This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
Add Perl_setlocale()
[perl5.git] / sv.c
CommitLineData
5356d32e 1/* sv.c
79072805 2 *
1129b882 3 * Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
83706693
RGS
4 * 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 by Larry Wall
5 * and others
79072805
LW
6 *
7 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
8 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
9 *
4ac71550
TC
10 */
11
12/*
13 * 'I wonder what the Entish is for "yes" and "no",' he thought.
14 * --Pippin
15 *
16 * [p.480 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/iv: "Treebeard"]
17 */
18
19/*
645c22ef
DM
20 *
21 *
5e045b90
AMS
22 * This file contains the code that creates, manipulates and destroys
23 * scalar values (SVs). The other types (AV, HV, GV, etc.) reuse the
24 * structure of an SV, so their creation and destruction is handled
25 * here; higher-level functions are in av.c, hv.c, and so on. Opcode
26 * level functions (eg. substr, split, join) for each of the types are
27 * in the pp*.c files.
79072805
LW
28 */
29
30#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 31#define PERL_IN_SV_C
79072805 32#include "perl.h"
d2f185dc 33#include "regcomp.h"
9d9a81f0
CB
34#ifdef __VMS
35# include <rms.h>
36#endif
79072805 37
2f8ed50e
OS
38#ifdef __Lynx__
39/* Missing proto on LynxOS */
40 char *gconvert(double, int, int, char *);
41#endif
42
a4eca1d4
JH
43#ifdef USE_QUADMATH
44# define SNPRINTF_G(nv, buffer, size, ndig) \
45 quadmath_snprintf(buffer, size, "%.*Qg", (int)ndig, (NV)(nv))
46#else
47# define SNPRINTF_G(nv, buffer, size, ndig) \
48 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(Gconvert((NV)(nv), (int)ndig, 0, buffer))
49#endif
50
9f53080a 51#ifndef SV_COW_THRESHOLD
e8c6a474 52# define SV_COW_THRESHOLD 0 /* COW iff len > K */
9f53080a
FC
53#endif
54#ifndef SV_COWBUF_THRESHOLD
e8c6a474 55# define SV_COWBUF_THRESHOLD 1250 /* COW iff len > K */
9f53080a
FC
56#endif
57#ifndef SV_COW_MAX_WASTE_THRESHOLD
e8c6a474 58# define SV_COW_MAX_WASTE_THRESHOLD 80 /* COW iff (len - cur) < K */
9f53080a
FC
59#endif
60#ifndef SV_COWBUF_WASTE_THRESHOLD
e8c6a474 61# define SV_COWBUF_WASTE_THRESHOLD 80 /* COW iff (len - cur) < K */
9f53080a
FC
62#endif
63#ifndef SV_COW_MAX_WASTE_FACTOR_THRESHOLD
e8c6a474 64# define SV_COW_MAX_WASTE_FACTOR_THRESHOLD 2 /* COW iff len < (cur * K) */
9f53080a
FC
65#endif
66#ifndef SV_COWBUF_WASTE_FACTOR_THRESHOLD
e8c6a474 67# define SV_COWBUF_WASTE_FACTOR_THRESHOLD 2 /* COW iff len < (cur * K) */
e8c6a474
YO
68#endif
69/* Work around compiler warnings about unsigned >= THRESHOLD when thres-
70 hold is 0. */
71#if SV_COW_THRESHOLD
72# define GE_COW_THRESHOLD(cur) ((cur) >= SV_COW_THRESHOLD)
73#else
74# define GE_COW_THRESHOLD(cur) 1
75#endif
76#if SV_COWBUF_THRESHOLD
77# define GE_COWBUF_THRESHOLD(cur) ((cur) >= SV_COWBUF_THRESHOLD)
78#else
79# define GE_COWBUF_THRESHOLD(cur) 1
80#endif
81#if SV_COW_MAX_WASTE_THRESHOLD
82# define GE_COW_MAX_WASTE_THRESHOLD(cur,len) (((len)-(cur)) < SV_COW_MAX_WASTE_THRESHOLD)
83#else
84# define GE_COW_MAX_WASTE_THRESHOLD(cur,len) 1
85#endif
86#if SV_COWBUF_WASTE_THRESHOLD
87# define GE_COWBUF_WASTE_THRESHOLD(cur,len) (((len)-(cur)) < SV_COWBUF_WASTE_THRESHOLD)
88#else
89# define GE_COWBUF_WASTE_THRESHOLD(cur,len) 1
90#endif
91#if SV_COW_MAX_WASTE_FACTOR_THRESHOLD
92# define GE_COW_MAX_WASTE_FACTOR_THRESHOLD(cur,len) ((len) < SV_COW_MAX_WASTE_FACTOR_THRESHOLD * (cur))
93#else
94# define GE_COW_MAX_WASTE_FACTOR_THRESHOLD(cur,len) 1
95#endif
96#if SV_COWBUF_WASTE_FACTOR_THRESHOLD
97# define GE_COWBUF_WASTE_FACTOR_THRESHOLD(cur,len) ((len) < SV_COWBUF_WASTE_FACTOR_THRESHOLD * (cur))
98#else
99# define GE_COWBUF_WASTE_FACTOR_THRESHOLD(cur,len) 1
100#endif
101
102#define CHECK_COW_THRESHOLD(cur,len) (\
103 GE_COW_THRESHOLD((cur)) && \
104 GE_COW_MAX_WASTE_THRESHOLD((cur),(len)) && \
105 GE_COW_MAX_WASTE_FACTOR_THRESHOLD((cur),(len)) \
106)
107#define CHECK_COWBUF_THRESHOLD(cur,len) (\
108 GE_COWBUF_THRESHOLD((cur)) && \
109 GE_COWBUF_WASTE_THRESHOLD((cur),(len)) && \
110 GE_COWBUF_WASTE_FACTOR_THRESHOLD((cur),(len)) \
111)
cca0492e 112
e23c8137 113#ifdef PERL_UTF8_CACHE_ASSERT
ab455f60 114/* if adding more checks watch out for the following tests:
e23c8137
JH
115 * t/op/index.t t/op/length.t t/op/pat.t t/op/substr.t
116 * lib/utf8.t lib/Unicode/Collate/t/index.t
117 * --jhi
118 */
6f207bd3 119# define ASSERT_UTF8_CACHE(cache) \
ab455f60
NC
120 STMT_START { if (cache) { assert((cache)[0] <= (cache)[1]); \
121 assert((cache)[2] <= (cache)[3]); \
122 assert((cache)[3] <= (cache)[1]);} \
123 } STMT_END
e23c8137 124#else
6f207bd3 125# define ASSERT_UTF8_CACHE(cache) NOOP
e23c8137
JH
126#endif
127
958cdeac
TC
128static const char S_destroy[] = "DESTROY";
129#define S_destroy_len (sizeof(S_destroy)-1)
130
645c22ef
DM
131/* ============================================================================
132
133=head1 Allocation and deallocation of SVs.
d2a0f284
JC
134An SV (or AV, HV, etc.) is allocated in two parts: the head (struct
135sv, av, hv...) contains type and reference count information, and for
136many types, a pointer to the body (struct xrv, xpv, xpviv...), which
137contains fields specific to each type. Some types store all they need
138in the head, so don't have a body.
139
486ec47a 140In all but the most memory-paranoid configurations (ex: PURIFY), heads
d2a0f284
JC
141and bodies are allocated out of arenas, which by default are
142approximately 4K chunks of memory parcelled up into N heads or bodies.
93e68bfb
JC
143Sv-bodies are allocated by their sv-type, guaranteeing size
144consistency needed to allocate safely from arrays.
145
d2a0f284
JC
146For SV-heads, the first slot in each arena is reserved, and holds a
147link to the next arena, some flags, and a note of the number of slots.
148Snaked through each arena chain is a linked list of free items; when
149this becomes empty, an extra arena is allocated and divided up into N
150items which are threaded into the free list.
151
152SV-bodies are similar, but they use arena-sets by default, which
153separate the link and info from the arena itself, and reclaim the 1st
154slot in the arena. SV-bodies are further described later.
645c22ef
DM
155
156The following global variables are associated with arenas:
157
7fefc6c1
KW
158 PL_sv_arenaroot pointer to list of SV arenas
159 PL_sv_root pointer to list of free SV structures
645c22ef 160
7fefc6c1
KW
161 PL_body_arenas head of linked-list of body arenas
162 PL_body_roots[] array of pointers to list of free bodies of svtype
163 arrays are indexed by the svtype needed
93e68bfb 164
d2a0f284
JC
165A few special SV heads are not allocated from an arena, but are
166instead directly created in the interpreter structure, eg PL_sv_undef.
93e68bfb
JC
167The size of arenas can be changed from the default by setting
168PERL_ARENA_SIZE appropriately at compile time.
645c22ef
DM
169
170The SV arena serves the secondary purpose of allowing still-live SVs
171to be located and destroyed during final cleanup.
172
173At the lowest level, the macros new_SV() and del_SV() grab and free
174an SV head. (If debugging with -DD, del_SV() calls the function S_del_sv()
175to return the SV to the free list with error checking.) new_SV() calls
176more_sv() / sv_add_arena() to add an extra arena if the free list is empty.
177SVs in the free list have their SvTYPE field set to all ones.
178
ff276b08 179At the time of very final cleanup, sv_free_arenas() is called from
645c22ef 180perl_destruct() to physically free all the arenas allocated since the
6a93a7e5 181start of the interpreter.
645c22ef 182
645c22ef
DM
183The function visit() scans the SV arenas list, and calls a specified
184function for each SV it finds which is still live - ie which has an SvTYPE
185other than all 1's, and a non-zero SvREFCNT. visit() is used by the
186following functions (specified as [function that calls visit()] / [function
187called by visit() for each SV]):
188
189 sv_report_used() / do_report_used()
f2524eef 190 dump all remaining SVs (debugging aid)
645c22ef 191
e4487e9b 192 sv_clean_objs() / do_clean_objs(),do_clean_named_objs(),
e76981f9 193 do_clean_named_io_objs(),do_curse()
645c22ef 194 Attempt to free all objects pointed to by RVs,
e76981f9
FC
195 try to do the same for all objects indir-
196 ectly referenced by typeglobs too, and
197 then do a final sweep, cursing any
198 objects that remain. Called once from
645c22ef
DM
199 perl_destruct(), prior to calling sv_clean_all()
200 below.
201
202 sv_clean_all() / do_clean_all()
203 SvREFCNT_dec(sv) each remaining SV, possibly
204 triggering an sv_free(). It also sets the
205 SVf_BREAK flag on the SV to indicate that the
206 refcnt has been artificially lowered, and thus
207 stopping sv_free() from giving spurious warnings
208 about SVs which unexpectedly have a refcnt
209 of zero. called repeatedly from perl_destruct()
210 until there are no SVs left.
211
93e68bfb 212=head2 Arena allocator API Summary
645c22ef
DM
213
214Private API to rest of sv.c
215
216 new_SV(), del_SV(),
217
df0f0429 218 new_XPVNV(), del_XPVGV(),
645c22ef
DM
219 etc
220
221Public API:
222
8cf8f3d1 223 sv_report_used(), sv_clean_objs(), sv_clean_all(), sv_free_arenas()
645c22ef 224
645c22ef
DM
225=cut
226
3e8320cc 227 * ========================================================================= */
645c22ef 228
4561caa4
CS
229/*
230 * "A time to plant, and a time to uproot what was planted..."
231 */
232
d7a2c63c
MHM
233#ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG
234# define MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(sv, file, line, func) \
235 Perl_mem_log_new_sv(sv, file, line, func)
236# define MEM_LOG_DEL_SV(sv, file, line, func) \
237 Perl_mem_log_del_sv(sv, file, line, func)
238#else
239# define MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(sv, file, line, func) NOOP
240# define MEM_LOG_DEL_SV(sv, file, line, func) NOOP
241#endif
242
fd0854ff 243#ifdef DEBUG_LEAKING_SCALARS
484e6108
FC
244# define FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(sv) STMT_START { \
245 if ((sv)->sv_debug_file) PerlMemShared_free((sv)->sv_debug_file); \
246 } STMT_END
d7a2c63c 247# define DEBUG_SV_SERIAL(sv) \
147e3846 248 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%" UVxf ": (%05ld) del_SV\n", \
d7a2c63c 249 PTR2UV(sv), (long)(sv)->sv_debug_serial))
fd0854ff
DM
250#else
251# define FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(sv)
d7a2c63c 252# define DEBUG_SV_SERIAL(sv) NOOP
fd0854ff
DM
253#endif
254
48614a46
NC
255#ifdef PERL_POISON
256# define SvARENA_CHAIN(sv) ((sv)->sv_u.svu_rv)
daba3364 257# define SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv,val) (sv)->sv_u.svu_rv = MUTABLE_SV((val))
48614a46
NC
258/* Whilst I'd love to do this, it seems that things like to check on
259 unreferenced scalars
ce5dbf61 260# define POISON_SV_HEAD(sv) PoisonNew(sv, 1, struct STRUCT_SV)
48614a46 261*/
ce5dbf61 262# define POISON_SV_HEAD(sv) PoisonNew(&SvANY(sv), 1, void *), \
7e337ee0 263 PoisonNew(&SvREFCNT(sv), 1, U32)
48614a46
NC
264#else
265# define SvARENA_CHAIN(sv) SvANY(sv)
3eef1deb 266# define SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv,val) SvANY(sv) = (void *)(val)
ce5dbf61 267# define POISON_SV_HEAD(sv)
48614a46
NC
268#endif
269
990198f0
DM
270/* Mark an SV head as unused, and add to free list.
271 *
272 * If SVf_BREAK is set, skip adding it to the free list, as this SV had
273 * its refcount artificially decremented during global destruction, so
274 * there may be dangling pointers to it. The last thing we want in that
275 * case is for it to be reused. */
276
053fc874
GS
277#define plant_SV(p) \
278 STMT_START { \
990198f0 279 const U32 old_flags = SvFLAGS(p); \
d7a2c63c
MHM
280 MEM_LOG_DEL_SV(p, __FILE__, __LINE__, FUNCTION__); \
281 DEBUG_SV_SERIAL(p); \
fd0854ff 282 FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(p); \
ce5dbf61 283 POISON_SV_HEAD(p); \
053fc874 284 SvFLAGS(p) = SVTYPEMASK; \
990198f0 285 if (!(old_flags & SVf_BREAK)) { \
3eef1deb 286 SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(p, PL_sv_root); \
990198f0
DM
287 PL_sv_root = (p); \
288 } \
053fc874
GS
289 --PL_sv_count; \
290 } STMT_END
a0d0e21e 291
053fc874
GS
292#define uproot_SV(p) \
293 STMT_START { \
294 (p) = PL_sv_root; \
daba3364 295 PL_sv_root = MUTABLE_SV(SvARENA_CHAIN(p)); \
053fc874
GS
296 ++PL_sv_count; \
297 } STMT_END
298
645c22ef 299
cac9b346
NC
300/* make some more SVs by adding another arena */
301
cac9b346
NC
302STATIC SV*
303S_more_sv(pTHX)
304{
305 SV* sv;
9a87bd09
NC
306 char *chunk; /* must use New here to match call to */
307 Newx(chunk,PERL_ARENA_SIZE,char); /* Safefree() in sv_free_arenas() */
308 sv_add_arena(chunk, PERL_ARENA_SIZE, 0);
cac9b346
NC
309 uproot_SV(sv);
310 return sv;
311}
312
645c22ef
DM
313/* new_SV(): return a new, empty SV head */
314
eba0f806
DM
315#ifdef DEBUG_LEAKING_SCALARS
316/* provide a real function for a debugger to play with */
317STATIC SV*
d7a2c63c 318S_new_SV(pTHX_ const char *file, int line, const char *func)
eba0f806
DM
319{
320 SV* sv;
321
eba0f806
DM
322 if (PL_sv_root)
323 uproot_SV(sv);
324 else
cac9b346 325 sv = S_more_sv(aTHX);
eba0f806
DM
326 SvANY(sv) = 0;
327 SvREFCNT(sv) = 1;
328 SvFLAGS(sv) = 0;
fd0854ff 329 sv->sv_debug_optype = PL_op ? PL_op->op_type : 0;
e385c3bf
DM
330 sv->sv_debug_line = (U16) (PL_parser && PL_parser->copline != NOLINE
331 ? PL_parser->copline
332 : PL_curcop
f24aceb1
DM
333 ? CopLINE(PL_curcop)
334 : 0
e385c3bf 335 );
fd0854ff 336 sv->sv_debug_inpad = 0;
cd676548 337 sv->sv_debug_parent = NULL;
484e6108 338 sv->sv_debug_file = PL_curcop ? savesharedpv(CopFILE(PL_curcop)): NULL;
d7a2c63c
MHM
339
340 sv->sv_debug_serial = PL_sv_serial++;
341
342 MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(sv, file, line, func);
147e3846 343 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%" UVxf ": (%05ld) new_SV (from %s:%d [%s])\n",
d7a2c63c
MHM
344 PTR2UV(sv), (long)sv->sv_debug_serial, file, line, func));
345
eba0f806
DM
346 return sv;
347}
d7a2c63c 348# define new_SV(p) (p)=S_new_SV(aTHX_ __FILE__, __LINE__, FUNCTION__)
eba0f806
DM
349
350#else
351# define new_SV(p) \
053fc874 352 STMT_START { \
053fc874
GS
353 if (PL_sv_root) \
354 uproot_SV(p); \
355 else \
cac9b346 356 (p) = S_more_sv(aTHX); \
053fc874
GS
357 SvANY(p) = 0; \
358 SvREFCNT(p) = 1; \
359 SvFLAGS(p) = 0; \
d7a2c63c 360 MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(p, __FILE__, __LINE__, FUNCTION__); \
053fc874 361 } STMT_END
eba0f806 362#endif
463ee0b2 363
645c22ef
DM
364
365/* del_SV(): return an empty SV head to the free list */
366
a0d0e21e 367#ifdef DEBUGGING
4561caa4 368
053fc874
GS
369#define del_SV(p) \
370 STMT_START { \
aea4f609 371 if (DEBUG_D_TEST) \
053fc874
GS
372 del_sv(p); \
373 else \
374 plant_SV(p); \
053fc874 375 } STMT_END
a0d0e21e 376
76e3520e 377STATIC void
cea2e8a9 378S_del_sv(pTHX_ SV *p)
463ee0b2 379{
7918f24d
NC
380 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_DEL_SV;
381
aea4f609 382 if (DEBUG_D_TEST) {
4633a7c4 383 SV* sva;
a3b680e6 384 bool ok = 0;
daba3364 385 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(sva))) {
53c1dcc0
AL
386 const SV * const sv = sva + 1;
387 const SV * const svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva)];
c0ff570e 388 if (p >= sv && p < svend) {
a0d0e21e 389 ok = 1;
c0ff570e
NC
390 break;
391 }
a0d0e21e
LW
392 }
393 if (!ok) {
9b387841 394 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_INTERNAL),
147e3846 395 "Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%" UVxf
9b387841 396 pTHX__FORMAT, PTR2UV(p) pTHX__VALUE);
a0d0e21e
LW
397 return;
398 }
399 }
4561caa4 400 plant_SV(p);
463ee0b2 401}
a0d0e21e 402
4561caa4
CS
403#else /* ! DEBUGGING */
404
405#define del_SV(p) plant_SV(p)
406
407#endif /* DEBUGGING */
463ee0b2 408
645c22ef
DM
409
410/*
ccfc67b7
JH
411=head1 SV Manipulation Functions
412
645c22ef
DM
413=for apidoc sv_add_arena
414
415Given a chunk of memory, link it to the head of the list of arenas,
416and split it into a list of free SVs.
417
418=cut
419*/
420
d2bd4e7f
NC
421static void
422S_sv_add_arena(pTHX_ char *const ptr, const U32 size, const U32 flags)
463ee0b2 423{
daba3364 424 SV *const sva = MUTABLE_SV(ptr);
eb578fdb
KW
425 SV* sv;
426 SV* svend;
4633a7c4 427
7918f24d
NC
428 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_ADD_ARENA;
429
4633a7c4 430 /* The first SV in an arena isn't an SV. */
3280af22 431 SvANY(sva) = (void *) PL_sv_arenaroot; /* ptr to next arena */
4633a7c4
LW
432 SvREFCNT(sva) = size / sizeof(SV); /* number of SV slots */
433 SvFLAGS(sva) = flags; /* FAKE if not to be freed */
434
3280af22
NIS
435 PL_sv_arenaroot = sva;
436 PL_sv_root = sva + 1;
4633a7c4
LW
437
438 svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva) - 1];
439 sv = sva + 1;
463ee0b2 440 while (sv < svend) {
3eef1deb 441 SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv, (sv + 1));
03e36789 442#ifdef DEBUGGING
978b032e 443 SvREFCNT(sv) = 0;
03e36789 444#endif
4b69cbe3 445 /* Must always set typemask because it's always checked in on cleanup
03e36789 446 when the arenas are walked looking for objects. */
8990e307 447 SvFLAGS(sv) = SVTYPEMASK;
463ee0b2
LW
448 sv++;
449 }
3eef1deb 450 SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv, 0);
03e36789
NC
451#ifdef DEBUGGING
452 SvREFCNT(sv) = 0;
453#endif
4633a7c4
LW
454 SvFLAGS(sv) = SVTYPEMASK;
455}
456
055972dc
DM
457/* visit(): call the named function for each non-free SV in the arenas
458 * whose flags field matches the flags/mask args. */
645c22ef 459
5226ed68 460STATIC I32
de37a194 461S_visit(pTHX_ SVFUNC_t f, const U32 flags, const U32 mask)
8990e307 462{
4633a7c4 463 SV* sva;
5226ed68 464 I32 visited = 0;
8990e307 465
7918f24d
NC
466 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_VISIT;
467
daba3364 468 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(sva))) {
eb578fdb
KW
469 const SV * const svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva)];
470 SV* sv;
4561caa4 471 for (sv = sva + 1; sv < svend; ++sv) {
e4787c0c 472 if (SvTYPE(sv) != (svtype)SVTYPEMASK
055972dc
DM
473 && (sv->sv_flags & mask) == flags
474 && SvREFCNT(sv))
475 {
942481a7 476 (*f)(aTHX_ sv);
5226ed68
JH
477 ++visited;
478 }
8990e307
LW
479 }
480 }
5226ed68 481 return visited;
8990e307
LW
482}
483
758a08c3
JH
484#ifdef DEBUGGING
485
645c22ef
DM
486/* called by sv_report_used() for each live SV */
487
488static void
5fa45a31 489do_report_used(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
645c22ef 490{
e4787c0c 491 if (SvTYPE(sv) != (svtype)SVTYPEMASK) {
645c22ef
DM
492 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "****\n");
493 sv_dump(sv);
494 }
495}
758a08c3 496#endif
645c22ef
DM
497
498/*
499=for apidoc sv_report_used
500
fde67290 501Dump the contents of all SVs not yet freed (debugging aid).
645c22ef
DM
502
503=cut
504*/
505
8990e307 506void
864dbfa3 507Perl_sv_report_used(pTHX)
4561caa4 508{
ff270d3a 509#ifdef DEBUGGING
055972dc 510 visit(do_report_used, 0, 0);
96a5add6
AL
511#else
512 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
ff270d3a 513#endif
4561caa4
CS
514}
515
645c22ef
DM
516/* called by sv_clean_objs() for each live SV */
517
518static void
de37a194 519do_clean_objs(pTHX_ SV *const ref)
645c22ef 520{
ea724faa
NC
521 assert (SvROK(ref));
522 {
823a54a3
AL
523 SV * const target = SvRV(ref);
524 if (SvOBJECT(target)) {
525 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Cleaning object ref:\n "), sv_dump(ref)));
526 if (SvWEAKREF(ref)) {
527 sv_del_backref(target, ref);
528 SvWEAKREF_off(ref);
529 SvRV_set(ref, NULL);
530 } else {
531 SvROK_off(ref);
532 SvRV_set(ref, NULL);
fc2b2dca 533 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(target);
823a54a3 534 }
645c22ef
DM
535 }
536 }
645c22ef
DM
537}
538
645c22ef 539
e4487e9b
DM
540/* clear any slots in a GV which hold objects - except IO;
541 * called by sv_clean_objs() for each live GV */
542
645c22ef 543static void
f30de749 544do_clean_named_objs(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
645c22ef 545{
57ef47cc 546 SV *obj;
ea724faa 547 assert(SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV);
d011219a 548 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
57ef47cc
DM
549 if (!GvGP(sv))
550 return;
551
552 /* freeing GP entries may indirectly free the current GV;
553 * hold onto it while we mess with the GP slots */
554 SvREFCNT_inc(sv);
555
556 if ( ((obj = GvSV(sv) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
557 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
558 "Cleaning named glob SV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
559 GvSV(sv) = NULL;
fc2b2dca 560 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(obj);
57ef47cc
DM
561 }
562 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvAV(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
563 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
564 "Cleaning named glob AV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
565 GvAV(sv) = NULL;
fc2b2dca 566 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(obj);
57ef47cc
DM
567 }
568 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvHV(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
569 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
570 "Cleaning named glob HV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
571 GvHV(sv) = NULL;
fc2b2dca 572 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(obj);
57ef47cc
DM
573 }
574 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvCV(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
575 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
576 "Cleaning named glob CV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
c43ae56f 577 GvCV_set(sv, NULL);
fc2b2dca 578 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(obj);
57ef47cc 579 }
fc2b2dca 580 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(sv); /* undo the inc above */
e4487e9b
DM
581}
582
68b590d9 583/* clear any IO slots in a GV which hold objects (except stderr, defout);
e4487e9b
DM
584 * called by sv_clean_objs() for each live GV */
585
586static void
587do_clean_named_io_objs(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
588{
e4487e9b
DM
589 SV *obj;
590 assert(SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV);
591 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
68b590d9 592 if (!GvGP(sv) || sv == (SV*)PL_stderrgv || sv == (SV*)PL_defoutgv)
e4487e9b
DM
593 return;
594
595 SvREFCNT_inc(sv);
57ef47cc
DM
596 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvIO(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
597 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
598 "Cleaning named glob IO object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
599 GvIOp(sv) = NULL;
fc2b2dca 600 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(obj);
645c22ef 601 }
fc2b2dca 602 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(sv); /* undo the inc above */
645c22ef 603}
645c22ef 604
4155e4fe
FC
605/* Void wrapper to pass to visit() */
606static void
607do_curse(pTHX_ SV * const sv) {
c2910e6c
FC
608 if ((PL_stderrgv && GvGP(PL_stderrgv) && (SV*)GvIO(PL_stderrgv) == sv)
609 || (PL_defoutgv && GvGP(PL_defoutgv) && (SV*)GvIO(PL_defoutgv) == sv))
4155e4fe
FC
610 return;
611 (void)curse(sv, 0);
612}
613
645c22ef
DM
614/*
615=for apidoc sv_clean_objs
616
fde67290 617Attempt to destroy all objects not yet freed.
645c22ef
DM
618
619=cut
620*/
621
4561caa4 622void
864dbfa3 623Perl_sv_clean_objs(pTHX)
4561caa4 624{
68b590d9 625 GV *olddef, *olderr;
3280af22 626 PL_in_clean_objs = TRUE;
055972dc 627 visit(do_clean_objs, SVf_ROK, SVf_ROK);
e4487e9b
DM
628 /* Some barnacles may yet remain, clinging to typeglobs.
629 * Run the non-IO destructors first: they may want to output
630 * error messages, close files etc */
d011219a 631 visit(do_clean_named_objs, SVt_PVGV|SVpgv_GP, SVTYPEMASK|SVp_POK|SVpgv_GP);
e4487e9b 632 visit(do_clean_named_io_objs, SVt_PVGV|SVpgv_GP, SVTYPEMASK|SVp_POK|SVpgv_GP);
4155e4fe
FC
633 /* And if there are some very tenacious barnacles clinging to arrays,
634 closures, or what have you.... */
635 visit(do_curse, SVs_OBJECT, SVs_OBJECT);
68b590d9
DM
636 olddef = PL_defoutgv;
637 PL_defoutgv = NULL; /* disable skip of PL_defoutgv */
638 if (olddef && isGV_with_GP(olddef))
639 do_clean_named_io_objs(aTHX_ MUTABLE_SV(olddef));
640 olderr = PL_stderrgv;
641 PL_stderrgv = NULL; /* disable skip of PL_stderrgv */
642 if (olderr && isGV_with_GP(olderr))
643 do_clean_named_io_objs(aTHX_ MUTABLE_SV(olderr));
644 SvREFCNT_dec(olddef);
3280af22 645 PL_in_clean_objs = FALSE;
4561caa4
CS
646}
647
645c22ef
DM
648/* called by sv_clean_all() for each live SV */
649
650static void
de37a194 651do_clean_all(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
645c22ef 652{
daba3364 653 if (sv == (const SV *) PL_fdpid || sv == (const SV *)PL_strtab) {
cddfcddc 654 /* don't clean pid table and strtab */
d17ea597 655 return;
cddfcddc 656 }
147e3846 657 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Cleaning loops: SV at 0x%" UVxf "\n", PTR2UV(sv)) ));
645c22ef 658 SvFLAGS(sv) |= SVf_BREAK;
fc2b2dca 659 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(sv);
645c22ef
DM
660}
661
662/*
663=for apidoc sv_clean_all
664
665Decrement the refcnt of each remaining SV, possibly triggering a
fde67290 666cleanup. This function may have to be called multiple times to free
ff276b08 667SVs which are in complex self-referential hierarchies.
645c22ef
DM
668
669=cut
670*/
671
5226ed68 672I32
864dbfa3 673Perl_sv_clean_all(pTHX)
8990e307 674{
5226ed68 675 I32 cleaned;
3280af22 676 PL_in_clean_all = TRUE;
055972dc 677 cleaned = visit(do_clean_all, 0,0);
5226ed68 678 return cleaned;
8990e307 679}
463ee0b2 680
5e258f8c
JC
681/*
682 ARENASETS: a meta-arena implementation which separates arena-info
683 into struct arena_set, which contains an array of struct
684 arena_descs, each holding info for a single arena. By separating
685 the meta-info from the arena, we recover the 1st slot, formerly
686 borrowed for list management. The arena_set is about the size of an
39244528 687 arena, avoiding the needless malloc overhead of a naive linked-list.
5e258f8c
JC
688
689 The cost is 1 arena-set malloc per ~320 arena-mallocs, + the unused
690 memory in the last arena-set (1/2 on average). In trade, we get
691 back the 1st slot in each arena (ie 1.7% of a CV-arena, less for
d2a0f284 692 smaller types). The recovery of the wasted space allows use of
e15dad31
JC
693 small arenas for large, rare body types, by changing array* fields
694 in body_details_by_type[] below.
5e258f8c 695*/
5e258f8c 696struct arena_desc {
398c677b
NC
697 char *arena; /* the raw storage, allocated aligned */
698 size_t size; /* its size ~4k typ */
e5973ed5 699 svtype utype; /* bodytype stored in arena */
5e258f8c
JC
700};
701
e6148039
NC
702struct arena_set;
703
704/* Get the maximum number of elements in set[] such that struct arena_set
e15dad31 705 will fit within PERL_ARENA_SIZE, which is probably just under 4K, and
e6148039
NC
706 therefore likely to be 1 aligned memory page. */
707
708#define ARENAS_PER_SET ((PERL_ARENA_SIZE - sizeof(struct arena_set*) \
709 - 2 * sizeof(int)) / sizeof (struct arena_desc))
5e258f8c
JC
710
711struct arena_set {
712 struct arena_set* next;
0a848332
NC
713 unsigned int set_size; /* ie ARENAS_PER_SET */
714 unsigned int curr; /* index of next available arena-desc */
5e258f8c
JC
715 struct arena_desc set[ARENAS_PER_SET];
716};
717
645c22ef
DM
718/*
719=for apidoc sv_free_arenas
720
fde67290 721Deallocate the memory used by all arenas. Note that all the individual SV
645c22ef
DM
722heads and bodies within the arenas must already have been freed.
723
724=cut
7fefc6c1 725
645c22ef 726*/
4633a7c4 727void
864dbfa3 728Perl_sv_free_arenas(pTHX)
4633a7c4
LW
729{
730 SV* sva;
731 SV* svanext;
0a848332 732 unsigned int i;
4633a7c4
LW
733
734 /* Free arenas here, but be careful about fake ones. (We assume
735 contiguity of the fake ones with the corresponding real ones.) */
736
3280af22 737 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = svanext) {
daba3364 738 svanext = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(sva));
4633a7c4 739 while (svanext && SvFAKE(svanext))
daba3364 740 svanext = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(svanext));
4633a7c4
LW
741
742 if (!SvFAKE(sva))
1df70142 743 Safefree(sva);
4633a7c4 744 }
93e68bfb 745
5e258f8c 746 {
0a848332
NC
747 struct arena_set *aroot = (struct arena_set*) PL_body_arenas;
748
749 while (aroot) {
750 struct arena_set *current = aroot;
751 i = aroot->curr;
752 while (i--) {
5e258f8c
JC
753 assert(aroot->set[i].arena);
754 Safefree(aroot->set[i].arena);
755 }
0a848332
NC
756 aroot = aroot->next;
757 Safefree(current);
5e258f8c
JC
758 }
759 }
dc8220bf 760 PL_body_arenas = 0;
fdda85ca 761
0a848332
NC
762 i = PERL_ARENA_ROOTS_SIZE;
763 while (i--)
93e68bfb 764 PL_body_roots[i] = 0;
93e68bfb 765
3280af22
NIS
766 PL_sv_arenaroot = 0;
767 PL_sv_root = 0;
4633a7c4
LW
768}
769
bd81e77b
NC
770/*
771 Here are mid-level routines that manage the allocation of bodies out
772 of the various arenas. There are 5 kinds of arenas:
29489e7c 773
bd81e77b
NC
774 1. SV-head arenas, which are discussed and handled above
775 2. regular body arenas
776 3. arenas for reduced-size bodies
777 4. Hash-Entry arenas
29489e7c 778
bd81e77b
NC
779 Arena types 2 & 3 are chained by body-type off an array of
780 arena-root pointers, which is indexed by svtype. Some of the
781 larger/less used body types are malloced singly, since a large
782 unused block of them is wasteful. Also, several svtypes dont have
783 bodies; the data fits into the sv-head itself. The arena-root
784 pointer thus has a few unused root-pointers (which may be hijacked
785 later for arena types 4,5)
29489e7c 786
bd81e77b
NC
787 3 differs from 2 as an optimization; some body types have several
788 unused fields in the front of the structure (which are kept in-place
789 for consistency). These bodies can be allocated in smaller chunks,
790 because the leading fields arent accessed. Pointers to such bodies
791 are decremented to point at the unused 'ghost' memory, knowing that
792 the pointers are used with offsets to the real memory.
29489e7c 793
d2a0f284
JC
794
795=head1 SV-Body Allocation
796
f554dfc5
MH
797=cut
798
d2a0f284
JC
799Allocation of SV-bodies is similar to SV-heads, differing as follows;
800the allocation mechanism is used for many body types, so is somewhat
801more complicated, it uses arena-sets, and has no need for still-live
802SV detection.
803
804At the outermost level, (new|del)_X*V macros return bodies of the
805appropriate type. These macros call either (new|del)_body_type or
806(new|del)_body_allocated macro pairs, depending on specifics of the
807type. Most body types use the former pair, the latter pair is used to
808allocate body types with "ghost fields".
809
810"ghost fields" are fields that are unused in certain types, and
69ba284b 811consequently don't need to actually exist. They are declared because
d2a0f284
JC
812they're part of a "base type", which allows use of functions as
813methods. The simplest examples are AVs and HVs, 2 aggregate types
814which don't use the fields which support SCALAR semantics.
815
69ba284b 816For these types, the arenas are carved up into appropriately sized
d2a0f284
JC
817chunks, we thus avoid wasted memory for those unaccessed members.
818When bodies are allocated, we adjust the pointer back in memory by the
69ba284b 819size of the part not allocated, so it's as if we allocated the full
d2a0f284
JC
820structure. (But things will all go boom if you write to the part that
821is "not there", because you'll be overwriting the last members of the
822preceding structure in memory.)
823
69ba284b 824We calculate the correction using the STRUCT_OFFSET macro on the first
a05ea1cf 825member present. If the allocated structure is smaller (no initial NV
69ba284b
NC
826actually allocated) then the net effect is to subtract the size of the NV
827from the pointer, to return a new pointer as if an initial NV were actually
a05ea1cf 828allocated. (We were using structures named *_allocated for this, but
69ba284b
NC
829this turned out to be a subtle bug, because a structure without an NV
830could have a lower alignment constraint, but the compiler is allowed to
831optimised accesses based on the alignment constraint of the actual pointer
832to the full structure, for example, using a single 64 bit load instruction
833because it "knows" that two adjacent 32 bit members will be 8-byte aligned.)
d2a0f284 834
a05ea1cf 835This is the same trick as was used for NV and IV bodies. Ironically it
d2a0f284 836doesn't need to be used for NV bodies any more, because NV is now at
5b306eef
DD
837the start of the structure. IV bodies, and also in some builds NV bodies,
838don't need it either, because they are no longer allocated.
d2a0f284
JC
839
840In turn, the new_body_* allocators call S_new_body(), which invokes
841new_body_inline macro, which takes a lock, and takes a body off the
1e30fcd5 842linked list at PL_body_roots[sv_type], calling Perl_more_bodies() if
d2a0f284
JC
843necessary to refresh an empty list. Then the lock is released, and
844the body is returned.
845
99816f8d 846Perl_more_bodies allocates a new arena, and carves it up into an array of N
d2a0f284
JC
847bodies, which it strings into a linked list. It looks up arena-size
848and body-size from the body_details table described below, thus
849supporting the multiple body-types.
850
851If PURIFY is defined, or PERL_ARENA_SIZE=0, arenas are not used, and
852the (new|del)_X*V macros are mapped directly to malloc/free.
853
d2a0f284
JC
854For each sv-type, struct body_details bodies_by_type[] carries
855parameters which control these aspects of SV handling:
856
857Arena_size determines whether arenas are used for this body type, and if
858so, how big they are. PURIFY or PERL_ARENA_SIZE=0 set this field to
859zero, forcing individual mallocs and frees.
860
861Body_size determines how big a body is, and therefore how many fit into
862each arena. Offset carries the body-pointer adjustment needed for
69ba284b 863"ghost fields", and is used in *_allocated macros.
d2a0f284
JC
864
865But its main purpose is to parameterize info needed in
866Perl_sv_upgrade(). The info here dramatically simplifies the function
69ba284b 867vs the implementation in 5.8.8, making it table-driven. All fields
d2a0f284
JC
868are used for this, except for arena_size.
869
870For the sv-types that have no bodies, arenas are not used, so those
871PL_body_roots[sv_type] are unused, and can be overloaded. In
872something of a special case, SVt_NULL is borrowed for HE arenas;
c6f8b1d0 873PL_body_roots[HE_SVSLOT=SVt_NULL] is filled by S_more_he, but the
d2a0f284 874bodies_by_type[SVt_NULL] slot is not used, as the table is not
c6f8b1d0 875available in hv.c.
d2a0f284 876
29489e7c
DM
877*/
878
bd81e77b 879struct body_details {
0fb58b32 880 U8 body_size; /* Size to allocate */
10666ae3 881 U8 copy; /* Size of structure to copy (may be shorter) */
5b306eef
DD
882 U8 offset; /* Size of unalloced ghost fields to first alloced field*/
883 PERL_BITFIELD8 type : 4; /* We have space for a sanity check. */
884 PERL_BITFIELD8 cant_upgrade : 1;/* Cannot upgrade this type */
885 PERL_BITFIELD8 zero_nv : 1; /* zero the NV when upgrading from this */
886 PERL_BITFIELD8 arena : 1; /* Allocated from an arena */
887 U32 arena_size; /* Size of arena to allocate */
bd81e77b 888};
29489e7c 889
bd81e77b
NC
890#define HADNV FALSE
891#define NONV TRUE
29489e7c 892
d2a0f284 893
bd81e77b
NC
894#ifdef PURIFY
895/* With -DPURFIY we allocate everything directly, and don't use arenas.
896 This seems a rather elegant way to simplify some of the code below. */
897#define HASARENA FALSE
898#else
899#define HASARENA TRUE
900#endif
901#define NOARENA FALSE
29489e7c 902
d2a0f284
JC
903/* Size the arenas to exactly fit a given number of bodies. A count
904 of 0 fits the max number bodies into a PERL_ARENA_SIZE.block,
905 simplifying the default. If count > 0, the arena is sized to fit
906 only that many bodies, allowing arenas to be used for large, rare
907 bodies (XPVFM, XPVIO) without undue waste. The arena size is
908 limited by PERL_ARENA_SIZE, so we can safely oversize the
909 declarations.
910 */
95db5f15
MB
911#define FIT_ARENA0(body_size) \
912 ((size_t)(PERL_ARENA_SIZE / body_size) * body_size)
913#define FIT_ARENAn(count,body_size) \
914 ( count * body_size <= PERL_ARENA_SIZE) \
915 ? count * body_size \
916 : FIT_ARENA0 (body_size)
917#define FIT_ARENA(count,body_size) \
cd1dc8e2 918 (U32)(count \
95db5f15 919 ? FIT_ARENAn (count, body_size) \
cd1dc8e2 920 : FIT_ARENA0 (body_size))
d2a0f284 921
bd81e77b
NC
922/* Calculate the length to copy. Specifically work out the length less any
923 final padding the compiler needed to add. See the comment in sv_upgrade
924 for why copying the padding proved to be a bug. */
29489e7c 925
bd81e77b
NC
926#define copy_length(type, last_member) \
927 STRUCT_OFFSET(type, last_member) \
daba3364 928 + sizeof (((type*)SvANY((const SV *)0))->last_member)
29489e7c 929
bd81e77b 930static const struct body_details bodies_by_type[] = {
829cd18a
NC
931 /* HEs use this offset for their arena. */
932 { 0, 0, 0, SVt_NULL, FALSE, NONV, NOARENA, 0 },
d2a0f284 933
db93c0c4
NC
934 /* IVs are in the head, so the allocation size is 0. */
935 { 0,
d2a0f284 936 sizeof(IV), /* This is used to copy out the IV body. */
10666ae3 937 STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVIV, xiv_iv), SVt_IV, FALSE, NONV,
db93c0c4 938 NOARENA /* IVS don't need an arena */, 0
d2a0f284
JC
939 },
940
5b306eef
DD
941#if NVSIZE <= IVSIZE
942 { 0, sizeof(NV),
943 STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVNV, xnv_u),
944 SVt_NV, FALSE, HADNV, NOARENA, 0 },
945#else
6e128786
NC
946 { sizeof(NV), sizeof(NV),
947 STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVNV, xnv_u),
948 SVt_NV, FALSE, HADNV, HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(NV)) },
5b306eef 949#endif
d2a0f284 950
bc337e5c 951 { sizeof(XPV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
889d28b2
NC
952 copy_length(XPV, xpv_len) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
953 + STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
69ba284b 954 SVt_PV, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA,
889d28b2 955 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur)) },
d2a0f284 956
d361b004
KW
957 { sizeof(XINVLIST) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
958 copy_length(XINVLIST, is_offset) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
959 + STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
960 SVt_INVLIST, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
961 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XINVLIST) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur)) },
e94d9b54 962
bc337e5c 963 { sizeof(XPVIV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
889d28b2
NC
964 copy_length(XPVIV, xiv_u) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
965 + STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
966 SVt_PVIV, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA,
967 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVIV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur)) },
d2a0f284 968
bc337e5c 969 { sizeof(XPVNV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
889d28b2
NC
970 copy_length(XPVNV, xnv_u) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
971 + STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
972 SVt_PVNV, FALSE, HADNV, HASARENA,
973 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVNV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur)) },
d2a0f284 974
6e128786 975 { sizeof(XPVMG), copy_length(XPVMG, xnv_u), 0, SVt_PVMG, FALSE, HADNV,
d2a0f284 976 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVMG)) },
4df7f6af 977
601dfd0a
NC
978 { sizeof(regexp),
979 sizeof(regexp),
980 0,
ecff11eb 981 SVt_REGEXP, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
eaeb1e7f 982 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(regexp))
5c35adbb 983 },
4df7f6af 984
10666ae3 985 { sizeof(XPVGV), sizeof(XPVGV), 0, SVt_PVGV, TRUE, HADNV,
d2a0f284
JC
986 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVGV)) },
987
10666ae3 988 { sizeof(XPVLV), sizeof(XPVLV), 0, SVt_PVLV, TRUE, HADNV,
d2a0f284
JC
989 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVLV)) },
990
601dfd0a 991 { sizeof(XPVAV),
4f7003f5 992 copy_length(XPVAV, xav_alloc),
601dfd0a 993 0,
69ba284b 994 SVt_PVAV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 995 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVAV)) },
d2a0f284 996
601dfd0a 997 { sizeof(XPVHV),
359164a0 998 copy_length(XPVHV, xhv_max),
601dfd0a 999 0,
69ba284b 1000 SVt_PVHV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 1001 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVHV)) },
d2a0f284 1002
601dfd0a
NC
1003 { sizeof(XPVCV),
1004 sizeof(XPVCV),
1005 0,
69ba284b 1006 SVt_PVCV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 1007 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVCV)) },
69ba284b 1008
601dfd0a
NC
1009 { sizeof(XPVFM),
1010 sizeof(XPVFM),
1011 0,
69ba284b 1012 SVt_PVFM, TRUE, NONV, NOARENA,
601dfd0a 1013 FIT_ARENA(20, sizeof(XPVFM)) },
d2a0f284 1014
601dfd0a
NC
1015 { sizeof(XPVIO),
1016 sizeof(XPVIO),
1017 0,
b6f60916 1018 SVt_PVIO, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 1019 FIT_ARENA(24, sizeof(XPVIO)) },
bd81e77b 1020};
29489e7c 1021
bd81e77b 1022#define new_body_allocated(sv_type) \
d2a0f284 1023 (void *)((char *)S_new_body(aTHX_ sv_type) \
bd81e77b 1024 - bodies_by_type[sv_type].offset)
29489e7c 1025
26359cfa
NC
1026/* return a thing to the free list */
1027
1028#define del_body(thing, root) \
1029 STMT_START { \
1030 void ** const thing_copy = (void **)thing; \
1031 *thing_copy = *root; \
1032 *root = (void*)thing_copy; \
1033 } STMT_END
29489e7c 1034
bd81e77b 1035#ifdef PURIFY
5b306eef
DD
1036#if !(NVSIZE <= IVSIZE)
1037# define new_XNV() safemalloc(sizeof(XPVNV))
1038#endif
beeec492
NC
1039#define new_XPVNV() safemalloc(sizeof(XPVNV))
1040#define new_XPVMG() safemalloc(sizeof(XPVMG))
29489e7c 1041
beeec492 1042#define del_XPVGV(p) safefree(p)
29489e7c 1043
bd81e77b 1044#else /* !PURIFY */
29489e7c 1045
5b306eef
DD
1046#if !(NVSIZE <= IVSIZE)
1047# define new_XNV() new_body_allocated(SVt_NV)
1048#endif
65ac1738 1049#define new_XPVNV() new_body_allocated(SVt_PVNV)
65ac1738 1050#define new_XPVMG() new_body_allocated(SVt_PVMG)
645c22ef 1051
26359cfa
NC
1052#define del_XPVGV(p) del_body(p + bodies_by_type[SVt_PVGV].offset, \
1053 &PL_body_roots[SVt_PVGV])
1d7c1841 1054
bd81e77b 1055#endif /* PURIFY */
93e68bfb 1056
bd81e77b 1057/* no arena for you! */
93e68bfb 1058
bd81e77b 1059#define new_NOARENA(details) \
beeec492 1060 safemalloc((details)->body_size + (details)->offset)
bd81e77b 1061#define new_NOARENAZ(details) \
beeec492 1062 safecalloc((details)->body_size + (details)->offset, 1)
d2a0f284 1063
1e30fcd5
NC
1064void *
1065Perl_more_bodies (pTHX_ const svtype sv_type, const size_t body_size,
1066 const size_t arena_size)
d2a0f284 1067{
d2a0f284 1068 void ** const root = &PL_body_roots[sv_type];
99816f8d
NC
1069 struct arena_desc *adesc;
1070 struct arena_set *aroot = (struct arena_set *) PL_body_arenas;
1071 unsigned int curr;
d2a0f284
JC
1072 char *start;
1073 const char *end;
02982131 1074 const size_t good_arena_size = Perl_malloc_good_size(arena_size);
20b7effb
JH
1075#if defined(DEBUGGING) && defined(PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT)
1076 dVAR;
1077#endif
0b2d3faa 1078#if defined(DEBUGGING) && !defined(PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT_PRIVATE)
23e9d66c
NC
1079 static bool done_sanity_check;
1080
0b2d3faa
JH
1081 /* PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT_PRIVATE cannot coexist with global
1082 * variables like done_sanity_check. */
10666ae3 1083 if (!done_sanity_check) {
ea471437 1084 unsigned int i = SVt_LAST;
10666ae3
NC
1085
1086 done_sanity_check = TRUE;
1087
1088 while (i--)
1089 assert (bodies_by_type[i].type == i);
1090 }
1091#endif
1092
02982131 1093 assert(arena_size);
23e9d66c 1094
99816f8d
NC
1095 /* may need new arena-set to hold new arena */
1096 if (!aroot || aroot->curr >= aroot->set_size) {
1097 struct arena_set *newroot;
1098 Newxz(newroot, 1, struct arena_set);
1099 newroot->set_size = ARENAS_PER_SET;
1100 newroot->next = aroot;
1101 aroot = newroot;
1102 PL_body_arenas = (void *) newroot;
1103 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "new arenaset %p\n", (void*)aroot));
1104 }
1105
1106 /* ok, now have arena-set with at least 1 empty/available arena-desc */
1107 curr = aroot->curr++;
1108 adesc = &(aroot->set[curr]);
1109 assert(!adesc->arena);
1110
1111 Newx(adesc->arena, good_arena_size, char);
1112 adesc->size = good_arena_size;
1113 adesc->utype = sv_type;
147e3846 1114 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "arena %d added: %p size %" UVuf "\n",
99816f8d
NC
1115 curr, (void*)adesc->arena, (UV)good_arena_size));
1116
1117 start = (char *) adesc->arena;
d2a0f284 1118
29657bb6
NC
1119 /* Get the address of the byte after the end of the last body we can fit.
1120 Remember, this is integer division: */
02982131 1121 end = start + good_arena_size / body_size * body_size;
d2a0f284 1122
486ec47a 1123 /* computed count doesn't reflect the 1st slot reservation */
d8fca402
NC
1124#if defined(MYMALLOC) || defined(HAS_MALLOC_GOOD_SIZE)
1125 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1126 "arena %p end %p arena-size %d (from %d) type %d "
1127 "size %d ct %d\n",
02982131
NC
1128 (void*)start, (void*)end, (int)good_arena_size,
1129 (int)arena_size, sv_type, (int)body_size,
1130 (int)good_arena_size / (int)body_size));
d8fca402 1131#else
d2a0f284
JC
1132 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1133 "arena %p end %p arena-size %d type %d size %d ct %d\n",
6c9570dc 1134 (void*)start, (void*)end,
02982131
NC
1135 (int)arena_size, sv_type, (int)body_size,
1136 (int)good_arena_size / (int)body_size));
d8fca402 1137#endif
d2a0f284
JC
1138 *root = (void *)start;
1139
29657bb6
NC
1140 while (1) {
1141 /* Where the next body would start: */
d2a0f284 1142 char * const next = start + body_size;
29657bb6
NC
1143
1144 if (next >= end) {
1145 /* This is the last body: */
1146 assert(next == end);
1147
1148 *(void **)start = 0;
1149 return *root;
1150 }
1151
d2a0f284
JC
1152 *(void**) start = (void *)next;
1153 start = next;
1154 }
d2a0f284
JC
1155}
1156
1157/* grab a new thing from the free list, allocating more if necessary.
1158 The inline version is used for speed in hot routines, and the
1159 function using it serves the rest (unless PURIFY).
1160*/
1161#define new_body_inline(xpv, sv_type) \
1162 STMT_START { \
1163 void ** const r3wt = &PL_body_roots[sv_type]; \
11b79775 1164 xpv = (PTR_TBL_ENT_t*) (*((void **)(r3wt)) \
1e30fcd5 1165 ? *((void **)(r3wt)) : Perl_more_bodies(aTHX_ sv_type, \
02982131
NC
1166 bodies_by_type[sv_type].body_size,\
1167 bodies_by_type[sv_type].arena_size)); \
d2a0f284 1168 *(r3wt) = *(void**)(xpv); \
d2a0f284
JC
1169 } STMT_END
1170
1171#ifndef PURIFY
1172
1173STATIC void *
de37a194 1174S_new_body(pTHX_ const svtype sv_type)
d2a0f284 1175{
d2a0f284
JC
1176 void *xpv;
1177 new_body_inline(xpv, sv_type);
1178 return xpv;
1179}
1180
1181#endif
93e68bfb 1182
238b27b3
NC
1183static const struct body_details fake_rv =
1184 { 0, 0, 0, SVt_IV, FALSE, NONV, NOARENA, 0 };
1185
bd81e77b
NC
1186/*
1187=for apidoc sv_upgrade
93e68bfb 1188
bd81e77b
NC
1189Upgrade an SV to a more complex form. Generally adds a new body type to the
1190SV, then copies across as much information as possible from the old body.
9521ca61
FC
1191It croaks if the SV is already in a more complex form than requested. You
1192generally want to use the C<SvUPGRADE> macro wrapper, which checks the type
1193before calling C<sv_upgrade>, and hence does not croak. See also
fbe13c60 1194C<L</svtype>>.
93e68bfb 1195
bd81e77b 1196=cut
93e68bfb 1197*/
93e68bfb 1198
bd81e77b 1199void
5aaab254 1200Perl_sv_upgrade(pTHX_ SV *const sv, svtype new_type)
cac9b346 1201{
bd81e77b
NC
1202 void* old_body;
1203 void* new_body;
42d0e0b7 1204 const svtype old_type = SvTYPE(sv);
d2a0f284 1205 const struct body_details *new_type_details;
238b27b3 1206 const struct body_details *old_type_details
bd81e77b 1207 = bodies_by_type + old_type;
ed7df46e 1208 SV *referent = NULL;
cac9b346 1209
7918f24d
NC
1210 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UPGRADE;
1211
1776cbe8
NC
1212 if (old_type == new_type)
1213 return;
1214
1215 /* This clause was purposefully added ahead of the early return above to
1216 the shared string hackery for (sort {$a <=> $b} keys %hash), with the
1217 inference by Nick I-S that it would fix other troublesome cases. See
1218 changes 7162, 7163 (f130fd4589cf5fbb24149cd4db4137c8326f49c1 and parent)
1219
1220 Given that shared hash key scalars are no longer PVIV, but PV, there is
1221 no longer need to unshare so as to free up the IVX slot for its proper
1222 purpose. So it's safe to move the early return earlier. */
1223
093085a8 1224 if (new_type > SVt_PVMG && SvIsCOW(sv)) {
bd81e77b
NC
1225 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
1226 }
cac9b346 1227
bd81e77b 1228 old_body = SvANY(sv);
de042e1d 1229
bd81e77b
NC
1230 /* Copying structures onto other structures that have been neatly zeroed
1231 has a subtle gotcha. Consider XPVMG
cac9b346 1232
bd81e77b
NC
1233 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+
1234 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH |
1235 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+
1236 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28
645c22ef 1237
bd81e77b
NC
1238 where NVs are aligned to 8 bytes, so that sizeof that structure is
1239 actually 32 bytes long, with 4 bytes of padding at the end:
08742458 1240
bd81e77b
NC
1241 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+
1242 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH | ??? |
1243 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+
1244 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32
08742458 1245
bd81e77b 1246 so what happens if you allocate memory for this structure:
30f9da9e 1247
bd81e77b
NC
1248 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+------+...
1249 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH | GP | NAME |
1250 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+------+...
1251 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36
bfc44f79 1252
bd81e77b
NC
1253 zero it, then copy sizeof(XPVMG) bytes on top of it? Not quite what you
1254 expect, because you copy the area marked ??? onto GP. Now, ??? may have
1255 started out as zero once, but it's quite possible that it isn't. So now,
1256 rather than a nicely zeroed GP, you have it pointing somewhere random.
1257 Bugs ensue.
bfc44f79 1258
bd81e77b
NC
1259 (In fact, GP ends up pointing at a previous GP structure, because the
1260 principle cause of the padding in XPVMG getting garbage is a copy of
6c9e42f7
NC
1261 sizeof(XPVMG) bytes from a XPVGV structure in sv_unglob. Right now
1262 this happens to be moot because XPVGV has been re-ordered, with GP
1263 no longer after STASH)
30f9da9e 1264
bd81e77b
NC
1265 So we are careful and work out the size of used parts of all the
1266 structures. */
bfc44f79 1267
bd81e77b
NC
1268 switch (old_type) {
1269 case SVt_NULL:
1270 break;
1271 case SVt_IV:
4df7f6af 1272 if (SvROK(sv)) {
ed7df46e 1273 referent = SvRV(sv);
238b27b3
NC
1274 old_type_details = &fake_rv;
1275 if (new_type == SVt_NV)
1276 new_type = SVt_PVNV;
4df7f6af
NC
1277 } else {
1278 if (new_type < SVt_PVIV) {
1279 new_type = (new_type == SVt_NV)
1280 ? SVt_PVNV : SVt_PVIV;
1281 }
bd81e77b
NC
1282 }
1283 break;
1284 case SVt_NV:
1285 if (new_type < SVt_PVNV) {
1286 new_type = SVt_PVNV;
bd81e77b
NC
1287 }
1288 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1289 case SVt_PV:
1290 assert(new_type > SVt_PV);
6d59e610
LM
1291 STATIC_ASSERT_STMT(SVt_IV < SVt_PV);
1292 STATIC_ASSERT_STMT(SVt_NV < SVt_PV);
bd81e77b
NC
1293 break;
1294 case SVt_PVIV:
1295 break;
1296 case SVt_PVNV:
1297 break;
1298 case SVt_PVMG:
1299 /* Because the XPVMG of PL_mess_sv isn't allocated from the arena,
1300 there's no way that it can be safely upgraded, because perl.c
1301 expects to Safefree(SvANY(PL_mess_sv)) */
1302 assert(sv != PL_mess_sv);
bd81e77b
NC
1303 break;
1304 default:
2439e033 1305 if (UNLIKELY(old_type_details->cant_upgrade))
c81225bc
NC
1306 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't upgrade %s (%" UVuf ") to %" UVuf,
1307 sv_reftype(sv, 0), (UV) old_type, (UV) new_type);
bd81e77b 1308 }
3376de98 1309
2439e033 1310 if (UNLIKELY(old_type > new_type))
3376de98
NC
1311 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "sv_upgrade from type %d down to type %d",
1312 (int)old_type, (int)new_type);
1313
2fa1109b 1314 new_type_details = bodies_by_type + new_type;
645c22ef 1315
bd81e77b
NC
1316 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~SVTYPEMASK;
1317 SvFLAGS(sv) |= new_type;
932e9ff9 1318
ab4416c0
NC
1319 /* This can't happen, as SVt_NULL is <= all values of new_type, so one of
1320 the return statements above will have triggered. */
1321 assert (new_type != SVt_NULL);
bd81e77b 1322 switch (new_type) {
bd81e77b
NC
1323 case SVt_IV:
1324 assert(old_type == SVt_NULL);
dc6369ef 1325 SET_SVANY_FOR_BODYLESS_IV(sv);
bd81e77b
NC
1326 SvIV_set(sv, 0);
1327 return;
1328 case SVt_NV:
1329 assert(old_type == SVt_NULL);
5b306eef 1330#if NVSIZE <= IVSIZE
dc6369ef 1331 SET_SVANY_FOR_BODYLESS_NV(sv);
5b306eef 1332#else
bd81e77b 1333 SvANY(sv) = new_XNV();
5b306eef 1334#endif
bd81e77b
NC
1335 SvNV_set(sv, 0);
1336 return;
bd81e77b 1337 case SVt_PVHV:
bd81e77b 1338 case SVt_PVAV:
d2a0f284 1339 assert(new_type_details->body_size);
c1ae03ae
NC
1340
1341#ifndef PURIFY
1342 assert(new_type_details->arena);
d2a0f284 1343 assert(new_type_details->arena_size);
c1ae03ae 1344 /* This points to the start of the allocated area. */
d2a0f284
JC
1345 new_body_inline(new_body, new_type);
1346 Zero(new_body, new_type_details->body_size, char);
c1ae03ae
NC
1347 new_body = ((char *)new_body) - new_type_details->offset;
1348#else
1349 /* We always allocated the full length item with PURIFY. To do this
1350 we fake things so that arena is false for all 16 types.. */
1351 new_body = new_NOARENAZ(new_type_details);
1352#endif
1353 SvANY(sv) = new_body;
1354 if (new_type == SVt_PVAV) {
1355 AvMAX(sv) = -1;
1356 AvFILLp(sv) = -1;
1357 AvREAL_only(sv);
64484faa 1358 if (old_type_details->body_size) {
ac572bf4
NC
1359 AvALLOC(sv) = 0;
1360 } else {
1361 /* It will have been zeroed when the new body was allocated.
1362 Lets not write to it, in case it confuses a write-back
1363 cache. */
1364 }
78ac7dd9
NC
1365 } else {
1366 assert(!SvOK(sv));
1367 SvOK_off(sv);
1368#ifndef NODEFAULT_SHAREKEYS
1369 HvSHAREKEYS_on(sv); /* key-sharing on by default */
1370#endif
586fc6a3
SM
1371 /* start with PERL_HASH_DEFAULT_HvMAX+1 buckets: */
1372 HvMAX(sv) = PERL_HASH_DEFAULT_HvMAX;
c1ae03ae 1373 }
aeb18a1e 1374
bd81e77b
NC
1375 /* SVt_NULL isn't the only thing upgraded to AV or HV.
1376 The target created by newSVrv also is, and it can have magic.
1377 However, it never has SvPVX set.
1378 */
4df7f6af
NC
1379 if (old_type == SVt_IV) {
1380 assert(!SvROK(sv));
1381 } else if (old_type >= SVt_PV) {
bd81e77b
NC
1382 assert(SvPVX_const(sv) == 0);
1383 }
aeb18a1e 1384
bd81e77b 1385 if (old_type >= SVt_PVMG) {
e736a858 1386 SvMAGIC_set(sv, ((XPVMG*)old_body)->xmg_u.xmg_magic);
bd81e77b 1387 SvSTASH_set(sv, ((XPVMG*)old_body)->xmg_stash);
797c7171
NC
1388 } else {
1389 sv->sv_u.svu_array = NULL; /* or svu_hash */
bd81e77b
NC
1390 }
1391 break;
93e68bfb 1392
bd81e77b
NC
1393 case SVt_PVIV:
1394 /* XXX Is this still needed? Was it ever needed? Surely as there is
1395 no route from NV to PVIV, NOK can never be true */
1396 assert(!SvNOKp(sv));
1397 assert(!SvNOK(sv));
2b5060ae 1398 /* FALLTHROUGH */
bd81e77b
NC
1399 case SVt_PVIO:
1400 case SVt_PVFM:
bd81e77b
NC
1401 case SVt_PVGV:
1402 case SVt_PVCV:
1403 case SVt_PVLV:
d361b004 1404 case SVt_INVLIST:
12c45b25 1405 case SVt_REGEXP:
bd81e77b
NC
1406 case SVt_PVMG:
1407 case SVt_PVNV:
1408 case SVt_PV:
93e68bfb 1409
d2a0f284 1410 assert(new_type_details->body_size);
bd81e77b
NC
1411 /* We always allocated the full length item with PURIFY. To do this
1412 we fake things so that arena is false for all 16 types.. */
1413 if(new_type_details->arena) {
1414 /* This points to the start of the allocated area. */
d2a0f284
JC
1415 new_body_inline(new_body, new_type);
1416 Zero(new_body, new_type_details->body_size, char);
bd81e77b
NC
1417 new_body = ((char *)new_body) - new_type_details->offset;
1418 } else {
1419 new_body = new_NOARENAZ(new_type_details);
1420 }
1421 SvANY(sv) = new_body;
5e2fc214 1422
bd81e77b 1423 if (old_type_details->copy) {
f9ba3d20
NC
1424 /* There is now the potential for an upgrade from something without
1425 an offset (PVNV or PVMG) to something with one (PVCV, PVFM) */
1426 int offset = old_type_details->offset;
1427 int length = old_type_details->copy;
1428
1429 if (new_type_details->offset > old_type_details->offset) {
d4c19fe8 1430 const int difference
f9ba3d20
NC
1431 = new_type_details->offset - old_type_details->offset;
1432 offset += difference;
1433 length -= difference;
1434 }
1435 assert (length >= 0);
1436
1437 Copy((char *)old_body + offset, (char *)new_body + offset, length,
1438 char);
bd81e77b
NC
1439 }
1440
1441#ifndef NV_ZERO_IS_ALLBITS_ZERO
f2524eef 1442 /* If NV 0.0 is stores as all bits 0 then Zero() already creates a
e5ce394c
NC
1443 * correct 0.0 for us. Otherwise, if the old body didn't have an
1444 * NV slot, but the new one does, then we need to initialise the
1445 * freshly created NV slot with whatever the correct bit pattern is
1446 * for 0.0 */
e22a937e
NC
1447 if (old_type_details->zero_nv && !new_type_details->zero_nv
1448 && !isGV_with_GP(sv))
bd81e77b 1449 SvNV_set(sv, 0);
82048762 1450#endif
5e2fc214 1451
2439e033 1452 if (UNLIKELY(new_type == SVt_PVIO)) {
85dca89a 1453 IO * const io = MUTABLE_IO(sv);
d963bf01 1454 GV *iogv = gv_fetchpvs("IO::File::", GV_ADD, SVt_PVHV);
85dca89a
NC
1455
1456 SvOBJECT_on(io);
1457 /* Clear the stashcache because a new IO could overrule a package
1458 name */
103f5a36 1459 DEBUG_o(Perl_deb(aTHX_ "sv_upgrade clearing PL_stashcache\n"));
85dca89a
NC
1460 hv_clear(PL_stashcache);
1461
85dca89a 1462 SvSTASH_set(io, MUTABLE_HV(SvREFCNT_inc(GvHV(iogv))));
f2524eef 1463 IoPAGE_LEN(sv) = 60;
85dca89a 1464 }
df6b4bd5 1465 if (old_type < SVt_PV) {
ed7df46e 1466 /* referent will be NULL unless the old type was SVt_IV emulating
4df7f6af 1467 SVt_RV */
ed7df46e 1468 sv->sv_u.svu_rv = referent;
4df7f6af 1469 }
bd81e77b
NC
1470 break;
1471 default:
afd78fd5
JH
1472 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: sv_upgrade to unknown type %lu",
1473 (unsigned long)new_type);
bd81e77b 1474 }
73171d91 1475
5b306eef
DD
1476 /* if this is zero, this is a body-less SVt_NULL, SVt_IV/SVt_RV,
1477 and sometimes SVt_NV */
1478 if (old_type_details->body_size) {
bd81e77b 1479#ifdef PURIFY
beeec492 1480 safefree(old_body);
bd81e77b 1481#else
bc786448
GG
1482 /* Note that there is an assumption that all bodies of types that
1483 can be upgraded came from arenas. Only the more complex non-
1484 upgradable types are allowed to be directly malloc()ed. */
1485 assert(old_type_details->arena);
bd81e77b
NC
1486 del_body((void*)((char*)old_body + old_type_details->offset),
1487 &PL_body_roots[old_type]);
1488#endif
1489 }
1490}
73171d91 1491
bd81e77b
NC
1492/*
1493=for apidoc sv_backoff
73171d91 1494
fde67290 1495Remove any string offset. You should normally use the C<SvOOK_off> macro
bd81e77b 1496wrapper instead.
73171d91 1497
bd81e77b 1498=cut
73171d91
NC
1499*/
1500
fa7a1e49
DD
1501/* prior to 5.000 stable, this function returned the new OOK-less SvFLAGS
1502 prior to 5.23.4 this function always returned 0
1503*/
1504
1505void
ddeaf645 1506Perl_sv_backoff(SV *const sv)
bd81e77b 1507{
69240efd 1508 STRLEN delta;
7a4bba22 1509 const char * const s = SvPVX_const(sv);
7918f24d
NC
1510
1511 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_BACKOFF;
7918f24d 1512
bd81e77b
NC
1513 assert(SvOOK(sv));
1514 assert(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV);
1515 assert(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV);
7a4bba22 1516
69240efd
NC
1517 SvOOK_offset(sv, delta);
1518
7a4bba22
NC
1519 SvLEN_set(sv, SvLEN(sv) + delta);
1520 SvPV_set(sv, SvPVX(sv) - delta);
bd81e77b 1521 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~SVf_OOK;
fa7a1e49
DD
1522 Move(s, SvPVX(sv), SvCUR(sv)+1, char);
1523 return;
bd81e77b 1524}
73171d91 1525
03885497
DM
1526
1527/* forward declaration */
1528static void S_sv_uncow(pTHX_ SV * const sv, const U32 flags);
1529
1530
bd81e77b
NC
1531/*
1532=for apidoc sv_grow
73171d91 1533
bd81e77b
NC
1534Expands the character buffer in the SV. If necessary, uses C<sv_unref> and
1535upgrades the SV to C<SVt_PV>. Returns a pointer to the character buffer.
1536Use the C<SvGROW> wrapper instead.
93e68bfb 1537
bd81e77b
NC
1538=cut
1539*/
93e68bfb 1540
e0060e30 1541
bd81e77b 1542char *
5aaab254 1543Perl_sv_grow(pTHX_ SV *const sv, STRLEN newlen)
bd81e77b 1544{
eb578fdb 1545 char *s;
93e68bfb 1546
7918f24d
NC
1547 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_GROW;
1548
bd81e77b
NC
1549 if (SvROK(sv))
1550 sv_unref(sv);
1551 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PV) {
1552 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PV);
1553 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
1554 }
1555 else if (SvOOK(sv)) { /* pv is offset? */
1556 sv_backoff(sv);
1557 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
1558 if (newlen > SvLEN(sv))
1559 newlen += 10 * (newlen - SvCUR(sv)); /* avoid copy each time */
bd81e77b
NC
1560 }
1561 else
db2c6cb3 1562 {
e0060e30 1563 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) S_sv_uncow(aTHX_ sv, 0);
bd81e77b 1564 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
db2c6cb3 1565 }
aeb18a1e 1566
93c10d60 1567#ifdef PERL_COPY_ON_WRITE
cbcb2a16 1568 /* the new COW scheme uses SvPVX(sv)[SvLEN(sv)-1] (if spare)
3c239bea 1569 * to store the COW count. So in general, allocate one more byte than
cbcb2a16
DM
1570 * asked for, to make it likely this byte is always spare: and thus
1571 * make more strings COW-able.
fe546b38 1572 *
fa8f4f85
TC
1573 * Only increment if the allocation isn't MEM_SIZE_MAX,
1574 * otherwise it will wrap to 0.
1575 */
fe546b38 1576 if ( newlen != MEM_SIZE_MAX )
cbcb2a16
DM
1577 newlen++;
1578#endif
1579
ce861ea7
YO
1580#if defined(PERL_USE_MALLOC_SIZE) && defined(Perl_safesysmalloc_size)
1581#define PERL_UNWARANTED_CHUMMINESS_WITH_MALLOC
1582#endif
1583
bd81e77b 1584 if (newlen > SvLEN(sv)) { /* need more room? */
f1200559 1585 STRLEN minlen = SvCUR(sv);
3c239bea 1586 minlen += (minlen >> PERL_STRLEN_EXPAND_SHIFT) + 10;
f1200559
WH
1587 if (newlen < minlen)
1588 newlen = minlen;
ce861ea7 1589#ifndef PERL_UNWARANTED_CHUMMINESS_WITH_MALLOC
7c641603
KW
1590
1591 /* Don't round up on the first allocation, as odds are pretty good that
1592 * the initial request is accurate as to what is really needed */
ce861ea7 1593 if (SvLEN(sv)) {
9efda33a
TC
1594 STRLEN rounded = PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(newlen);
1595 if (rounded > newlen)
1596 newlen = rounded;
ce861ea7 1597 }
bd81e77b 1598#endif
98653f18 1599 if (SvLEN(sv) && s) {
10edeb5d 1600 s = (char*)saferealloc(s, newlen);
bd81e77b
NC
1601 }
1602 else {
10edeb5d 1603 s = (char*)safemalloc(newlen);
bd81e77b 1604 if (SvPVX_const(sv) && SvCUR(sv)) {
0a5fcc38 1605 Move(SvPVX_const(sv), s, SvCUR(sv), char);
bd81e77b
NC
1606 }
1607 }
1608 SvPV_set(sv, s);
ce861ea7 1609#ifdef PERL_UNWARANTED_CHUMMINESS_WITH_MALLOC
98653f18
NC
1610 /* Do this here, do it once, do it right, and then we will never get
1611 called back into sv_grow() unless there really is some growing
1612 needed. */
ca7c1a29 1613 SvLEN_set(sv, Perl_safesysmalloc_size(s));
98653f18 1614#else
bd81e77b 1615 SvLEN_set(sv, newlen);
98653f18 1616#endif
bd81e77b
NC
1617 }
1618 return s;
1619}
aeb18a1e 1620
bd81e77b
NC
1621/*
1622=for apidoc sv_setiv
932e9ff9 1623
bd81e77b 1624Copies an integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
fbe13c60 1625Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<L</sv_setiv_mg>>.
463ee0b2 1626
bd81e77b
NC
1627=cut
1628*/
463ee0b2 1629
bd81e77b 1630void
5aaab254 1631Perl_sv_setiv(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const IV i)
bd81e77b 1632{
7918f24d
NC
1633 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETIV;
1634
bd81e77b
NC
1635 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(sv);
1636 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
1637 case SVt_NULL:
bd81e77b 1638 case SVt_NV:
3376de98 1639 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_IV);
bd81e77b 1640 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1641 case SVt_PV:
1642 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
1643 break;
463ee0b2 1644
bd81e77b 1645 case SVt_PVGV:
6e592b3a
BM
1646 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
1647 break;
2165bd23 1648 /* FALLTHROUGH */
bd81e77b
NC
1649 case SVt_PVAV:
1650 case SVt_PVHV:
1651 case SVt_PVCV:
1652 case SVt_PVFM:
1653 case SVt_PVIO:
22e74366 1654 /* diag_listed_as: Can't coerce %s to %s in %s */
bd81e77b
NC
1655 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't coerce %s to integer in %s", sv_reftype(sv,0),
1656 OP_DESC(PL_op));
c9a0dcdc 1657 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
0103ca14 1658 break;
42d0e0b7 1659 default: NOOP;
bd81e77b
NC
1660 }
1661 (void)SvIOK_only(sv); /* validate number */
1662 SvIV_set(sv, i);
1663 SvTAINT(sv);
1664}
932e9ff9 1665
bd81e77b
NC
1666/*
1667=for apidoc sv_setiv_mg
d33b2eba 1668
bd81e77b 1669Like C<sv_setiv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1c846c1f 1670
bd81e77b
NC
1671=cut
1672*/
d33b2eba 1673
bd81e77b 1674void
5aaab254 1675Perl_sv_setiv_mg(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const IV i)
bd81e77b 1676{
7918f24d
NC
1677 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETIV_MG;
1678
bd81e77b
NC
1679 sv_setiv(sv,i);
1680 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
1681}
727879eb 1682
bd81e77b
NC
1683/*
1684=for apidoc sv_setuv
d33b2eba 1685
bd81e77b 1686Copies an unsigned integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
fbe13c60 1687Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<L</sv_setuv_mg>>.
9b94d1dd 1688
bd81e77b
NC
1689=cut
1690*/
d33b2eba 1691
bd81e77b 1692void
5aaab254 1693Perl_sv_setuv(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const UV u)
bd81e77b 1694{
7918f24d
NC
1695 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETUV;
1696
013abb9b
NC
1697 /* With the if statement to ensure that integers are stored as IVs whenever
1698 possible:
bd81e77b 1699 u=1.49 s=0.52 cu=72.49 cs=10.64 scripts=270 tests=20865
d33b2eba 1700
bd81e77b
NC
1701 without
1702 u=1.35 s=0.47 cu=73.45 cs=11.43 scripts=270 tests=20865
1c846c1f 1703
013abb9b
NC
1704 If you wish to remove the following if statement, so that this routine
1705 (and its callers) always return UVs, please benchmark to see what the
1706 effect is. Modern CPUs may be different. Or may not :-)
bd81e77b
NC
1707 */
1708 if (u <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
1709 sv_setiv(sv, (IV)u);
1710 return;
1711 }
1712 sv_setiv(sv, 0);
1713 SvIsUV_on(sv);
1714 SvUV_set(sv, u);
1715}
d33b2eba 1716
bd81e77b
NC
1717/*
1718=for apidoc sv_setuv_mg
727879eb 1719
bd81e77b 1720Like C<sv_setuv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
9b94d1dd 1721
bd81e77b
NC
1722=cut
1723*/
5e2fc214 1724
bd81e77b 1725void
5aaab254 1726Perl_sv_setuv_mg(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const UV u)
bd81e77b 1727{
7918f24d
NC
1728 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETUV_MG;
1729
bd81e77b
NC
1730 sv_setuv(sv,u);
1731 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
1732}
5e2fc214 1733
954c1994 1734/*
bd81e77b 1735=for apidoc sv_setnv
954c1994 1736
bd81e77b 1737Copies a double into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
fbe13c60 1738Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<L</sv_setnv_mg>>.
954c1994
GS
1739
1740=cut
1741*/
1742
63f97190 1743void
5aaab254 1744Perl_sv_setnv(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const NV num)
79072805 1745{
7918f24d
NC
1746 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETNV;
1747
bd81e77b
NC
1748 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(sv);
1749 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
79072805 1750 case SVt_NULL:
79072805 1751 case SVt_IV:
bd81e77b 1752 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_NV);
79072805
LW
1753 break;
1754 case SVt_PV:
79072805 1755 case SVt_PVIV:
bd81e77b 1756 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
79072805 1757 break;
bd4b1eb5 1758
bd4b1eb5 1759 case SVt_PVGV:
6e592b3a
BM
1760 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
1761 break;
2165bd23 1762 /* FALLTHROUGH */
bd81e77b
NC
1763 case SVt_PVAV:
1764 case SVt_PVHV:
79072805 1765 case SVt_PVCV:
bd81e77b
NC
1766 case SVt_PVFM:
1767 case SVt_PVIO:
22e74366 1768 /* diag_listed_as: Can't coerce %s to %s in %s */
bd81e77b 1769 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't coerce %s to number in %s", sv_reftype(sv,0),
94bbb3f4 1770 OP_DESC(PL_op));
c9a0dcdc 1771 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
0103ca14 1772 break;
42d0e0b7 1773 default: NOOP;
2068cd4d 1774 }
bd81e77b
NC
1775 SvNV_set(sv, num);
1776 (void)SvNOK_only(sv); /* validate number */
1777 SvTAINT(sv);
79072805
LW
1778}
1779
645c22ef 1780/*
bd81e77b 1781=for apidoc sv_setnv_mg
645c22ef 1782
bd81e77b 1783Like C<sv_setnv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
645c22ef
DM
1784
1785=cut
1786*/
1787
bd81e77b 1788void
5aaab254 1789Perl_sv_setnv_mg(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const NV num)
79072805 1790{
7918f24d
NC
1791 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETNV_MG;
1792
bd81e77b
NC
1793 sv_setnv(sv,num);
1794 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
79072805
LW
1795}
1796
3f7602fa
TC
1797/* Return a cleaned-up, printable version of sv, for non-numeric, or
1798 * not incrementable warning display.
1799 * Originally part of S_not_a_number().
1800 * The return value may be != tmpbuf.
bd81e77b 1801 */
954c1994 1802
3f7602fa
TC
1803STATIC const char *
1804S_sv_display(pTHX_ SV *const sv, char *tmpbuf, STRLEN tmpbuf_size) {
1805 const char *pv;
94463019 1806
3f7602fa 1807 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_DISPLAY;
7918f24d 1808
94463019 1809 if (DO_UTF8(sv)) {
3f7602fa 1810 SV *dsv = newSVpvs_flags("", SVs_TEMP);
37b8cdd1 1811 pv = sv_uni_display(dsv, sv, 32, UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT);
94463019
JH
1812 } else {
1813 char *d = tmpbuf;
3f7602fa 1814 const char * const limit = tmpbuf + tmpbuf_size - 8;
94463019
JH
1815 /* each *s can expand to 4 chars + "...\0",
1816 i.e. need room for 8 chars */
ecdeb87c 1817
00b6aa41
AL
1818 const char *s = SvPVX_const(sv);
1819 const char * const end = s + SvCUR(sv);
1820 for ( ; s < end && d < limit; s++ ) {
94463019 1821 int ch = *s & 0xFF;
bd27cf70 1822 if (! isASCII(ch) && !isPRINT_LC(ch)) {
94463019
JH
1823 *d++ = 'M';
1824 *d++ = '-';
bd27cf70
KW
1825
1826 /* Map to ASCII "equivalent" of Latin1 */
1827 ch = LATIN1_TO_NATIVE(NATIVE_TO_LATIN1(ch) & 127);
94463019
JH
1828 }
1829 if (ch == '\n') {
1830 *d++ = '\\';
1831 *d++ = 'n';
1832 }
1833 else if (ch == '\r') {
1834 *d++ = '\\';
1835 *d++ = 'r';
1836 }
1837 else if (ch == '\f') {
1838 *d++ = '\\';
1839 *d++ = 'f';
1840 }
1841 else if (ch == '\\') {
1842 *d++ = '\\';
1843 *d++ = '\\';
1844 }
1845 else if (ch == '\0') {
1846 *d++ = '\\';
1847 *d++ = '0';
1848 }
1849 else if (isPRINT_LC(ch))
1850 *d++ = ch;
1851 else {
1852 *d++ = '^';
1853 *d++ = toCTRL(ch);
1854 }
1855 }
1856 if (s < end) {
1857 *d++ = '.';
1858 *d++ = '.';
1859 *d++ = '.';
1860 }
1861 *d = '\0';
1862 pv = tmpbuf;
a0d0e21e 1863 }
a0d0e21e 1864
3f7602fa
TC
1865 return pv;
1866}
1867
1868/* Print an "isn't numeric" warning, using a cleaned-up,
1869 * printable version of the offending string
1870 */
1871
1872STATIC void
1873S_not_a_number(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
1874{
3f7602fa
TC
1875 char tmpbuf[64];
1876 const char *pv;
1877
1878 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_NOT_A_NUMBER;
1879
1880 pv = sv_display(sv, tmpbuf, sizeof(tmpbuf));
1881
533c011a 1882 if (PL_op)
9014280d 1883 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NUMERIC),
734856a2 1884 /* diag_listed_as: Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s */
94463019
JH
1885 "Argument \"%s\" isn't numeric in %s", pv,
1886 OP_DESC(PL_op));
a0d0e21e 1887 else
9014280d 1888 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NUMERIC),
734856a2 1889 /* diag_listed_as: Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s */
94463019 1890 "Argument \"%s\" isn't numeric", pv);
a0d0e21e
LW
1891}
1892
3f7602fa
TC
1893STATIC void
1894S_not_incrementable(pTHX_ SV *const sv) {
3f7602fa
TC
1895 char tmpbuf[64];
1896 const char *pv;
1897
1898 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_NOT_INCREMENTABLE;
1899
1900 pv = sv_display(sv, tmpbuf, sizeof(tmpbuf));
1901
1902 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NUMERIC),
1903 "Argument \"%s\" treated as 0 in increment (++)", pv);
1904}
1905
c2988b20
NC
1906/*
1907=for apidoc looks_like_number
1908
645c22ef
DM
1909Test if the content of an SV looks like a number (or is a number).
1910C<Inf> and C<Infinity> are treated as numbers (so will not issue a
796b6530 1911non-numeric warning), even if your C<atof()> doesn't grok them. Get-magic is
f52e41ad 1912ignored.
c2988b20
NC
1913
1914=cut
1915*/
1916
1917I32
aad570aa 1918Perl_looks_like_number(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
c2988b20 1919{
eb578fdb 1920 const char *sbegin;
c2988b20 1921 STRLEN len;
ea2485eb 1922 int numtype;
c2988b20 1923
7918f24d
NC
1924 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_LOOKS_LIKE_NUMBER;
1925
f52e41ad
FC
1926 if (SvPOK(sv) || SvPOKp(sv)) {
1927 sbegin = SvPV_nomg_const(sv, len);
c2988b20 1928 }
c2988b20 1929 else
e0ab1c0e 1930 return SvFLAGS(sv) & (SVf_NOK|SVp_NOK|SVf_IOK|SVp_IOK);
ea2485eb
JH
1931 numtype = grok_number(sbegin, len, NULL);
1932 return ((numtype & IS_NUMBER_TRAILING)) ? 0 : numtype;
c2988b20 1933}
25da4f38 1934
19f6321d
NC
1935STATIC bool
1936S_glob_2number(pTHX_ GV * const gv)
180488f8 1937{
7918f24d
NC
1938 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_GLOB_2NUMBER;
1939
675c862f
AL
1940 /* We know that all GVs stringify to something that is not-a-number,
1941 so no need to test that. */
1942 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
8e629ff4
FC
1943 {
1944 SV *const buffer = sv_newmortal();
1945 gv_efullname3(buffer, gv, "*");
675c862f 1946 not_a_number(buffer);
8e629ff4 1947 }
675c862f
AL
1948 /* We just want something true to return, so that S_sv_2iuv_common
1949 can tail call us and return true. */
19f6321d 1950 return TRUE;
675c862f
AL
1951}
1952
25da4f38
IZ
1953/* Actually, ISO C leaves conversion of UV to IV undefined, but
1954 until proven guilty, assume that things are not that bad... */
1955
645c22ef
DM
1956/*
1957 NV_PRESERVES_UV:
1958
1959 As 64 bit platforms often have an NV that doesn't preserve all bits of
28e5dec8
JH
1960 an IV (an assumption perl has been based on to date) it becomes necessary
1961 to remove the assumption that the NV always carries enough precision to
1962 recreate the IV whenever needed, and that the NV is the canonical form.
1963 Instead, IV/UV and NV need to be given equal rights. So as to not lose
645c22ef 1964 precision as a side effect of conversion (which would lead to insanity
28e5dec8 1965 and the dragon(s) in t/op/numconvert.t getting very angry) the intent is
8a4a3196
KW
1966 1) to distinguish between IV/UV/NV slots that have a valid conversion cached
1967 where precision was lost, and IV/UV/NV slots that have a valid conversion
1968 which has lost no precision
645c22ef 1969 2) to ensure that if a numeric conversion to one form is requested that
28e5dec8
JH
1970 would lose precision, the precise conversion (or differently
1971 imprecise conversion) is also performed and cached, to prevent
1972 requests for different numeric formats on the same SV causing
1973 lossy conversion chains. (lossless conversion chains are perfectly
1974 acceptable (still))
1975
1976
1977 flags are used:
1978 SvIOKp is true if the IV slot contains a valid value
1979 SvIOK is true only if the IV value is accurate (UV if SvIOK_UV true)
1980 SvNOKp is true if the NV slot contains a valid value
1981 SvNOK is true only if the NV value is accurate
1982
1983 so
645c22ef 1984 while converting from PV to NV, check to see if converting that NV to an
28e5dec8
JH
1985 IV(or UV) would lose accuracy over a direct conversion from PV to
1986 IV(or UV). If it would, cache both conversions, return NV, but mark
1987 SV as IOK NOKp (ie not NOK).
1988
645c22ef 1989 While converting from PV to IV, check to see if converting that IV to an
28e5dec8
JH
1990 NV would lose accuracy over a direct conversion from PV to NV. If it
1991 would, cache both conversions, flag similarly.
1992
1993 Before, the SV value "3.2" could become NV=3.2 IV=3 NOK, IOK quite
1994 correctly because if IV & NV were set NV *always* overruled.
645c22ef
DM
1995 Now, "3.2" will become NV=3.2 IV=3 NOK, IOKp, because the flag's meaning
1996 changes - now IV and NV together means that the two are interchangeable:
28e5dec8 1997 SvIVX == (IV) SvNVX && SvNVX == (NV) SvIVX;
d460ef45 1998
645c22ef
DM
1999 The benefit of this is that operations such as pp_add know that if
2000 SvIOK is true for both left and right operands, then integer addition
2001 can be used instead of floating point (for cases where the result won't
2002 overflow). Before, floating point was always used, which could lead to
28e5dec8
JH
2003 loss of precision compared with integer addition.
2004
2005 * making IV and NV equal status should make maths accurate on 64 bit
2006 platforms
2007 * may speed up maths somewhat if pp_add and friends start to use
645c22ef 2008 integers when possible instead of fp. (Hopefully the overhead in
28e5dec8
JH
2009 looking for SvIOK and checking for overflow will not outweigh the
2010 fp to integer speedup)
2011 * will slow down integer operations (callers of SvIV) on "inaccurate"
2012 values, as the change from SvIOK to SvIOKp will cause a call into
2013 sv_2iv each time rather than a macro access direct to the IV slot
2014 * should speed up number->string conversion on integers as IV is
645c22ef 2015 favoured when IV and NV are equally accurate
28e5dec8
JH
2016
2017 ####################################################################
645c22ef
DM
2018 You had better be using SvIOK_notUV if you want an IV for arithmetic:
2019 SvIOK is true if (IV or UV), so you might be getting (IV)SvUV.
2020 On the other hand, SvUOK is true iff UV.
28e5dec8
JH
2021 ####################################################################
2022
645c22ef 2023 Your mileage will vary depending your CPU's relative fp to integer
28e5dec8
JH
2024 performance ratio.
2025*/
2026
2027#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
645c22ef
DM
2028# define IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_IV 1
2029# define IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_UV 2
2030# define IS_NUMBER_IV_AND_UV 2
2031# define IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_IV 4
2032# define IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV 5
2033
2034/* sv_2iuv_non_preserve(): private routine for use by sv_2iv() and sv_2uv() */
28e5dec8
JH
2035
2036/* For sv_2nv these three cases are "SvNOK and don't bother casting" */
2037STATIC int
5aaab254 2038S_sv_2iuv_non_preserve(pTHX_ SV *const sv
47031da6
NC
2039# ifdef DEBUGGING
2040 , I32 numtype
2041# endif
2042 )
28e5dec8 2043{
7918f24d 2044 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2IUV_NON_PRESERVE;
23491f1d 2045 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
7918f24d 2046
147e3846 2047 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,"sv_2iuv_non '%s', IV=0x%" UVxf " NV=%" NVgf " inttype=%" UVXf "\n", SvPVX_const(sv), SvIVX(sv), SvNVX(sv), (UV)numtype));
28e5dec8
JH
2048 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MIN) {
2049 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2050 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
45977657 2051 SvIV_set(sv, IV_MIN);
28e5dec8
JH
2052 return IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_IV;
2053 }
2054 if (SvNVX(sv) > (NV)UV_MAX) {
2055 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2056 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
2057 SvIsUV_on(sv);
607fa7f2 2058 SvUV_set(sv, UV_MAX);
28e5dec8
JH
2059 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV;
2060 }
c2988b20
NC
2061 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2062 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
2063 /* Can't use strtol etc to convert this string. (See truth table in
2064 sv_2iv */
2065 if (SvNVX(sv) <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 2066 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
659c4b96 2067 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
c2988b20
NC
2068 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Integer is precise. NOK, IOK */
2069 } else {
2070 /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
2071 }
2072 return SvNVX(sv) < 0 ? IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_UV : IS_NUMBER_IV_AND_UV;
2073 }
2074 SvIsUV_on(sv);
607fa7f2 2075 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
659c4b96 2076 if ((NV)(SvUVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
c2988b20
NC
2077 if (SvUVX(sv) == UV_MAX) {
2078 /* As we know that NVs don't preserve UVs, UV_MAX cannot
2079 possibly be preserved by NV. Hence, it must be overflow.
2080 NOK, IOKp */
2081 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV;
2082 }
2083 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Integer is precise. NOK, UOK */
2084 } else {
2085 /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
28e5dec8 2086 }
c2988b20 2087 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_IV;
28e5dec8 2088}
645c22ef
DM
2089#endif /* !NV_PRESERVES_UV*/
2090
a13f4dff 2091/* If numtype is infnan, set the NV of the sv accordingly.
5564cd7f 2092 * If numtype is anything else, try setting the NV using Atof(PV). */
3c81f0b3
DD
2093#ifdef USING_MSVC6
2094# pragma warning(push)
2095# pragma warning(disable:4756;disable:4056)
2096#endif
a13f4dff 2097static void
3823048b 2098S_sv_setnv(pTHX_ SV* sv, int numtype)
a13f4dff 2099{
07925c5e 2100 bool pok = cBOOL(SvPOK(sv));
5564cd7f 2101 bool nok = FALSE;
a7157111 2102#ifdef NV_INF
a13f4dff
JH
2103 if ((numtype & IS_NUMBER_INFINITY)) {
2104 SvNV_set(sv, (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) ? -NV_INF : NV_INF);
5564cd7f 2105 nok = TRUE;
a7157111
JH
2106 } else
2107#endif
2108#ifdef NV_NAN
2109 if ((numtype & IS_NUMBER_NAN)) {
3823048b 2110 SvNV_set(sv, NV_NAN);
d48bd569 2111 nok = TRUE;
a7157111
JH
2112 } else
2113#endif
2114 if (pok) {
a13f4dff 2115 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
d48bd569
JH
2116 /* Purposefully no true nok here, since we don't want to blow
2117 * away the possible IOK/UV of an existing sv. */
2118 }
5564cd7f 2119 if (nok) {
d48bd569 2120 SvNOK_only(sv); /* No IV or UV please, this is pure infnan. */
5564cd7f
JH
2121 if (pok)
2122 SvPOK_on(sv); /* PV is okay, though. */
2123 }
a13f4dff 2124}
3c81f0b3
DD
2125#ifdef USING_MSVC6
2126# pragma warning(pop)
2127#endif
a13f4dff 2128
af359546 2129STATIC bool
7918f24d
NC
2130S_sv_2iuv_common(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
2131{
7918f24d
NC
2132 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2IUV_COMMON;
2133
af359546 2134 if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
28e5dec8
JH
2135 /* erm. not sure. *should* never get NOKp (without NOK) from sv_2nv
2136 * without also getting a cached IV/UV from it at the same time
2137 * (ie PV->NV conversion should detect loss of accuracy and cache
af359546
NC
2138 * IV or UV at same time to avoid this. */
2139 /* IV-over-UV optimisation - choose to cache IV if possible */
25da4f38
IZ
2140
2141 if (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_NV)
2142 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
2143
28e5dec8
JH
2144 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv); /* Must do this first, to clear any SvOOK */
2145 /* < not <= as for NV doesn't preserve UV, ((NV)IV_MAX+1) will almost
2146 certainly cast into the IV range at IV_MAX, whereas the correct
2147 answer is the UV IV_MAX +1. Hence < ensures that dodgy boundary
2148 cases go to UV */
e91de695
JH
2149#if defined(NAN_COMPARE_BROKEN) && defined(Perl_isnan)
2150 if (Perl_isnan(SvNVX(sv))) {
2151 SvUV_set(sv, 0);
2152 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2153 return FALSE;
2154 }
2155#endif
28e5dec8 2156 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
45977657 2157 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
659c4b96 2158 if (SvNVX(sv) == (NV) SvIVX(sv)
28e5dec8 2159#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
53e2bfb7 2160 && SvIVX(sv) != IV_MIN /* avoid negating IV_MIN below */
28e5dec8
JH
2161 && (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
2162 (UV)(SvIVX(sv) > 0 ? SvIVX(sv) : -SvIVX(sv)))
2163 /* Don't flag it as "accurately an integer" if the number
2164 came from a (by definition imprecise) NV operation, and
2165 we're outside the range of NV integer precision */
2166#endif
2167 ) {
a43d94f2
NC
2168 if (SvNOK(sv))
2169 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Can this go wrong with rounding? NWC */
2170 else {
2171 /* scalar has trailing garbage, eg "42a" */
2172 }
28e5dec8 2173 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
147e3846 2174 "0x%" UVxf " iv(%" NVgf " => %" IVdf ") (precise)\n",
28e5dec8
JH
2175 PTR2UV(sv),
2176 SvNVX(sv),
2177 SvIVX(sv)));
2178
2179 } else {
2180 /* IV not precise. No need to convert from PV, as NV
2181 conversion would already have cached IV if it detected
2182 that PV->IV would be better than PV->NV->IV
2183 flags already correct - don't set public IOK. */
2184 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
147e3846 2185 "0x%" UVxf " iv(%" NVgf " => %" IVdf ") (imprecise)\n",
28e5dec8
JH
2186 PTR2UV(sv),
2187 SvNVX(sv),
2188 SvIVX(sv)));
2189 }
2190 /* Can the above go wrong if SvIVX == IV_MIN and SvNVX < IV_MIN,
2191 but the cast (NV)IV_MIN rounds to a the value less (more
2192 negative) than IV_MIN which happens to be equal to SvNVX ??
2193 Analogous to 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF rounding up to NV (2**64) and
2194 NV rounding back to 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF, so UVX == UV(NVX) and
2195 (NV)UVX == NVX are both true, but the values differ. :-(
2196 Hopefully for 2s complement IV_MIN is something like
2197 0x8000000000000000 which will be exact. NWC */
d460ef45 2198 }
25da4f38 2199 else {
607fa7f2 2200 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
28e5dec8 2201 if (
659c4b96 2202 (SvNVX(sv) == (NV) SvUVX(sv))
28e5dec8
JH
2203#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2204 /* Make sure it's not 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF */
2205 /*&& (SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX) irrelevant with code below */
2206 && (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) > SvUVX(sv))
2207 /* Don't flag it as "accurately an integer" if the number
2208 came from a (by definition imprecise) NV operation, and
2209 we're outside the range of NV integer precision */
2210#endif
a43d94f2 2211 && SvNOK(sv)
28e5dec8
JH
2212 )
2213 SvIOK_on(sv);
25da4f38 2214 SvIsUV_on(sv);
1c846c1f 2215 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
147e3846 2216 "0x%" UVxf " 2iv(%" UVuf " => %" IVdf ") (as unsigned)\n",
56431972 2217 PTR2UV(sv),
57def98f
JH
2218 SvUVX(sv),
2219 SvUVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2220 }
748a9306 2221 }
cd84013a 2222 else if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
c2988b20 2223 UV value;
80e5abf2
DM
2224 int numtype;
2225 const char *s = SvPVX_const(sv);
2226 const STRLEN cur = SvCUR(sv);
2227
2228 /* short-cut for a single digit string like "1" */
2229
2230 if (cur == 1) {
2231 char c = *s;
2232 if (isDIGIT(c)) {
2233 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVIV)
2234 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
2235 (void)SvIOK_on(sv);
2236 SvIV_set(sv, (IV)(c - '0'));
2237 return FALSE;
2238 }
2239 }
2240
2241 numtype = grok_number(s, cur, &value);
af359546 2242 /* We want to avoid a possible problem when we cache an IV/ a UV which
25da4f38 2243 may be later translated to an NV, and the resulting NV is not
c2988b20
NC
2244 the same as the direct translation of the initial string
2245 (eg 123.456 can shortcut to the IV 123 with atol(), but we must
2246 be careful to ensure that the value with the .456 is around if the
2247 NV value is requested in the future).
1c846c1f 2248
af359546 2249 This means that if we cache such an IV/a UV, we need to cache the
25da4f38 2250 NV as well. Moreover, we trade speed for space, and do not
28e5dec8 2251 cache the NV if we are sure it's not needed.
25da4f38 2252 */
16b7a9a4 2253
c2988b20
NC
2254 /* SVt_PVNV is one higher than SVt_PVIV, hence this order */
2255 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2256 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
5e045b90 2257 /* It's definitely an integer, only upgrade to PVIV */
28e5dec8
JH
2258 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVIV)
2259 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
f7bbb42a 2260 (void)SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2261 } else if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2262 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
28e5dec8 2263
a13f4dff 2264 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_INFINITY | IS_NUMBER_NAN))) {
75a57a38 2265 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC) && ((numtype & IS_NUMBER_TRAILING)))
6b322424 2266 not_a_number(sv);
3823048b 2267 S_sv_setnv(aTHX_ sv, numtype);
a13f4dff
JH
2268 return FALSE;
2269 }
2270
f2524eef 2271 /* If NVs preserve UVs then we only use the UV value if we know that
c2988b20
NC
2272 we aren't going to call atof() below. If NVs don't preserve UVs
2273 then the value returned may have more precision than atof() will
2274 return, even though value isn't perfectly accurate. */
2275 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV
2276#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2277 | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT
2278#endif
2279 )) == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2280 /* This won't turn off the public IOK flag if it was set above */
2281 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2282
2283 if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG)) {
2284 /* positive */;
2285 if (value <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 2286 SvIV_set(sv, (IV)value);
c2988b20 2287 } else {
af359546 2288 /* it didn't overflow, and it was positive. */
607fa7f2 2289 SvUV_set(sv, value);
c2988b20
NC
2290 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2291 }
2292 } else {
2293 /* 2s complement assumption */
2294 if (value <= (UV)IV_MIN) {
53e2bfb7
DM
2295 SvIV_set(sv, value == (UV)IV_MIN
2296 ? IV_MIN : -(IV)value);
c2988b20
NC
2297 } else {
2298 /* Too negative for an IV. This is a double upgrade, but
d1be9408 2299 I'm assuming it will be rare. */
c2988b20
NC
2300 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2301 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
2302 SvNOK_on(sv);
2303 SvIOK_off(sv);
2304 SvIOKp_on(sv);
9d6ce603 2305 SvNV_set(sv, -(NV)value);
45977657 2306 SvIV_set(sv, IV_MIN);
c2988b20
NC
2307 }
2308 }
2309 }
2310 /* For !NV_PRESERVES_UV and IS_NUMBER_IN_UV and IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT we
2311 will be in the previous block to set the IV slot, and the next
2312 block to set the NV slot. So no else here. */
2313
2314 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2315 != IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2316 /* It wasn't an (integer that doesn't overflow the UV). */
3823048b 2317 S_sv_setnv(aTHX_ sv, numtype);
28e5dec8 2318
c2988b20
NC
2319 if (! numtype && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2320 not_a_number(sv);
28e5dec8 2321
147e3846 2322 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%" UVxf " 2iv(%" NVgf ")\n",
c2988b20 2323 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv)));
28e5dec8 2324
28e5dec8 2325#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
af359546
NC
2326 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2327 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
e91de695
JH
2328#if defined(NAN_COMPARE_BROKEN) && defined(Perl_isnan)
2329 if (Perl_isnan(SvNVX(sv))) {
2330 SvUV_set(sv, 0);
2331 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2332 return FALSE;
2333 }
2334#endif
af359546
NC
2335 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
2336 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
2337 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
2338 SvIOK_on(sv);
2339 } else {
6f207bd3 2340 NOOP; /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
af359546
NC
2341 }
2342 /* UV will not work better than IV */
2343 } else {
2344 if (SvNVX(sv) > (NV)UV_MAX) {
2345 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2346 /* Integer is inaccurate. NOK, IOKp, is UV */
2347 SvUV_set(sv, UV_MAX);
af359546
NC
2348 } else {
2349 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
2350 /* 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF not an issue in here, NVs
2351 NV preservse UV so can do correct comparison. */
2352 if ((NV)(SvUVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
2353 SvIOK_on(sv);
af359546 2354 } else {
6f207bd3 2355 NOOP; /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp, is UV */
af359546
NC
2356 }
2357 }
4b0c9573 2358 SvIsUV_on(sv);
af359546 2359 }
28e5dec8 2360#else /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
c2988b20
NC
2361 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2362 == (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT)) {
af359546 2363 /* The IV/UV slot will have been set from value returned by
c2988b20
NC
2364 grok_number above. The NV slot has just been set using
2365 Atof. */
560b0c46 2366 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2367 assert (SvIOKp(sv));
2368 } else {
2369 if (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
2370 U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))) {
2371 /* Small enough to preserve all bits. */
2372 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2373 SvNOK_on(sv);
45977657 2374 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
659c4b96 2375 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv))
c2988b20
NC
2376 SvIOK_on(sv);
2377 /* Assumption: first non-preserved integer is < IV_MAX,
2378 this NV is in the preserved range, therefore: */
2379 if (!(U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))
2380 < (UV)IV_MAX)) {
147e3846 2381 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "sv_2iv assumed (U_V(fabs((double)SvNVX(sv))) < (UV)IV_MAX) but SvNVX(sv)=%" NVgf " U_V is 0x%" UVxf ", IV_MAX is 0x%" UVxf "\n", SvNVX(sv), U_V(SvNVX(sv)), (UV)IV_MAX);
c2988b20
NC
2382 }
2383 } else {
2384 /* IN_UV NOT_INT
2385 0 0 already failed to read UV.
2386 0 1 already failed to read UV.
2387 1 0 you won't get here in this case. IV/UV
2388 slot set, public IOK, Atof() unneeded.
2389 1 1 already read UV.
2390 so there's no point in sv_2iuv_non_preserve() attempting
2391 to use atol, strtol, strtoul etc. */
47031da6 2392# ifdef DEBUGGING
40a17c4c 2393 sv_2iuv_non_preserve (sv, numtype);
47031da6
NC
2394# else
2395 sv_2iuv_non_preserve (sv);
2396# endif
c2988b20
NC
2397 }
2398 }
28e5dec8 2399#endif /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
a43d94f2
NC
2400 /* It might be more code efficient to go through the entire logic above
2401 and conditionally set with SvIOKp_on() rather than SvIOK(), but it
2402 gets complex and potentially buggy, so more programmer efficient
2403 to do it this way, by turning off the public flags: */
2404 if (!numtype)
2405 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~(SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK);
25da4f38 2406 }
af359546
NC
2407 }
2408 else {
675c862f 2409 if (isGV_with_GP(sv))
159b6efe 2410 return glob_2number(MUTABLE_GV(sv));
180488f8 2411
4f62cd62 2412 if (!PL_localizing && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
af359546 2413 report_uninit(sv);
25da4f38
IZ
2414 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_IV)
2415 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
2416 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_IV);
af359546
NC
2417 /* Return 0 from the caller. */
2418 return TRUE;
2419 }
2420 return FALSE;
2421}
2422
2423/*
2424=for apidoc sv_2iv_flags
2425
2426Return the integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string
c5608a1f 2427conversion. If C<flags> has the C<SV_GMAGIC> bit set, does an C<mg_get()> first.
af359546
NC
2428Normally used via the C<SvIV(sv)> and C<SvIVx(sv)> macros.
2429
2430=cut
2431*/
2432
2433IV
5aaab254 2434Perl_sv_2iv_flags(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
af359546 2435{
1061065f 2436 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2IV_FLAGS;
4bac9ae4 2437
217f6fa3
FC
2438 assert (SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV && SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV
2439 && SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVFM);
2440
4bac9ae4
CS
2441 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) && (flags & SV_GMAGIC))
2442 mg_get(sv);
2443
2444 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2445 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2446 SV * tmpstr;
2447 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2448 return 0;
2449 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
2450 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2451 return SvIV(tmpstr);
2452 }
2453 }
2454 return PTR2IV(SvRV(sv));
2455 }
2456
8d919b0a 2457 if (SvVALID(sv) || isREGEXP(sv)) {
4e8879f3
DM
2458 /* FBMs use the space for SvIVX and SvNVX for other purposes, so
2459 must not let them cache IVs.
2b2b6d6d
NC
2460 In practice they are extremely unlikely to actually get anywhere
2461 accessible by user Perl code - the only way that I'm aware of is when
2462 a constant subroutine which is used as the second argument to index.
cd84013a
FC
2463
2464 Regexps have no SvIVX and SvNVX fields.
2b2b6d6d 2465 */
df6b4bd5 2466 assert(SvPOKp(sv));
e20b6c3b 2467 {
71c558c3 2468 UV value;
8d919b0a
FC
2469 const char * const ptr =
2470 isREGEXP(sv) ? RX_WRAPPED((REGEXP*)sv) : SvPVX_const(sv);
e91de695
JH
2471 const int numtype
2472 = grok_number(ptr, SvCUR(sv), &value);
71c558c3
NC
2473
2474 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2475 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2476 /* It's definitely an integer */
2477 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) {
2478 if (value < (UV)IV_MIN)
2479 return -(IV)value;
2480 } else {
2481 if (value < (UV)IV_MAX)
2482 return (IV)value;
2483 }
2484 }
058b8ae2 2485
e91de695
JH
2486 /* Quite wrong but no good choices. */
2487 if ((numtype & IS_NUMBER_INFINITY)) {
2488 return (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) ? IV_MIN : IV_MAX;
2489 } else if ((numtype & IS_NUMBER_NAN)) {
2490 return 0; /* So wrong. */
2491 }
2492
71c558c3
NC
2493 if (!numtype) {
2494 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2495 not_a_number(sv);
2496 }
8d919b0a 2497 return I_V(Atof(ptr));
e20b6c3b 2498 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2499 }
2500
2501 if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
af359546
NC
2502 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
2503 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
2504 report_uninit(sv);
2505 return 0;
2506 }
2507 }
4bac9ae4 2508
af359546
NC
2509 if (!SvIOKp(sv)) {
2510 if (S_sv_2iuv_common(aTHX_ sv))
2511 return 0;
79072805 2512 }
4bac9ae4 2513
147e3846 2514 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%" UVxf " 2iv(%" IVdf ")\n",
1d7c1841 2515 PTR2UV(sv),SvIVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2516 return SvIsUV(sv) ? (IV)SvUVX(sv) : SvIVX(sv);
79072805
LW
2517}
2518
645c22ef 2519/*
891f9566 2520=for apidoc sv_2uv_flags
645c22ef
DM
2521
2522Return the unsigned integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string
c5608a1f 2523conversion. If C<flags> has the C<SV_GMAGIC> bit set, does an C<mg_get()> first.
891f9566 2524Normally used via the C<SvUV(sv)> and C<SvUVx(sv)> macros.
645c22ef
DM
2525
2526=cut
2527*/
2528
ff68c719 2529UV
5aaab254 2530Perl_sv_2uv_flags(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
ff68c719 2531{
1061065f 2532 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2UV_FLAGS;
4bac9ae4
CS
2533
2534 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) && (flags & SV_GMAGIC))
2535 mg_get(sv);
2536
2537 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2538 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2539 SV *tmpstr;
2540 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2541 return 0;
2542 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
2543 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2544 return SvUV(tmpstr);
2545 }
2546 }
2547 return PTR2UV(SvRV(sv));
2548 }
2549
8d919b0a 2550 if (SvVALID(sv) || isREGEXP(sv)) {
2b2b6d6d 2551 /* FBMs use the space for SvIVX and SvNVX for other purposes, and use
cd84013a
FC
2552 the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must not let them cache IVs.
2553 Regexps have no SvIVX and SvNVX fields. */
df6b4bd5 2554 assert(SvPOKp(sv));
e20b6c3b 2555 {
71c558c3 2556 UV value;
8d919b0a
FC
2557 const char * const ptr =
2558 isREGEXP(sv) ? RX_WRAPPED((REGEXP*)sv) : SvPVX_const(sv);
e91de695
JH
2559 const int numtype
2560 = grok_number(ptr, SvCUR(sv), &value);
71c558c3
NC
2561
2562 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2563 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2564 /* It's definitely an integer */
2565 if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG))
2566 return value;
2567 }
058b8ae2 2568
e91de695
JH
2569 /* Quite wrong but no good choices. */
2570 if ((numtype & IS_NUMBER_INFINITY)) {
2571 return UV_MAX; /* So wrong. */
2572 } else if ((numtype & IS_NUMBER_NAN)) {
2573 return 0; /* So wrong. */
2574 }
2575
71c558c3
NC
2576 if (!numtype) {
2577 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2578 not_a_number(sv);
2579 }
8d919b0a 2580 return U_V(Atof(ptr));
e20b6c3b 2581 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2582 }
2583
2584 if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
0336b60e 2585 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
0336b60e 2586 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2587 report_uninit(sv);
ff68c719
PP
2588 return 0;
2589 }
2590 }
4bac9ae4 2591
af359546
NC
2592 if (!SvIOKp(sv)) {
2593 if (S_sv_2iuv_common(aTHX_ sv))
2594 return 0;
ff68c719 2595 }
25da4f38 2596
147e3846 2597 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%" UVxf " 2uv(%" UVuf ")\n",
1d7c1841 2598 PTR2UV(sv),SvUVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2599 return SvIsUV(sv) ? SvUVX(sv) : (UV)SvIVX(sv);
ff68c719
PP
2600}
2601
645c22ef 2602/*
196007d1 2603=for apidoc sv_2nv_flags
645c22ef
DM
2604
2605Return the num value of an SV, doing any necessary string or integer
c5608a1f 2606conversion. If C<flags> has the C<SV_GMAGIC> bit set, does an C<mg_get()> first.
39d5de13 2607Normally used via the C<SvNV(sv)> and C<SvNVx(sv)> macros.
645c22ef
DM
2608
2609=cut
2610*/
2611
65202027 2612NV
5aaab254 2613Perl_sv_2nv_flags(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
79072805 2614{
1061065f
DD
2615 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2NV_FLAGS;
2616
217f6fa3
FC
2617 assert (SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV && SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV
2618 && SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVFM);
8d919b0a 2619 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) || SvVALID(sv) || isREGEXP(sv)) {
2b2b6d6d 2620 /* FBMs use the space for SvIVX and SvNVX for other purposes, and use
cd84013a
FC
2621 the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must not let them cache NVs.
2622 Regexps have no SvIVX and SvNVX fields. */
8d919b0a 2623 const char *ptr;
39d5de13
DM
2624 if (flags & SV_GMAGIC)
2625 mg_get(sv);
463ee0b2
LW
2626 if (SvNOKp(sv))
2627 return SvNVX(sv);
cd84013a 2628 if (SvPOKp(sv) && !SvIOKp(sv)) {
8d919b0a 2629 ptr = SvPVX_const(sv);
041457d9 2630 if (!SvIOKp(sv) && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC) &&
8d919b0a 2631 !grok_number(ptr, SvCUR(sv), NULL))
a0d0e21e 2632 not_a_number(sv);
8d919b0a 2633 return Atof(ptr);
a0d0e21e 2634 }
25da4f38 2635 if (SvIOKp(sv)) {
1c846c1f 2636 if (SvIsUV(sv))
65202027 2637 return (NV)SvUVX(sv);
25da4f38 2638 else
65202027 2639 return (NV)SvIVX(sv);
47a72cb8
NC
2640 }
2641 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2642 goto return_rok;
2643 }
2644 assert(SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG);
2645 /* This falls through to the report_uninit near the end of the
2646 function. */
2647 } else if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
a0d0e21e 2648 if (SvROK(sv)) {
47a72cb8 2649 return_rok:
deb46114 2650 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
aee036bb
DM
2651 SV *tmpstr;
2652 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2653 return 0;
31d632c3 2654 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
deb46114
NC
2655 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2656 return SvNV(tmpstr);
2657 }
2658 }
2659 return PTR2NV(SvRV(sv));
a0d0e21e 2660 }
0336b60e 2661 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
599cee73 2662 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2663 report_uninit(sv);
ed6116ce
LW
2664 return 0.0;
2665 }
79072805
LW
2666 }
2667 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_NV) {
7e25a7e9
NC
2668 /* The logic to use SVt_PVNV if necessary is in sv_upgrade. */
2669 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_NV);
097ee67d 2670 DEBUG_c({
688523a0
KW
2671 DECLARATION_FOR_LC_NUMERIC_MANIPULATION;
2672 STORE_LC_NUMERIC_SET_STANDARD();
1d7c1841 2673 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
147e3846 2674 "0x%" UVxf " num(%" NVgf ")\n",
1d7c1841 2675 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
688523a0 2676 RESTORE_LC_NUMERIC();
097ee67d 2677 });
79072805
LW
2678 }
2679 else if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2680 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
59d8ce62
NC
2681 if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
2682 return SvNVX(sv);
61604483 2683 }
59d8ce62 2684 if (SvIOKp(sv)) {
9d6ce603 2685 SvNV_set(sv, SvIsUV(sv) ? (NV)SvUVX(sv) : (NV)SvIVX(sv));
28e5dec8 2686#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
a43d94f2
NC
2687 if (SvIOK(sv))
2688 SvNOK_on(sv);
2689 else
2690 SvNOKp_on(sv);
28e5dec8
JH
2691#else
2692 /* Only set the public NV OK flag if this NV preserves the IV */
2693 /* Check it's not 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF */
a43d94f2
NC
2694 if (SvIOK(sv) &&
2695 SvIsUV(sv) ? ((SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX)&&(SvUVX(sv) == U_V(SvNVX(sv))))
28e5dec8
JH
2696 : (SvIVX(sv) == I_V(SvNVX(sv))))
2697 SvNOK_on(sv);
2698 else
2699 SvNOKp_on(sv);
2700#endif
93a17b20 2701 }
cd84013a 2702 else if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
c2988b20 2703 UV value;
3823048b 2704 const int numtype = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
041457d9 2705 if (!SvIOKp(sv) && !numtype && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
a0d0e21e 2706 not_a_number(sv);
28e5dec8 2707#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
c2988b20
NC
2708 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2709 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
5e045b90 2710 /* It's definitely an integer */
9d6ce603 2711 SvNV_set(sv, (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) ? -(NV)value : (NV)value);
66d83377 2712 } else {
3823048b 2713 S_sv_setnv(aTHX_ sv, numtype);
66d83377 2714 }
a43d94f2
NC
2715 if (numtype)
2716 SvNOK_on(sv);
2717 else
2718 SvNOKp_on(sv);
28e5dec8 2719#else
e91de695
JH
2720 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
2721 /* Only set the public NV OK flag if this NV preserves the value in
2722 the PV at least as well as an IV/UV would.
2723 Not sure how to do this 100% reliably. */
2724 /* if that shift count is out of range then Configure's test is
2725 wonky. We shouldn't be in here with NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS ==
2726 UV_BITS */
2727 if (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
2728 U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))) {
2729 SvNOK_on(sv); /* Definitely small enough to preserve all bits */
2730 } else if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_IN_UV)) {
2731 /* Can't use strtol etc to convert this string, so don't try.
2732 sv_2iv and sv_2uv will use the NV to convert, not the PV. */
c2988b20
NC
2733 SvNOK_on(sv);
2734 } else {
e91de695 2735 /* value has been set. It may not be precise. */
53e2bfb7 2736 if ((numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) && (value >= (UV)IV_MIN)) {
e91de695
JH
2737 /* 2s complement assumption for (UV)IV_MIN */
2738 SvNOK_on(sv); /* Integer is too negative. */
c2988b20 2739 } else {
e91de695
JH
2740 SvNOKp_on(sv);
2741 SvIOKp_on(sv);
6fa402ec 2742
e91de695 2743 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) {
02b08bbc
DM
2744 /* -IV_MIN is undefined, but we should never reach
2745 * this point with both IS_NUMBER_NEG and value ==
2746 * (UV)IV_MIN */
2747 assert(value != (UV)IV_MIN);
e91de695
JH
2748 SvIV_set(sv, -(IV)value);
2749 } else if (value <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
2750 SvIV_set(sv, (IV)value);
2751 } else {
2752 SvUV_set(sv, value);
2753 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2754 }
c2988b20 2755
e91de695
JH
2756 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT) {
2757 /* I believe that even if the original PV had decimals,
2758 they are lost beyond the limit of the FP precision.
2759 However, neither is canonical, so both only get p
2760 flags. NWC, 2000/11/25 */
2761 /* Both already have p flags, so do nothing */
2762 } else {
2763 const NV nv = SvNVX(sv);
2764 /* XXX should this spot have NAN_COMPARE_BROKEN, too? */
2765 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
2766 if (SvIVX(sv) == I_V(nv)) {
2767 SvNOK_on(sv);
2768 } else {
2769 /* It had no "." so it must be integer. */
2770 }
2771 SvIOK_on(sv);
0f83c5a4 2772 } else {
e91de695
JH
2773 /* between IV_MAX and NV(UV_MAX).
2774 Could be slightly > UV_MAX */
2775
2776 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT) {
2777 /* UV and NV both imprecise. */
0f83c5a4 2778 } else {
e91de695
JH
2779 const UV nv_as_uv = U_V(nv);
2780
2781 if (value == nv_as_uv && SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX) {
2782 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20 2783 }
e91de695 2784 SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2785 }
2786 }
2787 }
2788 }
0f83c5a4 2789 }
e91de695
JH
2790 /* It might be more code efficient to go through the entire logic above
2791 and conditionally set with SvNOKp_on() rather than SvNOK(), but it
2792 gets complex and potentially buggy, so more programmer efficient
2793 to do it this way, by turning off the public flags: */
2794 if (!numtype)
2795 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~(SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK);
28e5dec8 2796#endif /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
93a17b20 2797 }
79072805 2798 else {
e91de695
JH
2799 if (isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
2800 glob_2number(MUTABLE_GV(sv));
2801 return 0.0;
2802 }
180488f8 2803
e91de695
JH
2804 if (!PL_localizing && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
2805 report_uninit(sv);
2806 assert (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_NV);
2807 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
2808 /* XXX Ilya implies that this is a bug in callers that assume this
2809 and ideally should be fixed. */
2810 return 0.0;
79072805 2811 }
097ee67d 2812 DEBUG_c({
688523a0
KW
2813 DECLARATION_FOR_LC_NUMERIC_MANIPULATION;
2814 STORE_LC_NUMERIC_SET_STANDARD();
147e3846 2815 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%" UVxf " 2nv(%" NVgf ")\n",
e91de695 2816 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
688523a0 2817 RESTORE_LC_NUMERIC();
e91de695 2818 });
463ee0b2 2819 return SvNVX(sv);
79072805
LW
2820}
2821
800401ee
JH
2822/*
2823=for apidoc sv_2num
2824
2825Return an SV with the numeric value of the source SV, doing any necessary
d024d1a7
FC
2826reference or overload conversion. The caller is expected to have handled
2827get-magic already.
800401ee
JH
2828
2829=cut
2830*/
2831
2832SV *
5aaab254 2833Perl_sv_2num(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
800401ee 2834{
7918f24d
NC
2835 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2NUM;
2836
b9ee0594
RGS
2837 if (!SvROK(sv))
2838 return sv;
800401ee 2839 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
31d632c3 2840 SV * const tmpsv = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
a02ec77a 2841 TAINT_IF(tmpsv && SvTAINTED(tmpsv));
800401ee
JH
2842 if (tmpsv && (!SvROK(tmpsv) || (SvRV(tmpsv) != SvRV(sv))))
2843 return sv_2num(tmpsv);
2844 }
2845 return sv_2mortal(newSVuv(PTR2UV(SvRV(sv))));
2846}
2847
645c22ef
DM
2848/* uiv_2buf(): private routine for use by sv_2pv_flags(): print an IV or
2849 * UV as a string towards the end of buf, and return pointers to start and
2850 * end of it.
2851 *
2852 * We assume that buf is at least TYPE_CHARS(UV) long.
2853 */
2854
864dbfa3 2855static char *
5de3775c 2856S_uiv_2buf(char *const buf, const IV iv, UV uv, const int is_uv, char **const peob)
25da4f38 2857{
25da4f38 2858 char *ptr = buf + TYPE_CHARS(UV);
823a54a3 2859 char * const ebuf = ptr;
25da4f38 2860 int sign;
25da4f38 2861
7918f24d
NC
2862 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UIV_2BUF;
2863
25da4f38
IZ
2864 if (is_uv)
2865 sign = 0;
2866 else if (iv >= 0) {
2867 uv = iv;
2868 sign = 0;
2869 } else {
53e2bfb7 2870 uv = (iv == IV_MIN) ? (UV)iv : (UV)(-iv);
25da4f38
IZ
2871 sign = 1;
2872 }
2873 do {
eb160463 2874 *--ptr = '0' + (char)(uv % 10);
25da4f38
IZ
2875 } while (uv /= 10);
2876 if (sign)
2877 *--ptr = '-';
2878 *peob = ebuf;
2879 return ptr;
2880}
2881
bfaa02d5
JH
2882/* Helper for sv_2pv_flags and sv_vcatpvfn_flags. If the NV is an
2883 * infinity or a not-a-number, writes the appropriate strings to the
2884 * buffer, including a zero byte. On success returns the written length,
3bde2d43
JH
2885 * excluding the zero byte, on failure (not an infinity, not a nan)
2886 * returns zero, assert-fails on maxlen being too short.
3823048b
JH
2887 *
2888 * XXX for "Inf", "-Inf", and "NaN", we could have three read-only
2889 * shared string constants we point to, instead of generating a new
2890 * string for each instance. */
bfaa02d5 2891STATIC size_t
3823048b 2892S_infnan_2pv(NV nv, char* buffer, size_t maxlen, char plus) {
3bde2d43 2893 char* s = buffer;
bfaa02d5 2894 assert(maxlen >= 4);
3bde2d43
JH
2895 if (Perl_isinf(nv)) {
2896 if (nv < 0) {
2897 if (maxlen < 5) /* "-Inf\0" */
2898 return 0;
2899 *s++ = '-';
2900 } else if (plus) {
2901 *s++ = '+';
6e915616 2902 }
3bde2d43
JH
2903 *s++ = 'I';
2904 *s++ = 'n';
2905 *s++ = 'f';
2906 }
2907 else if (Perl_isnan(nv)) {
2908 *s++ = 'N';
2909 *s++ = 'a';
2910 *s++ = 'N';
2911 /* XXX optionally output the payload mantissa bits as
2912 * "(unsigned)" (to match the nan("...") C99 function,
2913 * or maybe as "(0xhhh...)" would make more sense...
2914 * provide a format string so that the user can decide?
2915 * NOTE: would affect the maxlen and assert() logic.*/
2916 }
2917 else {
2918 return 0;
bfaa02d5 2919 }
3bde2d43 2920 assert((s == buffer + 3) || (s == buffer + 4));
defe49c8
AL
2921 *s = 0;
2922 return s - buffer;
bfaa02d5
JH
2923}
2924
2925/*
2926=for apidoc sv_2pv_flags
2927
796b6530 2928Returns a pointer to the string value of an SV, and sets C<*lp> to its length.
c5608a1f 2929If flags has the C<SV_GMAGIC> bit set, does an C<mg_get()> first. Coerces C<sv> to a
bfaa02d5
JH
2930string if necessary. Normally invoked via the C<SvPV_flags> macro.
2931C<sv_2pv()> and C<sv_2pv_nomg> usually end up here too.
2932
2933=cut
2934*/
2935
2936char *
2937Perl_sv_2pv_flags(pTHX_ SV *const sv, STRLEN *const lp, const I32 flags)
2938{
2939 char *s;
2940
2941 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2PV_FLAGS;
2942
2943 assert (SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV && SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV
2944 && SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVFM);
2945 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) && (flags & SV_GMAGIC))
2946 mg_get(sv);
2947 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2948 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2949 SV *tmpstr;
2950 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2951 return NULL;
2952 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, string_amg);
2953 TAINT_IF(tmpstr && SvTAINTED(tmpstr));
2954 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2955 /* Unwrap this: */
2956 /* char *pv = lp ? SvPV(tmpstr, *lp) : SvPV_nolen(tmpstr);
2957 */
2958
2959 char *pv;
2960 if ((SvFLAGS(tmpstr) & (SVf_POK)) == SVf_POK) {
2961 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN) {
2962 pv = (char *) SvPVX_const(tmpstr);
2963 } else {
2964 pv = (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
2965 ? SvPVX_mutable(tmpstr) : SvPVX(tmpstr);
2966 }
2967 if (lp)
2968 *lp = SvCUR(tmpstr);
2969 } else {
2970 pv = sv_2pv_flags(tmpstr, lp, flags);
2971 }
2972 if (SvUTF8(tmpstr))
2973 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2974 else
2975 SvUTF8_off(sv);
2976 return pv;
2977 }
2978 }
2979 {
2980 STRLEN len;
2981 char *retval;
2982 char *buffer;
2983 SV *const referent = SvRV(sv);
2984
2985 if (!referent) {
2986 len = 7;
2987 retval = buffer = savepvn("NULLREF", len);
2988 } else if (SvTYPE(referent) == SVt_REGEXP &&
2989 (!(PL_curcop->cop_hints & HINT_NO_AMAGIC) ||
2990 amagic_is_enabled(string_amg))) {
2991 REGEXP * const re = (REGEXP *)MUTABLE_PTR(referent);
2992
2993 assert(re);
2994
2995 /* If the regex is UTF-8 we want the containing scalar to
2996 have an UTF-8 flag too */
2997 if (RX_UTF8(re))
2998 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2999 else
3000 SvUTF8_off(sv);
3001
3002 if (lp)
3003 *lp = RX_WRAPLEN(re);
3004
3005 return RX_WRAPPED(re);
3006 } else {
3007 const char *const typestr = sv_reftype(referent, 0);
3008 const STRLEN typelen = strlen(typestr);
3009 UV addr = PTR2UV(referent);
3010 const char *stashname = NULL;
3011 STRLEN stashnamelen = 0; /* hush, gcc */
3012 const char *buffer_end;
3013
3014 if (SvOBJECT(referent)) {
3015 const HEK *const name = HvNAME_HEK(SvSTASH(referent));
3016
3017 if (name) {
3018 stashname = HEK_KEY(name);
3019 stashnamelen = HEK_LEN(name);
3020
3021 if (HEK_UTF8(name)) {
3022 SvUTF8_on(sv);
3023 } else {
3024 SvUTF8_off(sv);
3025 }
3026 } else {
3027 stashname = "__ANON__";
3028 stashnamelen = 8;
3029 }
3030 len = stashnamelen + 1 /* = */ + typelen + 3 /* (0x */
3031 + 2 * sizeof(UV) + 2 /* )\0 */;
3032 } else {
3033 len = typelen + 3 /* (0x */
3034 + 2 * sizeof(UV) + 2 /* )\0 */;
3035 }
fafee734 3036
4bac9ae4
CS
3037 Newx(buffer, len, char);
3038 buffer_end = retval = buffer + len;
3039
3040 /* Working backwards */
3041 *--retval = '\0';
3042 *--retval = ')';
3043 do {
3044 *--retval = PL_hexdigit[addr & 15];
3045 } while (addr >>= 4);
3046 *--retval = 'x';
3047 *--retval = '0';
3048 *--retval = '(';
3049
3050 retval -= typelen;
3051 memcpy(retval, typestr, typelen);
3052
3053 if (stashname) {
3054 *--retval = '=';
3055 retval -= stashnamelen;
3056 memcpy(retval, stashname, stashnamelen);
c080367d 3057 }
4bac9ae4
CS
3058 /* retval may not necessarily have reached the start of the
3059 buffer here. */
3060 assert (retval >= buffer);
3061
3062 len = buffer_end - retval - 1; /* -1 for that \0 */
463ee0b2 3063 }
cdb061a3 3064 if (lp)
4bac9ae4
CS
3065 *lp = len;
3066 SAVEFREEPV(buffer);
3067 return retval;
79072805 3068 }
79072805 3069 }
4bac9ae4
CS
3070
3071 if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
3072 if (lp)
3073 *lp = SvCUR(sv);
3074 if (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
3075 return SvPVX_mutable(sv);
3076 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN)
3077 return (char *)SvPVX_const(sv);
3078 return SvPVX(sv);
3079 }
3080
3081 if (SvIOK(sv)) {
28e5dec8
JH
3082 /* I'm assuming that if both IV and NV are equally valid then
3083 converting the IV is going to be more efficient */
e1ec3a88 3084 const U32 isUIOK = SvIsUV(sv);
28e5dec8
JH
3085 char buf[TYPE_CHARS(UV)];
3086 char *ebuf, *ptr;
97a130b8 3087 STRLEN len;
28e5dec8
JH
3088
3089 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVIV)
3090 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
4ea1d550 3091 ptr = uiv_2buf(buf, SvIVX(sv), SvUVX(sv), isUIOK, &ebuf);
97a130b8 3092 len = ebuf - ptr;
5902b6a9 3093 /* inlined from sv_setpvn */
97a130b8
NC
3094 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, len + 1);
3095 Move(ptr, s, len, char);
3096 s += len;
28e5dec8 3097 *s = '\0';
b127e37e 3098 SvPOK_on(sv);
28e5dec8 3099 }
4bac9ae4 3100 else if (SvNOK(sv)) {
79072805
LW
3101 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
3102 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
128eeacb
DD
3103 if (SvNVX(sv) == 0.0
3104#if defined(NAN_COMPARE_BROKEN) && defined(Perl_isnan)
3105 && !Perl_isnan(SvNVX(sv))
3106#endif
3107 ) {
29912d93
NC
3108 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, 2);
3109 *s++ = '0';
3110 *s = '\0';
3111 } else {
5e85836e 3112 STRLEN len;
fb8cdbc5 3113 STRLEN size = 5; /* "-Inf\0" */
0c7e610f 3114
fb8cdbc5 3115 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, size);
3823048b 3116 len = S_infnan_2pv(SvNVX(sv), s, size, 0);
fb8cdbc5 3117 if (len > 0) {
0c7e610f 3118 s += len;
fb8cdbc5
JH
3119 SvPOK_on(sv);
3120 }
0c7e610f 3121 else {
0c7e610f 3122 /* some Xenix systems wipe out errno here */
fb8cdbc5
JH
3123 dSAVE_ERRNO;
3124
3840bff0
JH
3125 size =
3126 1 + /* sign */
3127 1 + /* "." */
3128 NV_DIG +
3129 1 + /* "e" */
3130 1 + /* sign */
3131 5 + /* exponent digits */
3132 1 + /* \0 */
3133 2; /* paranoia */
b127e37e 3134
fb8cdbc5 3135 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, size);
b127e37e 3136#ifndef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
a4eca1d4
JH
3137 SNPRINTF_G(SvNVX(sv), s, SvLEN(sv), NV_DIG);
3138
0c7e610f
JH
3139 SvPOK_on(sv);
3140#else
28acfe03 3141 {
3840bff0 3142 bool local_radix;
67d796ae
KW
3143 DECLARATION_FOR_LC_NUMERIC_MANIPULATION;
3144 STORE_LC_NUMERIC_SET_TO_NEEDED();
3840bff0 3145
dd2dbc5f 3146 local_radix = _NOT_IN_NUMERIC_STANDARD;
4c039fd8
DM
3147 if (local_radix && SvCUR(PL_numeric_radix_sv) > 1) {
3148 size += SvCUR(PL_numeric_radix_sv) - 1;
3840bff0
JH
3149 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, size);
3150 }
3151
a4eca1d4 3152 SNPRINTF_G(SvNVX(sv), s, SvLEN(sv), NV_DIG);
0c7e610f
JH
3153
3154 /* If the radix character is UTF-8, and actually is in the
3155 * output, turn on the UTF-8 flag for the scalar */
3dbc6af5
KW
3156 if ( local_radix
3157 && SvUTF8(PL_numeric_radix_sv)
3158 && instr(s, SvPVX_const(PL_numeric_radix_sv)))
3159 {
3840bff0
JH
3160 SvUTF8_on(sv);
3161 }
3162
0c7e610f 3163 RESTORE_LC_NUMERIC();
28acfe03 3164 }
68e8f474 3165
0c7e610f
JH
3166 /* We don't call SvPOK_on(), because it may come to
3167 * pass that the locale changes so that the
3168 * stringification we just did is no longer correct. We
3169 * will have to re-stringify every time it is needed */
b127e37e 3170#endif
0c7e610f
JH
3171 RESTORE_ERRNO;
3172 }
3173 while (*s) s++;
bbce6d69 3174 }
79072805 3175 }
4bac9ae4
CS
3176 else if (isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
3177 GV *const gv = MUTABLE_GV(sv);
3178 SV *const buffer = sv_newmortal();
8d1c3e26 3179
4bac9ae4 3180 gv_efullname3(buffer, gv, "*");
180488f8 3181
4bac9ae4
CS
3182 assert(SvPOK(buffer));
3183 if (SvUTF8(buffer))
3184 SvUTF8_on(sv);
1097da16
TC
3185 else
3186 SvUTF8_off(sv);
4bac9ae4
CS
3187 if (lp)
3188 *lp = SvCUR(buffer);
3189 return SvPVX(buffer);
3190 }
3191 else {
cdb061a3 3192 if (lp)
00b6aa41 3193 *lp = 0;
9f621bb0
NC
3194 if (flags & SV_UNDEF_RETURNS_NULL)
3195 return NULL;
4f62cd62 3196 if (!PL_localizing && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
9f621bb0 3197 report_uninit(sv);
4bac9ae4
CS
3198 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
3199 if (!SvREADONLY(sv) && SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PV)
25da4f38 3200 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PV);
73d840c0 3201 return (char *)"";
79072805 3202 }
4bac9ae4 3203
cdb061a3 3204 {
823a54a3 3205 const STRLEN len = s - SvPVX_const(sv);
cdb061a3
NC
3206 if (lp)
3207 *lp = len;
3208 SvCUR_set(sv, len);
3209 }
147e3846 3210 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%" UVxf " 2pv(%s)\n",
3f7c398e 3211 PTR2UV(sv),SvPVX_const(sv)));
4d84ee25
NC
3212 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN)
3213 return (char *)SvPVX_const(sv);
10516c54
NC
3214 if (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
3215 return SvPVX_mutable(sv);
463ee0b2
LW
3216 return SvPVX(sv);
3217}
3218
645c22ef 3219/*
6050d10e
JP
3220=for apidoc sv_copypv
3221
3222Copies a stringified representation of the source SV into the
796b6530 3223destination SV. Automatically performs any necessary C<mg_get> and
54f0641b 3224coercion of numeric values into strings. Guaranteed to preserve
796b6530
KW
3225C<UTF8> flag even from overloaded objects. Similar in nature to
3226C<sv_2pv[_flags]> but operates directly on an SV instead of just the
3227string. Mostly uses C<sv_2pv_flags> to do its work, except when that
6050d10e
JP
3228would lose the UTF-8'ness of the PV.
3229
4bac9ae4
CS
3230=for apidoc sv_copypv_nomg
3231
796b6530 3232Like C<sv_copypv>, but doesn't invoke get magic first.
4bac9ae4
CS
3233
3234=for apidoc sv_copypv_flags
3235
796b6530 3236Implementation of C<sv_copypv> and C<sv_copypv_nomg>. Calls get magic iff flags
c5608a1f 3237has the C<SV_GMAGIC> bit set.
4bac9ae4 3238
6050d10e
JP
3239=cut
3240*/
3241
3242void
5aaab254 3243Perl_sv_copypv_flags(pTHX_ SV *const dsv, SV *const ssv, const I32 flags)
4bac9ae4 3244{
446eaa42 3245 STRLEN len;
4bac9ae4 3246 const char *s;
7918f24d 3247
4bac9ae4 3248 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_COPYPV_FLAGS;
7918f24d 3249
c77ed9ca 3250 s = SvPV_flags_const(ssv,len,(flags & SV_GMAGIC));
cb50f42d 3251 sv_setpvn(dsv,s,len);
446eaa42 3252 if (SvUTF8(ssv))
cb50f42d 3253 SvUTF8_on(dsv);
446eaa42 3254 else
cb50f42d 3255 SvUTF8_off(dsv);
6050d10e
JP
3256}
3257
3258/*
645c22ef
DM
3259=for apidoc sv_2pvbyte
3260
796b6530 3261Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV, and set C<*lp>
1e54db1a 3262to its length. May cause the SV to be downgraded from UTF-8 as a
645c22ef
DM
3263side-effect.
3264
3265Usually accessed via the C<SvPVbyte> macro.
3266
3267=cut
3268*/
3269
7340a771 3270char *
5aaab254 3271Perl_sv_2pvbyte(pTHX_ SV *sv, STRLEN *const lp)
7340a771 3272{
7918f24d
NC
3273 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2PVBYTE;
3274
48120f8f 3275 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
4499db73
FC
3276 if (((SvREADONLY(sv) || SvFAKE(sv)) && !SvIsCOW(sv))
3277 || isGV_with_GP(sv) || SvROK(sv)) {
a901b181 3278 SV *sv2 = sv_newmortal();
48120f8f 3279 sv_copypv_nomg(sv2,sv);
a901b181
FC
3280 sv = sv2;
3281 }
0875d2fe 3282 sv_utf8_downgrade(sv,0);
71eb6d8c 3283 return lp ? SvPV_nomg(sv,*lp) : SvPV_nomg_nolen(sv);
7340a771
GS
3284}
3285
645c22ef 3286/*
035cbb0e
RGS
3287=for apidoc sv_2pvutf8
3288
796b6530 3289Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation of the SV, and set C<*lp>
035cbb0e
RGS
3290to its length. May cause the SV to be upgraded to UTF-8 as a side-effect.
3291
3292Usually accessed via the C<SvPVutf8> macro.
3293
3294=cut
3295*/
645c22ef 3296
7340a771 3297char *
5aaab254 3298Perl_sv_2pvutf8(pTHX_ SV *sv, STRLEN *const lp)
7340a771 3299{
7918f24d
NC
3300 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2PVUTF8;
3301
4499db73
FC
3302 if (((SvREADONLY(sv) || SvFAKE(sv)) && !SvIsCOW(sv))
3303 || isGV_with_GP(sv) || SvROK(sv))
fe46cbda 3304 sv = sv_mortalcopy(sv);
4bac9ae4
CS
3305 else
3306 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
3307 sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(sv);
c3ec315f 3308 return lp ? SvPV_nomg(sv,*lp) : SvPV_nomg_nolen(sv);
7340a771 3309}
1c846c1f 3310
7ee2227d 3311
645c22ef
DM
3312/*
3313=for apidoc sv_2bool
3314
796b6530
KW
3315This macro is only used by C<sv_true()> or its macro equivalent, and only if
3316the latter's argument is neither C<SvPOK>, C<SvIOK> nor C<SvNOK>.
3317It calls C<sv_2bool_flags> with the C<SV_GMAGIC> flag.
06c841cf
FC
3318
3319=for apidoc sv_2bool_flags
3320
796b6530
KW
3321This function is only used by C<sv_true()> and friends, and only if
3322the latter's argument is neither C<SvPOK>, C<SvIOK> nor C<SvNOK>. If the flags
3323contain C<SV_GMAGIC>, then it does an C<mg_get()> first.
06c841cf 3324
645c22ef
DM
3325
3326=cut
3327*/
3328
463ee0b2 3329bool
9d176cd8 3330Perl_sv_2bool_flags(pTHX_ SV *sv, I32 flags)
463ee0b2 3331{
06c841cf 3332 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2BOOL_FLAGS;
7918f24d 3333
9d176cd8 3334 restart:
06c841cf 3335 if(flags & SV_GMAGIC) SvGETMAGIC(sv);
463ee0b2 3336
a0d0e21e
LW
3337 if (!SvOK(sv))
3338 return 0;
3339 if (SvROK(sv)) {
fabdb6c0 3340 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
31d632c3 3341 SV * const tmpsv = AMG_CALLunary(sv, bool__amg);
9d176cd8
DD
3342 if (tmpsv && (!SvROK(tmpsv) || (SvRV(tmpsv) != SvRV(sv)))) {
3343 bool svb;
3344 sv = tmpsv;
3345 if(SvGMAGICAL(sv)) {
3346 flags = SV_GMAGIC;
3347 goto restart; /* call sv_2bool */
3348 }
3349 /* expanded SvTRUE_common(sv, (flags = 0, goto restart)) */
3350 else if(!SvOK(sv)) {
3351 svb = 0;
3352 }
3353 else if(SvPOK(sv)) {
3354 svb = SvPVXtrue(sv);
3355 }
3356 else if((SvFLAGS(sv) & (SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK))) {
3357 svb = (SvIOK(sv) && SvIVX(sv) != 0)
659c4b96 3358 || (SvNOK(sv) && SvNVX(sv) != 0.0);
9d176cd8
DD
3359 }
3360 else {
3361 flags = 0;
3362 goto restart; /* call sv_2bool_nomg */
3363 }
3364 return cBOOL(svb);
3365 }
fabdb6c0 3366 }
e8f01ee5
DM
3367 assert(SvRV(sv));
3368 return TRUE;
a0d0e21e 3369 }
85b7d9b3
FC
3370 if (isREGEXP(sv))
3371 return
3372 RX_WRAPLEN(sv) > 1 || (RX_WRAPLEN(sv) && *RX_WRAPPED(sv) != '0');
1a436fbe
DM
3373
3374 if (SvNOK(sv) && !SvPOK(sv))
3375 return SvNVX(sv) != 0.0;
3376
4bac9ae4 3377 return SvTRUE_common(sv, isGV_with_GP(sv) ? 1 : 0);
79072805
LW
3378}
3379
c461cf8f
JH
3380/*
3381=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade
3382
78ea37eb 3383Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.
645c22ef 3384Forces the SV to string form if it is not already.
2bbc8d55 3385Will C<mg_get> on C<sv> if appropriate.
796b6530 3386Always sets the C<SvUTF8> flag to avoid future validity checks even
2bbc8d55
SP
3387if the whole string is the same in UTF-8 as not.
3388Returns the number of bytes in the converted string
c461cf8f 3389
0efd0472 3390This is not a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface:
13a6c0e0
JH
3391use the Encode extension for that.
3392
fe749c9a
KW
3393=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg
3394
796b6530 3395Like C<sv_utf8_upgrade>, but doesn't do magic on C<sv>.
fe749c9a 3396
8d6d96c1
HS
3397=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade_flags
3398
78ea37eb 3399Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.
645c22ef 3400Forces the SV to string form if it is not already.
8d6d96c1 3401Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks even
960b0271
FC
3402if all the bytes are invariant in UTF-8.
3403If C<flags> has C<SV_GMAGIC> bit set,
2bbc8d55 3404will C<mg_get> on C<sv> if appropriate, else not.
2a590426 3405
c58971e9 3406The C<SV_FORCE_UTF8_UPGRADE> flag is now ignored.
2a590426
KW
3407
3408Returns the number of bytes in the converted string.
8d6d96c1 3409
0efd0472 3410This is not a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface:
13a6c0e0
JH
3411use the Encode extension for that.
3412
2a590426 3413=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade_flags_grow
b3ab6785 3414
796b6530
KW
3415Like C<sv_utf8_upgrade_flags>, but has an additional parameter C<extra>, which is
3416the number of unused bytes the string of C<sv> is guaranteed to have free after
2a590426
KW
3417it upon return. This allows the caller to reserve extra space that it intends
3418to fill, to avoid extra grows.
b3ab6785 3419
2a590426
KW
3420C<sv_utf8_upgrade>, C<sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg>, and C<sv_utf8_upgrade_flags>
3421are implemented in terms of this function.
3422
3423Returns the number of bytes in the converted string (not including the spares).
3424
3425=cut
b3ab6785 3426
6602b933
KW
3427If the routine itself changes the string, it adds a trailing C<NUL>. Such a
3428C<NUL> isn't guaranteed due to having other routines do the work in some input
3429cases, or if the input is already flagged as being in utf8.
b3ab6785 3430
8d6d96c1
HS
3431*/
3432
3433STRLEN
5aaab254 3434Perl_sv_utf8_upgrade_flags_grow(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const I32 flags, STRLEN extra)
8d6d96c1 3435{
b3ab6785 3436 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_UPGRADE_FLAGS_GROW;
7918f24d 3437
808c356f
RGS
3438 if (sv == &PL_sv_undef)
3439 return 0;
892f9127 3440 if (!SvPOK_nog(sv)) {
e0e62c2a 3441 STRLEN len = 0;
d52b7888
NC
3442 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && (SvPOKp(sv) || SvIOKp(sv) || SvNOKp(sv))) {
3443 (void) sv_2pv_flags(sv,&len, flags);
b3ab6785
KW
3444 if (SvUTF8(sv)) {
3445 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
d52b7888 3446 return len;
b3ab6785 3447 }
d52b7888 3448 } else {
33fb6f35 3449 (void) SvPV_force_flags(sv,len,flags & SV_GMAGIC);
d52b7888 3450 }
e0e62c2a 3451 }
4411f3b6 3452
fde84d2e
DM
3453 /* SVt_REGEXP's shouldn't be upgraded to UTF8 - they're already
3454 * compiled and individual nodes will remain non-utf8 even if the
3455 * stringified version of the pattern gets upgraded. Whether the
3456 * PVX of a REGEXP should be grown or we should just croak, I don't
3457 * know - DAPM */
3458 if (SvUTF8(sv) || isREGEXP(sv)) {
b3ab6785 3459 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
5fec3b1d 3460 return SvCUR(sv);
f5cee72b 3461 }
5fec3b1d 3462
765f542d 3463 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
c56ed9f6 3464 S_sv_uncow(aTHX_ sv, 0);
db42d148
NIS
3465 }
3466
4e93345f
KW
3467 if (SvCUR(sv) == 0) {
3468 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, extra);
3469 } else { /* Assume Latin-1/EBCDIC */
c4e7c712 3470 /* This function could be much more efficient if we
2bbc8d55 3471 * had a FLAG in SVs to signal if there are any variant
c4e7c712 3472 * chars in the PV. Given that there isn't such a flag
c58971e9 3473 * make the loop as fast as possible. */
b3ab6785 3474 U8 * s = (U8 *) SvPVX_const(sv);
b3ab6785 3475 U8 *t = s;
c4e7c712 3476
c58971e9 3477 if (is_utf8_invariant_string_loc(s, SvCUR(sv), (const U8 **) &t)) {
b3ab6785 3478
c58971e9
KW
3479 /* utf8 conversion not needed because all are invariants. Mark
3480 * as UTF-8 even if no variant - saves scanning loop */
3481 SvUTF8_on(sv);
3482 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
3483 return SvCUR(sv);
dc772057 3484 }
b3ab6785 3485
c58971e9
KW
3486 /* Here, there is at least one variant (t points to the first one), so
3487 * the string should be converted to utf8. Everything from 's' to
3488 * 't - 1' will occupy only 1 byte each on output.
dc772057 3489 *
c58971e9
KW
3490 * Note that the incoming SV may not have a trailing '\0', as certain
3491 * code in pp_formline can send us partially built SVs.
b3ab6785
KW
3492 *
3493 * There are two main ways to convert. One is to create a new string
3494 * and go through the input starting from the beginning, appending each
c58971e9
KW
3495 * converted value onto the new string as we go along. Going this
3496 * route, it's probably best to initially allocate enough space in the
3497 * string rather than possibly running out of space and having to
3498 * reallocate and then copy what we've done so far. Since everything
3499 * from 's' to 't - 1' is invariant, the destination can be initialized
3500 * with these using a fast memory copy. To be sure to allocate enough
3501 * space, one could use the worst case scenario, where every remaining
3502 * byte expands to two under UTF-8, or one could parse it and count
3503 * exactly how many do expand.
b3ab6785 3504 *
c58971e9
KW
3505 * The other way is to unconditionally parse the remainder of the
3506 * string to figure out exactly how big the expanded string will be,
3507 * growing if needed. Then start at the end of the string and place
3508 * the character there at the end of the unfilled space in the expanded
3509 * one, working backwards until reaching 't'.
b3ab6785 3510 *
c58971e9
KW
3511 * The problem with assuming the worst case scenario is that for very
3512 * long strings, we could allocate much more memory than actually
3513 * needed, which can create performance problems. If we have to parse
3514 * anyway, the second method is the winner as it may avoid an extra
3515 * copy. The code used to use the first method under some
3516 * circumstances, but now that there is faster variant counting on
3517 * ASCII platforms, the second method is used exclusively, eliminating
3518 * some code that no longer has to be maintained. */
b3ab6785
KW
3519
3520 {
c58971e9
KW
3521 /* Count the total number of variants there are. We can start
3522 * just beyond the first one, which is known to be at 't' */
3523 const Size_t invariant_length = t - s;
3524 U8 * e = (U8 *) SvEND(sv);
3525
3526 /* The length of the left overs, plus 1. */
3527 const Size_t remaining_length_p1 = e - t;
3528
3529 /* We expand by 1 for the variant at 't' and one for each remaining
3530 * variant (we start looking at 't+1') */
3531 Size_t expansion = 1 + variant_under_utf8_count(t + 1, e);
3532
3533 /* +1 = trailing NUL */
3534 Size_t need = SvCUR(sv) + expansion + extra + 1;
3535 U8 * d;
3536
3537 /* Grow if needed */
3538 if (SvLEN(sv) < need) {
3539 t = invariant_length + (U8*) SvGROW(sv, need);
3540 e = t + remaining_length_p1;
3541 }
3542 SvCUR_set(sv, invariant_length + remaining_length_p1 + expansion);
b3ab6785 3543
c58971e9
KW
3544 /* Set the NUL at the end */
3545 d = (U8 *) SvEND(sv);
3546 *d-- = '\0';
b3ab6785 3547
c58971e9
KW
3548 /* Having decremented d, it points to the position to put the
3549 * very last byte of the expanded string. Go backwards through
3550 * the string, copying and expanding as we go, stopping when we
3551 * get to the part that is invariant the rest of the way down */
b3ab6785 3552
f8edfb87
KW
3553 e--;
3554 while (e >= t) {
3555 if (NATIVE_BYTE_IS_INVARIANT(*e)) {
3556 *d-- = *e;
3557 } else {
3558 *d-- = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(*e);
3559 *d-- = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(*e);
3560 }
3561 e--;
3562 }
75da9d4c
DM
3563
3564 if (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG && SvMAGIC(sv)) {
3565 /* Update pos. We do it at the end rather than during
3566 * the upgrade, to avoid slowing down the common case
25fdce4a
FC
3567 * (upgrade without pos).
3568 * pos can be stored as either bytes or characters. Since
3569 * this was previously a byte string we can just turn off
3570 * the bytes flag. */
75da9d4c
DM
3571 MAGIC * mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
3572 if (mg) {
25fdce4a 3573 mg->mg_flags &= ~MGf_BYTES;
75da9d4c
DM
3574 }
3575 if ((mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_utf8)))
3576 magic_setutf8(sv,mg); /* clear UTF8 cache */
3577 }