raise a deprecation warning. This is
291typically 0x7FFF_FFFF in a 32-bit word.
292
293It is possible to forbid or warn on non-Unicode code points, or those that may
294be problematic by using L</uvchr_to_utf8_flags>.
de69f3af 295
07693fe6
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296=cut
297*/
298
de69f3af
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299/* This is also a macro */
300PERL_CALLCONV U8* Perl_uvchr_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv);
301
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302U8 *
303Perl_uvchr_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv)
304{
de69f3af 305 return uvchr_to_utf8(d, uv);
07693fe6
KW
306}
307
de69f3af
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308/*
309=for apidoc uvchr_to_utf8_flags
310
311Adds the UTF-8 representation of the native code point C<uv> to the end
f2fc1b45 312of the string C<d>; C<d> should have at least C<UVCHR_SKIP(uv)+1> (up to
c749c9fd
KW
313C<UTF8_MAXBYTES+1>) free bytes available. The return value is the pointer to
314the byte after the end of the new character. In other words,
de69f3af
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315
316 d = uvchr_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, flags);
317
318or, in most cases,
319
320 d = uvchr_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, 0);
321
322This is the Unicode-aware way of saying
323
324 *(d++) = uv;
325
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326If C<flags> is 0, this function accepts any UV as input, but very high code
327points (above C<IV_MAX> for the platform) will raise a deprecation warning.
328This is typically 0x7FFF_FFFF in a 32-bit word.
329
330Specifying C<flags> can further restrict what is allowed and not warned on, as
331follows:
de69f3af 332
796b6530 333If C<uv> is a Unicode surrogate code point and C<UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE> is set,
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334the function will raise a warning, provided UTF8 warnings are enabled. If
335instead C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE> is set, the function will fail and return
336NULL. If both flags are set, the function will both warn and return NULL.
de69f3af 337
760c7c2f
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338Similarly, the C<UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR> and C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR> flags
339affect how the function handles a Unicode non-character.
93e6dbd6 340
760c7c2f
KW
341And likewise, the C<UNICODE_WARN_SUPER> and C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER> flags
342affect the handling of code points that are above the Unicode maximum of
3430x10FFFF. Languages other than Perl may not be able to accept files that
344contain these.
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345
346The flag C<UNICODE_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE> selects all three of
347the above WARN flags; and C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE> selects all
ecc1615f
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348three DISALLOW flags. C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE> restricts the
349allowed inputs to the strict UTF-8 traditionally defined by Unicode.
350Similarly, C<UNICODE_WARN_ILLEGAL_C9_INTERCHANGE> and
351C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_C9_INTERCHANGE> are shortcuts to select the
352above-Unicode and surrogate flags, but not the non-character ones, as
353defined in
354L<Unicode Corrigendum #9|http://www.unicode.org/versions/corrigendum9.html>.
355See L<perlunicode/Noncharacter code points>.
93e6dbd6 356
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357Code points above 0x7FFF_FFFF (2**31 - 1) were never specified in any standard,
358so using them is more problematic than other above-Unicode code points. Perl
359invented an extension to UTF-8 to represent the ones above 2**36-1, so it is
360likely that non-Perl languages will not be able to read files that contain
361these that written by the perl interpreter; nor would Perl understand files
362written by something that uses a different extension. For these reasons, there
363is a separate set of flags that can warn and/or disallow these extremely high
364code points, even if other above-Unicode ones are accepted. These are the
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KW
365C<UNICODE_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT> and C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT> flags. These
366are entirely independent from the deprecation warning for code points above
367C<IV_MAX>. On 32-bit machines, it will eventually be forbidden to have any
368code point that needs more than 31 bits to represent. When that happens,
369effectively the C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT> flag will always be set on
37032-bit machines. (Of course C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER> will treat all
ab8e6d41
KW
371above-Unicode code points, including these, as malformations; and
372C<UNICODE_WARN_SUPER> warns on these.)
373
374On EBCDIC platforms starting in Perl v5.24, the Perl extension for representing
375extremely high code points kicks in at 0x3FFF_FFFF (2**30 -1), which is lower
376than on ASCII. Prior to that, code points 2**31 and higher were simply
377unrepresentable, and a different, incompatible method was used to represent
378code points between 2**30 and 2**31 - 1. The flags C<UNICODE_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT>
379and C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT> have the same function as on ASCII
380platforms, warning and disallowing 2**31 and higher.
de69f3af 381
de69f3af
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382=cut
383*/
384
385/* This is also a macro */
386PERL_CALLCONV U8* Perl_uvchr_to_utf8_flags(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags);
387
07693fe6
KW
388U8 *
389Perl_uvchr_to_utf8_flags(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)
390{
de69f3af 391 return uvchr_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, flags);
07693fe6
KW
392}
393
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394PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
395S_is_utf8_cp_above_31_bits(const U8 * const s, const U8 * const e)
396{
397 /* Returns TRUE if the first code point represented by the Perl-extended-
398 * UTF-8-encoded string starting at 's', and looking no further than 'e -
399 * 1' doesn't fit into 31 bytes. That is, that if it is >= 2**31.
400 *
401 * The function handles the case where the input bytes do not include all
402 * the ones necessary to represent a full character. That is, they may be
403 * the intial bytes of the representation of a code point, but possibly
404 * the final ones necessary for the complete representation may be beyond
405 * 'e - 1'.
406 *
407 * The function assumes that the sequence is well-formed UTF-8 as far as it
408 * goes, and is for a UTF-8 variant code point. If the sequence is
409 * incomplete, the function returns FALSE if there is any well-formed
410 * UTF-8 byte sequence that can complete it in such a way that a code point
411 * < 2**31 is produced; otherwise it returns TRUE.
412 *
413 * Getting this exactly right is slightly tricky, and has to be done in
414 * several places in this file, so is centralized here. It is based on the
415 * following table:
416 *
417 * U+7FFFFFFF (2 ** 31 - 1)
418 * ASCII: \xFD\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF
419 * IBM-1047: \xFE\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x42\x73\x73\x73\x73\x73\x73
420 * IBM-037: \xFE\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x42\x72\x72\x72\x72\x72\x72
421 * POSIX-BC: \xFE\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x42\x75\x75\x75\x75\x75\x75
422 * I8: \xFF\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA1\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF
423 * U+80000000 (2 ** 31):
424 * ASCII: \xFE\x82\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80
425 * [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] 10 11 12 13
426 * IBM-1047: \xFE\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x43\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41
427 * IBM-037: \xFE\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x43\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41
428 * POSIX-BC: \xFE\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x43\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41
429 * I8: \xFF\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA2\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0
430 */
431
432#ifdef EBCDIC
433
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KW
434 /* [0] is start byte [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] */
435 const U8 prefix[] = "\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x42";
83dc0f42
KW
436 const STRLEN prefix_len = sizeof(prefix) - 1;
437 const STRLEN len = e - s;
f880f78a 438 const STRLEN cmp_len = MIN(prefix_len, len - 1);
83dc0f42
KW
439
440#else
441
442 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(e);
443
444#endif
445
446 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CP_ABOVE_31_BITS;
447
448 assert(! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*s));
449
450#ifndef EBCDIC
451
452 /* Technically, a start byte of FE can be for a code point that fits into
453 * 31 bytes, but not for well-formed UTF-8: doing that requires an overlong
454 * malformation. */
455 return (*s >= 0xFE);
456
457#else
458
459 /* On the EBCDIC code pages we handle, only 0xFE can mean a 32-bit or
460 * larger code point (0xFF is an invariant). For 0xFE, we need at least 2
461 * bytes, and maybe up through 8 bytes, to be sure if the value is above 31
462 * bits. */
463 if (*s != 0xFE || len == 1) {
464 return FALSE;
465 }
466
467 /* Note that in UTF-EBCDIC, the two lowest possible continuation bytes are
468 * \x41 and \x42. */
469 return cBOOL(memGT(s + 1, prefix, cmp_len));
470
471#endif
472
473}
474
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KW
475PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
476S_does_utf8_overflow(const U8 * const s, const U8 * e)
477{
478 const U8 *x;
479 const U8 * y = (const U8 *) HIGHEST_REPRESENTABLE_UTF8;
480
c551bb01
KW
481#if ! defined(UV_IS_QUAD) && ! defined(EBCDIC)
482
483 const STRLEN len = e - s;
484
485#endif
486
12a4bed3
KW
487 /* Returns a boolean as to if this UTF-8 string would overflow a UV on this
488 * platform, that is if it represents a code point larger than the highest
489 * representable code point. (For ASCII platforms, we could use memcmp()
490 * because we don't have to convert each byte to I8, but it's very rare
491 * input indeed that would approach overflow, so the loop below will likely
492 * only get executed once.
493 *
494 * 'e' must not be beyond a full character. If it is less than a full
495 * character, the function returns FALSE if there is any input beyond 'e'
496 * that could result in a non-overflowing code point */
497
498 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_DOES_UTF8_OVERFLOW;
b0b342d4
KW
499 assert(s <= e && s + UTF8SKIP(s) >= e);
500
501#if ! defined(UV_IS_QUAD) && ! defined(EBCDIC)
502
503 /* On 32 bit ASCII machines, many overlongs that start with FF don't
504 * overflow */
505
c551bb01 506 if (isFF_OVERLONG(s, len)) {
b0b342d4
KW
507 const U8 max_32_bit_overlong[] = "\xFF\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80\x84";
508 return memGE(s, max_32_bit_overlong,
c551bb01 509 MIN(len, sizeof(max_32_bit_overlong) - 1));
b0b342d4
KW
510 }
511
512#endif
12a4bed3
KW
513
514 for (x = s; x < e; x++, y++) {
515
516 /* If this byte is larger than the corresponding highest UTF-8 byte, it
517 * overflows */
518 if (UNLIKELY(NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*x) > *y)) {
519 return TRUE;
520 }
521
522 /* If not the same as this byte, it must be smaller, doesn't overflow */
523 if (LIKELY(NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*x) != *y)) {
524 return FALSE;
525 }
526 }
527
528 /* Got to the end and all bytes are the same. If the input is a whole
529 * character, it doesn't overflow. And if it is a partial character,
530 * there's not enough information to tell, so assume doesn't overflow */
531 return FALSE;
532}
533
534PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
535S_is_utf8_overlong_given_start_byte_ok(const U8 * const s, const STRLEN len)
536{
537 /* Overlongs can occur whenever the number of continuation bytes
538 * changes. That means whenever the number of leading 1 bits in a start
539 * byte increases from the next lower start byte. That happens for start
540 * bytes C0, E0, F0, F8, FC, FE, and FF. On modern perls, the following
541 * illegal start bytes have already been excluded, so don't need to be
542 * tested here;
543 * ASCII platforms: C0, C1
544 * EBCDIC platforms C0, C1, C2, C3, C4, E0
545 *
546 * At least a second byte is required to determine if other sequences will
547 * be an overlong. */
548
549 const U8 s0 = NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(s[0]);
550 const U8 s1 = NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(s[1]);
551
552 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_OVERLONG_GIVEN_START_BYTE_OK;
553 assert(len > 1 && UTF8_IS_START(*s));
554
555 /* Each platform has overlongs after the start bytes given above (expressed
556 * in I8 for EBCDIC). What constitutes an overlong varies by platform, but
557 * the logic is the same, except the E0 overlong has already been excluded
558 * on EBCDIC platforms. The values below were found by manually
559 * inspecting the UTF-8 patterns. See the tables in utf8.h and
560 * utfebcdic.h. */
561
562# ifdef EBCDIC
563# define F0_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0xB0
564# define F8_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0xA8
565# define FC_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0xA4
566# define FE_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0xA2
567# define FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX "\xfe\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41"
568 /* I8(0xfe) is FF */
569# else
570
571 if (s0 == 0xE0 && UNLIKELY(s1 < 0xA0)) {
572 return TRUE;
573 }
574
575# define F0_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0x90
576# define F8_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0x88
577# define FC_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0x84
578# define FE_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0x82
579# define FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX "\xff\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80"
580# endif
581
582
583 if ( (s0 == 0xF0 && UNLIKELY(s1 < F0_ABOVE_OVERLONG))
584 || (s0 == 0xF8 && UNLIKELY(s1 < F8_ABOVE_OVERLONG))
585 || (s0 == 0xFC && UNLIKELY(s1 < FC_ABOVE_OVERLONG))
586 || (s0 == 0xFE && UNLIKELY(s1 < FE_ABOVE_OVERLONG)))
587 {
588 return TRUE;
589 }
590
b0b342d4
KW
591 /* Check for the FF overlong */
592 return isFF_OVERLONG(s, len);
593}
594
595PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
596S_isFF_OVERLONG(const U8 * const s, const STRLEN len)
597{
598 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_ISFF_OVERLONG;
12a4bed3
KW
599
600 /* Check for the FF overlong. This happens only if all these bytes match;
601 * what comes after them doesn't matter. See tables in utf8.h,
b0b342d4 602 * utfebcdic.h. */
12a4bed3 603
b0b342d4
KW
604 return len >= sizeof(FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX) - 1
605 && UNLIKELY(memEQ(s, FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX,
606 sizeof(FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX) - 1));
12a4bed3
KW
607}
608
609#undef F0_ABOVE_OVERLONG
610#undef F8_ABOVE_OVERLONG
611#undef FC_ABOVE_OVERLONG
612#undef FE_ABOVE_OVERLONG
613#undef FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX
614
35f8c9bd 615STRLEN
edc2c47a 616Perl__is_utf8_char_helper(const U8 * const s, const U8 * e, const U32 flags)
35f8c9bd 617{
2b479609 618 STRLEN len;
12a4bed3 619 const U8 *x;
35f8c9bd 620
2b479609
KW
621 /* A helper function that should not be called directly.
622 *
623 * This function returns non-zero if the string beginning at 's' and
624 * looking no further than 'e - 1' is well-formed Perl-extended-UTF-8 for a
625 * code point; otherwise it returns 0. The examination stops after the
626 * first code point in 's' is validated, not looking at the rest of the
627 * input. If 'e' is such that there are not enough bytes to represent a
628 * complete code point, this function will return non-zero anyway, if the
629 * bytes it does have are well-formed UTF-8 as far as they go, and aren't
630 * excluded by 'flags'.
631 *
632 * A non-zero return gives the number of bytes required to represent the
633 * code point. Be aware that if the input is for a partial character, the
634 * return will be larger than 'e - s'.
635 *
636 * This function assumes that the code point represented is UTF-8 variant.
637 * The caller should have excluded this possibility before calling this
638 * function.
639 *
640 * 'flags' can be 0, or any combination of the UTF8_DISALLOW_foo flags
641 * accepted by L</utf8n_to_uvchr>. If non-zero, this function will return
642 * 0 if the code point represented is well-formed Perl-extended-UTF-8, but
643 * disallowed by the flags. If the input is only for a partial character,
644 * the function will return non-zero if there is any sequence of
645 * well-formed UTF-8 that, when appended to the input sequence, could
646 * result in an allowed code point; otherwise it returns 0. Non characters
647 * cannot be determined based on partial character input. But many of the
648 * other excluded types can be determined with just the first one or two
649 * bytes.
650 *
651 */
652
653 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_CHAR_HELPER;
654
655 assert(0 == (flags & ~(UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE
656 |UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT)));
657 assert(! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*s));
35f8c9bd 658
2b479609 659 /* A variant char must begin with a start byte */
35f8c9bd
KW
660 if (UNLIKELY(! UTF8_IS_START(*s))) {
661 return 0;
662 }
663
edc2c47a
KW
664 /* Examine a maximum of a single whole code point */
665 if (e - s > UTF8SKIP(s)) {
666 e = s + UTF8SKIP(s);
667 }
668
2b479609
KW
669 len = e - s;
670
671 if (flags && isUTF8_POSSIBLY_PROBLEMATIC(*s)) {
672 const U8 s0 = NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(s[0]);
35f8c9bd 673
2b479609
KW
674 /* The code below is derived from this table. Keep in mind that legal
675 * continuation bytes range between \x80..\xBF for UTF-8, and
676 * \xA0..\xBF for I8. Anything above those aren't continuation bytes.
677 * Hence, we don't have to test the upper edge because if any of those
678 * are encountered, the sequence is malformed, and will fail elsewhere
679 * in this function.
680 * UTF-8 UTF-EBCDIC I8
681 * U+D800: \xED\xA0\x80 \xF1\xB6\xA0\xA0 First surrogate
682 * U+DFFF: \xED\xBF\xBF \xF1\xB7\xBF\xBF Final surrogate
683 * U+110000: \xF4\x90\x80\x80 \xF9\xA2\xA0\xA0\xA0 First above Unicode
684 *
685 */
686
687#ifdef EBCDIC /* On EBCDIC, these are actually I8 bytes */
688# define FIRST_START_BYTE_THAT_IS_DEFINITELY_SUPER 0xFA
19794540 689# define IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SUPER(s0, s1) ((s0) == 0xF9 && (s1) >= 0xA2)
2b479609 690
19794540
KW
691# define IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SURROGATE(s0, s1) ((s0) == 0xF1 \
692 /* B6 and B7 */ \
693 && ((s1) & 0xFE ) == 0xB6)
2b479609
KW
694#else
695# define FIRST_START_BYTE_THAT_IS_DEFINITELY_SUPER 0xF5
19794540
KW
696# define IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SUPER(s0, s1) ((s0) == 0xF4 && (s1) >= 0x90)
697# define IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SURROGATE(s0, s1) ((s0) == 0xED && (s1) >= 0xA0)
2b479609
KW
698#endif
699
700 if ( (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER)
701 && UNLIKELY(s0 >= FIRST_START_BYTE_THAT_IS_DEFINITELY_SUPER)) {
702 return 0; /* Above Unicode */
703 }
704
705 if ( (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT)
706 && UNLIKELY(is_utf8_cp_above_31_bits(s, e)))
707 {
708 return 0; /* Above 31 bits */
709 }
710
711 if (len > 1) {
712 const U8 s1 = NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(s[1]);
713
714 if ( (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER)
19794540 715 && UNLIKELY(IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SUPER(s0, s1)))
2b479609
KW
716 {
717 return 0; /* Above Unicode */
718 }
719
720 if ( (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE)
19794540 721 && UNLIKELY(IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SURROGATE(s0, s1)))
2b479609
KW
722 {
723 return 0; /* Surrogate */
724 }
725
726 if ( (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR)
727 && UNLIKELY(UTF8_IS_NONCHAR(s, e)))
728 {
729 return 0; /* Noncharacter code point */
730 }
731 }
732 }
733
734 /* Make sure that all that follows are continuation bytes */
35f8c9bd
KW
735 for (x = s + 1; x < e; x++) {
736 if (UNLIKELY(! UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*x))) {
737 return 0;
738 }
739 }
740
af13dd8a 741 /* Here is syntactically valid. Next, make sure this isn't the start of an
12a4bed3
KW
742 * overlong. */
743 if (len > 1 && is_utf8_overlong_given_start_byte_ok(s, len)) {
744 return 0;
af13dd8a
KW
745 }
746
12a4bed3
KW
747 /* And finally, that the code point represented fits in a word on this
748 * platform */
749 if (does_utf8_overflow(s, e)) {
750 return 0;
35f8c9bd
KW
751 }
752
2b479609 753 return UTF8SKIP(s);
35f8c9bd
KW
754}
755
7cf8d05d
KW
756STATIC char *
757S__byte_dump_string(pTHX_ const U8 * s, const STRLEN len)
758{
759 /* Returns a mortalized C string that is a displayable copy of the 'len'
760 * bytes starting at 's', each in a \xXY format. */
761
762 const STRLEN output_len = 4 * len + 1; /* 4 bytes per each input, plus a
763 trailing NUL */
764 const U8 * const e = s + len;
765 char * output;
766 char * d;
767
768 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__BYTE_DUMP_STRING;
769
770 Newx(output, output_len, char);
771 SAVEFREEPV(output);
772
773 d = output;
774 for (; s < e; s++) {
775 const unsigned high_nibble = (*s & 0xF0) >> 4;
776 const unsigned low_nibble = (*s & 0x0F);
777
778 *d++ = '\\';
779 *d++ = 'x';
780
781 if (high_nibble < 10) {
782 *d++ = high_nibble + '0';
783 }
784 else {
785 *d++ = high_nibble - 10 + 'a';
786 }
787
788 if (low_nibble < 10) {
789 *d++ = low_nibble + '0';
790 }
791 else {
792 *d++ = low_nibble - 10 + 'a';
793 }
794 }
795
796 *d = '\0';
797 return output;
798}
799
806547a7 800PERL_STATIC_INLINE char *
7cf8d05d
KW
801S_unexpected_non_continuation_text(pTHX_ const U8 * const s,
802
803 /* How many bytes to print */
3cc6a05e 804 STRLEN print_len,
7cf8d05d
KW
805
806 /* Which one is the non-continuation */
807 const STRLEN non_cont_byte_pos,
808
809 /* How many bytes should there be? */
810 const STRLEN expect_len)
806547a7
KW
811{
812 /* Return the malformation warning text for an unexpected continuation
813 * byte. */
814
7cf8d05d 815 const char * const where = (non_cont_byte_pos == 1)
806547a7 816 ? "immediately"
7cf8d05d
KW
817 : Perl_form(aTHX_ "%d bytes",
818 (int) non_cont_byte_pos);
3cc6a05e 819 unsigned int i;
806547a7
KW
820
821 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UNEXPECTED_NON_CONTINUATION_TEXT;
822
7cf8d05d
KW
823 /* We don't need to pass this parameter, but since it has already been
824 * calculated, it's likely faster to pass it; verify under DEBUGGING */
825 assert(expect_len == UTF8SKIP(s));
826
3cc6a05e
KW
827 /* It is possible that utf8n_to_uvchr() was called incorrectly, with a
828 * length that is larger than is actually available in the buffer. If we
829 * print all the bytes based on that length, we will read past the buffer
830 * end. Often, the strings are NUL terminated, so to lower the chances of
831 * this happening, print the malformed bytes only up through any NUL. */
832 for (i = 1; i < print_len; i++) {
833 if (*(s + i) == '\0') {
834 print_len = i + 1; /* +1 gets the NUL printed */
835 break;
836 }
837 }
838
7cf8d05d
KW
839 return Perl_form(aTHX_ "%s: %s (unexpected non-continuation byte 0x%02x,"
840 " %s after start byte 0x%02x; need %d bytes, got %d)",
841 malformed_text,
842 _byte_dump_string(s, print_len),
843 *(s + non_cont_byte_pos),
844 where,
845 *s,
846 (int) expect_len,
847 (int) non_cont_byte_pos);
806547a7
KW
848}
849
35f8c9bd
KW
850/*
851
de69f3af 852=for apidoc utf8n_to_uvchr
378516de
KW
853
854THIS FUNCTION SHOULD BE USED IN ONLY VERY SPECIALIZED CIRCUMSTANCES.
de69f3af 855Most code should use L</utf8_to_uvchr_buf>() rather than call this directly.
67e989fb 856
9041c2e3 857Bottom level UTF-8 decode routine.
de69f3af 858Returns the native code point value of the first character in the string C<s>,
746afd53
KW
859which is assumed to be in UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) encoding, and no longer than
860C<curlen> bytes; C<*retlen> (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) will be set to
861the length, in bytes, of that character.
949cf498
KW
862
863The value of C<flags> determines the behavior when C<s> does not point to a
2b5e7bc2
KW
864well-formed UTF-8 character. If C<flags> is 0, encountering a malformation
865causes zero to be returned and C<*retlen> is set so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>)
866is the next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed
867character. Also, if UTF-8 warnings haven't been lexically disabled, a warning
868is raised. Some UTF-8 input sequences may contain multiple malformations.
869This function tries to find every possible one in each call, so multiple
870warnings can be raised for each sequence.
949cf498
KW
871
872Various ALLOW flags can be set in C<flags> to allow (and not warn on)
873individual types of malformations, such as the sequence being overlong (that
874is, when there is a shorter sequence that can express the same code point;
875overlong sequences are expressly forbidden in the UTF-8 standard due to
876potential security issues). Another malformation example is the first byte of
877a character not being a legal first byte. See F<utf8.h> for the list of such
524080c4
KW
878flags. For allowed 0 length strings, this function returns 0; for allowed
879overlong sequences, the computed code point is returned; for all other allowed
880malformations, the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned, as these have no
881determinable reasonable value.
949cf498 882
796b6530 883The C<UTF8_CHECK_ONLY> flag overrides the behavior when a non-allowed (by other
949cf498
KW
884flags) malformation is found. If this flag is set, the routine assumes that
885the caller will raise a warning, and this function will silently just set
d088425d
KW
886C<retlen> to C<-1> (cast to C<STRLEN>) and return zero.
887
75200dff 888Note that this API requires disambiguation between successful decoding a C<NUL>
796b6530 889character, and an error return (unless the C<UTF8_CHECK_ONLY> flag is set), as
111fa700
KW
890in both cases, 0 is returned, and, depending on the malformation, C<retlen> may
891be set to 1. To disambiguate, upon a zero return, see if the first byte of
892C<s> is 0 as well. If so, the input was a C<NUL>; if not, the input had an
f9380377 893error. Or you can use C<L</utf8n_to_uvchr_error>>.
949cf498
KW
894
895Certain code points are considered problematic. These are Unicode surrogates,
746afd53 896Unicode non-characters, and code points above the Unicode maximum of 0x10FFFF.
949cf498 897By default these are considered regular code points, but certain situations
ecc1615f
KW
898warrant special handling for them, which can be specified using the C<flags>
899parameter. If C<flags> contains C<UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE>, all
900three classes are treated as malformations and handled as such. The flags
901C<UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE>, C<UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR>, and
902C<UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER> (meaning above the legal Unicode maximum) can be set to
903disallow these categories individually. C<UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE>
904restricts the allowed inputs to the strict UTF-8 traditionally defined by
905Unicode. Use C<UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_C9_INTERCHANGE> to use the strictness
906definition given by
907L<Unicode Corrigendum #9|http://www.unicode.org/versions/corrigendum9.html>.
908The difference between traditional strictness and C9 strictness is that the
909latter does not forbid non-character code points. (They are still discouraged,
910however.) For more discussion see L<perlunicode/Noncharacter code points>.
911
912The flags C<UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE>,
913C<UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_C9_INTERCHANGE>, C<UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE>,
796b6530
KW
914C<UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR>, and C<UTF8_WARN_SUPER> will cause warning messages to be
915raised for their respective categories, but otherwise the code points are
916considered valid (not malformations). To get a category to both be treated as
917a malformation and raise a warning, specify both the WARN and DISALLOW flags.
949cf498 918(But note that warnings are not raised if lexically disabled nor if
796b6530 919C<UTF8_CHECK_ONLY> is also specified.)
949cf498 920
760c7c2f
KW
921It is now deprecated to have very high code points (above C<IV_MAX> on the
922platforms) and this function will raise a deprecation warning for these (unless
d5944cab 923such warnings are turned off). This value is typically 0x7FFF_FFFF (2**31 -1)
760c7c2f 924in a 32-bit word.
ab8e6d41
KW
925
926Code points above 0x7FFF_FFFF (2**31 - 1) were never specified in any standard,
927so using them is more problematic than other above-Unicode code points. Perl
928invented an extension to UTF-8 to represent the ones above 2**36-1, so it is
929likely that non-Perl languages will not be able to read files that contain
aff2be59 930these; nor would Perl understand files
ab8e6d41
KW
931written by something that uses a different extension. For these reasons, there
932is a separate set of flags that can warn and/or disallow these extremely high
933code points, even if other above-Unicode ones are accepted. These are the
760c7c2f
KW
934C<UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT> and C<UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT> flags. These
935are entirely independent from the deprecation warning for code points above
936C<IV_MAX>. On 32-bit machines, it will eventually be forbidden to have any
937code point that needs more than 31 bits to represent. When that happens,
938effectively the C<UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT> flag will always be set on
93932-bit machines. (Of course C<UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER> will treat all
ab8e6d41
KW
940above-Unicode code points, including these, as malformations; and
941C<UTF8_WARN_SUPER> warns on these.)
942
943On EBCDIC platforms starting in Perl v5.24, the Perl extension for representing
944extremely high code points kicks in at 0x3FFF_FFFF (2**30 -1), which is lower
945than on ASCII. Prior to that, code points 2**31 and higher were simply
946unrepresentable, and a different, incompatible method was used to represent
947code points between 2**30 and 2**31 - 1. The flags C<UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT>
948and C<UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT> have the same function as on ASCII
949platforms, warning and disallowing 2**31 and higher.
949cf498
KW
950
951All other code points corresponding to Unicode characters, including private
952use and those yet to be assigned, are never considered malformed and never
953warn.
67e989fb 954
37607a96 955=cut
f9380377
KW
956
957Also implemented as a macro in utf8.h
958*/
959
960UV
961Perl_utf8n_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s,
962 STRLEN curlen,
963 STRLEN *retlen,
964 const U32 flags)
965{
966 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8N_TO_UVCHR;
967
968 return utf8n_to_uvchr_error(s, curlen, retlen, flags, NULL);
969}
970
971/*
972
973=for apidoc utf8n_to_uvchr_error
974
975THIS FUNCTION SHOULD BE USED IN ONLY VERY SPECIALIZED CIRCUMSTANCES.
976Most code should use L</utf8_to_uvchr_buf>() rather than call this directly.
977
978This function is for code that needs to know what the precise malformation(s)
979are when an error is found.
980
981It is like C<L</utf8n_to_uvchr>> but it takes an extra parameter placed after
982all the others, C<errors>. If this parameter is 0, this function behaves
983identically to C<L</utf8n_to_uvchr>>. Otherwise, C<errors> should be a pointer
984to a C<U32> variable, which this function sets to indicate any errors found.
985Upon return, if C<*errors> is 0, there were no errors found. Otherwise,
986C<*errors> is the bit-wise C<OR> of the bits described in the list below. Some
987of these bits will be set if a malformation is found, even if the input
7a65503b 988C<flags> parameter indicates that the given malformation is allowed; those
f9380377
KW
989exceptions are noted:
990
991=over 4
992
993=item C<UTF8_GOT_ABOVE_31_BIT>
994
995The code point represented by the input UTF-8 sequence occupies more than 31
996bits.
997This bit is set only if the input C<flags> parameter contains either the
998C<UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT> or the C<UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT> flags.
999
1000=item C<UTF8_GOT_CONTINUATION>
1001
1002The input sequence was malformed in that the first byte was a a UTF-8
1003continuation byte.
1004
1005=item C<UTF8_GOT_EMPTY>
1006
1007The input C<curlen> parameter was 0.
1008
1009=item C<UTF8_GOT_LONG>
1010
1011The input sequence was malformed in that there is some other sequence that
1012evaluates to the same code point, but that sequence is shorter than this one.
1013
1014=item C<UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR>
1015
1016The code point represented by the input UTF-8 sequence is for a Unicode
1017non-character code point.
1018This bit is set only if the input C<flags> parameter contains either the
1019C<UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR> or the C<UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR> flags.
1020
1021=item C<UTF8_GOT_NON_CONTINUATION>
1022
1023The input sequence was malformed in that a non-continuation type byte was found
1024in a position where only a continuation type one should be.
1025
1026=item C<UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW>
1027
1028The input sequence was malformed in that it is for a code point that is not
1029representable in the number of bits available in a UV on the current platform.
1030
1031=item C<UTF8_GOT_SHORT>
1032
1033The input sequence was malformed in that C<curlen> is smaller than required for
1034a complete sequence. In other words, the input is for a partial character
1035sequence.
1036
1037=item C<UTF8_GOT_SUPER>
1038
1039The input sequence was malformed in that it is for a non-Unicode code point;
1040that is, one above the legal Unicode maximum.
1041This bit is set only if the input C<flags> parameter contains either the
1042C<UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER> or the C<UTF8_WARN_SUPER> flags.
1043
1044=item C<UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE>
1045
1046The input sequence was malformed in that it is for a -Unicode UTF-16 surrogate
1047code point.
1048This bit is set only if the input C<flags> parameter contains either the
1049C<UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE> or the C<UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE> flags.
1050
1051=back
1052
133551d8
KW
1053To do your own error handling, call this function with the C<UTF8_CHECK_ONLY>
1054flag to suppress any warnings, and then examine the C<*errors> return.
1055
f9380377 1056=cut
37607a96 1057*/
67e989fb 1058
a0ed51b3 1059UV
f9380377
KW
1060Perl_utf8n_to_uvchr_error(pTHX_ const U8 *s,
1061 STRLEN curlen,
1062 STRLEN *retlen,
1063 const U32 flags,
1064 U32 * errors)
a0ed51b3 1065{
d4c19fe8 1066 const U8 * const s0 = s;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1067 U8 * send = NULL; /* (initialized to silence compilers' wrong
1068 warning) */
1069 U32 possible_problems = 0; /* A bit is set here for each potential problem
1070 found as we go along */
eb83ed87 1071 UV uv = *s;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1072 STRLEN expectlen = 0; /* How long should this sequence be?
1073 (initialized to silence compilers' wrong
1074 warning) */
e308b348 1075 STRLEN avail_len = 0; /* When input is too short, gives what that is */
f9380377
KW
1076 U32 discard_errors = 0; /* Used to save branches when 'errors' is NULL;
1077 this gets set and discarded */
a0dbb045 1078
2b5e7bc2
KW
1079 /* The below are used only if there is both an overlong malformation and a
1080 * too short one. Otherwise the first two are set to 's0' and 'send', and
1081 * the third not used at all */
1082 U8 * adjusted_s0 = (U8 *) s0;
5ec712b1
KW
1083 U8 * adjusted_send = NULL; /* (Initialized to silence compilers' wrong
1084 warning) */
2b5e7bc2 1085 UV uv_so_far = 0; /* (Initialized to silence compilers' wrong warning) */
7918f24d 1086
f9380377
KW
1087 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8N_TO_UVCHR_ERROR;
1088
1089 if (errors) {
1090 *errors = 0;
1091 }
1092 else {
1093 errors = &discard_errors;
1094 }
a0dbb045 1095
eb83ed87
KW
1096 /* The order of malformation tests here is important. We should consume as
1097 * few bytes as possible in order to not skip any valid character. This is
1098 * required by the Unicode Standard (section 3.9 of Unicode 6.0); see also
1099 * http://unicode.org/reports/tr36 for more discussion as to why. For
1100 * example, once we've done a UTF8SKIP, we can tell the expected number of
1101 * bytes, and could fail right off the bat if the input parameters indicate
1102 * that there are too few available. But it could be that just that first
1103 * byte is garbled, and the intended character occupies fewer bytes. If we
1104 * blindly assumed that the first byte is correct, and skipped based on
1105 * that number, we could skip over a valid input character. So instead, we
1106 * always examine the sequence byte-by-byte.
1107 *
1108 * We also should not consume too few bytes, otherwise someone could inject
1109 * things. For example, an input could be deliberately designed to
1110 * overflow, and if this code bailed out immediately upon discovering that,
e2660c54 1111 * returning to the caller C<*retlen> pointing to the very next byte (one
eb83ed87
KW
1112 * which is actually part of of the overflowing sequence), that could look
1113 * legitimate to the caller, which could discard the initial partial
2b5e7bc2
KW
1114 * sequence and process the rest, inappropriately.
1115 *
1116 * Some possible input sequences are malformed in more than one way. This
1117 * function goes to lengths to try to find all of them. This is necessary
1118 * for correctness, as the inputs may allow one malformation but not
1119 * another, and if we abandon searching for others after finding the
1120 * allowed one, we could allow in something that shouldn't have been.
1121 */
eb83ed87 1122
b5b9af04 1123 if (UNLIKELY(curlen == 0)) {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1124 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_EMPTY;
1125 curlen = 0;
1126 uv = 0; /* XXX It could be argued that this should be
1127 UNICODE_REPLACEMENT? */
1128 goto ready_to_handle_errors;
0c443dc2
JH
1129 }
1130
eb83ed87
KW
1131 expectlen = UTF8SKIP(s);
1132
1133 /* A well-formed UTF-8 character, as the vast majority of calls to this
1134 * function will be for, has this expected length. For efficiency, set
1135 * things up here to return it. It will be overriden only in those rare
1136 * cases where a malformation is found */
1137 if (retlen) {
1138 *retlen = expectlen;
1139 }
1140
1141 /* An invariant is trivially well-formed */
1d72bdf6 1142 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
de69f3af 1143 return uv;
a0ed51b3 1144 }
67e989fb 1145
eb83ed87 1146 /* A continuation character can't start a valid sequence */
b5b9af04 1147 if (UNLIKELY(UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(uv))) {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1148 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_CONTINUATION;
1149 curlen = 1;
1150 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
1151 goto ready_to_handle_errors;
ba210ebe 1152 }
9041c2e3 1153
dcd27b3c
KW
1154 /* Here is not a continuation byte, nor an invariant. The only thing left
1155 * is a start byte (possibly for an overlong) */
1156
534752c1
KW
1157 /* Convert to I8 on EBCDIC (no-op on ASCII), then remove the leading bits
1158 * that indicate the number of bytes in the character's whole UTF-8
1159 * sequence, leaving just the bits that are part of the value. */
1160 uv = NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(uv) & UTF_START_MASK(expectlen);
ba210ebe 1161
e308b348
KW
1162 /* Setup the loop end point, making sure to not look past the end of the
1163 * input string, and flag it as too short if the size isn't big enough. */
1164 send = (U8*) s0;
1165 if (UNLIKELY(curlen < expectlen)) {
1166 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_SHORT;
1167 avail_len = curlen;
1168 send += curlen;
1169 }
1170 else {
1171 send += expectlen;
1172 }
1173 adjusted_send = send;
1174
eb83ed87 1175 /* Now, loop through the remaining bytes in the character's sequence,
e308b348 1176 * accumulating each into the working value as we go. */
eb83ed87 1177 for (s = s0 + 1; s < send; s++) {
b5b9af04 1178 if (LIKELY(UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*s))) {
8850bf83 1179 uv = UTF8_ACCUMULATE(uv, *s);
2b5e7bc2
KW
1180 continue;
1181 }
1182
1183 /* Here, found a non-continuation before processing all expected bytes.
1184 * This byte indicates the beginning of a new character, so quit, even
1185 * if allowing this malformation. */
2b5e7bc2 1186 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_NON_CONTINUATION;
e308b348 1187 break;
eb83ed87
KW
1188 } /* End of loop through the character's bytes */
1189
1190 /* Save how many bytes were actually in the character */
1191 curlen = s - s0;
1192
e308b348
KW
1193 /* A convenience macro that matches either of the too-short conditions. */
1194# define UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT (UTF8_GOT_SHORT|UTF8_GOT_NON_CONTINUATION)
2f8f112e 1195
e308b348 1196 if (UNLIKELY(possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT)) {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1197 uv_so_far = uv;
1198 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
eb83ed87
KW
1199 }
1200
2b5e7bc2
KW
1201 /* Note that there are two types of too-short malformation. One is when
1202 * there is actual wrong data before the normal termination of the
1203 * sequence. The other is that the sequence wasn't complete before the end
1204 * of the data we are allowed to look at, based on the input 'curlen'.
1205 * This means that we were passed data for a partial character, but it is
1206 * valid as far as we saw. The other is definitely invalid. This
1207 * distinction could be important to a caller, so the two types are kept
1208 * separate. */
1209
1210 /* Check for overflow */
1211 if (UNLIKELY(does_utf8_overflow(s0, send))) {
1212 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW;
1213 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
eb83ed87 1214 }
eb83ed87 1215
2b5e7bc2
KW
1216 /* Check for overlong. If no problems so far, 'uv' is the correct code
1217 * point value. Simply see if it is expressible in fewer bytes. Otherwise
1218 * we must look at the UTF-8 byte sequence itself to see if it is for an
1219 * overlong */
1220 if ( ( LIKELY(! possible_problems)
1221 && UNLIKELY(expectlen > (STRLEN) OFFUNISKIP(uv)))
1222 || ( UNLIKELY( possible_problems)
1223 && ( UNLIKELY(! UTF8_IS_START(*s0))
1224 || ( curlen > 1
1225 && UNLIKELY(is_utf8_overlong_given_start_byte_ok(s0,
1226 send - s0))))))
2f8f112e 1227 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1228 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_LONG;
1229
2b5e7bc2
KW
1230 if (UNLIKELY(possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT)) {
1231 UV min_uv = uv_so_far;
1232 STRLEN i;
1233
1234 /* Here, the input is both overlong and is missing some trailing
1235 * bytes. There is no single code point it could be for, but there
1236 * may be enough information present to determine if what we have
1237 * so far is for an unallowed code point, such as for a surrogate.
1238 * The code below has the intelligence to determine this, but just
1239 * for non-overlong UTF-8 sequences. What we do here is calculate
1240 * the smallest code point the input could represent if there were
1241 * no too short malformation. Then we compute and save the UTF-8
1242 * for that, which is what the code below looks at instead of the
1243 * raw input. It turns out that the smallest such code point is
1244 * all we need. */
1245 for (i = curlen; i < expectlen; i++) {
1246 min_uv = UTF8_ACCUMULATE(min_uv,
1247 I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK));
1248 }
1249
1250 Newx(adjusted_s0, OFFUNISKIP(min_uv) + 1, U8);
1251 SAVEFREEPV((U8 *) adjusted_s0); /* Needed because we may not get
1252 to free it ourselves if
1253 warnings are made fatal */
1254 adjusted_send = uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags(adjusted_s0, min_uv, 0);
1255 }
eb83ed87
KW
1256 }
1257
2b5e7bc2
KW
1258 /* Now check that the input isn't for a problematic code point not allowed
1259 * by the input parameters. */
1260 /* isn't problematic if < this */
1261 if ( ( ( LIKELY(! possible_problems) && uv >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST)
1262 || ( UNLIKELY(possible_problems)
1263 && isUTF8_POSSIBLY_PROBLEMATIC(*adjusted_s0)))
760c7c2f
KW
1264 && ((flags & ( UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR
1265 |UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE
1266 |UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER
1267 |UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT
1268 |UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR
1269 |UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE
1270 |UTF8_WARN_SUPER
1271 |UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT))
2b5e7bc2
KW
1272 /* In case of a malformation, 'uv' is not valid, and has
1273 * been changed to something in the Unicode range.
1274 * Currently we don't output a deprecation message if there
1275 * is already a malformation, so we don't have to special
1276 * case the test immediately below */
760c7c2f
KW
1277 || ( UNLIKELY(uv > MAX_NON_DEPRECATED_CP)
1278 && ckWARN_d(WARN_DEPRECATED))))
eb83ed87 1279 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1280 /* If there were no malformations, or the only malformation is an
1281 * overlong, 'uv' is valid */
1282 if (LIKELY(! (possible_problems & ~UTF8_GOT_LONG))) {
1283 if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv))) {
1284 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE;
1285 }
1286 else if (UNLIKELY(uv > PERL_UNICODE_MAX)) {
1287 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
1288 }
1289 else if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_NONCHAR(uv))) {
1290 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR;
1291 }
1292 }
1293 else { /* Otherwise, need to look at the source UTF-8, possibly
1294 adjusted to be non-overlong */
1295
1296 if (UNLIKELY(NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*adjusted_s0)
1297 >= FIRST_START_BYTE_THAT_IS_DEFINITELY_SUPER))
ea5ced44 1298 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1299 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
1300 }
1301 else if (curlen > 1) {
1302 if (UNLIKELY(IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SUPER(
1303 NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*adjusted_s0),
1304 NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*(adjusted_s0 + 1)))))
ea5ced44 1305 {
2b5e7bc2 1306 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
ea5ced44 1307 }
2b5e7bc2
KW
1308 else if (UNLIKELY(IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SURROGATE(
1309 NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*adjusted_s0),
1310 NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*(adjusted_s0 + 1)))))
1311 {
1312 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE;
ea5ced44
KW
1313 }
1314 }
c0236afe 1315
2b5e7bc2
KW
1316 /* We need a complete well-formed UTF-8 character to discern
1317 * non-characters, so can't look for them here */
1318 }
1319 }
949cf498 1320
2b5e7bc2
KW
1321 ready_to_handle_errors:
1322
1323 /* At this point:
1324 * curlen contains the number of bytes in the sequence that
1325 * this call should advance the input by.
e308b348
KW
1326 * avail_len gives the available number of bytes passed in, but
1327 * only if this is less than the expected number of
1328 * bytes, based on the code point's start byte.
2b5e7bc2
KW
1329 * possible_problems' is 0 if there weren't any problems; otherwise a bit
1330 * is set in it for each potential problem found.
1331 * uv contains the code point the input sequence
1332 * represents; or if there is a problem that prevents
1333 * a well-defined value from being computed, it is
1334 * some subsitute value, typically the REPLACEMENT
1335 * CHARACTER.
1336 * s0 points to the first byte of the character
1337 * send points to just after where that (potentially
1338 * partial) character ends
1339 * adjusted_s0 normally is the same as s0, but in case of an
1340 * overlong for which the UTF-8 matters below, it is
1341 * the first byte of the shortest form representation
1342 * of the input.
1343 * adjusted_send normally is the same as 'send', but if adjusted_s0
1344 * is set to something other than s0, this points one
1345 * beyond its end
1346 */
eb83ed87 1347
2b5e7bc2
KW
1348 if (UNLIKELY(possible_problems)) {
1349 bool disallowed = FALSE;
1350 const U32 orig_problems = possible_problems;
1351
1352 while (possible_problems) { /* Handle each possible problem */
1353 UV pack_warn = 0;
1354 char * message = NULL;
1355
1356 /* Each 'if' clause handles one problem. They are ordered so that
1357 * the first ones' messages will be displayed before the later
1358 * ones; this is kinda in decreasing severity order */
1359 if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW) {
1360
1361 /* Overflow means also got a super and above 31 bits, but we
1362 * handle all three cases here */
1363 possible_problems
1364 &= ~(UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW|UTF8_GOT_SUPER|UTF8_GOT_ABOVE_31_BIT);
f9380377
KW
1365 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW;
1366
1367 /* But the API says we flag all errors found */
1368 if (flags & (UTF8_WARN_SUPER|UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER)) {
1369 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
1370 }
1371 if (flags & (UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT|UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT)) {
1372 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_ABOVE_31_BIT;
1373 }
2b5e7bc2
KW
1374
1375 disallowed = TRUE;
1376
1377 /* The warnings code explicitly says it doesn't handle the case
1378 * of packWARN2 and two categories which have parent-child
1379 * relationship. Even if it works now to raise the warning if
1380 * either is enabled, it wouldn't necessarily do so in the
1381 * future. We output (only) the most dire warning*/
1382 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
1383 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8)) {
1384 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1385 }
1386 else if (ckWARN_d(WARN_NON_UNICODE)) {
1387 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE);
1388 }
1389 if (pack_warn) {
1390 message = Perl_form(aTHX_ "%s: %s (overflows)",
1391 malformed_text,
1392 _byte_dump_string(s0, send - s0));
1393 }
1394 }
1395 }
1396 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_EMPTY) {
1397 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_EMPTY;
f9380377 1398 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_EMPTY;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1399
1400 if (! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_EMPTY)) {
1401 disallowed = TRUE;
1402 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) && ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
1403 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1404 message = Perl_form(aTHX_ "%s (empty string)",
1405 malformed_text);
1406 }
1407 }
1408 }
1409 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_CONTINUATION) {
1410 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_CONTINUATION;
f9380377 1411 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_CONTINUATION;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1412
1413 if (! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_CONTINUATION)) {
1414 disallowed = TRUE;
1415 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) && ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
1416 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1417 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
1418 "%s: %s (unexpected continuation byte 0x%02x,"
1419 " with no preceding start byte)",
1420 malformed_text,
1421 _byte_dump_string(s0, 1), *s0);
1422 }
1423 }
1424 }
2b5e7bc2
KW
1425 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_SHORT) {
1426 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_SHORT;
f9380377 1427 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_SHORT;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1428
1429 if (! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_SHORT)) {
1430 disallowed = TRUE;
1431 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) && ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
1432 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1433 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
9a6c9c81 1434 "%s: %s (too short; %d byte%s available, need %d)",
2b5e7bc2
KW
1435 malformed_text,
1436 _byte_dump_string(s0, send - s0),
e308b348
KW
1437 (int)avail_len,
1438 avail_len == 1 ? "" : "s",
2b5e7bc2
KW
1439 (int)expectlen);
1440 }
1441 }
ba210ebe 1442
2b5e7bc2 1443 }
e308b348
KW
1444 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_NON_CONTINUATION) {
1445 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_NON_CONTINUATION;
1446 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_NON_CONTINUATION;
1447
1448 if (! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_NON_CONTINUATION)) {
1449 disallowed = TRUE;
1450 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) && ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
1451 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1452 message = Perl_form(aTHX_ "%s",
1453 unexpected_non_continuation_text(s0,
1454 send - s0,
1455 s - s0,
1456 (int) expectlen));
1457 }
1458 }
1459 }
2b5e7bc2
KW
1460 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_LONG) {
1461 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_LONG;
f9380377 1462 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_LONG;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1463
1464 if (! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_LONG)) {
1465 disallowed = TRUE;
1466
1467 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) && ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
1468 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1469
1470 /* These error types cause 'uv' to be something that
1471 * isn't what was intended, so can't use it in the
1472 * message. The other error types either can't
1473 * generate an overlong, or else the 'uv' is valid */
1474 if (orig_problems &
1475 (UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT|UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW))
1476 {
1477 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
1478 "%s: %s (any UTF-8 sequence that starts"
1479 " with \"%s\" is overlong which can and"
1480 " should be represented with a"
1481 " different, shorter sequence)",
1482 malformed_text,
1483 _byte_dump_string(s0, send - s0),
1484 _byte_dump_string(s0, curlen));
1485 }
1486 else {
1487 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
1488 const U8 * const e = uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags(tmpbuf,
1489 uv, 0);
1490 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
1491 "%s: %s (overlong; instead use %s to represent"
147e3846 1492 " U+%0*" UVXf ")",
2b5e7bc2
KW
1493 malformed_text,
1494 _byte_dump_string(s0, send - s0),
1495 _byte_dump_string(tmpbuf, e - tmpbuf),
1496 ((uv < 256) ? 2 : 4), /* Field width of 2 for
1497 small code points */
1498 uv);
1499 }
1500 }
1501 }
1502 }
1503 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE) {
1504 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE;
1505
f9380377
KW
1506 if (flags & UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE) {
1507 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE;
1508
1509 if ( ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)
1510 && ckWARN_d(WARN_SURROGATE))
1511 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1512 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE);
1513
1514 /* These are the only errors that can occur with a
1515 * surrogate when the 'uv' isn't valid */
1516 if (orig_problems & UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT) {
1517 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
1518 "UTF-16 surrogate (any UTF-8 sequence that"
1519 " starts with \"%s\" is for a surrogate)",
1520 _byte_dump_string(s0, curlen));
1521 }
1522 else {
1523 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
147e3846 1524 "UTF-16 surrogate U+%04" UVXf, uv);
2b5e7bc2 1525 }
f9380377 1526 }
2b5e7bc2 1527 }
ba210ebe 1528
2b5e7bc2
KW
1529 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE) {
1530 disallowed = TRUE;
f9380377 1531 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1532 }
1533 }
1534 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_SUPER) {
1535 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
949cf498 1536
f9380377
KW
1537 if (flags & UTF8_WARN_SUPER) {
1538 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
1539
1540 if ( ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)
1541 && ckWARN_d(WARN_NON_UNICODE))
1542 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1543 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE);
1544
1545 if (orig_problems & UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT) {
1546 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
1547 "Any UTF-8 sequence that starts with"
1548 " \"%s\" is for a non-Unicode code point,"
1549 " may not be portable",
1550 _byte_dump_string(s0, curlen));
1551 }
1552 else {
1553 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
147e3846 1554 "Code point 0x%04" UVXf " is not"
2b5e7bc2
KW
1555 " Unicode, may not be portable",
1556 uv);
1557 }
f9380377 1558 }
2b5e7bc2 1559 }
ba210ebe 1560
2b5e7bc2
KW
1561 /* The maximum code point ever specified by a standard was
1562 * 2**31 - 1. Anything larger than that is a Perl extension
1563 * that very well may not be understood by other applications
1564 * (including earlier perl versions on EBCDIC platforms). We
1565 * test for these after the regular SUPER ones, and before
1566 * possibly bailing out, so that the slightly more dire warning
1567 * will override the regular one. */
1568 if ( (flags & (UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT
1569 |UTF8_WARN_SUPER
1570 |UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT))
1571 && ( ( UNLIKELY(orig_problems & UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT)
1572 && UNLIKELY(is_utf8_cp_above_31_bits(
1573 adjusted_s0,
1574 adjusted_send)))
1575 || ( LIKELY(! (orig_problems & UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT))
1576 && UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_ABOVE_31_BIT(uv)))))
1577 {
1578 if ( ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)
1579 && (flags & (UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT|UTF8_WARN_SUPER))
1580 && ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8))
1581 {
1582 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1583
1584 if (orig_problems & UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT) {
1585 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
1586 "Any UTF-8 sequence that starts with"
1587 " \"%s\" is for a non-Unicode code"
1588 " point, and is not portable",
1589 _byte_dump_string(s0, curlen));
1590 }
1591 else {
1592 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
147e3846 1593 "Code point 0x%" UVXf " is not Unicode,"
2b5e7bc2
KW
1594 " and not portable",
1595 uv);
1596 }
1597 }
1598
f9380377
KW
1599 if (flags & (UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT|UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT)) {
1600 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_ABOVE_31_BIT;
1601
1602 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT) {
1603 disallowed = TRUE;
1604 }
2b5e7bc2
KW
1605 }
1606 }
eb83ed87 1607
2b5e7bc2 1608 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER) {
f9380377 1609 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1610 disallowed = TRUE;
1611 }
eb83ed87 1612
2b5e7bc2
KW
1613 /* The deprecated warning overrides any non-deprecated one. If
1614 * there are other problems, a deprecation message is not
1615 * really helpful, so don't bother to raise it in that case.
1616 * This also keeps the code from having to handle the case
1617 * where 'uv' is not valid. */
1618 if ( ! (orig_problems
1619 & (UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT|UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW))
1620 && UNLIKELY(uv > MAX_NON_DEPRECATED_CP)
1621 && ckWARN_d(WARN_DEPRECATED))
1622 {
1623 message = Perl_form(aTHX_ cp_above_legal_max,
1624 uv, MAX_NON_DEPRECATED_CP);
1625 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_DEPRECATED);
1626 }
1627 }
1628 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR) {
1629 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR;
ba210ebe 1630
f9380377
KW
1631 if (flags & UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR) {
1632 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR;
1633
1634 if ( ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)
1635 && ckWARN_d(WARN_NONCHAR))
1636 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1637 /* The code above should have guaranteed that we don't
1638 * get here with errors other than overlong */
1639 assert (! (orig_problems
1640 & ~(UTF8_GOT_LONG|UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR)));
1641
1642 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_NONCHAR);
1643 message = Perl_form(aTHX_ "Unicode non-character"
147e3846 1644 " U+%04" UVXf " is not recommended"
2b5e7bc2 1645 " for open interchange", uv);
f9380377 1646 }
2b5e7bc2 1647 }
5b311467 1648
2b5e7bc2
KW
1649 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR) {
1650 disallowed = TRUE;
f9380377 1651 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1652 }
1653 } /* End of looking through the possible flags */
1654
1655 /* Display the message (if any) for the problem being handled in
1656 * this iteration of the loop */
1657 if (message) {
1658 if (PL_op)
1659 Perl_warner(aTHX_ pack_warn, "%s in %s", message,
1660 OP_DESC(PL_op));
1661 else
1662 Perl_warner(aTHX_ pack_warn, "%s", message);
1663 }
1664 } /* End of 'while (possible_problems) {' */
a0dbb045 1665
2b5e7bc2
KW
1666 /* Since there was a possible problem, the returned length may need to
1667 * be changed from the one stored at the beginning of this function.
1668 * Instead of trying to figure out if that's needed, just do it. */
1669 if (retlen) {
1670 *retlen = curlen;
1671 }
a0dbb045 1672
2b5e7bc2
KW
1673 if (disallowed) {
1674 if (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY && retlen) {
1675 *retlen = ((STRLEN) -1);
1676 }
1677 return 0;
1678 }
eb83ed87 1679 }
ba210ebe 1680
2b5e7bc2 1681 return UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv);
a0ed51b3
LW
1682}
1683
8e84507e 1684/*
ec5f19d0
KW
1685=for apidoc utf8_to_uvchr_buf
1686
1687Returns the native code point of the first character in the string C<s> which
1688is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<send> points to 1 beyond the end of C<s>.
524080c4 1689C<*retlen> will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.
ec5f19d0 1690
524080c4
KW
1691If C<s> does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character and UTF8 warnings are
1692enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't
796b6530 1693C<NULL>) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value, if well-defined
173db420 1694(or the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER if not), is silently returned, and
796b6530 1695C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't C<NULL>) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is
173db420 1696the next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
de69f3af 1697See L</utf8n_to_uvchr> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is
173db420 1698returned.
ec5f19d0 1699
760c7c2f
KW
1700Code points above the platform's C<IV_MAX> will raise a deprecation warning,
1701unless those are turned off.
1702
ec5f19d0 1703=cut
52be2536
KW
1704
1705Also implemented as a macro in utf8.h
1706
ec5f19d0
KW
1707*/
1708
1709
1710UV
1711Perl_utf8_to_uvchr_buf(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *send, STRLEN *retlen)
1712{
ec5f19d0
KW
1713 assert(s < send);
1714
1715 return utf8n_to_uvchr(s, send - s, retlen,
1716 ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) ? 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY);
1717}
1718
52be2536
KW
1719/* This is marked as deprecated
1720 *
ec5f19d0
KW
1721=for apidoc utf8_to_uvuni_buf
1722
de69f3af
KW
1723Only in very rare circumstances should code need to be dealing in Unicode
1724(as opposed to native) code points. In those few cases, use
1725C<L<NATIVE_TO_UNI(utf8_to_uvchr_buf(...))|/utf8_to_uvchr_buf>> instead.
4f83cdcd
KW
1726
1727Returns the Unicode (not-native) code point of the first character in the
1728string C<s> which
ec5f19d0
KW
1729is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<send> points to 1 beyond the end of C<s>.
1730C<retlen> will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.
1731
524080c4
KW
1732If C<s> does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character and UTF8 warnings are
1733enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't
1734NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or
1735the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and C<*retlen>
1736is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
1737next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
de69f3af 1738See L</utf8n_to_uvchr> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.
ec5f19d0 1739
760c7c2f
KW
1740Code points above the platform's C<IV_MAX> will raise a deprecation warning,
1741unless those are turned off.
1742
ec5f19d0
KW
1743=cut
1744*/
1745
1746UV
1747Perl_utf8_to_uvuni_buf(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *send, STRLEN *retlen)
1748{
1749 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVUNI_BUF;
1750
1751 assert(send > s);
1752
5962d97e
KW
1753 /* Call the low level routine, asking for checks */
1754 return NATIVE_TO_UNI(utf8_to_uvchr_buf(s, send, retlen));
ec5f19d0
KW
1755}
1756
b76347f2 1757/*
87cea99e 1758=for apidoc utf8_length
b76347f2
JH
1759
1760Return the length of the UTF-8 char encoded string C<s> in characters.
02eb7b47
JH
1761Stops at C<e> (inclusive). If C<e E<lt> s> or if the scan would end
1762up past C<e>, croaks.
b76347f2
JH
1763
1764=cut
1765*/
1766
1767STRLEN
35a4481c 1768Perl_utf8_length(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *e)
b76347f2
JH
1769{
1770 STRLEN len = 0;
1771
7918f24d
NC
1772 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_LENGTH;
1773
8850bf83
JH
1774 /* Note: cannot use UTF8_IS_...() too eagerly here since e.g.
1775 * the bitops (especially ~) can create illegal UTF-8.
1776 * In other words: in Perl UTF-8 is not just for Unicode. */
1777
a3b680e6
AL
1778 if (e < s)
1779 goto warn_and_return;
b76347f2 1780 while (s < e) {
4cbf4130 1781 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
8e91ec7f
AV
1782 len++;
1783 }
1784
1785 if (e != s) {
1786 len--;
1787 warn_and_return:
9b387841
NC
1788 if (PL_op)
1789 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
1790 "%s in %s", unees, OP_DESC(PL_op));
1791 else
61a12c31 1792 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8), "%s", unees);
b76347f2
JH
1793 }
1794
1795 return len;
1796}
1797
b06226ff 1798/*
fed3ba5d
NC
1799=for apidoc bytes_cmp_utf8
1800
a1433954 1801Compares the sequence of characters (stored as octets) in C<b>, C<blen> with the
72d33970
FC
1802sequence of characters (stored as UTF-8)
1803in C<u>, C<ulen>. Returns 0 if they are
fed3ba5d
NC
1804equal, -1 or -2 if the first string is less than the second string, +1 or +2
1805if the first string is greater than the second string.
1806
1807-1 or +1 is returned if the shorter string was identical to the start of the
72d33970
FC
1808longer string. -2 or +2 is returned if
1809there was a difference between characters
fed3ba5d
NC
1810within the strings.
1811
1812=cut
1813*/
1814
1815int
1816Perl_bytes_cmp_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *b, STRLEN blen, const U8 *u, STRLEN ulen)
1817{
1818 const U8 *const bend = b + blen;
1819 const U8 *const uend = u + ulen;
1820
1821 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_CMP_UTF8;
fed3ba5d
NC
1822
1823 while (b < bend && u < uend) {
1824 U8 c = *u++;
1825 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
1826 if (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c)) {
1827 if (u < uend) {
1828 U8 c1 = *u++;
1829 if (UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c1)) {
a62b247b 1830 c = EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(c, c1);
fed3ba5d 1831 } else {
2b5e7bc2 1832 /* diag_listed_as: Malformed UTF-8 character%s */
fed3ba5d 1833 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
806547a7 1834 "%s %s%s",
7cf8d05d 1835 unexpected_non_continuation_text(u - 1, 2, 1, 2),
806547a7
KW
1836 PL_op ? " in " : "",
1837 PL_op ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : "");
fed3ba5d
NC
1838 return -2;
1839 }
1840 } else {
1841 if (PL_op)
1842 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
1843 "%s in %s", unees, OP_DESC(PL_op));
1844 else
61a12c31 1845 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8), "%s", unees);
fed3ba5d
NC
1846 return -2; /* Really want to return undef :-) */
1847 }
1848 } else {
1849 return -2;
1850 }
1851 }
1852 if (*b != c) {
1853 return *b < c ? -2 : +2;
1854 }
1855 ++b;
1856 }
1857
1858 if (b == bend && u == uend)
1859 return 0;
1860
1861 return b < bend ? +1 : -1;
1862}
1863
1864/*
87cea99e 1865=for apidoc utf8_to_bytes
6940069f 1866
2bbc8d55 1867Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> from UTF-8 into native byte encoding.
a1433954
KW
1868Unlike L</bytes_to_utf8>, this over-writes the original string, and
1869updates C<len> to contain the new length.
67e989fb 1870Returns zero on failure, setting C<len> to -1.
6940069f 1871
a1433954 1872If you need a copy of the string, see L</bytes_from_utf8>.
95be277c 1873
6940069f
GS
1874=cut
1875*/
1876
1877U8 *
37607a96 1878Perl_utf8_to_bytes(pTHX_ U8 *s, STRLEN *len)
6940069f 1879{
d4c19fe8
AL
1880 U8 * const save = s;
1881 U8 * const send = s + *len;
6940069f 1882 U8 *d;
246fae53 1883
7918f24d 1884 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_BYTES;
81611534 1885 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
7918f24d 1886
1e54db1a 1887 /* ensure valid UTF-8 and chars < 256 before updating string */
d4c19fe8 1888 while (s < send) {
d59937ca
KW
1889 if (! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*s)) {
1890 if (! UTF8_IS_NEXT_CHAR_DOWNGRADEABLE(s, send)) {
1891 *len = ((STRLEN) -1);
1892 return 0;
1893 }
1894 s++;
dcad2880 1895 }
d59937ca 1896 s++;
246fae53 1897 }
dcad2880
JH
1898
1899 d = s = save;
6940069f 1900 while (s < send) {
80e0b38f
KW
1901 U8 c = *s++;
1902 if (! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
1903 /* Then it is two-byte encoded */
a62b247b 1904 c = EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(c, *s);
80e0b38f
KW
1905 s++;
1906 }
1907 *d++ = c;
6940069f
GS
1908 }
1909 *d = '\0';
246fae53 1910 *len = d - save;
6940069f
GS
1911 return save;
1912}
1913
1914/*
87cea99e 1915=for apidoc bytes_from_utf8
f9a63242 1916
2bbc8d55 1917Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> from UTF-8 into native byte encoding.
a1433954 1918Unlike L</utf8_to_bytes> but like L</bytes_to_utf8>, returns a pointer to
ef9edfd0
JH
1919the newly-created string, and updates C<len> to contain the new
1920length. Returns the original string if no conversion occurs, C<len>
72d33970 1921is unchanged. Do nothing if C<is_utf8> points to 0. Sets C<is_utf8> to
2bbc8d55 19220 if C<s> is converted or consisted entirely of characters that are invariant
4a4088c4 1923in UTF-8 (i.e., US-ASCII on non-EBCDIC machines).
f9a63242 1924
37607a96
PK
1925=cut
1926*/
f9a63242
JH
1927
1928U8 *
e1ec3a88 1929Perl_bytes_from_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *len, bool *is_utf8)
f9a63242 1930{
f9a63242 1931 U8 *d;
e1ec3a88
AL
1932 const U8 *start = s;
1933 const U8 *send;
f9a63242
JH
1934 I32 count = 0;
1935
7918f24d 1936 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_FROM_UTF8;
96a5add6 1937 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
f9a63242 1938 if (!*is_utf8)
73d840c0 1939 return (U8 *)start;
f9a63242 1940
1e54db1a 1941 /* ensure valid UTF-8 and chars < 256 before converting string */
f9a63242 1942 for (send = s + *len; s < send;) {
d59937ca
KW
1943 if (! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*s)) {
1944 if (! UTF8_IS_NEXT_CHAR_DOWNGRADEABLE(s, send)) {
73d840c0 1945 return (U8 *)start;
d59937ca
KW
1946 }
1947 count++;
1948 s++;
db42d148 1949 }
d59937ca 1950 s++;
f9a63242
JH
1951 }
1952
35da51f7 1953 *is_utf8 = FALSE;
f9a63242 1954
212542aa 1955 Newx(d, (*len) - count + 1, U8);
ef9edfd0 1956 s = start; start = d;
f9a63242
JH
1957 while (s < send) {
1958 U8 c = *s++;
1a91c45d 1959 if (! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
c4d5f83a 1960 /* Then it is two-byte encoded */
a62b247b 1961 c = EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(c, *s);
1a91c45d 1962 s++;
c4d5f83a
NIS
1963 }
1964 *d++ = c;
f9a63242
JH
1965 }
1966 *d = '\0';
1967 *len = d - start;
73d840c0 1968 return (U8 *)start;
f9a63242
JH
1969}
1970
1971/*
87cea99e 1972=for apidoc bytes_to_utf8
6940069f 1973
ff97e5cf
KW
1974Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> bytes from the native encoding into
1975UTF-8.
6662521e 1976Returns a pointer to the newly-created string, and sets C<len> to
ff97e5cf 1977reflect the new length in bytes.
6940069f 1978
75200dff 1979A C<NUL> character will be written after the end of the string.
2bbc8d55
SP
1980
1981If you want to convert to UTF-8 from encodings other than
1982the native (Latin1 or EBCDIC),
a1433954 1983see L</sv_recode_to_utf8>().
c9ada85f 1984
497711e7 1985=cut
6940069f
GS
1986*/
1987
c682ebef
FC
1988/* This logic is duplicated in sv_catpvn_flags, so any bug fixes will
1989 likewise need duplication. */
1990
6940069f 1991U8*
35a4481c 1992Perl_bytes_to_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *len)
6940069f 1993{
35a4481c 1994 const U8 * const send = s + (*len);
6940069f
GS
1995 U8 *d;
1996 U8 *dst;
7918f24d
NC
1997
1998 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_TO_UTF8;
96a5add6 1999 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
6940069f 2000
212542aa 2001 Newx(d, (*len) * 2 + 1, U8);
6940069f
GS
2002 dst = d;
2003
2004 while (s < send) {
55d09dc8
KW
2005 append_utf8_from_native_byte(*s, &d);
2006 s++;
6940069f
GS
2007 }
2008 *d = '\0';
6662521e 2009 *len = d-dst;
6940069f
GS
2010 return dst;
2011}
2012
a0ed51b3 2013/*
dea0fc0b 2014 * Convert native (big-endian) or reversed (little-endian) UTF-16 to UTF-8.
a0ed51b3
LW
2015 *
2016 * Destination must be pre-extended to 3/2 source. Do not use in-place.
2017 * We optimize for native, for obvious reasons. */
2018
2019U8*
dea0fc0b 2020Perl_utf16_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8* p, U8* d, I32 bytelen, I32 *newlen)
a0ed51b3 2021{
dea0fc0b
JH
2022 U8* pend;
2023 U8* dstart = d;
2024
7918f24d
NC
2025 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF16_TO_UTF8;
2026
dea0fc0b 2027 if (bytelen & 1)
147e3846 2028 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen %" UVuf, (UV)bytelen);
dea0fc0b
JH
2029
2030 pend = p + bytelen;
2031
a0ed51b3 2032 while (p < pend) {
dea0fc0b
JH
2033 UV uv = (p[0] << 8) + p[1]; /* UTF-16BE */
2034 p += 2;
2d1545e5 2035 if (OFFUNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
56d37426 2036 *d++ = LATIN1_TO_NATIVE((U8) uv);
a0ed51b3
LW
2037 continue;
2038 }
56d37426
KW
2039 if (uv <= MAX_UTF8_TWO_BYTE) {
2040 *d++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv));
2041 *d++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv));
a0ed51b3
LW
2042 continue;
2043 }
46956fad
KW
2044#define FIRST_HIGH_SURROGATE UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST
2045#define LAST_HIGH_SURROGATE 0xDBFF
2046#define FIRST_LOW_SURROGATE 0xDC00
2047#define LAST_LOW_SURROGATE UNICODE_SURROGATE_LAST
e23c50db
KW
2048
2049 /* This assumes that most uses will be in the first Unicode plane, not
2050 * needing surrogates */
2051 if (UNLIKELY(uv >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST
2052 && uv <= UNICODE_SURROGATE_LAST))
2053 {
2054 if (UNLIKELY(p >= pend) || UNLIKELY(uv > LAST_HIGH_SURROGATE)) {
2055 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
2056 }
2057 else {
01ea242b 2058 UV low = (p[0] << 8) + p[1];
e23c50db
KW
2059 if ( UNLIKELY(low < FIRST_LOW_SURROGATE)
2060 || UNLIKELY(low > LAST_LOW_SURROGATE))
2061 {
01ea242b 2062 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
e23c50db
KW
2063 }
2064 p += 2;
46956fad
KW
2065 uv = ((uv - FIRST_HIGH_SURROGATE) << 10)
2066 + (low - FIRST_LOW_SURROGATE) + 0x10000;
01ea242b 2067 }
a0ed51b3 2068 }
56d37426
KW
2069#ifdef EBCDIC
2070 d = uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, 0);
2071#else
a0ed51b3 2072 if (uv < 0x10000) {
eb160463
GS
2073 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 12) | 0xe0);
2074 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
2075 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
2076 continue;
2077 }
2078 else {
eb160463
GS
2079 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 18) | 0xf0);
2080 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
2081 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
2082 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
2083 continue;
2084 }
56d37426 2085#endif
a0ed51b3 2086 }
dea0fc0b 2087 *newlen = d - dstart;
a0ed51b3
LW
2088 return d;
2089}
2090
2091/* Note: this one is slightly destructive of the source. */
2092
2093U8*
dea0fc0b 2094Perl_utf16_to_utf8_reversed(pTHX_ U8* p, U8* d, I32 bytelen, I32 *newlen)
a0ed51b3
LW
2095{
2096 U8* s = (U8*)p;
d4c19fe8 2097 U8* const send = s + bytelen;
7918f24d
NC
2098
2099 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF16_TO_UTF8_REVERSED;
2100
e0ea5e2d 2101 if (bytelen & 1)
147e3846 2102 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: utf16_to_utf8_reversed: odd bytelen %" UVuf,
e0ea5e2d
NC
2103 (UV)bytelen);
2104
a0ed51b3 2105 while (s < send) {
d4c19fe8 2106 const U8 tmp = s[0];
a0ed51b3
LW
2107 s[0] = s[1];
2108 s[1] = tmp;
2109 s += 2;
2110 }
dea0fc0b 2111 return utf16_to_utf8(p, d, bytelen, newlen);
a0ed51b3
LW
2112}
2113
922e8cb4
KW
2114bool
2115Perl__is_uni_FOO(pTHX_ const U8 classnum, const UV c)
2116{
2117 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
2118 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
2119 return _is_utf8_FOO(classnum, tmpbuf);
2120}
2121
f9ae8fb6
JD
2122/* Internal function so we can deprecate the external one, and call
2123 this one from other deprecated functions in this file */
2124
f2645549
KW
2125bool
2126Perl__is_utf8_idstart(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
61b19385 2127{
f2645549 2128 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_IDSTART;
61b19385
KW
2129
2130 if (*p == '_')
2131 return TRUE;
f25ce844 2132 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idstart, "IdStart", NULL);
61b19385
KW
2133}
2134
5092f92a 2135bool
eba68aa0
KW
2136Perl__is_uni_perl_idcont(pTHX_ UV c)
2137{
2138 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
2139 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
2140 return _is_utf8_perl_idcont(tmpbuf);
2141}
2142
2143bool
f91dcd13
KW
2144Perl__is_uni_perl_idstart(pTHX_ UV c)
2145{
2146 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
2147 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
2148 return _is_utf8_perl_idstart(tmpbuf);
2149}
2150
3a4c58c9
KW
2151UV
2152Perl__to_upper_title_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const char S_or_s)
2153{
2154 /* We have the latin1-range values compiled into the core, so just use
4a4088c4 2155 * those, converting the result to UTF-8. The only difference between upper
3a4c58c9
KW
2156 * and title case in this range is that LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S is
2157 * either "SS" or "Ss". Which one to use is passed into the routine in
2158 * 'S_or_s' to avoid a test */
2159
2160 UV converted = toUPPER_LATIN1_MOD(c);
2161
2162 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UPPER_TITLE_LATIN1;
2163
2164 assert(S_or_s == 'S' || S_or_s == 's');
2165
6f2d5cbc 2166 if (UVCHR_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) { /* No difference between the two for
f4cd282c 2167 characters in this range */
3a4c58c9
KW
2168 *p = (U8) converted;
2169 *lenp = 1;
2170 return converted;
2171 }
2172
2173 /* toUPPER_LATIN1_MOD gives the correct results except for three outliers,
2174 * which it maps to one of them, so as to only have to have one check for
2175 * it in the main case */
2176 if (UNLIKELY(converted == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS)) {
2177 switch (c) {
2178 case LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS:
2179 converted = LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS;
2180 break;
2181 case MICRO_SIGN:
2182 converted = GREEK_CAPITAL_LETTER_MU;
2183 break;
79e064b9
KW
2184#if UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION > 2 \
2185 || (UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION == 2 && UNICODE_DOT_VERSION >= 1 \
2186 && UNICODE_DOT_DOT_VERSION >= 8)
3a4c58c9
KW
2187 case LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S:
2188 *(p)++ = 'S';
2189 *p = S_or_s;
2190 *lenp = 2;
2191 return 'S';
79e064b9 2192#endif
3a4c58c9
KW
2193 default:
2194 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: to_upper_title_latin1 did not expect '%c' to map to '%c'", c, LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS);
e5964223 2195 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
3a4c58c9
KW
2196 }
2197 }
2198
2199 *(p)++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
2200 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
2201 *lenp = 2;
2202
2203 return converted;
2204}
2205
50bda2c3
KW
2206/* Call the function to convert a UTF-8 encoded character to the specified case.
2207 * Note that there may be more than one character in the result.
2208 * INP is a pointer to the first byte of the input character
2209 * OUTP will be set to the first byte of the string of changed characters. It
2210 * needs to have space for UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes
2211 * LENP will be set to the length in bytes of the string of changed characters
2212 *
2213 * The functions return the ordinal of the first character in the string of OUTP */
b9992569
KW
2214#define CALL_UPPER_CASE(uv, s, d, lenp) _to_utf8_case(uv, s, d, lenp, &PL_utf8_toupper, "ToUc", "")
2215#define CALL_TITLE_CASE(uv, s, d, lenp) _to_utf8_case(uv, s, d, lenp, &PL_utf8_totitle, "ToTc", "")
2216#define CALL_LOWER_CASE(uv, s, d, lenp) _to_utf8_case(uv, s, d, lenp, &PL_utf8_tolower, "ToLc", "")
50bda2c3 2217
b9992569
KW
2218/* This additionally has the input parameter 'specials', which if non-zero will
2219 * cause this to use the specials hash for folding (meaning get full case
50bda2c3 2220 * folding); otherwise, when zero, this implies a simple case fold */
b9992569 2221#define CALL_FOLD_CASE(uv, s, d, lenp, specials) _to_utf8_case(uv, s, d, lenp, &PL_utf8_tofold, "ToCf", (specials) ? "" : NULL)
c3fd2246 2222
84afefe6
JH
2223UV
2224Perl_to_uni_upper(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 2225{
a1433954
KW
2226 /* Convert the Unicode character whose ordinal is <c> to its uppercase
2227 * version and store that in UTF-8 in <p> and its length in bytes in <lenp>.
2228 * Note that the <p> needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since
c3fd2246
KW
2229 * the changed version may be longer than the original character.
2230 *
2231 * The ordinal of the first character of the changed version is returned
2232 * (but note, as explained above, that there may be more.) */
2233
7918f24d
NC
2234 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_UPPER;
2235
3a4c58c9
KW
2236 if (c < 256) {
2237 return _to_upper_title_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 'S');
2238 }
2239
0ebc6274 2240 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
b9992569 2241 return CALL_UPPER_CASE(c, p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
2242}
2243
84afefe6
JH
2244UV
2245Perl_to_uni_title(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 2246{
7918f24d
NC
2247 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_TITLE;
2248
3a4c58c9
KW
2249 if (c < 256) {
2250 return _to_upper_title_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 's');
2251 }
2252
0ebc6274 2253 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
b9992569 2254 return CALL_TITLE_CASE(c, p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
2255}
2256
afc16117 2257STATIC U8
eaf412bf 2258S_to_lower_latin1(const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const char dummy)
afc16117
KW
2259{
2260 /* We have the latin1-range values compiled into the core, so just use
4a4088c4 2261 * those, converting the result to UTF-8. Since the result is always just
a1433954 2262 * one character, we allow <p> to be NULL */
afc16117
KW
2263
2264 U8 converted = toLOWER_LATIN1(c);
2265
eaf412bf
KW
2266 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(dummy);
2267
afc16117 2268 if (p != NULL) {
6f2d5cbc 2269 if (NATIVE_BYTE_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) {
afc16117
KW
2270 *p = converted;
2271 *lenp = 1;
2272 }
2273 else {
430c9760
KW
2274 /* Result is known to always be < 256, so can use the EIGHT_BIT
2275 * macros */
2276 *p = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(converted);
2277 *(p+1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(converted);
afc16117
KW
2278 *lenp = 2;
2279 }
2280 }
2281 return converted;
2282}
2283
84afefe6
JH
2284UV
2285Perl_to_uni_lower(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 2286{
7918f24d
NC
2287 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_LOWER;
2288
afc16117 2289 if (c < 256) {
eaf412bf 2290 return to_lower_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 0 /* 0 is a dummy arg */ );
bca00c02
KW
2291 }
2292
afc16117 2293 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
b9992569 2294 return CALL_LOWER_CASE(c, p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
2295}
2296
84afefe6 2297UV
51910141 2298Perl__to_fold_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const unsigned int flags)
a1dde8de 2299{
51910141 2300 /* Corresponds to to_lower_latin1(); <flags> bits meanings:
1ca267a5 2301 * FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII iff non-ASCII to ASCII folds are prohibited
51910141 2302 * FOLD_FLAGS_FULL iff full folding is to be used;
1ca267a5
KW
2303 *
2304 * Not to be used for locale folds
51910141 2305 */
f673fad4 2306
a1dde8de
KW
2307 UV converted;
2308
2309 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_FOLD_LATIN1;
81611534 2310 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
a1dde8de 2311
1ca267a5
KW
2312 assert (! (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE));
2313
659a7c2d 2314 if (UNLIKELY(c == MICRO_SIGN)) {
a1dde8de
KW
2315 converted = GREEK_SMALL_LETTER_MU;
2316 }
9b63e895
KW
2317#if UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION > 3 /* no multifolds in early Unicode */ \
2318 || (UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION == 3 && ( UNICODE_DOT_VERSION > 0) \
2319 || UNICODE_DOT_DOT_VERSION > 0)
659a7c2d
KW
2320 else if ( (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL)
2321 && UNLIKELY(c == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S))
2322 {
1ca267a5
KW
2323 /* If can't cross 127/128 boundary, can't return "ss"; instead return
2324 * two U+017F characters, as fc("\df") should eq fc("\x{17f}\x{17f}")
2325 * under those circumstances. */
2326 if (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII) {
2327 *lenp = 2 * sizeof(LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S_UTF8) - 2;
2328 Copy(LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S_UTF8 LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S_UTF8,
2329 p, *lenp, U8);
2330 return LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S;
2331 }
2332 else {
4f489194
KW
2333 *(p)++ = 's';
2334 *p = 's';
2335 *lenp = 2;
2336 return 's';
1ca267a5 2337 }
a1dde8de 2338 }
9b63e895 2339#endif
a1dde8de
KW
2340 else { /* In this range the fold of all other characters is their lower
2341 case */
2342 converted = toLOWER_LATIN1(c);
2343 }
2344
6f2d5cbc 2345 if (UVCHR_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) {
a1dde8de
KW
2346 *p = (U8) converted;
2347 *lenp = 1;
2348 }
2349 else {
2350 *(p)++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
2351 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
2352 *lenp = 2;
2353 }
2354
2355 return converted;
2356}
2357
2358UV
31f05a37 2359Perl__to_uni_fold_flags(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, U8 flags)
84afefe6 2360{
4b593389 2361
a0270393
KW
2362 /* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change
2363 * <flags> bits meanings:
2364 * FOLD_FLAGS_FULL iff full folding is to be used;
31f05a37
KW
2365 * FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE is set iff the rules from the current underlying
2366 * locale are to be used.
a0270393
KW
2367 * FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII iff non-ASCII to ASCII folds are prohibited
2368 */
4b593389 2369
36bb2ab6 2370 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UNI_FOLD_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2371
780fcc9f
KW
2372 if (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) {
2373 /* Treat a UTF-8 locale as not being in locale at all */
2374 if (IN_UTF8_CTYPE_LOCALE) {
2375 flags &= ~FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE;
2376 }
2377 else {
2378 _CHECK_AND_WARN_PROBLEMATIC_LOCALE;
e7b7ac46 2379 goto needs_full_generality;
780fcc9f 2380 }
31f05a37
KW
2381 }
2382
a1dde8de 2383 if (c < 256) {
e7b7ac46 2384 return _to_fold_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp,
31f05a37 2385 flags & (FOLD_FLAGS_FULL | FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII));
a1dde8de
KW
2386 }
2387
2f306ab9 2388 /* Here, above 255. If no special needs, just use the macro */
a0270393
KW
2389 if ( ! (flags & (FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE|FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII))) {
2390 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
b9992569 2391 return CALL_FOLD_CASE(c, p, p, lenp, flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL);
a0270393
KW
2392 }
2393 else { /* Otherwise, _to_utf8_fold_flags has the intelligence to deal with
2394 the special flags. */
2395 U8 utf8_c[UTF8_MAXBYTES + 1];
e7b7ac46
KW
2396
2397 needs_full_generality:
a0270393 2398 uvchr_to_utf8(utf8_c, c);
445bf929 2399 return _to_utf8_fold_flags(utf8_c, p, lenp, flags);
a0270393 2400 }
84afefe6
JH
2401}
2402
26483009 2403PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
5141f98e 2404S_is_utf8_common(pTHX_ const U8 *const p, SV **swash,
f25ce844 2405 const char *const swashname, SV* const invlist)
bde6a22d 2406{
ea317ccb
KW
2407 /* returns a boolean giving whether or not the UTF8-encoded character that
2408 * starts at <p> is in the swash indicated by <swashname>. <swash>
2409 * contains a pointer to where the swash indicated by <swashname>
2410 * is to be stored; which this routine will do, so that future calls will
f25ce844
KW
2411 * look at <*swash> and only generate a swash if it is not null. <invlist>
2412 * is NULL or an inversion list that defines the swash. If not null, it
2413 * saves time during initialization of the swash.
ea317ccb
KW
2414 *
2415 * Note that it is assumed that the buffer length of <p> is enough to
2416 * contain all the bytes that comprise the character. Thus, <*p> should
2417 * have been checked before this call for mal-formedness enough to assure
2418 * that. */
2419
7918f24d
NC
2420 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_COMMON;
2421
492a624f 2422 /* The API should have included a length for the UTF-8 character in <p>,
28123549 2423 * but it doesn't. We therefore assume that p has been validated at least
492a624f
KW
2424 * as far as there being enough bytes available in it to accommodate the
2425 * character without reading beyond the end, and pass that number on to the
2426 * validating routine */
6302f837 2427 if (! isUTF8_CHAR(p, p + UTF8SKIP(p))) {
86ae6e94
KW
2428 _force_out_malformed_utf8_message(p, p + UTF8SKIP(p),
2429 0,
2430 1 /* Die */ );
2431 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
28123549 2432 }
86ae6e94 2433
87367d5f
KW
2434 if (!*swash) {
2435 U8 flags = _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST;
f25ce844
KW
2436 *swash = _core_swash_init("utf8",
2437
2438 /* Only use the name if there is no inversion
2439 * list; otherwise will go out to disk */
2440 (invlist) ? "" : swashname,
2441
2442 &PL_sv_undef, 1, 0, invlist, &flags);
87367d5f 2443 }
28123549 2444
bde6a22d
NC
2445 return swash_fetch(*swash, p, TRUE) != 0;
2446}
2447
2448bool
922e8cb4
KW
2449Perl__is_utf8_FOO(pTHX_ const U8 classnum, const U8 *p)
2450{
922e8cb4
KW
2451 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_FOO;
2452
2453 assert(classnum < _FIRST_NON_SWASH_CC);
2454
f25ce844
KW
2455 return is_utf8_common(p,
2456 &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[classnum],
2457 swash_property_names[classnum],
2458 PL_XPosix_ptrs[classnum]);
922e8cb4
KW
2459}
2460
2461bool
f2645549 2462Perl__is_utf8_perl_idstart(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2463{
f2645549 2464 SV* invlist = NULL;
7918f24d 2465
f2645549 2466 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_PERL_IDSTART;
7918f24d 2467
f2645549
KW
2468 if (! PL_utf8_perl_idstart) {
2469 invlist = _new_invlist_C_array(_Perl_IDStart_invlist);
2470 }
60071a22 2471 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_perl_idstart, "_Perl_IDStart", invlist);
82686b01
JH
2472}
2473
2474bool
f2645549 2475Perl__is_utf8_xidstart(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
c11ff943 2476{
f2645549 2477 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_XIDSTART;
c11ff943
KW
2478
2479 if (*p == '_')
2480 return TRUE;
f25ce844 2481 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_xidstart, "XIdStart", NULL);
c11ff943
KW
2482}
2483
2484bool
eba68aa0
KW
2485Perl__is_utf8_perl_idcont(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2486{
b24b43f7 2487 SV* invlist = NULL;
eba68aa0
KW
2488
2489 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_PERL_IDCONT;
2490
b24b43f7
KW
2491 if (! PL_utf8_perl_idcont) {
2492 invlist = _new_invlist_C_array(_Perl_IDCont_invlist);
2493 }
60071a22 2494 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_perl_idcont, "_Perl_IDCont", invlist);
eba68aa0
KW
2495}
2496
eba68aa0 2497bool
f2645549 2498Perl__is_utf8_idcont(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
82686b01 2499{
f2645549 2500 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_IDCONT;
7918f24d 2501
f25ce844 2502 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idcont, "IdContinue", NULL);
a0ed51b3
LW
2503}
2504
2505bool
f2645549 2506Perl__is_utf8_xidcont(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
c11ff943 2507{
f2645549 2508 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_XIDCONT;
c11ff943 2509
f25ce844 2510 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idcont, "XIdContinue", NULL);
c11ff943
KW
2511}
2512
2513bool
7dbf68d2
KW
2514Perl__is_utf8_mark(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2515{
7dbf68d2
KW
2516 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_MARK;
2517
f25ce844 2518 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_mark, "IsM", NULL);
7dbf68d2
KW
2519}
2520
6b5c0936 2521/*
87cea99e 2522=for apidoc to_utf8_case
6b5c0936 2523
9da1e7cb
KW
2524Instead use the appropriate one of L</toUPPER_utf8>,
2525L</toTITLE_utf8>,
2526L</toLOWER_utf8>,
2527or L</toFOLD_utf8>.
2528
6fae5207 2529C<p> contains the pointer to the UTF-8 string encoding
a1433954
KW
2530the character that is being converted. This routine assumes that the character
2531at C<p> is well-formed.
6b5c0936 2532
6fae5207
KW
2533C<ustrp> is a pointer to the character buffer to put the
2534conversion result to. C<lenp> is a pointer to the length
6b5c0936
JH
2535of the result.
2536
6fae5207 2537C<swashp> is a pointer to the swash to use.
6b5c0936 2538
a1433954 2539Both the special and normal mappings are stored in F<lib/unicore/To/Foo.pl>,
796b6530 2540and loaded by C<SWASHNEW>, using F<lib/utf8_heavy.pl>. C<special> (usually,
0134edef 2541but not always, a multicharacter mapping), is tried first.
6b5c0936 2542
4a8240a3
KW
2543C<special> is a string, normally C<NULL> or C<"">. C<NULL> means to not use
2544any special mappings; C<""> means to use the special mappings. Values other
2545than these two are treated as the name of the hash containing the special
2546mappings, like C<"utf8::ToSpecLower">.
6b5c0936 2547
796b6530
KW
2548C<normal> is a string like C<"ToLower"> which means the swash
2549C<%utf8::ToLower>.
0134edef 2550
760c7c2f
KW
2551Code points above the platform's C<IV_MAX> will raise a deprecation warning,
2552unless those are turned off.
2553
0134edef 2554=cut */
6b5c0936 2555
2104c8d9 2556UV
9a957fbc
AL
2557Perl_to_utf8_case(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp,
2558 SV **swashp, const char *normal, const char *special)
a0ed51b3 2559{
b9992569
KW
2560 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UTF8_CASE;
2561
2562 return _to_utf8_case(valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, NULL), p, ustrp, lenp, swashp, normal, special);
2563}
2564
2565 /* change namve uv1 to 'from' */
6a4a25f4 2566STATIC UV
b9992569
KW
2567S__to_utf8_case(pTHX_ const UV uv1, const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp,
2568 SV **swashp, const char *normal, const char *special)
2569{
0134edef 2570 STRLEN len = 0;
7918f24d 2571
b9992569 2572 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_CASE;
7918f24d 2573
36eaa811
KW
2574 /* For code points that don't change case, we already know that the output
2575 * of this function is the unchanged input, so we can skip doing look-ups
2576 * for them. Unfortunately the case-changing code points are scattered
2577 * around. But there are some long consecutive ranges where there are no
2578 * case changing code points. By adding tests, we can eliminate the lookup
2579 * for all the ones in such ranges. This is currently done here only for
2580 * just a few cases where the scripts are in common use in modern commerce
2581 * (and scripts adjacent to those which can be included without additional
2582 * tests). */
2583
2584 if (uv1 >= 0x0590) {
2585 /* This keeps from needing further processing the code points most
2586 * likely to be used in the following non-cased scripts: Hebrew,
2587 * Arabic, Syriac, Thaana, NKo, Samaritan, Mandaic, Devanagari,
2588 * Bengali, Gurmukhi, Gujarati, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada,
2589 * Malayalam, Sinhala, Thai, Lao, Tibetan, Myanmar */
2590 if (uv1 < 0x10A0) {
2591 goto cases_to_self;
2592 }
2593
2594 /* The following largish code point ranges also don't have case
2595 * changes, but khw didn't think they warranted extra tests to speed
2596 * them up (which would slightly slow down everything else above them):
2597 * 1100..139F Hangul Jamo, Ethiopic
2598 * 1400..1CFF Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, Ogham, Runic,
2599 * Tagalog, Hanunoo, Buhid, Tagbanwa, Khmer, Mongolian,
2600 * Limbu, Tai Le, New Tai Lue, Buginese, Tai Tham,
2601 * Combining Diacritical Marks Extended, Balinese,
2602 * Sundanese, Batak, Lepcha, Ol Chiki
2603 * 2000..206F General Punctuation
2604 */
2605
2606 if (uv1 >= 0x2D30) {
2607
2608 /* This keeps the from needing further processing the code points
2609 * most likely to be used in the following non-cased major scripts:
2610 * CJK, Katakana, Hiragana, plus some less-likely scripts.
2611 *
2612 * (0x2D30 above might have to be changed to 2F00 in the unlikely
2613 * event that Unicode eventually allocates the unused block as of
2614 * v8.0 2FE0..2FEF to code points that are cased. khw has verified
2615 * that the test suite will start having failures to alert you
2616 * should that happen) */
2617 if (uv1 < 0xA640) {
2618 goto cases_to_self;
2619 }
2620
2621 if (uv1 >= 0xAC00) {
2622 if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv1))) {
5af9bc97
KW
2623 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_SURROGATE)) {
2624 const char* desc = (PL_op) ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : normal;
2625 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE),
147e3846 2626 "Operation \"%s\" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%04" UVXf, desc, uv1);
5af9bc97
KW
2627 }
2628 goto cases_to_self;
2629 }
36eaa811
KW
2630
2631 /* AC00..FAFF Catches Hangul syllables and private use, plus
2632 * some others */
2633 if (uv1 < 0xFB00) {
2634 goto cases_to_self;
2635
2636 }
2637
5af9bc97
KW
2638 if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_SUPER(uv1))) {
2639 if ( UNLIKELY(uv1 > MAX_NON_DEPRECATED_CP)
2640 && ckWARN_d(WARN_DEPRECATED))
2641 {
2642 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_DEPRECATED),
2643 cp_above_legal_max, uv1, MAX_NON_DEPRECATED_CP);
2644 }
2645 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_NON_UNICODE)) {
2646 const char* desc = (PL_op) ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : normal;
2647 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE),
147e3846 2648 "Operation \"%s\" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%04" UVXf, desc, uv1);
5af9bc97
KW
2649 }
2650 goto cases_to_self;
2651 }
3bfc1e70
KW
2652#ifdef HIGHEST_CASE_CHANGING_CP_FOR_USE_ONLY_BY_UTF8_DOT_C
2653 if (UNLIKELY(uv1
2654 > HIGHEST_CASE_CHANGING_CP_FOR_USE_ONLY_BY_UTF8_DOT_C))
2655 {
2656
2657 /* As of this writing, this means we avoid swash creation
2658 * for anything beyond low Plane 1 */
2659 goto cases_to_self;
2660 }
2661#endif
36eaa811
KW
2662 }
2663 }
9ae3ac1a 2664
36eaa811
KW
2665 /* Note that non-characters are perfectly legal, so no warning should
2666 * be given. There are so few of them, that it isn't worth the extra
2667 * tests to avoid swash creation */
9ae3ac1a
KW
2668 }
2669
0134edef 2670 if (!*swashp) /* load on-demand */
5ab9d2ef 2671 *swashp = _core_swash_init("utf8", normal, &PL_sv_undef, 4, 0, NULL, NULL);
0134edef 2672
a6f87d8c 2673 if (special) {
0134edef 2674 /* It might be "special" (sometimes, but not always,
2a37f04d 2675 * a multicharacter mapping) */
4a8240a3 2676 HV *hv = NULL;
b08cf34e
JH
2677 SV **svp;
2678
4a8240a3
KW
2679 /* If passed in the specials name, use that; otherwise use any
2680 * given in the swash */
2681 if (*special != '\0') {
2682 hv = get_hv(special, 0);
2683 }
2684 else {
2685 svp = hv_fetchs(MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(*swashp)), "SPECIALS", 0);
2686 if (svp) {
2687 hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(*svp));
2688 }
2689 }
2690
176fe009 2691 if (hv
5f560d8a 2692 && (svp = hv_fetch(hv, (const char*)p, UVCHR_SKIP(uv1), FALSE))
176fe009
KW
2693 && (*svp))
2694 {
cfd0369c 2695 const char *s;
47654450 2696
cfd0369c 2697 s = SvPV_const(*svp, len);
47654450 2698 if (len == 1)
f4cd282c 2699 /* EIGHTBIT */
c80e42f3 2700 len = uvchr_to_utf8(ustrp, *(U8*)s) - ustrp;
2a37f04d 2701 else {
d2dcd0fb 2702 Copy(s, ustrp, len, U8);
29e98929 2703 }
983ffd37 2704 }
0134edef
JH
2705 }
2706
2707 if (!len && *swashp) {
4a4088c4 2708 const UV uv2 = swash_fetch(*swashp, p, TRUE /* => is UTF-8 */);
d4c19fe8 2709
0134edef
JH
2710 if (uv2) {
2711 /* It was "normal" (a single character mapping). */
f4cd282c 2712 len = uvchr_to_utf8(ustrp, uv2) - ustrp;
2a37f04d
JH
2713 }
2714 }
1feea2c7 2715
cbe07460
KW
2716 if (len) {
2717 if (lenp) {
2718 *lenp = len;
2719 }
2720 return valid_utf8_to_uvchr(ustrp, 0);
2721 }
2722
2723 /* Here, there was no mapping defined, which means that the code point maps
2724 * to itself. Return the inputs */
e24dfe9c 2725 cases_to_self:
bfdf22ec 2726 len = UTF8SKIP(p);
ca9fab46
KW
2727 if (p != ustrp) { /* Don't copy onto itself */
2728 Copy(p, ustrp, len, U8);
2729 }
0134edef 2730
2a37f04d
JH
2731 if (lenp)
2732 *lenp = len;
2733
f4cd282c 2734 return uv1;
cbe07460 2735
a0ed51b3
LW
2736}
2737
051a06d4 2738STATIC UV
357aadde 2739S_check_locale_boundary_crossing(pTHX_ const U8* const p, const UV result, U8* const ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)
051a06d4 2740{
4a4088c4 2741 /* This is called when changing the case of a UTF-8-encoded character above
31f05a37
KW
2742 * the Latin1 range, and the operation is in a non-UTF-8 locale. If the
2743 * result contains a character that crosses the 255/256 boundary, disallow
2744 * the change, and return the original code point. See L<perlfunc/lc> for
2745 * why;
051a06d4 2746 *
a1433954
KW
2747 * p points to the original string whose case was changed; assumed
2748 * by this routine to be well-formed
051a06d4
KW
2749 * result the code point of the first character in the changed-case string
2750 * ustrp points to the changed-case string (<result> represents its first char)
2751 * lenp points to the length of <ustrp> */
2752
2753 UV original; /* To store the first code point of <p> */
2754
2755 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_CHECK_LOCALE_BOUNDARY_CROSSING;
2756
a4f12ed7 2757 assert(UTF8_IS_ABOVE_LATIN1(*p));
051a06d4
KW
2758
2759 /* We know immediately if the first character in the string crosses the
2760 * boundary, so can skip */
2761 if (result > 255) {
2762
2763 /* Look at every character in the result; if any cross the
2764 * boundary, the whole thing is disallowed */
2765 U8* s = ustrp + UTF8SKIP(ustrp);
2766 U8* e = ustrp + *lenp;
2767 while (s < e) {
a4f12ed7 2768 if (! UTF8_IS_ABOVE_LATIN1(*s)) {
051a06d4
KW
2769 goto bad_crossing;
2770 }
2771 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
2772 }
2773
613abc6d
KW
2774 /* Here, no characters crossed, result is ok as-is, but we warn. */
2775 _CHECK_AND_OUTPUT_WIDE_LOCALE_UTF8_MSG(p, p + UTF8SKIP(p));
051a06d4
KW
2776 return result;
2777 }
2778
7b52d656 2779 bad_crossing:
051a06d4
KW
2780
2781 /* Failed, have to return the original */
4b88fb76 2782 original = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, lenp);
ab0b796c
KW
2783
2784 /* diag_listed_as: Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s". */
2785 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_LOCALE),
147e3846
KW
2786 "Can't do %s(\"\\x{%" UVXf "}\") on non-UTF-8 locale; "
2787 "resolved to \"\\x{%" UVXf "}\".",
357aadde 2788 OP_DESC(PL_op),
ab0b796c
KW
2789 original,
2790 original);
051a06d4
KW
2791 Copy(p, ustrp, *lenp, char);
2792 return original;
2793}
2794
eaf412bf
KW
2795/* The process for changing the case is essentially the same for the four case
2796 * change types, except there are complications for folding. Otherwise the
2797 * difference is only which case to change to. To make sure that they all do
2798 * the same thing, the bodies of the functions are extracted out into the
2799 * following two macros. The functions are written with the same variable
2800 * names, and these are known and used inside these macros. It would be
2801 * better, of course, to have inline functions to do it, but since different
2802 * macros are called, depending on which case is being changed to, this is not
2803 * feasible in C (to khw's knowledge). Two macros are created so that the fold
2804 * function can start with the common start macro, then finish with its special
2805 * handling; while the other three cases can just use the common end macro.
2806 *
2807 * The algorithm is to use the proper (passed in) macro or function to change
2808 * the case for code points that are below 256. The macro is used if using
2809 * locale rules for the case change; the function if not. If the code point is
2810 * above 255, it is computed from the input UTF-8, and another macro is called
2811 * to do the conversion. If necessary, the output is converted to UTF-8. If
2812 * using a locale, we have to check that the change did not cross the 255/256
2813 * boundary, see check_locale_boundary_crossing() for further details.
2814 *
2815 * The macros are split with the correct case change for the below-256 case
2816 * stored into 'result', and in the middle of an else clause for the above-255
2817 * case. At that point in the 'else', 'result' is not the final result, but is
2818 * the input code point calculated from the UTF-8. The fold code needs to
2819 * realize all this and take it from there.
2820 *
2821 * If you read the two macros as sequential, it's easier to understand what's
2822 * going on. */
2823#define CASE_CHANGE_BODY_START(locale_flags, LC_L1_change_macro, L1_func, \
2824 L1_func_extra_param) \
2825 if (flags & (locale_flags)) { \
2826 /* Treat a UTF-8 locale as not being in locale at all */ \
2827 if (IN_UTF8_CTYPE_LOCALE) { \
2828 flags &= ~(locale_flags); \
2829 } \
2830 else { \
2831 _CHECK_AND_WARN_PROBLEMATIC_LOCALE; \
2832 } \
2833 } \
2834 \
2835 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) { \
2836 if (flags & (locale_flags)) { \
2837 result = LC_L1_change_macro(*p); \
2838 } \
2839 else { \
2840 return L1_func(*p, ustrp, lenp, L1_func_extra_param); \
2841 } \
2842 } \
2843 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) { \
2844 if (flags & (locale_flags)) { \
2845 result = LC_L1_change_macro(EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(*p, \
2846 *(p+1))); \
2847 } \
2848 else { \
2849 return L1_func(EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(*p, *(p+1)), \
2850 ustrp, lenp, L1_func_extra_param); \
2851 } \
2852 } \
2853 else { /* malformed UTF-8 */ \
2854 result = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, NULL); \
2855
2856#define CASE_CHANGE_BODY_END(locale_flags, change_macro) \
2857 result = change_macro(result, p, ustrp, lenp); \
2858 \
2859 if (flags & (locale_flags)) { \
2860 result = check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp); \
2861 } \
2862 return result; \
2863 } \
2864 \
2865 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to UTF-8 */ \
2866 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) { \
2867 *ustrp = (U8) result; \
2868 *lenp = 1; \
2869 } \
2870 else { \
2871 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI((U8) result); \
2872 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO((U8) result); \
2873 *lenp = 2; \
2874 } \
2875 \
2876 return result;
2877
d3e79532 2878/*
87cea99e 2879=for apidoc to_utf8_upper
d3e79532 2880
1f607577 2881Instead use L</toUPPER_utf8>.
a1433954 2882
d3e79532
JH
2883=cut */
2884
051a06d4 2885/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
31f05a37
KW
2886 * <flags> is set iff iff the rules from the current underlying locale are to
2887 * be used. */
051a06d4 2888
2104c8d9 2889UV
31f05a37 2890Perl__to_utf8_upper_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, bool flags)
a0ed51b3 2891{
051a06d4
KW
2892 UV result;
2893
2894 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_UPPER_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2895
eaf412bf
KW
2896 /* ~0 makes anything non-zero in 'flags' mean we are using locale rules */
2897 /* 2nd char of uc(U+DF) is 'S' */
2898 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_START(~0, toUPPER_LC, _to_upper_title_latin1, 'S');
2899 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_END (~0, CALL_UPPER_CASE);
983ffd37 2900}
a0ed51b3 2901
d3e79532 2902/*
87cea99e 2903=for apidoc to_utf8_title
d3e79532 2904
1f607577 2905Instead use L</toTITLE_utf8>.
a1433954 2906
d3e79532
JH
2907=cut */
2908
051a06d4 2909/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
31f05a37
KW
2910 * <flags> is set iff the rules from the current underlying locale are to be
2911 * used. Since titlecase is not defined in POSIX, for other than a
2912 * UTF-8 locale, uppercase is used instead for code points < 256.
445bf929 2913 */
051a06d4 2914
983ffd37 2915UV
31f05a37 2916Perl__to_utf8_title_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, bool flags)
983ffd37 2917{
051a06d4
KW
2918 UV result;
2919
2920 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_TITLE_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2921
eaf412bf
KW
2922 /* 2nd char of ucfirst(U+DF) is 's' */
2923 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_START(~0, toUPPER_LC, _to_upper_title_latin1, 's');
2924 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_END (~0, CALL_TITLE_CASE);
a0ed51b3
LW
2925}
2926
d3e79532 2927/*
87cea99e 2928=for apidoc to_utf8_lower
d3e79532 2929
1f607577 2930Instead use L</toLOWER_utf8>.
a1433954 2931
d3e79532
JH
2932=cut */
2933
051a06d4 2934/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
31f05a37
KW
2935 * <flags> is set iff iff the rules from the current underlying locale are to
2936 * be used.
2937 */
051a06d4 2938
2104c8d9 2939UV
31f05a37 2940Perl__to_utf8_lower_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, bool flags)
a0ed51b3 2941{
051a06d4
KW
2942 UV result;
2943
051a06d4 2944 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_LOWER_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2945
eaf412bf
KW
2946 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_START(~0, toLOWER_LC, to_lower_latin1, 0 /* 0 is dummy */)
2947 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_END (~0, CALL_LOWER_CASE)
b4e400f9
JH
2948}
2949
d3e79532 2950/*
87cea99e 2951=for apidoc to_utf8_fold
d3e79532 2952
1f607577 2953Instead use L</toFOLD_utf8>.
a1433954 2954
d3e79532
JH
2955=cut */
2956
051a06d4
KW
2957/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change,
2958 * in <flags>
31f05a37
KW
2959 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE is set iff the rules from the current underlying
2960 * locale are to be used.
051a06d4
KW
2961 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_FULL is set iff full case folds are to be used;
2962 * otherwise simple folds
a0270393
KW
2963 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII is set iff folds of non-ASCII to ASCII are
2964 * prohibited
445bf929 2965 */
36bb2ab6 2966
b4e400f9 2967UV
445bf929 2968Perl__to_utf8_fold_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, U8 flags)
b4e400f9 2969{
051a06d4
KW
2970 UV result;
2971
36bb2ab6 2972 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_FOLD_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2973
a0270393
KW
2974 /* These are mutually exclusive */
2975 assert (! ((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) && (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII)));
2976
50ba90ff
KW
2977 assert(p != ustrp); /* Otherwise overwrites */
2978
eaf412bf
KW
2979 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_START(FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE, toFOLD_LC, _to_fold_latin1,
2980 ((flags) & (FOLD_FLAGS_FULL | FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII)));
31f05a37 2981
eaf412bf 2982 result = CALL_FOLD_CASE(result, p, ustrp, lenp, flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL);
a1dde8de 2983
1ca267a5
KW
2984 if (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) {
2985
76f2ffcd 2986# define LONG_S_T LATIN_SMALL_LIGATURE_LONG_S_T_UTF8
0766489e
KW
2987 const unsigned int long_s_t_len = sizeof(LONG_S_T) - 1;
2988
2989# ifdef LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_SHARP_S_UTF8
2990# define CAP_SHARP_S LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_SHARP_S_UTF8
76f2ffcd
KW
2991
2992 const unsigned int cap_sharp_s_len = sizeof(CAP_SHARP_S) - 1;
76f2ffcd 2993
538e84ed
KW
2994 /* Special case these two characters, as what normally gets
2995 * returned under locale doesn't work */
76f2ffcd
KW
2996 if (UTF8SKIP(p) == cap_sharp_s_len
2997 && memEQ((char *) p, CAP_SHARP_S, cap_sharp_s_len))
1ca267a5 2998 {
ab0b796c
KW
2999 /* diag_listed_as: Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s". */
3000 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_LOCALE),
3001 "Can't do fc(\"\\x{1E9E}\") on non-UTF-8 locale; "
3002 "resolved to \"\\x{17F}\\x{17F}\".");
1ca267a5
KW
3003 goto return_long_s;
3004 }
0766489e
KW
3005 else
3006#endif
3007 if (UTF8SKIP(p) == long_s_t_len
76f2ffcd 3008 && memEQ((char *) p, LONG_S_T, long_s_t_len))
9fc2026f 3009 {
ab0b796c
KW
3010 /* diag_listed_as: Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s". */
3011 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_LOCALE),
3012 "Can't do fc(\"\\x{FB05}\") on non-UTF-8 locale; "
3013 "resolved to \"\\x{FB06}\".");
9fc2026f
KW
3014 goto return_ligature_st;
3015 }
74894415
KW
3016
3017#if UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION == 3 \
3018 && UNICODE_DOT_VERSION == 0 \
3019 && UNICODE_DOT_DOT_VERSION == 1
3020# define DOTTED_I LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_I_WITH_DOT_ABOVE_UTF8
3021
3022 /* And special case this on this Unicode version only, for the same
3023 * reaons the other two are special cased. They would cross the
3024 * 255/256 boundary which is forbidden under /l, and so the code
3025 * wouldn't catch that they are equivalent (which they are only in
3026 * this release) */
3027 else if (UTF8SKIP(p) == sizeof(DOTTED_I) - 1
3028 && memEQ((char *) p, DOTTED_I, sizeof(DOTTED_I) - 1))
3029 {
3030 /* diag_listed_as: Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s". */
3031 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_LOCALE),
3032 "Can't do fc(\"\\x{0130}\") on non-UTF-8 locale; "
3033 "resolved to \"\\x{0131}\".");
3034 goto return_dotless_i;
3035 }
3036#endif
3037
357aadde 3038 return check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
051a06d4 3039 }
a0270393
KW
3040 else if (! (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII)) {
3041 return result;
3042 }
3043 else {
4a4088c4 3044 /* This is called when changing the case of a UTF-8-encoded
9fc2026f
KW
3045 * character above the ASCII range, and the result should not
3046 * contain an ASCII character. */
a0270393
KW
3047
3048 UV original; /* To store the first code point of <p> */
3049
3050 /* Look at every character in the result; if any cross the
3051 * boundary, the whole thing is disallowed */
3052 U8* s = ustrp;
3053 U8* e = ustrp + *lenp;
3054 while (s < e) {
3055 if (isASCII(*s)) {
3056 /* Crossed, have to return the original */
3057 original = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, lenp);
1ca267a5 3058
9fc2026f 3059 /* But in these instances, there is an alternative we can
1ca267a5 3060 * return that is valid */
0766489e
KW
3061 if (original == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S
3062#ifdef LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_SHARP_S /* not defined in early Unicode releases */
3063 || original == LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_SHARP_S
3064#endif
3065 ) {
1ca267a5
KW
3066 goto return_long_s;
3067 }
9fc2026f
KW
3068 else if (original == LATIN_SMALL_LIGATURE_LONG_S_T) {
3069 goto return_ligature_st;
3070 }
74894415
KW
3071#if UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION == 3 \
3072 && UNICODE_DOT_VERSION == 0 \
3073 && UNICODE_DOT_DOT_VERSION == 1
3074
3075 else if (original == LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_I_WITH_DOT_ABOVE) {
3076 goto return_dotless_i;
3077 }
3078#endif
a0270393
KW
3079 Copy(p, ustrp, *lenp, char);
3080 return original;
3081 }
3082 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
3083 }
051a06d4 3084
a0270393
KW
3085 /* Here, no characters crossed, result is ok as-is */
3086 return result;
3087 }
051a06d4
KW
3088 }
3089
4a4088c4 3090 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to UTF-8 */
051a06d4
KW
3091 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
3092 *ustrp = (U8) result;
3093 *lenp = 1;
3094 }
3095 else {
62cb07ea
KW
3096 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI((U8) result);
3097 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO((U8) result);
051a06d4
KW
3098 *lenp = 2;
3099 }
3100
051a06d4 3101 return result;
1ca267a5
KW
3102
3103 return_long_s:
3104 /* Certain folds to 'ss' are prohibited by the options, but they do allow
3105 * folds to a string of two of these characters. By returning this
3106 * instead, then, e.g.,
3107 * fc("\x{1E9E}") eq fc("\x{17F}\x{17F}")
3108 * works. */
3109
3110 *lenp = 2 * sizeof(LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S_UTF8) - 2;
3111 Copy(LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S_UTF8 LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S_UTF8,
3112 ustrp, *lenp, U8);
3113 return LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S;
9fc2026f
KW
3114
3115 return_ligature_st:
3116 /* Two folds to 'st' are prohibited by the options; instead we pick one and
3117 * have the other one fold to it */
3118
3119 *lenp = sizeof(LATIN_SMALL_LIGATURE_ST_UTF8) - 1;
3120 Copy(LATIN_SMALL_LIGATURE_ST_UTF8, ustrp, *lenp, U8);
3121 return LATIN_SMALL_LIGATURE_ST;
74894415
KW
3122
3123#if UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION == 3 \
3124 && UNICODE_DOT_VERSION == 0 \
3125 && UNICODE_DOT_DOT_VERSION == 1
3126
3127 return_dotless_i:
3128 *lenp = sizeof(LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_DOTLESS_I_UTF8) - 1;
3129 Copy(LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_DOTLESS_I_UTF8, ustrp, *lenp, U8);
3130 return LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_DOTLESS_I;
3131
3132#endif
3133
a0ed51b3
LW
3134}
3135
711a919c 3136/* Note:
f90a9a02 3137 * Returns a "swash" which is a hash described in utf8.c:Perl_swash_fetch().
711a919c
ST
3138 * C<pkg> is a pointer to a package name for SWASHNEW, should be "utf8".
3139 * For other parameters, see utf8::SWASHNEW in lib/utf8_heavy.pl.
3140 */
c4a5db0c 3141
a0ed51b3 3142SV*
7fc63493 3143Perl_swash_init(pTHX_ const char* pkg, const char* name, SV *listsv, I32 minbits, I32 none)
a0ed51b3 3144{
c4a5db0c
KW
3145 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWASH_INIT;
3146
3147 /* Returns a copy of a swash initiated by the called function. This is the
3148 * public interface, and returning a copy prevents others from doing
3149 * mischief on the original */
3150
5d3d13d1 3151 return newSVsv(_core_swash_init(pkg, name, listsv, minbits, none, NULL, NULL));
c4a5db0c
KW
3152}
3153
3154SV*
5d3d13d1 3155Perl__core_swash_init(pTHX_ const char* pkg, const char* name, SV *listsv, I32 minbits, I32 none, SV* invlist, U8* const flags_p)
c4a5db0c 3156{
2c1f00b9
YO
3157
3158 /*NOTE NOTE NOTE - If you want to use "return" in this routine you MUST
3159 * use the following define */
3160
3161#define CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN(x) \
3162 PL_curpm= old_PL_curpm; \
3163 return x
3164
c4a5db0c 3165 /* Initialize and return a swash, creating it if necessary. It does this
87367d5f
KW
3166 * by calling utf8_heavy.pl in the general case. The returned value may be
3167 * the swash's inversion list instead if the input parameters allow it.
3168 * Which is returned should be immaterial to callers, as the only
923b6d4e
KW
3169 * operations permitted on a swash, swash_fetch(), _get_swash_invlist(),
3170 * and swash_to_invlist() handle both these transparently.
c4a5db0c
KW
3171 *
3172 * This interface should only be used by functions that won't destroy or
3173 * adversely change the swash, as doing so affects all other uses of the
3174 * swash in the program; the general public should use 'Perl_swash_init'
3175 * instead.
3176 *
3177 * pkg is the name of the package that <name> should be in.
3178 * name is the name of the swash to find. Typically it is a Unicode
3179 * property name, including user-defined ones
3180 * listsv is a string to initialize the swash with. It must be of the form
3181 * documented as the subroutine return value in
3182 * L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties>
3183 * minbits is the number of bits required to represent each data element.
3184 * It is '1' for binary properties.
3185 * none I (khw) do not understand this one, but it is used only in tr///.
9a53f6cf 3186 * invlist is an inversion list to initialize the swash with (or NULL)
83199d38
KW
3187 * flags_p if non-NULL is the address of various input and output flag bits
3188 * to the routine, as follows: ('I' means is input to the routine;
3189 * 'O' means output from the routine. Only flags marked O are
3190 * meaningful on return.)
3191 * _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY indicates if the swash
3192 * came from a user-defined property. (I O)
5d3d13d1
KW
3193 * _CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN_IF_UNDEF indicates that instead of croaking
3194 * when the swash cannot be located, to simply return NULL. (I)
87367d5f
KW
3195 * _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST indicates that the caller will accept a
3196 * return of an inversion list instead of a swash hash if this routine
3197 * thinks that would result in faster execution of swash_fetch() later
3198 * on. (I)
9a53f6cf
KW
3199 *
3200 * Thus there are three possible inputs to find the swash: <name>,
3201 * <listsv>, and <invlist>. At least one must be specified. The result
3202 * will be the union of the specified ones, although <listsv>'s various
aabbdbda
KW
3203 * actions can intersect, etc. what <name> gives. To avoid going out to
3204 * disk at all, <invlist> should specify completely what the swash should
3205 * have, and <listsv> should be &PL_sv_undef and <name> should be "".
9a53f6cf
KW
3206 *
3207 * <invlist> is only valid for binary properties */
c4a5db0c 3208
2c1f00b9
YO
3209 PMOP *old_PL_curpm= PL_curpm; /* save away the old PL_curpm */
3210
c4a5db0c 3211 SV* retval = &PL_sv_undef;
83199d38 3212 HV* swash_hv = NULL;
87367d5f
KW
3213 const int invlist_swash_boundary =
3214 (flags_p && *flags_p & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST)
3215 ? 512 /* Based on some benchmarking, but not extensive, see commit
3216 message */
3217 : -1; /* Never return just an inversion list */
9a53f6cf
KW
3218
3219 assert(listsv != &PL_sv_undef || strNE(name, "") || invlist);
3220 assert(! invlist || minbits == 1);
3221
2c1f00b9
YO
3222 PL_curpm= NULL; /* reset PL_curpm so that we dont get confused between the regex
3223 that triggered the swash init and the swash init perl logic itself.
3224 See perl #122747 */
3225
9a53f6cf
KW
3226 /* If data was passed in to go out to utf8_heavy to find the swash of, do
3227 * so */
3228 if (listsv != &PL_sv_undef || strNE(name, "")) {
69794297
KW
3229 dSP;
3230 const size_t pkg_len = strlen(pkg);
3231 const size_t name_len = strlen(name);
3232 HV * const stash = gv_stashpvn(pkg, pkg_len, 0);
3233 SV* errsv_save;
3234 GV *method;
3235
3236 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__CORE_SWASH_INIT;
3237
3238 PUSHSTACKi(PERLSI_MAGIC);
ce3b816e 3239 ENTER;
69794297 3240 SAVEHINTS();
2782061f 3241 save_re_context();
650f067c
JL
3242 /* We might get here via a subroutine signature which uses a utf8
3243 * parameter name, at which point PL_subname will have been set
3244 * but not yet used. */
3245 save_item(PL_subname);
69794297
KW
3246 if (PL_parser && PL_parser->error_count)
3247 SAVEI8(PL_parser->error_count), PL_parser->error_count = 0;
3248 method = gv_fetchmeth(stash, "SWASHNEW", 8, -1);
4a4088c4 3249 if (!method) { /* demand load UTF-8 */
69794297 3250 ENTER;
db2c6cb3
FC
3251 if ((errsv_save = GvSV(PL_errgv))) SAVEFREESV(errsv_save);
3252 GvSV(PL_errgv) = NULL;
1a419e6b 3253#ifndef NO_TAINT_SUPPORT
69794297
KW
3254 /* It is assumed that callers of this routine are not passing in
3255 * any user derived data. */
2782061f
DM
3256 /* Need to do this after save_re_context() as it will set
3257 * PL_tainted to 1 while saving $1 etc (see the code after getrx:
3258 * in Perl_magic_get). Even line to create errsv_save can turn on
3259 * PL_tainted. */
284167a5
SM
3260 SAVEBOOL(TAINT_get);
3261 TAINT_NOT;
3262#endif
69794297
KW
3263 Perl_load_module(aTHX_ PERL_LOADMOD_NOIMPORT, newSVpvn(pkg,pkg_len),
3264 NULL);
eed484f9 3265 {
db2c6cb3
FC
3266 /* Not ERRSV, as there is no need to vivify a scalar we are
3267 about to discard. */
3268 SV * const errsv = GvSV(PL_errgv);
3269 if (!SvTRUE(errsv)) {
3270 GvSV(PL_errgv) = SvREFCNT_inc_simple(errsv_save);
3271 SvREFCNT_dec(errsv);
3272 }
eed484f9 3273 }
69794297
KW
3274 LEAVE;
3275 }
3276 SPAGAIN;
3277 PUSHMARK(SP);
3278 EXTEND(SP,5);
3279 mPUSHp(pkg, pkg_len);
3280 mPUSHp(name, name_len);
3281 PUSHs(listsv);
3282 mPUSHi(minbits);
3283 mPUSHi(none);
3284 PUTBACK;
db2c6cb3
FC
3285 if ((errsv_save = GvSV(PL_errgv))) SAVEFREESV(errsv_save);
3286 GvSV(PL_errgv) = NULL;
69794297
KW
3287 /* If we already have a pointer to the method, no need to use
3288 * call_method() to repeat the lookup. */
c41800a8
KW
3289 if (method
3290 ? call_sv(MUTABLE_SV(method), G_SCALAR)
69794297
KW
3291 : call_sv(newSVpvs_flags("SWASHNEW", SVs_TEMP), G_SCALAR | G_METHOD))
3292 {
3293 retval = *PL_stack_sp--;
3294 SvREFCNT_inc(retval);
3295 }
eed484f9 3296 {
db2c6cb3
FC
3297 /* Not ERRSV. See above. */
3298 SV * const errsv = GvSV(PL_errgv);
3299 if (!SvTRUE(errsv)) {
3300 GvSV(PL_errgv) = SvREFCNT_inc_simple(errsv_save);
3301 SvREFCNT_dec(errsv);
3302 }
eed484f9 3303 }
ce3b816e 3304 LEAVE;
69794297
KW
3305 POPSTACK;
3306 if (IN_PERL_COMPILETIME) {
3307 CopHINTS_set(PL_curcop, PL_hints);
3308 }
3309 if (!SvROK(retval) || SvTYPE(SvRV(retval)) != SVt_PVHV) {
d95e4a00 3310 if (SvPOK(retval)) {
69794297
KW
3311
3312 /* If caller wants to handle missing properties, let them */
5d3d13d1 3313 if (flags_p && *flags_p & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN_IF_UNDEF) {
2c1f00b9 3314 CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN(NULL);
69794297
KW
3315 }
3316 Perl_croak(aTHX_
147e3846 3317 "Can't find Unicode property definition \"%" SVf "\"",
69794297 3318 SVfARG(retval));
a25b5927 3319 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
d95e4a00 3320 }
69794297 3321 }
9a53f6cf 3322 } /* End of calling the module to find the swash */
36eb48b4 3323
83199d38
KW
3324 /* If this operation fetched a swash, and we will need it later, get it */
3325 if (retval != &PL_sv_undef
3326 && (minbits == 1 || (flags_p
3327 && ! (*flags_p
3328 & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY))))
3329 {
3330 swash_hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(retval));
3331
3332 /* If we don't already know that there is a user-defined component to
3333 * this swash, and the user has indicated they wish to know if there is
3334 * one (by passing <flags_p>), find out */
3335 if (flags_p && ! (*flags_p & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY)) {
3336 SV** user_defined = hv_fetchs(swash_hv, "USER_DEFINED", FALSE);
3337 if (user_defined && SvUV(*user_defined)) {
3338 *flags_p |= _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY;
3339 }
3340 }
3341 }
3342
36eb48b4
KW
3343 /* Make sure there is an inversion list for binary properties */
3344 if (minbits == 1) {
3345 SV** swash_invlistsvp = NULL;
3346 SV* swash_invlist = NULL;
9a53f6cf 3347 bool invlist_in_swash_is_valid = FALSE;
02c85471
FC
3348 bool swash_invlist_unclaimed = FALSE; /* whether swash_invlist has
3349 an unclaimed reference count */
36eb48b4 3350
9a53f6cf 3351 /* If this operation fetched a swash, get its already existing
83199d38 3352 * inversion list, or create one for it */
36eb48b4 3353
83199d38 3354 if (swash_hv) {
5c9f4bd2 3355 swash_invlistsvp = hv_fetchs(swash_hv, "V", FALSE);
9a53f6cf
KW
3356 if (swash_invlistsvp) {
3357 swash_invlist = *swash_invlistsvp;
3358 invlist_in_swash_is_valid = TRUE;
3359 }
3360 else {
36eb48b4 3361 swash_invlist = _swash_to_invlist(retval);
02c85471 3362 swash_invlist_unclaimed = TRUE;
9a53f6cf
KW
3363 }
3364 }
3365
3366 /* If an inversion list was passed in, have to include it */
3367 if (invlist) {
3368
3369 /* Any fetched swash will by now have an inversion list in it;
3370 * otherwise <swash_invlist> will be NULL, indicating that we
3371 * didn't fetch a swash */
3372 if (swash_invlist) {
3373
3374 /* Add the passed-in inversion list, which invalidates the one
3375 * already stored in the swash */
3376 invlist_in_swash_is_valid = FALSE;
eee4c920 3377 SvREADONLY_off(swash_invlist); /* Turned on again below */
9a53f6cf
KW
3378 _invlist_union(invlist, swash_invlist, &swash_invlist);
3379 }
3380 else {
3381
87367d5f
KW
3382 /* Here, there is no swash already. Set up a minimal one, if
3383 * we are going to return a swash */
3384 if ((int) _invlist_len(invlist) > invlist_swash_boundary) {
971d486f 3385 swash_hv = newHV();
4aca0fe6 3386 retval = newRV_noinc(MUTABLE_SV(swash_hv));
87367d5f 3387 }
9a53f6cf
KW
3388 swash_invlist = invlist;
3389 }
9a53f6cf
KW
3390 }
3391
3392 /* Here, we have computed the union of all the passed-in data. It may
3393 * be that there was an inversion list in the swash which didn't get
538e84ed 3394 * touched; otherwise save the computed one */
87367d5f
KW
3395 if (! invlist_in_swash_is_valid
3396 && (int) _invlist_len(swash_invlist) > invlist_swash_boundary)
3397 {
5c9f4bd2 3398 if (! hv_stores(MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(retval)), "V", swash_invlist))
69794297
KW
3399 {
3400 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: hv_store() unexpectedly failed");
3401 }
cc34d8c5
FC
3402 /* We just stole a reference count. */
3403 if (swash_invlist_unclaimed) swash_invlist_unclaimed = FALSE;
3404 else SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(swash_invlist);
9a53f6cf 3405 }
87367d5f 3406
ee3222e3 3407 /* The result is immutable. Forbid attempts to change it. */
dbfdbd26
KW
3408 SvREADONLY_on(swash_invlist);
3409
c41800a8 3410 /* Use the inversion list stand-alone if small enough */
87367d5f
KW
3411 if ((int) _invlist_len(swash_invlist) <= invlist_swash_boundary) {
3412 SvREFCNT_dec(retval);
02c85471
FC
3413 if (!swash_invlist_unclaimed)
3414 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(swash_invlist);
3415 retval = newRV_noinc(swash_invlist);
87367d5f 3416 }
36eb48b4
KW
3417 }
3418
2c1f00b9
YO
3419 CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN(retval);
3420#undef CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN
a0ed51b3
LW
3421}
3422
035d37be
JH
3423
3424/* This API is wrong for special case conversions since we may need to
3425 * return several Unicode characters for a single Unicode character
3426 * (see lib/unicore/SpecCase.txt) The SWASHGET in lib/utf8_heavy.pl is
3427 * the lower-level routine, and it is similarly broken for returning
38684baa 3428 * multiple values. --jhi
b9992569 3429 * For those, you should use S__to_utf8_case() instead */
b0e3252e 3430/* Now SWASHGET is recasted into S_swatch_get in this file. */
680c470c
ST
3431
3432/* Note:
3433 * Returns the value of property/mapping C<swash> for the first character
3434 * of the string C<ptr>. If C<do_utf8> is true, the string C<ptr> is
4a4088c4 3435 * assumed to be in well-formed UTF-8. If C<do_utf8> is false, the string C<ptr>
3d0f8846 3436 * is assumed to be in native 8-bit encoding. Caches the swatch in C<swash>.
af2af982
KW
3437 *
3438 * A "swash" is a hash which contains initially the keys/values set up by
3439 * SWASHNEW. The purpose is to be able to completely represent a Unicode
3440 * property for all possible code points. Things are stored in a compact form
3441 * (see utf8_heavy.pl) so that calculation is required to find the actual
3442 * property value for a given code point. As code points are looked up, new
3443 * key/value pairs are added to the hash, so that the calculation doesn't have
3444 * to ever be re-done. Further, each calculation is done, not just for the
3445 * desired one, but for a whole block of code points adjacent to that one.
3446 * For binary properties on ASCII machines, the block is usually for 64 code
3447 * points, starting with a code point evenly divisible by 64. Thus if the
3448 * property value for code point 257 is requested, the code goes out and
3449 * calculates the property values for all 64 code points between 256 and 319,
3450 * and stores these as a single 64-bit long bit vector, called a "swatch",
3451 * under the key for code point 256. The key is the UTF-8 encoding for code
3452 * point 256, minus the final byte. Thus, if the length of the UTF-8 encoding
3453 * for a code point is 13 bytes, the key will be 12 bytes long. If the value
3454 * for code point 258 is then requested, this code realizes that it would be
3455 * stored under the key for 256, and would find that value and extract the
3456 * relevant bit, offset from 256.
3457 *
3458 * Non-binary properties are stored in as many bits as necessary to represent
3459 * their values (32 currently, though the code is more general than that), not
fc273927 3460 * as single bits, but the principle is the same: the value for each key is a
af2af982
KW
3461 * vector that encompasses the property values for all code points whose UTF-8
3462 * representations are represented by the key. That is, for all code points
3463 * whose UTF-8 representations are length N bytes, and the key is the first N-1
3464 * bytes of that.
680c470c 3465 */
a0ed51b3 3466UV
680c470c 3467Perl_swash_fetch(pTHX_ SV *swash, const U8 *ptr, bool do_utf8)
a0ed51b3 3468{
ef8f7699 3469 HV *const hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(swash));
3568d838
JH
3470 U32 klen;
3471 U32 off;
9b56a019 3472 STRLEN slen = 0;
7d85a32c 3473 STRLEN needents;
cfd0369c 3474 const U8 *tmps = NULL;
979f2922 3475 SV *swatch;
08fb1ac5 3476 const U8 c = *ptr;
3568d838 3477
7918f24d
NC
3478 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWASH_FETCH;
3479
87367d5f
KW
3480 /* If it really isn't a hash, it isn't really swash; must be an inversion
3481 * list */
3482 if (SvTYPE(hv) != SVt_PVHV) {
3483 return _invlist_contains_cp((SV*)hv,
3484 (do_utf8)
3485 ? valid_utf8_to_uvchr(ptr, NULL)
3486 : c);
3487 }
3488
08fb1ac5
KW
3489 /* We store the values in a "swatch" which is a vec() value in a swash
3490 * hash. Code points 0-255 are a single vec() stored with key length
3491 * (klen) 0. All other code points have a UTF-8 representation
3492 * 0xAA..0xYY,0xZZ. A vec() is constructed containing all of them which
3493 * share 0xAA..0xYY, which is the key in the hash to that vec. So the key
3494 * length for them is the length of the encoded char - 1. ptr[klen] is the
3495 * final byte in the sequence representing the character */
3496 if (!do_utf8 || UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
3497 klen = 0;
3498 needents = 256;
3499 off = c;
3568d838 3500 }
08fb1ac5
KW
3501 else if (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c)) {
3502 klen = 0;
3503 needents = 256;
a62b247b 3504 off = EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(c, *(ptr + 1));
979f2922
ST
3505 }
3506 else {
08fb1ac5
KW
3507 klen = UTF8SKIP(ptr) - 1;
3508
3509 /* Each vec() stores 2**UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT values. The offset into
3510 * the vec is the final byte in the sequence. (In EBCDIC this is
3511 * converted to I8 to get consecutive values.) To help you visualize
3512 * all this:
3513 * Straight 1047 After final byte
3514 * UTF-8 UTF-EBCDIC I8 transform
3515 * U+0400: \xD0\x80 \xB8\x41\x41 \xB8\x41\xA0
3516 * U+0401: \xD0\x81 \xB8\x41\x42 \xB8\x41\xA1
3517 * ...
3518 * U+0409: \xD0\x89 \xB8\x41\x4A \xB8\x41\xA9
3519 * U+040A: \xD0\x8A \xB8\x41\x51 \xB8\x41\xAA
3520 * ...
3521 * U+0412: \xD0\x92 \xB8\x41\x59 \xB8\x41\xB2
3522 * U+0413: \xD0\x93 \xB8\x41\x62 \xB8\x41\xB3
3523 * ...
3524 * U+041B: \xD0\x9B \xB8\x41\x6A \xB8\x41\xBB
3525 * U+041C: \xD0\x9C \xB8\x41\x70 \xB8\x41\xBC
3526 * ...
3527 * U+041F: \xD0\x9F \xB8\x41\x73 \xB8\x41\xBF
3528 * U+0420: \xD0\xA0 \xB8\x42\x41 \xB8\x42\x41
3529 *
3530 * (There are no discontinuities in the elided (...) entries.)
3531 * The UTF-8 key for these 33 code points is '\xD0' (which also is the
3532 * key for the next 31, up through U+043F, whose UTF-8 final byte is
3533 * \xBF). Thus in UTF-8, each key is for a vec() for 64 code points.
3534 * The final UTF-8 byte, which ranges between \x80 and \xBF, is an
3535 * index into the vec() swatch (after subtracting 0x80, which we
3536 * actually do with an '&').
3537 * In UTF-EBCDIC, each key is for a 32 code point vec(). The first 32
3538 * code points above have key '\xB8\x41'. The final UTF-EBCDIC byte has
3539 * dicontinuities which go away by transforming it into I8, and we
3540 * effectively subtract 0xA0 to get the index. */
979f2922 3541 needents = (1 << UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT);
bc3632a8 3542 off = NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(ptr[klen]) & UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK;
979f2922 3543 }
7d85a32c 3544
a0ed51b3 3545 /*
4a4088c4 3546 * This single-entry cache saves about 1/3 of the UTF-8 overhead in test
a0ed51b3
LW
3547 * suite. (That is, only 7-8% overall over just a hash cache. Still,
3548 * it's nothing to sniff at.) Pity we usually come through at least
3549 * two function calls to get here...
3550 *
3551 * NB: this code assumes that swatches are never modified, once generated!
3552 */
3553
3568d838 3554 if (hv == PL_last_swash_hv &&
a0ed51b3 3555 klen == PL_last_swash_klen &&
27da23d5 3556 (!klen || memEQ((char *)ptr, (char *)PL_last_swash_key, klen)) )
a0ed51b3
LW
3557 {
3558 tmps = PL_last_swash_tmps;
3559 slen = PL_last_swash_slen;
3560 }
3561 else {
3562 /* Try our second-level swatch cache, kept in a hash. */
e1ec3a88 3563 SV** svp = hv_fetch(hv, (const char*)ptr, klen, FALSE);
a0ed51b3 3564
b0e3252e 3565 /* If not cached, generate it via swatch_get */
979f2922 3566 if (!svp || !SvPOK(*svp)
08fb1ac5
KW
3567 || !(tmps = (const U8*)SvPV_const(*svp, slen)))
3568 {
3569 if (klen) {
3570 const UV code_point = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(ptr, NULL);
3571 swatch = swatch_get(swash,
3572 code_point & ~((UV)needents - 1),
3573 needents);
3574 }
3575 else { /* For the first 256 code points, the swatch has a key of
3576 length 0 */
3577 swatch = swatch_get(swash, 0, needents);
3578 }
979f2922 3579
923e4eb5 3580 if (IN_PERL_COMPILETIME)
623e6609 3581 CopHINTS_set(PL_curcop, PL_hints);
a0ed51b3 3582
979f2922 3583 svp = hv_store(hv, (const char *)ptr, klen, swatch, 0);
a0ed51b3 3584
979f2922
ST
3585 if (!svp || !(tmps = (U8*)SvPV(*svp, slen))
3586 || (slen << 3) < needents)
5637ef5b 3587 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_fetch got improper swatch, "
147e3846 3588 "svp=%p, tmps=%p, slen=%" UVuf ", needents=%" UVuf,
5637ef5b 3589 svp, tmps, (UV)slen, (UV)needents);
a0ed51b3
LW
3590 }
3591
3592 PL_last_swash_hv = hv;
16d8f38a 3593 assert(klen <= sizeof(PL_last_swash_key));
eac04b2e 3594 PL_last_swash_klen = (U8)klen;
cfd0369c
NC
3595 /* FIXME change interpvar.h? */
3596 PL_last_swash_tmps = (U8 *) tmps;
a0ed51b3
LW
3597 PL_last_swash_slen = slen;
3598 if (klen)
3599 Copy(ptr, PL_last_swash_key, klen, U8);
3600 }
3601
9faf8d75 3602 switch ((int)((slen << 3) / needents)) {
a0ed51b3 3603 case 1:
e7aca353 3604 return ((UV) tmps[off >> 3] & (1 << (off & 7))) != 0;
a0ed51b3 3605 case 8:
e7aca353 3606 return ((UV) tmps[off]);
a0ed51b3
LW
3607 case 16:
3608 off <<= 1;
e7aca353
JH
3609 return
3610 ((UV) tmps[off ] << 8) +
3611 ((UV) tmps[off + 1]);
a0ed51b3
LW
3612 case 32:
3613 off <<= 2;
e7aca353
JH
3614 return
3615 ((UV) tmps[off ] << 24) +
3616 ((UV) tmps[off + 1] << 16) +
3617 ((UV) tmps[off + 2] << 8) +
3618 ((UV) tmps[off + 3]);
a0ed51b3 3619 }
5637ef5b 3620 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_fetch got swatch of unexpected bit width, "
147e3846 3621 "slen=%" UVuf ", needents=%" UVuf, (UV)slen, (UV)needents);
670f1322 3622 NORETURN_FUNCTION_END;
a0ed51b3 3623}
2b9d42f0 3624
319009ee
KW
3625/* Read a single line of the main body of the swash input text. These are of
3626 * the form:
3627 * 0053 0056 0073
3628 * where each number is hex. The first two numbers form the minimum and
3629 * maximum of a range, and the third is the value associated with the range.
3630 * Not all swashes should have a third number
3631 *
3632 * On input: l points to the beginning of the line to be examined; it points
3633 * to somewhere in the string of the whole input text, and is
3634 * terminated by a \n or the null string terminator.
3635 * lend points to the null terminator of that string
3636 * wants_value is non-zero if the swash expects a third number
3637 * typestr is the name of the swash's mapping, like 'ToLower'
3638 * On output: *min, *max, and *val are set to the values read from the line.
3639 * returns a pointer just beyond the line examined. If there was no
3640 * valid min number on the line, returns lend+1
3641 */
3642
3643STATIC U8*
3644S_swash_scan_list_line(pTHX_ U8* l, U8* const lend, UV* min, UV* max, UV* val,
3645 const bool wants_value, const U8* const typestr)
3646{
3647 const int typeto = typestr[0] == 'T' && typestr[1] == 'o';
3648 STRLEN numlen; /* Length of the number */
02470786
KW
3649 I32 flags = PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT
3650 | PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX
3651 | PERL_SCAN_SILENT_NON_PORTABLE;
319009ee
KW
3652
3653 /* nl points to the next \n in the scan */
3654 U8* const nl = (U8*)memchr(l, '\n', lend - l);
3655
95543e92
KW
3656 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWASH_SCAN_LIST_LINE;
3657
319009ee
KW
3658 /* Get the first number on the line: the range minimum */
3659 numlen = lend - l;
3660 *min = grok_hex((char *)l, &numlen, &flags, NULL);
c88850db 3661 *max = *min; /* So can never return without setting max */
319009ee
KW
3662 if (numlen) /* If found a hex number, position past it */
3663 l += numlen;
3664 else if (nl) { /* Else, go handle next line, if any */
3665 return nl + 1; /* 1 is length of "\n" */
3666 }
3667 else { /* Else, no next line */
3668 return lend + 1; /* to LIST's end at which \n is not found */
3669 }
3670
3671 /* The max range value follows, separated by a BLANK */
3672 if (isBLANK(*l)) {
3673 ++l;
02470786
KW
3674 flags = PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT
3675 | PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX
3676 | PERL_SCAN_SILENT_NON_PORTABLE;
319009ee
KW
3677 numlen = lend - l;
3678 *max = grok_hex((char *)l, &numlen, &flags, NULL);
3679 if (numlen)
3680 l += numlen;
3681 else /* If no value here, it is a single element range */
3682 *max = *min;
3683
3684 /* Non-binary tables have a third entry: what the first element of the
24303724 3685 * range maps to. The map for those currently read here is in hex */
319009ee
KW
3686 if (wants_value) {
3687 if (isBLANK(*l)) {
3688 ++l;
f2a7d0fc
KW
3689 flags = PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT
3690 | PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX
3691 | PERL_SCAN_SILENT_NON_PORTABLE;
3692 numlen = lend - l;
3693 *val = grok_hex((char *)l, &numlen, &flags, NULL);
3694 if (numlen)
3695 l += numlen;
3696 else
3697 *val = 0;
319009ee
KW
3698 }
3699 else {
3700 *val = 0;
3701 if (typeto) {
dcbac5bb 3702 /* diag_listed_as: To%s: illegal mapping '%s' */
319009ee
KW
3703 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s: illegal mapping '%s'",
3704 typestr, l);
3705 }
3706 }
3707 }
3708 else
3709 *val = 0; /* bits == 1, then any val should be ignored */
3710 }
3711 else { /* Nothing following range min, should be single element with no
3712 mapping expected */
319009ee
KW
3713 if (wants_value) {
3714 *val = 0;
3715 if (typeto) {
dcbac5bb 3716 /* diag_listed_as: To%s: illegal mapping '%s' */
319009ee
KW
3717 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s: illegal mapping '%s'", typestr, l);
3718 }
3719 }
3720 else
3721 *val = 0; /* bits == 1, then val should be ignored */
3722 }
3723
3724 /* Position to next line if any, or EOF */
3725 if (nl)
3726 l = nl + 1;