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a0ed51b3
LW
1/* utf8.c
2 *
1129b882 3 * Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
b94e2f88 4 * by Larry Wall and others
a0ed51b3
LW
5 *
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8 *
9 */
10
11/*
4ac71550
TC
12 * 'What a fix!' said Sam. 'That's the one place in all the lands we've ever
13 * heard of that we don't want to see any closer; and that's the one place
14 * we're trying to get to! And that's just where we can't get, nohow.'
15 *
cdad3b53 16 * [p.603 of _The Lord of the Rings_, IV/I: "The Taming of Sméagol"]
a0ed51b3
LW
17 *
18 * 'Well do I understand your speech,' he answered in the same language;
19 * 'yet few strangers do so. Why then do you not speak in the Common Tongue,
4ac71550 20 * as is the custom in the West, if you wish to be answered?'
cdad3b53 21 * --Gandalf, addressing Théoden's door wardens
4ac71550
TC
22 *
23 * [p.508 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/vi: "The King of the Golden Hall"]
a0ed51b3
LW
24 *
25 * ...the travellers perceived that the floor was paved with stones of many
26 * hues; branching runes and strange devices intertwined beneath their feet.
4ac71550
TC
27 *
28 * [p.512 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/vi: "The King of the Golden Hall"]
a0ed51b3
LW
29 */
30
31#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 32#define PERL_IN_UTF8_C
a0ed51b3
LW
33#include "perl.h"
34
a0c21aa1 35#ifndef EBCDIC
970ea3cb 36/* Separate prototypes needed because in ASCII systems these are
a0c21aa1
JH
37 * usually macros but they still are compiled as code, too. */
38PERL_CALLCONV UV Perl_utf8n_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags);
39PERL_CALLCONV U8* Perl_uvchr_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv);
40#endif
41
27da23d5
JH
42static const char unees[] =
43 "Malformed UTF-8 character (unexpected end of string)";
901b21bf 44
48ef279e 45/*
ccfc67b7 46=head1 Unicode Support
a0ed51b3 47
166f8a29
DM
48This file contains various utility functions for manipulating UTF8-encoded
49strings. For the uninitiated, this is a method of representing arbitrary
61296642 50Unicode characters as a variable number of bytes, in such a way that
56da48f7
DM
51characters in the ASCII range are unmodified, and a zero byte never appears
52within non-zero characters.
166f8a29 53
eaf7a4d2
CS
54=cut
55*/
56
57/*
58=for apidoc is_ascii_string
59
970ea3cb
KW
60Returns true if the first C<len> bytes of the given string are the same whether
61or not the string is encoded in UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC on EBCDIC machines). That
62is, if they are invariant. On ASCII-ish machines, only ASCII characters
63fit this definition, hence the function's name.
eaf7a4d2 64
9f7e3d64
MH
65If C<len> is 0, it will be calculated using C<strlen(s)>.
66
eaf7a4d2
CS
67See also is_utf8_string(), is_utf8_string_loclen(), and is_utf8_string_loc().
68
69=cut
70*/
71
72bool
668b6d8d 73Perl_is_ascii_string(const U8 *s, STRLEN len)
eaf7a4d2
CS
74{
75 const U8* const send = s + (len ? len : strlen((const char *)s));
76 const U8* x = s;
77
78 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_ASCII_STRING;
eaf7a4d2
CS
79
80 for (; x < send; ++x) {
81 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*x))
82 break;
83 }
84
85 return x == send;
86}
87
88/*
87cea99e 89=for apidoc uvuni_to_utf8_flags
eebe1485 90
6ee84de2
KW
91Adds the UTF-8 representation of the code point C<uv> to the end
92of the string C<d>; C<d> should have at least C<UTF8_MAXBYTES+1> free
eebe1485 93bytes available. The return value is the pointer to the byte after the
9041c2e3 94end of the new character. In other words,
eebe1485 95
b851fbc1
JH
96 d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, flags);
97
98or, in most cases,
99
9041c2e3 100 d = uvuni_to_utf8(d, uv);
eebe1485 101
b851fbc1
JH
102(which is equivalent to)
103
104 d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, 0);
105
949cf498 106This is the recommended Unicode-aware way of saying
eebe1485
SC
107
108 *(d++) = uv;
109
949cf498
KW
110This function will convert to UTF-8 (and not warn) even code points that aren't
111legal Unicode or are problematic, unless C<flags> contains one or more of the
112following flags.
113If C<uv> is a Unicode surrogate code point and UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE is set,
114the function will raise a warning, provided UTF8 warnings are enabled. If instead
115UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE is set, the function will fail and return NULL.
116If both flags are set, the function will both warn and return NULL.
117
118The UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR and UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR flags correspondingly
119affect how the function handles a Unicode non-character. And, likewise for the
120UNICODE_WARN_SUPER and UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER flags, and code points that are
121above the Unicode maximum of 0x10FFFF. Code points above 0x7FFF_FFFF (which are
122even less portable) can be warned and/or disallowed even if other above-Unicode
123code points are accepted by the UNICODE_WARN_FE_FF and UNICODE_DISALLOW_FE_FF
124flags.
125
126And finally, the flag UNICODE_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE selects all four of the
127above WARN flags; and UNICODE_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE selects all four
128DISALLOW flags.
129
130
eebe1485
SC
131=cut
132*/
133
dfe13c55 134U8 *
b851fbc1 135Perl_uvuni_to_utf8_flags(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)
a0ed51b3 136{
7918f24d
NC
137 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UVUNI_TO_UTF8_FLAGS;
138
949cf498
KW
139 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8)) {
140 if (UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv)) {
141 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE) {
8457b38f 142 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE),
949cf498
KW
143 "UTF-16 surrogate U+%04"UVXf, uv);
144 }
145 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE) {
146 return NULL;
147 }
148 }
149 else if (UNICODE_IS_SUPER(uv)) {
150 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_SUPER
151 || (UNICODE_IS_FE_FF(uv) && (flags & UNICODE_WARN_FE_FF)))
152 {
8457b38f 153 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE),
949cf498
KW
154 "Code point 0x%04"UVXf" is not Unicode, may not be portable", uv);
155 }
156 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER
157 || (UNICODE_IS_FE_FF(uv) && (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_FE_FF)))
158 {
159 return NULL;
160 }
161 }
162 else if (UNICODE_IS_NONCHAR(uv)) {
163 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR) {
8457b38f 164 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NONCHAR),
949cf498
KW
165 "Unicode non-character U+%04"UVXf" is illegal for open interchange",
166 uv);
167 }
168 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR) {
169 return NULL;
170 }
171 }
507b9800 172 }
c4d5f83a 173 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
eb160463 174 *d++ = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE(uv);
a0ed51b3
LW
175 return d;
176 }
2d331972 177#if defined(EBCDIC)
1d72bdf6
NIS
178 else {
179 STRLEN len = UNISKIP(uv);
180 U8 *p = d+len-1;
181 while (p > d) {
eb160463 182 *p-- = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE((uv & UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK) | UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK);
1d72bdf6
NIS
183 uv >>= UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT;
184 }
eb160463 185 *p = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE((uv & UTF_START_MASK(len)) | UTF_START_MARK(len));
1d72bdf6
NIS
186 return d+len;
187 }
188#else /* Non loop style */
a0ed51b3 189 if (uv < 0x800) {
eb160463
GS
190 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 6) | 0xc0);
191 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
192 return d;
193 }
194 if (uv < 0x10000) {
eb160463
GS
195 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 12) | 0xe0);
196 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
197 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
198 return d;
199 }
200 if (uv < 0x200000) {
eb160463
GS
201 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 18) | 0xf0);
202 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
203 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
204 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
205 return d;
206 }
207 if (uv < 0x4000000) {
eb160463
GS
208 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 24) | 0xf8);
209 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
210 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
211 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
212 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
213 return d;
214 }
215 if (uv < 0x80000000) {
eb160463
GS
216 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 30) | 0xfc);
217 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 24) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
218 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
219 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
220 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
221 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
222 return d;
223 }
6b8eaf93 224#ifdef HAS_QUAD
d7578b48 225 if (uv < UTF8_QUAD_MAX)
a0ed51b3
LW
226#endif
227 {
eb160463
GS
228 *d++ = 0xfe; /* Can't match U+FEFF! */
229 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 30) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
230 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 24) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
231 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
232 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
233 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
234 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
235 return d;
236 }
6b8eaf93 237#ifdef HAS_QUAD
a0ed51b3 238 {
eb160463
GS
239 *d++ = 0xff; /* Can't match U+FFFE! */
240 *d++ = 0x80; /* 6 Reserved bits */
241 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 60) & 0x0f) | 0x80); /* 2 Reserved bits */
242 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 54) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
243 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 48) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
244 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 42) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
245 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 36) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
246 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 30) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
247 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 24) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
248 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
249 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
250 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
251 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
252 return d;
253 }
254#endif
1d72bdf6 255#endif /* Loop style */
a0ed51b3 256}
9041c2e3 257
646ca15d
JH
258/*
259
260Tests if some arbitrary number of bytes begins in a valid UTF-8
261character. Note that an INVARIANT (i.e. ASCII) character is a valid
262UTF-8 character. The actual number of bytes in the UTF-8 character
263will be returned if it is valid, otherwise 0.
264
265This is the "slow" version as opposed to the "fast" version which is
266the "unrolled" IS_UTF8_CHAR(). E.g. for t/uni/class.t the speed
267difference is a factor of 2 to 3. For lengths (UTF8SKIP(s)) of four
268or less you should use the IS_UTF8_CHAR(), for lengths of five or more
269you should use the _slow(). In practice this means that the _slow()
270will be used very rarely, since the maximum Unicode code point (as of
271Unicode 4.1) is U+10FFFF, which encodes in UTF-8 to four bytes. Only
272the "Perl extended UTF-8" (the infamous 'v-strings') will encode into
273five bytes or more.
274
275=cut */
c053b435 276STATIC STRLEN
5f66b61c 277S_is_utf8_char_slow(const U8 *s, const STRLEN len)
646ca15d
JH
278{
279 U8 u = *s;
280 STRLEN slen;
281 UV uv, ouv;
282
7918f24d
NC
283 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CHAR_SLOW;
284
646ca15d
JH
285 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(u))
286 return 1;
287
288 if (!UTF8_IS_START(u))
289 return 0;
290
291 if (len < 2 || !UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(s[1]))
292 return 0;
293
294 slen = len - 1;
295 s++;
77263263
ST
296#ifdef EBCDIC
297 u = NATIVE_TO_UTF(u);
298#endif
646ca15d
JH
299 u &= UTF_START_MASK(len);
300 uv = u;
301 ouv = uv;
302 while (slen--) {
303 if (!UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*s))
304 return 0;
305 uv = UTF8_ACCUMULATE(uv, *s);
48ef279e 306 if (uv < ouv)
646ca15d
JH
307 return 0;
308 ouv = uv;
309 s++;
310 }
311
312 if ((STRLEN)UNISKIP(uv) < len)
313 return 0;
314
315 return len;
316}
9041c2e3
NIS
317
318/*
87cea99e 319=for apidoc is_utf8_char
eebe1485 320
5da9da9e 321Tests if some arbitrary number of bytes begins in a valid UTF-8
2bbc8d55
SP
322character. Note that an INVARIANT (i.e. ASCII on non-EBCDIC machines)
323character is a valid UTF-8 character. The actual number of bytes in the UTF-8
324character will be returned if it is valid, otherwise 0.
9041c2e3 325
e0328548
KW
326WARNING: use only if you *know* that C<s> has at least either UTF8_MAXBYTES or
327UTF8SKIP(s) bytes.
328
82686b01 329=cut */
067a85ef 330STRLEN
668b6d8d 331Perl_is_utf8_char(const U8 *s)
386d01d6 332{
44f8325f 333 const STRLEN len = UTF8SKIP(s);
7918f24d
NC
334
335 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CHAR;
3b0fc154 336#ifdef IS_UTF8_CHAR
768c67ee 337 if (IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(len))
3b0fc154
JH
338 return IS_UTF8_CHAR(s, len) ? len : 0;
339#endif /* #ifdef IS_UTF8_CHAR */
2c0c5f92 340 return is_utf8_char_slow(s, len);
386d01d6
GS
341}
342
eaf7a4d2 343
6662521e 344/*
87cea99e 345=for apidoc is_utf8_string
6662521e 346
c9ada85f 347Returns true if first C<len> bytes of the given string form a valid
9f7e3d64 348UTF-8 string, false otherwise. If C<len> is 0, it will be calculated
e0328548
KW
349using C<strlen(s)> (which means if you use this option, that C<s> has to have a
350terminating NUL byte). Note that all characters being ASCII constitute 'a
351valid UTF-8 string'.
6662521e 352
eaf7a4d2 353See also is_ascii_string(), is_utf8_string_loclen(), and is_utf8_string_loc().
768c67ee 354
6662521e
GS
355=cut
356*/
357
8e84507e 358bool
668b6d8d 359Perl_is_utf8_string(const U8 *s, STRLEN len)
6662521e 360{
35da51f7 361 const U8* const send = s + (len ? len : strlen((const char *)s));
7fc63493 362 const U8* x = s;
067a85ef 363
7918f24d 364 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_STRING;
1aa99e6b 365
6662521e 366 while (x < send) {
1acdb0da 367 /* Inline the easy bits of is_utf8_char() here for speed... */
e0328548
KW
368 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*x)) {
369 x++;
370 }
1acdb0da 371 else if (!UTF8_IS_START(*x))
e0328548 372 return FALSE;
1acdb0da
JH
373 else {
374 /* ... and call is_utf8_char() only if really needed. */
e0328548
KW
375 const STRLEN c = UTF8SKIP(x);
376 const U8* const next_char_ptr = x + c;
377
378 if (next_char_ptr > send) {
379 return FALSE;
380 }
381
768c67ee
JH
382 if (IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(c)) {
383 if (!IS_UTF8_CHAR(x, c))
e0328548 384 return FALSE;
3c614e38 385 }
e0328548
KW
386 else if (! is_utf8_char_slow(x, c)) {
387 return FALSE;
388 }
389 x = next_char_ptr;
1acdb0da 390 }
6662521e 391 }
768c67ee 392
067a85ef 393 return TRUE;
6662521e
GS
394}
395
67e989fb 396/*
814fafa7
NC
397Implemented as a macro in utf8.h
398
87cea99e 399=for apidoc is_utf8_string_loc
814fafa7
NC
400
401Like is_utf8_string() but stores the location of the failure (in the
402case of "utf8ness failure") or the location s+len (in the case of
403"utf8ness success") in the C<ep>.
404
405See also is_utf8_string_loclen() and is_utf8_string().
406
87cea99e 407=for apidoc is_utf8_string_loclen
81cd54e3 408
e3e4599f 409Like is_utf8_string() but stores the location of the failure (in the
768c67ee
JH
410case of "utf8ness failure") or the location s+len (in the case of
411"utf8ness success") in the C<ep>, and the number of UTF-8
412encoded characters in the C<el>.
413
414See also is_utf8_string_loc() and is_utf8_string().
81cd54e3
JH
415
416=cut
417*/
418
419bool
668b6d8d 420Perl_is_utf8_string_loclen(const U8 *s, STRLEN len, const U8 **ep, STRLEN *el)
81cd54e3 421{
35da51f7 422 const U8* const send = s + (len ? len : strlen((const char *)s));
7fc63493 423 const U8* x = s;
81cd54e3 424 STRLEN c;
3ebfea28 425 STRLEN outlen = 0;
7918f24d
NC
426
427 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_STRING_LOCLEN;
81cd54e3 428
81cd54e3 429 while (x < send) {
e0328548
KW
430 const U8* next_char_ptr;
431
81cd54e3
JH
432 /* Inline the easy bits of is_utf8_char() here for speed... */
433 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*x))
e0328548 434 next_char_ptr = x + 1;
768c67ee
JH
435 else if (!UTF8_IS_START(*x))
436 goto out;
81cd54e3 437 else {
768c67ee 438 /* ... and call is_utf8_char() only if really needed. */
768c67ee 439 c = UTF8SKIP(x);
e0328548
KW
440 next_char_ptr = c + x;
441 if (next_char_ptr > send) {
442 goto out;
443 }
768c67ee
JH
444 if (IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(c)) {
445 if (!IS_UTF8_CHAR(x, c))
446 c = 0;
447 } else
448 c = is_utf8_char_slow(x, c);
768c67ee
JH
449 if (!c)
450 goto out;
81cd54e3 451 }
e0328548 452 x = next_char_ptr;
3ebfea28 453 outlen++;
81cd54e3 454 }
768c67ee
JH
455
456 out:
3ebfea28
AL
457 if (el)
458 *el = outlen;
459
768c67ee
JH
460 if (ep)
461 *ep = x;
3ebfea28 462 return (x == send);
81cd54e3
JH
463}
464
465/*
768c67ee 466
87cea99e 467=for apidoc utf8n_to_uvuni
67e989fb 468
9041c2e3 469Bottom level UTF-8 decode routine.
949cf498
KW
470Returns the code point value of the first character in the string C<s>
471which is assumed to be in UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) encoding and no longer than
472C<curlen> bytes; C<retlen> will be set to the length, in bytes, of that
473character.
474
475The value of C<flags> determines the behavior when C<s> does not point to a
476well-formed UTF-8 character. If C<flags> is 0, when a malformation is found,
477C<retlen> is set to the expected length of the UTF-8 character in bytes, zero
478is returned, and if UTF-8 warnings haven't been lexically disabled, a warning
479is raised.
480
481Various ALLOW flags can be set in C<flags> to allow (and not warn on)
482individual types of malformations, such as the sequence being overlong (that
483is, when there is a shorter sequence that can express the same code point;
484overlong sequences are expressly forbidden in the UTF-8 standard due to
485potential security issues). Another malformation example is the first byte of
486a character not being a legal first byte. See F<utf8.h> for the list of such
487flags. Of course, the value returned by this function under such conditions is
488not reliable.
489
490The UTF8_CHECK_ONLY flag overrides the behavior when a non-allowed (by other
491flags) malformation is found. If this flag is set, the routine assumes that
492the caller will raise a warning, and this function will silently just set
493C<retlen> to C<-1> and return zero.
494
495Certain code points are considered problematic. These are Unicode surrogates,
496Unicode non-characters, and code points above the Unicode maximum of 0x10FFF.
497By default these are considered regular code points, but certain situations
5eafe189 498warrant special handling for them. If C<flags> contains
949cf498
KW
499UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE, all three classes are treated as
500malformations and handled as such. The flags UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE,
501UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR, and UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER (meaning above the legal Unicode
502maximum) can be set to disallow these categories individually.
503
504The flags UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE, UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE,
505UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR, and UTF8_WARN_SUPER will cause warning messages to be raised
506for their respective categories, but otherwise the code points are considered
507valid (not malformations). To get a category to both be treated as a
508malformation and raise a warning, specify both the WARN and DISALLOW flags.
509(But note that warnings are not raised if lexically disabled nor if
510UTF8_CHECK_ONLY is also specified.)
511
512Very large code points (above 0x7FFF_FFFF) are considered more problematic than
513the others that are above the Unicode legal maximum. There are several
514reasons, one of which is that the original UTF-8 specification never went above
515this number (the current 0x10FFF limit was imposed later). The UTF-8 encoding
5eafe189 516on ASCII platforms for these large code points begins with a byte containing
949cf498
KW
5170xFE or 0xFF. The UTF8_DISALLOW_FE_FF flag will cause them to be treated as
518malformations, while allowing smaller above-Unicode code points. (Of course
519UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER will treat all above-Unicode code points, including these,
520as malformations.) Similarly, UTF8_WARN_FE_FF acts just like the other WARN
521flags, but applies just to these code points.
522
523All other code points corresponding to Unicode characters, including private
524use and those yet to be assigned, are never considered malformed and never
525warn.
67e989fb 526
9041c2e3
NIS
527Most code should use utf8_to_uvchr() rather than call this directly.
528
37607a96
PK
529=cut
530*/
67e989fb 531
a0ed51b3 532UV
7fc63493 533Perl_utf8n_to_uvuni(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags)
a0ed51b3 534{
97aff369 535 dVAR;
d4c19fe8 536 const U8 * const s0 = s;
9c5ffd7c 537 UV uv = *s, ouv = 0;
ba210ebe 538 STRLEN len = 1;
949cf498 539 bool dowarn = ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8);
7fc63493 540 const UV startbyte = *s;
ba210ebe 541 STRLEN expectlen = 0;
a0dbb045 542 U32 warning = 0;
949cf498 543 SV* sv = NULL;
a0dbb045 544
7918f24d
NC
545 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8N_TO_UVUNI;
546
949cf498 547/* This list is a superset of the UTF8_ALLOW_XXX. */
a0dbb045
JH
548
549#define UTF8_WARN_EMPTY 1
550#define UTF8_WARN_CONTINUATION 2
551#define UTF8_WARN_NON_CONTINUATION 3
f9bc8ed7
KW
552#define UTF8_WARN_SHORT 4
553#define UTF8_WARN_OVERFLOW 5
554#define UTF8_WARN_LONG 6
a0dbb045
JH
555
556 if (curlen == 0 &&
557 !(flags & UTF8_ALLOW_EMPTY)) {
558 warning = UTF8_WARN_EMPTY;
0c443dc2
JH
559 goto malformed;
560 }
561
1d72bdf6 562 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
a0ed51b3
LW
563 if (retlen)
564 *retlen = 1;
c4d5f83a 565 return (UV) (NATIVE_TO_UTF(*s));
a0ed51b3 566 }
67e989fb 567
421a8bf2 568 if (UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(uv) &&
fcc8fcf6 569 !(flags & UTF8_ALLOW_CONTINUATION)) {
a0dbb045 570 warning = UTF8_WARN_CONTINUATION;
ba210ebe
JH
571 goto malformed;
572 }
573
421a8bf2 574 if (UTF8_IS_START(uv) && curlen > 1 && !UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(s[1]) &&
fcc8fcf6 575 !(flags & UTF8_ALLOW_NON_CONTINUATION)) {
a0dbb045 576 warning = UTF8_WARN_NON_CONTINUATION;
ba210ebe
JH
577 goto malformed;
578 }
9041c2e3 579
1d72bdf6 580#ifdef EBCDIC
75383841 581 uv = NATIVE_TO_UTF(uv);
1d72bdf6 582#else
949cf498
KW
583 if (uv == 0xfe || uv == 0xff) {
584 if (flags & (UTF8_WARN_SUPER|UTF8_WARN_FE_FF)) {
111d382d 585 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "Code point beginning with byte 0x%02"UVXf" is not Unicode, and not portable", uv));
949cf498
KW
586 flags &= ~UTF8_WARN_SUPER; /* Only warn once on this problem */
587 }
588 if (flags & (UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER|UTF8_DISALLOW_FE_FF)) {
589 goto malformed;
590 }
a0ed51b3 591 }
1d72bdf6
NIS
592#endif
593
ba210ebe
JH
594 if (!(uv & 0x20)) { len = 2; uv &= 0x1f; }
595 else if (!(uv & 0x10)) { len = 3; uv &= 0x0f; }
596 else if (!(uv & 0x08)) { len = 4; uv &= 0x07; }
597 else if (!(uv & 0x04)) { len = 5; uv &= 0x03; }
1d72bdf6
NIS
598#ifdef EBCDIC
599 else if (!(uv & 0x02)) { len = 6; uv &= 0x01; }
600 else { len = 7; uv &= 0x01; }
601#else
ba210ebe
JH
602 else if (!(uv & 0x02)) { len = 6; uv &= 0x01; }
603 else if (!(uv & 0x01)) { len = 7; uv = 0; }
1d72bdf6
NIS
604 else { len = 13; uv = 0; } /* whoa! */
605#endif
606
a0ed51b3
LW
607 if (retlen)
608 *retlen = len;
9041c2e3 609
ba210ebe
JH
610 expectlen = len;
611
fcc8fcf6
JH
612 if ((curlen < expectlen) &&
613 !(flags & UTF8_ALLOW_SHORT)) {
a0dbb045 614 warning = UTF8_WARN_SHORT;
ba210ebe
JH
615 goto malformed;
616 }
617
618 len--;
a0ed51b3 619 s++;
949cf498 620 ouv = uv; /* ouv is the value from the previous iteration */
ba210ebe 621
a0ed51b3 622 while (len--) {
421a8bf2
JH
623 if (!UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*s) &&
624 !(flags & UTF8_ALLOW_NON_CONTINUATION)) {
a0dbb045
JH
625 s--;
626 warning = UTF8_WARN_NON_CONTINUATION;
ba210ebe 627 goto malformed;
a0ed51b3
LW
628 }
629 else
8850bf83 630 uv = UTF8_ACCUMULATE(uv, *s);
949cf498
KW
631 if (!(uv > ouv)) { /* If the value didn't grow from the previous
632 iteration, something is horribly wrong */
a0dbb045
JH
633 /* These cannot be allowed. */
634 if (uv == ouv) {
75dbc644 635 if (expectlen != 13 && !(flags & UTF8_ALLOW_LONG)) {
a0dbb045
JH
636 warning = UTF8_WARN_LONG;
637 goto malformed;
638 }
639 }
640 else { /* uv < ouv */
641 /* This cannot be allowed. */
642 warning = UTF8_WARN_OVERFLOW;
643 goto malformed;
644 }
ba210ebe
JH
645 }
646 s++;
647 ouv = uv;
648 }
649
949cf498 650 if ((expectlen > (STRLEN)UNISKIP(uv)) && !(flags & UTF8_ALLOW_LONG)) {
a0dbb045 651 warning = UTF8_WARN_LONG;
ba210ebe 652 goto malformed;
949cf498
KW
653 } else if (flags & (UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE|UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE)) {
654 if (UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv)) {
655 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE) {
111d382d 656 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "UTF-16 surrogate U+%04"UVXf"", uv));
949cf498
KW
657 }
658 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE) {
659 goto disallowed;
660 }
661 }
662 else if (UNICODE_IS_NONCHAR(uv)) {
663 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR ) {
111d382d 664 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "Unicode non-character U+%04"UVXf" is illegal for open interchange", uv));
949cf498
KW
665 }
666 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR) {
667 goto disallowed;
668 }
669 }
670 else if ((uv > PERL_UNICODE_MAX)) {
671 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_SUPER|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_SUPER) {
111d382d 672 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "Code point 0x%04"UVXf" is not Unicode, may not be portable", uv));
949cf498
KW
673 }
674 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER) {
675 goto disallowed;
676 }
677 }
678
679 /* Here, this is not considered a malformed character, so drop through
680 * to return it */
a0ed51b3 681 }
ba210ebe 682
a0ed51b3 683 return uv;
ba210ebe 684
949cf498
KW
685disallowed: /* Is disallowed, but otherwise not malformed. 'sv' will have been
686 set if there is to be a warning. */
687 if (!sv) {
688 dowarn = 0;
689 }
690
ba210ebe
JH
691malformed:
692
fcc8fcf6 693 if (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY) {
ba210ebe 694 if (retlen)
10edeb5d 695 *retlen = ((STRLEN) -1);
ba210ebe
JH
696 return 0;
697 }
698
a0dbb045 699 if (dowarn) {
949cf498 700 if (! sv) {
5b311467 701 sv = newSVpvs_flags("Malformed UTF-8 character ", SVs_TEMP);
949cf498 702 }
5b311467 703
5e3d7cf5
KW
704 switch (warning) {
705 case 0: /* Intentionally empty. */ break;
706 case UTF8_WARN_EMPTY:
707 sv_catpvs(sv, "(empty string)");
708 break;
709 case UTF8_WARN_CONTINUATION:
710 Perl_sv_catpvf(aTHX_ sv, "(unexpected continuation byte 0x%02"UVxf", with no preceding start byte)", uv);
711 break;
712 case UTF8_WARN_NON_CONTINUATION:
713 if (s == s0)
714 Perl_sv_catpvf(aTHX_ sv, "(unexpected non-continuation byte 0x%02"UVxf", immediately after start byte 0x%02"UVxf")",
715 (UV)s[1], startbyte);
716 else {
717 const int len = (int)(s-s0);
718 Perl_sv_catpvf(aTHX_ sv, "(unexpected non-continuation byte 0x%02"UVxf", %d byte%s after start byte 0x%02"UVxf", expected %d bytes)",
719 (UV)s[1], len, len > 1 ? "s" : "", startbyte, (int)expectlen);
720 }
721
722 break;
723 case UTF8_WARN_SHORT:
724 Perl_sv_catpvf(aTHX_ sv, "(%d byte%s, need %d, after start byte 0x%02"UVxf")",
725 (int)curlen, curlen == 1 ? "" : "s", (int)expectlen, startbyte);
726 expectlen = curlen; /* distance for caller to skip */
727 break;
728 case UTF8_WARN_OVERFLOW:
729 Perl_sv_catpvf(aTHX_ sv, "(overflow at 0x%"UVxf", byte 0x%02x, after start byte 0x%02"UVxf")",
730 ouv, *s, startbyte);
731 break;
732 case UTF8_WARN_LONG:
733 Perl_sv_catpvf(aTHX_ sv, "(%d byte%s, need %d, after start byte 0x%02"UVxf")",
734 (int)expectlen, expectlen == 1 ? "": "s", UNISKIP(uv), startbyte);
735 break;
736 default:
737 sv_catpvs(sv, "(unknown reason)");
738 break;
739 }
a0dbb045 740
949cf498 741 if (sv) {
44f8325f 742 const char * const s = SvPVX_const(sv);
a0dbb045
JH
743
744 if (PL_op)
9014280d 745 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
53e06cf0 746 "%s in %s", s, OP_DESC(PL_op));
a0dbb045 747 else
9014280d 748 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8), "%s", s);
a0dbb045
JH
749 }
750 }
751
ba210ebe 752 if (retlen)
28d3d195 753 *retlen = expectlen ? expectlen : len;
ba210ebe 754
28d3d195 755 return 0;
a0ed51b3
LW
756}
757
8e84507e 758/*
87cea99e 759=for apidoc utf8_to_uvchr
9041c2e3 760
6ee84de2 761Returns the native code point of the first character in the string C<s>
1e54db1a 762which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<retlen> will be set to the
9041c2e3
NIS
763length, in bytes, of that character.
764
1e54db1a 765If C<s> does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character, zero is
9041c2e3
NIS
766returned and retlen is set, if possible, to -1.
767
768=cut
769*/
770
ae0e24b1 771
9041c2e3 772UV
7fc63493 773Perl_utf8_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)
9041c2e3 774{
7918f24d
NC
775 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVCHR;
776
1754c1a1 777 return utf8n_to_uvchr(s, UTF8_MAXBYTES, retlen,
ae0e24b1 778 ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) ? 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY);
9041c2e3
NIS
779}
780
781/*
87cea99e 782=for apidoc utf8_to_uvuni
9041c2e3
NIS
783
784Returns the Unicode code point of the first character in the string C<s>
1e54db1a 785which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<retlen> will be set to the
9041c2e3
NIS
786length, in bytes, of that character.
787
2bbc8d55 788This function should only be used when the returned UV is considered
9041c2e3
NIS
789an index into the Unicode semantic tables (e.g. swashes).
790
1e54db1a 791If C<s> does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character, zero is
ba210ebe 792returned and retlen is set, if possible, to -1.
8e84507e
NIS
793
794=cut
795*/
796
797UV
7fc63493 798Perl_utf8_to_uvuni(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)
8e84507e 799{
7918f24d
NC
800 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVUNI;
801
9041c2e3 802 /* Call the low level routine asking for checks */
89ebb4a3 803 return Perl_utf8n_to_uvuni(aTHX_ s, UTF8_MAXBYTES, retlen,
ae0e24b1 804 ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) ? 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY);
8e84507e
NIS
805}
806
b76347f2 807/*
87cea99e 808=for apidoc utf8_length
b76347f2
JH
809
810Return the length of the UTF-8 char encoded string C<s> in characters.
02eb7b47
JH
811Stops at C<e> (inclusive). If C<e E<lt> s> or if the scan would end
812up past C<e>, croaks.
b76347f2
JH
813
814=cut
815*/
816
817STRLEN
35a4481c 818Perl_utf8_length(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *e)
b76347f2 819{
97aff369 820 dVAR;
b76347f2
JH
821 STRLEN len = 0;
822
7918f24d
NC
823 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_LENGTH;
824
8850bf83
JH
825 /* Note: cannot use UTF8_IS_...() too eagerly here since e.g.
826 * the bitops (especially ~) can create illegal UTF-8.
827 * In other words: in Perl UTF-8 is not just for Unicode. */
828
a3b680e6
AL
829 if (e < s)
830 goto warn_and_return;
b76347f2 831 while (s < e) {
8e91ec7f
AV
832 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*s))
833 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
834 else
835 s++;
836 len++;
837 }
838
839 if (e != s) {
840 len--;
841 warn_and_return:
9b387841
NC
842 if (PL_op)
843 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
844 "%s in %s", unees, OP_DESC(PL_op));
845 else
61a12c31 846 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8), "%s", unees);
b76347f2
JH
847 }
848
849 return len;
850}
851
b06226ff 852/*
87cea99e 853=for apidoc utf8_distance
b06226ff 854
1e54db1a 855Returns the number of UTF-8 characters between the UTF-8 pointers C<a>
b06226ff
JH
856and C<b>.
857
858WARNING: use only if you *know* that the pointers point inside the
859same UTF-8 buffer.
860
37607a96
PK
861=cut
862*/
a0ed51b3 863
02eb7b47 864IV
35a4481c 865Perl_utf8_distance(pTHX_ const U8 *a, const U8 *b)
a0ed51b3 866{
7918f24d
NC
867 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_DISTANCE;
868
bf1665bc 869 return (a < b) ? -1 * (IV) utf8_length(a, b) : (IV) utf8_length(b, a);
a0ed51b3
LW
870}
871
b06226ff 872/*
87cea99e 873=for apidoc utf8_hop
b06226ff 874
8850bf83
JH
875Return the UTF-8 pointer C<s> displaced by C<off> characters, either
876forward or backward.
b06226ff
JH
877
878WARNING: do not use the following unless you *know* C<off> is within
8850bf83
JH
879the UTF-8 data pointed to by C<s> *and* that on entry C<s> is aligned
880on the first byte of character or just after the last byte of a character.
b06226ff 881
37607a96
PK
882=cut
883*/
a0ed51b3
LW
884
885U8 *
4373e329 886Perl_utf8_hop(pTHX_ const U8 *s, I32 off)
a0ed51b3 887{
7918f24d
NC
888 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_HOP;
889
96a5add6 890 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
8850bf83
JH
891 /* Note: cannot use UTF8_IS_...() too eagerly here since e.g
892 * the bitops (especially ~) can create illegal UTF-8.
893 * In other words: in Perl UTF-8 is not just for Unicode. */
894
a0ed51b3
LW
895 if (off >= 0) {
896 while (off--)
897 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
898 }
899 else {
900 while (off++) {
901 s--;
8850bf83
JH
902 while (UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*s))
903 s--;
a0ed51b3
LW
904 }
905 }
4373e329 906 return (U8 *)s;
a0ed51b3
LW
907}
908
6940069f 909/*
fed3ba5d
NC
910=for apidoc bytes_cmp_utf8
911
912Compares the sequence of characters (stored as octets) in b, blen with the
913sequence of characters (stored as UTF-8) in u, ulen. Returns 0 if they are
914equal, -1 or -2 if the first string is less than the second string, +1 or +2
915if the first string is greater than the second string.
916
917-1 or +1 is returned if the shorter string was identical to the start of the
918longer string. -2 or +2 is returned if the was a difference between characters
919within the strings.
920
921=cut
922*/
923
924int
925Perl_bytes_cmp_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *b, STRLEN blen, const U8 *u, STRLEN ulen)
926{
927 const U8 *const bend = b + blen;
928 const U8 *const uend = u + ulen;
929
930 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_CMP_UTF8;
931
932 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
933
934 while (b < bend && u < uend) {
935 U8 c = *u++;
936 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
937 if (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c)) {
938 if (u < uend) {
939 U8 c1 = *u++;
940 if (UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c1)) {
356979f4 941 c = UNI_TO_NATIVE(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(c, c1));
fed3ba5d
NC
942 } else {
943 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
944 "Malformed UTF-8 character "
945 "(unexpected non-continuation byte 0x%02x"
946 ", immediately after start byte 0x%02x)"
947 /* Dear diag.t, it's in the pod. */
948 "%s%s", c1, c,
949 PL_op ? " in " : "",
950 PL_op ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : "");
951 return -2;
952 }
953 } else {
954 if (PL_op)
955 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
956 "%s in %s", unees, OP_DESC(PL_op));
957 else
61a12c31 958 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8), "%s", unees);
fed3ba5d
NC
959 return -2; /* Really want to return undef :-) */
960 }
961 } else {
962 return -2;
963 }
964 }
965 if (*b != c) {
966 return *b < c ? -2 : +2;
967 }
968 ++b;
969 }
970
971 if (b == bend && u == uend)
972 return 0;
973
974 return b < bend ? +1 : -1;
975}
976
977/*
87cea99e 978=for apidoc utf8_to_bytes
6940069f 979
2bbc8d55 980Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> from UTF-8 into native byte encoding.
246fae53
MG
981Unlike C<bytes_to_utf8>, this over-writes the original string, and
982updates len to contain the new length.
67e989fb 983Returns zero on failure, setting C<len> to -1.
6940069f 984
95be277c
NC
985If you need a copy of the string, see C<bytes_from_utf8>.
986
6940069f
GS
987=cut
988*/
989
990U8 *
37607a96 991Perl_utf8_to_bytes(pTHX_ U8 *s, STRLEN *len)
6940069f 992{
d4c19fe8
AL
993 U8 * const save = s;
994 U8 * const send = s + *len;
6940069f 995 U8 *d;
246fae53 996
7918f24d
NC
997 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_BYTES;
998
1e54db1a 999 /* ensure valid UTF-8 and chars < 256 before updating string */
d4c19fe8 1000 while (s < send) {
dcad2880
JH
1001 U8 c = *s++;
1002
1d72bdf6
NIS
1003 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c) &&
1004 (!UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c) || (s >= send)
1005 || !(c = *s++) || !UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c))) {
10edeb5d 1006 *len = ((STRLEN) -1);
dcad2880
JH
1007 return 0;
1008 }
246fae53 1009 }
dcad2880
JH
1010
1011 d = s = save;
6940069f 1012 while (s < send) {
ed646e6e 1013 STRLEN ulen;
9041c2e3 1014 *d++ = (U8)utf8_to_uvchr(s, &ulen);
ed646e6e 1015 s += ulen;
6940069f
GS
1016 }
1017 *d = '\0';
246fae53 1018 *len = d - save;
6940069f
GS
1019 return save;
1020}
1021
1022/*
87cea99e 1023=for apidoc bytes_from_utf8
f9a63242 1024
2bbc8d55 1025Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> from UTF-8 into native byte encoding.
35a4481c 1026Unlike C<utf8_to_bytes> but like C<bytes_to_utf8>, returns a pointer to
ef9edfd0
JH
1027the newly-created string, and updates C<len> to contain the new
1028length. Returns the original string if no conversion occurs, C<len>
1029is unchanged. Do nothing if C<is_utf8> points to 0. Sets C<is_utf8> to
2bbc8d55
SP
10300 if C<s> is converted or consisted entirely of characters that are invariant
1031in utf8 (i.e., US-ASCII on non-EBCDIC machines).
f9a63242 1032
37607a96
PK
1033=cut
1034*/
f9a63242
JH
1035
1036U8 *
e1ec3a88 1037Perl_bytes_from_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *len, bool *is_utf8)
f9a63242 1038{
f9a63242 1039 U8 *d;
e1ec3a88
AL
1040 const U8 *start = s;
1041 const U8 *send;
f9a63242
JH
1042 I32 count = 0;
1043
7918f24d
NC
1044 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_FROM_UTF8;
1045
96a5add6 1046 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
f9a63242 1047 if (!*is_utf8)
73d840c0 1048 return (U8 *)start;
f9a63242 1049
1e54db1a 1050 /* ensure valid UTF-8 and chars < 256 before converting string */
f9a63242 1051 for (send = s + *len; s < send;) {
e1ec3a88 1052 U8 c = *s++;
1d72bdf6 1053 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
db42d148
NIS
1054 if (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c) && s < send &&
1055 (c = *s++) && UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c))
1056 count++;
1057 else
73d840c0 1058 return (U8 *)start;
db42d148 1059 }
f9a63242
JH
1060 }
1061
35da51f7 1062 *is_utf8 = FALSE;
f9a63242 1063
212542aa 1064 Newx(d, (*len) - count + 1, U8);
ef9edfd0 1065 s = start; start = d;
f9a63242
JH
1066 while (s < send) {
1067 U8 c = *s++;
c4d5f83a
NIS
1068 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
1069 /* Then it is two-byte encoded */
356979f4 1070 c = UNI_TO_NATIVE(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(c, *s++));
c4d5f83a
NIS
1071 }
1072 *d++ = c;
f9a63242
JH
1073 }
1074 *d = '\0';
1075 *len = d - start;
73d840c0 1076 return (U8 *)start;
f9a63242
JH
1077}
1078
1079/*
87cea99e 1080=for apidoc bytes_to_utf8
6940069f 1081
ff97e5cf
KW
1082Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> bytes from the native encoding into
1083UTF-8.
6662521e 1084Returns a pointer to the newly-created string, and sets C<len> to
ff97e5cf 1085reflect the new length in bytes.
6940069f 1086
2bbc8d55
SP
1087A NUL character will be written after the end of the string.
1088
1089If you want to convert to UTF-8 from encodings other than
1090the native (Latin1 or EBCDIC),
c9ada85f
JH
1091see sv_recode_to_utf8().
1092
497711e7 1093=cut
6940069f
GS
1094*/
1095
c682ebef
FC
1096/* This logic is duplicated in sv_catpvn_flags, so any bug fixes will
1097 likewise need duplication. */
1098
6940069f 1099U8*
35a4481c 1100Perl_bytes_to_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *len)
6940069f 1101{
35a4481c 1102 const U8 * const send = s + (*len);
6940069f
GS
1103 U8 *d;
1104 U8 *dst;
7918f24d
NC
1105
1106 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_TO_UTF8;
96a5add6 1107 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
6940069f 1108
212542aa 1109 Newx(d, (*len) * 2 + 1, U8);
6940069f
GS
1110 dst = d;
1111
1112 while (s < send) {
35a4481c 1113 const UV uv = NATIVE_TO_ASCII(*s++);
c4d5f83a 1114 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv))
eb160463 1115 *d++ = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE(uv);
6940069f 1116 else {
eb160463
GS
1117 *d++ = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(uv);
1118 *d++ = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(uv);
6940069f
GS
1119 }
1120 }
1121 *d = '\0';
6662521e 1122 *len = d-dst;
6940069f
GS
1123 return dst;
1124}
1125
a0ed51b3 1126/*
dea0fc0b 1127 * Convert native (big-endian) or reversed (little-endian) UTF-16 to UTF-8.
a0ed51b3
LW
1128 *
1129 * Destination must be pre-extended to 3/2 source. Do not use in-place.
1130 * We optimize for native, for obvious reasons. */
1131
1132U8*
dea0fc0b 1133Perl_utf16_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8* p, U8* d, I32 bytelen, I32 *newlen)
a0ed51b3 1134{
dea0fc0b
JH
1135 U8* pend;
1136 U8* dstart = d;
1137
7918f24d
NC
1138 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF16_TO_UTF8;
1139
dea0fc0b 1140 if (bytelen & 1)
f5992bc4 1141 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen %"UVuf, (UV)bytelen);
dea0fc0b
JH
1142
1143 pend = p + bytelen;
1144
a0ed51b3 1145 while (p < pend) {
dea0fc0b
JH
1146 UV uv = (p[0] << 8) + p[1]; /* UTF-16BE */
1147 p += 2;
a0ed51b3 1148 if (uv < 0x80) {
e294cc5d
JH
1149#ifdef EBCDIC
1150 *d++ = UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv);
1151#else
eb160463 1152 *d++ = (U8)uv;
e294cc5d 1153#endif
a0ed51b3
LW
1154 continue;
1155 }
1156 if (uv < 0x800) {
eb160463
GS
1157 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 6) | 0xc0);
1158 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
1159 continue;
1160 }
52b9aa85 1161 if (uv >= 0xd800 && uv <= 0xdbff) { /* surrogates */
01ea242b 1162 if (p >= pend) {
dea0fc0b 1163 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
01ea242b
NC
1164 } else {
1165 UV low = (p[0] << 8) + p[1];
1166 p += 2;
52b9aa85 1167 if (low < 0xdc00 || low > 0xdfff)
01ea242b
NC
1168 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
1169 uv = ((uv - 0xd800) << 10) + (low - 0xdc00) + 0x10000;
1170 }
dbde1951
NC
1171 } else if (uv >= 0xdc00 && uv <= 0xdfff) {
1172 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
a0ed51b3
LW
1173 }
1174 if (uv < 0x10000) {
eb160463
GS
1175 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 12) | 0xe0);
1176 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
1177 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
1178 continue;
1179 }
1180 else {
eb160463
GS
1181 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 18) | 0xf0);
1182 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
1183 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
1184 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
1185 continue;
1186 }
1187 }
dea0fc0b 1188 *newlen = d - dstart;
a0ed51b3
LW
1189 return d;
1190}
1191
1192/* Note: this one is slightly destructive of the source. */
1193
1194U8*
dea0fc0b 1195Perl_utf16_to_utf8_reversed(pTHX_ U8* p, U8* d, I32 bytelen, I32 *newlen)
a0ed51b3
LW
1196{
1197 U8* s = (U8*)p;
d4c19fe8 1198 U8* const send = s + bytelen;
7918f24d
NC
1199
1200 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF16_TO_UTF8_REVERSED;
1201
e0ea5e2d
NC
1202 if (bytelen & 1)
1203 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: utf16_to_utf8_reversed: odd bytelen %"UVuf,
1204 (UV)bytelen);
1205
a0ed51b3 1206 while (s < send) {
d4c19fe8 1207 const U8 tmp = s[0];
a0ed51b3
LW
1208 s[0] = s[1];
1209 s[1] = tmp;
1210 s += 2;
1211 }
dea0fc0b 1212 return utf16_to_utf8(p, d, bytelen, newlen);
a0ed51b3
LW
1213}
1214
c3fd2246
KW
1215/* for now these are all defined (inefficiently) in terms of the utf8 versions.
1216 * Note that the macros in handy.h that call these short-circuit calling them
1217 * for Latin-1 range inputs */
a0ed51b3
LW
1218
1219bool
84afefe6 1220Perl_is_uni_alnum(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1221{
89ebb4a3 1222 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1223 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1224 return is_utf8_alnum(tmpbuf);
1225}
1226
1227bool
84afefe6 1228Perl_is_uni_idfirst(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1229{
89ebb4a3 1230 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1231 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1232 return is_utf8_idfirst(tmpbuf);
1233}
1234
1235bool
84afefe6 1236Perl_is_uni_alpha(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1237{
89ebb4a3 1238 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1239 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1240 return is_utf8_alpha(tmpbuf);
1241}
1242
1243bool
84afefe6 1244Perl_is_uni_ascii(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05 1245{
bc39fe24 1246 return isASCII(c);
4d61ec05
GS
1247}
1248
1249bool
84afefe6 1250Perl_is_uni_space(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1251{
89ebb4a3 1252 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1253 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1254 return is_utf8_space(tmpbuf);
1255}
1256
1257bool
84afefe6 1258Perl_is_uni_digit(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1259{
89ebb4a3 1260 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1261 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1262 return is_utf8_digit(tmpbuf);
1263}
1264
1265bool
84afefe6 1266Perl_is_uni_upper(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1267{
89ebb4a3 1268 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1269 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1270 return is_utf8_upper(tmpbuf);
1271}
1272
1273bool
84afefe6 1274Perl_is_uni_lower(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1275{
89ebb4a3 1276 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1277 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1278 return is_utf8_lower(tmpbuf);
1279}
1280
1281bool
84afefe6 1282Perl_is_uni_cntrl(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1283{
7b952154 1284 return isCNTRL_L1(c);
b8c5462f
JH
1285}
1286
1287bool
84afefe6 1288Perl_is_uni_graph(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1289{
89ebb4a3 1290 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1291 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
b8c5462f
JH
1292 return is_utf8_graph(tmpbuf);
1293}
1294
1295bool
84afefe6 1296Perl_is_uni_print(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1297{
89ebb4a3 1298 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1299 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1300 return is_utf8_print(tmpbuf);
1301}
1302
b8c5462f 1303bool
84afefe6 1304Perl_is_uni_punct(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1305{
89ebb4a3 1306 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1307 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
b8c5462f
JH
1308 return is_utf8_punct(tmpbuf);
1309}
1310
4d61ec05 1311bool
84afefe6 1312Perl_is_uni_xdigit(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05 1313{
89ebb4a3 1314 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
230880c1 1315 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
4d61ec05
GS
1316 return is_utf8_xdigit(tmpbuf);
1317}
1318
3a4c58c9
KW
1319UV
1320Perl__to_upper_title_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const char S_or_s)
1321{
1322 /* We have the latin1-range values compiled into the core, so just use
1323 * those, converting the result to utf8. The only difference between upper
1324 * and title case in this range is that LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S is
1325 * either "SS" or "Ss". Which one to use is passed into the routine in
1326 * 'S_or_s' to avoid a test */
1327
1328 UV converted = toUPPER_LATIN1_MOD(c);
1329
1330 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UPPER_TITLE_LATIN1;
1331
1332 assert(S_or_s == 'S' || S_or_s == 's');
1333
1334 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) { /* No difference between the two for
1335 characters in this range */
1336 *p = (U8) converted;
1337 *lenp = 1;
1338 return converted;
1339 }
1340
1341 /* toUPPER_LATIN1_MOD gives the correct results except for three outliers,
1342 * which it maps to one of them, so as to only have to have one check for
1343 * it in the main case */
1344 if (UNLIKELY(converted == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS)) {
1345 switch (c) {
1346 case LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS:
1347 converted = LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS;
1348 break;
1349 case MICRO_SIGN:
1350 converted = GREEK_CAPITAL_LETTER_MU;
1351 break;
1352 case LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S:
1353 *(p)++ = 'S';
1354 *p = S_or_s;
1355 *lenp = 2;
1356 return 'S';
1357 default:
1358 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: to_upper_title_latin1 did not expect '%c' to map to '%c'", c, LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS);
1359 /* NOTREACHED */
1360 }
1361 }
1362
1363 *(p)++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
1364 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
1365 *lenp = 2;
1366
1367 return converted;
1368}
1369
50bda2c3
KW
1370/* Call the function to convert a UTF-8 encoded character to the specified case.
1371 * Note that there may be more than one character in the result.
1372 * INP is a pointer to the first byte of the input character
1373 * OUTP will be set to the first byte of the string of changed characters. It
1374 * needs to have space for UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes
1375 * LENP will be set to the length in bytes of the string of changed characters
1376 *
1377 * The functions return the ordinal of the first character in the string of OUTP */
1378#define CALL_UPPER_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_toupper, "ToUc", "utf8::ToSpecUpper")
1379#define CALL_TITLE_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_totitle, "ToTc", "utf8::ToSpecTitle")
1380#define CALL_LOWER_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_tolower, "ToLc", "utf8::ToSpecLower")
1381
1382/* This additionally has the input parameter SPECIALS, which if non-zero will
1383 * cause this to use the SPECIALS hash for folding (meaning get full case
1384 * folding); otherwise, when zero, this implies a simple case fold */
1385#define CALL_FOLD_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP, SPECIALS) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_tofold, "ToCf", (SPECIALS) ? "utf8::ToSpecFold" : NULL)
c3fd2246 1386
84afefe6
JH
1387UV
1388Perl_to_uni_upper(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 1389{
3a4c58c9
KW
1390 dVAR;
1391
c3fd2246
KW
1392 /* Convert the Unicode character whose ordinal is c to its uppercase
1393 * version and store that in UTF-8 in p and its length in bytes in lenp.
1394 * Note that the p needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since
1395 * the changed version may be longer than the original character.
1396 *
1397 * The ordinal of the first character of the changed version is returned
1398 * (but note, as explained above, that there may be more.) */
1399
7918f24d
NC
1400 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_UPPER;
1401
3a4c58c9
KW
1402 if (c < 256) {
1403 return _to_upper_title_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 'S');
1404 }
1405
0ebc6274 1406 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
3a4c58c9 1407 return CALL_UPPER_CASE(p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
1408}
1409
84afefe6
JH
1410UV
1411Perl_to_uni_title(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 1412{
3a4c58c9
KW
1413 dVAR;
1414
7918f24d
NC
1415 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_TITLE;
1416
3a4c58c9
KW
1417 if (c < 256) {
1418 return _to_upper_title_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 's');
1419 }
1420
0ebc6274 1421 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
3a4c58c9 1422 return CALL_TITLE_CASE(p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
1423}
1424
afc16117
KW
1425STATIC U8
1426S_to_lower_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
1427{
1428 /* We have the latin1-range values compiled into the core, so just use
1429 * those, converting the result to utf8. Since the result is always just
1430 * one character, we allow p to be NULL */
1431
1432 U8 converted = toLOWER_LATIN1(c);
1433
1434 if (p != NULL) {
1435 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) {
1436 *p = converted;
1437 *lenp = 1;
1438 }
1439 else {
1440 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
1441 *(p+1) = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
1442 *lenp = 2;
1443 }
1444 }
1445 return converted;
1446}
1447
84afefe6
JH
1448UV
1449Perl_to_uni_lower(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 1450{
968c5e6a
KW
1451 dVAR;
1452
7918f24d
NC
1453 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_LOWER;
1454
afc16117
KW
1455 if (c < 256) {
1456 return to_lower_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp);
bca00c02
KW
1457 }
1458
afc16117 1459 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
968c5e6a 1460 return CALL_LOWER_CASE(p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
1461}
1462
84afefe6 1463UV
a1dde8de
KW
1464Perl__to_fold_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const U8 flags)
1465{
1466 UV converted;
1467
1468 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_FOLD_LATIN1;
1469
1470 if (c == MICRO_SIGN) {
1471 converted = GREEK_SMALL_LETTER_MU;
1472 }
1473 else if (flags && c == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S) {
1474 *(p)++ = 's';
1475 *p = 's';
1476 *lenp = 2;
1477 return 's';
1478 }
1479 else { /* In this range the fold of all other characters is their lower
1480 case */
1481 converted = toLOWER_LATIN1(c);
1482 }
1483
1484 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) {
1485 *p = (U8) converted;
1486 *lenp = 1;
1487 }
1488 else {
1489 *(p)++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
1490 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
1491 *lenp = 2;
1492 }
1493
1494 return converted;
1495}
1496
1497UV
36bb2ab6 1498Perl__to_uni_fold_flags(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, U8 flags)
84afefe6 1499{
36bb2ab6 1500 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UNI_FOLD_FLAGS;
7918f24d 1501
a1dde8de
KW
1502 if (c < 256) {
1503 return _to_fold_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, flags);
1504 }
1505
0ebc6274 1506 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
a1dde8de 1507 return CALL_FOLD_CASE(p, p, lenp, flags);
84afefe6
JH
1508}
1509
a0ed51b3
LW
1510/* for now these all assume no locale info available for Unicode > 255 */
1511
1512bool
84afefe6 1513Perl_is_uni_alnum_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1514{
1515 return is_uni_alnum(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1516}
1517
1518bool
84afefe6 1519Perl_is_uni_idfirst_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1520{
1521 return is_uni_idfirst(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1522}
1523
1524bool
84afefe6 1525Perl_is_uni_alpha_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1526{
1527 return is_uni_alpha(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1528}
1529
1530bool
84afefe6 1531Perl_is_uni_ascii_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05
GS
1532{
1533 return is_uni_ascii(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1534}
1535
1536bool
84afefe6 1537Perl_is_uni_space_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1538{
1539 return is_uni_space(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1540}
1541
1542bool
84afefe6 1543Perl_is_uni_digit_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1544{
1545 return is_uni_digit(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1546}
1547
1548bool
84afefe6 1549Perl_is_uni_upper_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1550{
1551 return is_uni_upper(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1552}
1553
1554bool
84afefe6 1555Perl_is_uni_lower_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1556{
1557 return is_uni_lower(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1558}
1559
1560bool
84afefe6 1561Perl_is_uni_cntrl_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f
JH
1562{
1563 return is_uni_cntrl(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1564}
1565
1566bool
84afefe6 1567Perl_is_uni_graph_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f
JH
1568{
1569 return is_uni_graph(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1570}
1571
1572bool
84afefe6 1573Perl_is_uni_print_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1574{
1575 return is_uni_print(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1576}
1577
b8c5462f 1578bool
84afefe6 1579Perl_is_uni_punct_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f
JH
1580{
1581 return is_uni_punct(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1582}
1583
4d61ec05 1584bool
84afefe6 1585Perl_is_uni_xdigit_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05
GS
1586{
1587 return is_uni_xdigit(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1588}
1589
b7ac61fa
JH
1590U32
1591Perl_to_uni_upper_lc(pTHX_ U32 c)
1592{
ee099d14
JH
1593 /* XXX returns only the first character -- do not use XXX */
1594 /* XXX no locale support yet */
1595 STRLEN len;
89ebb4a3 1596 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
ee099d14 1597 return (U32)to_uni_upper(c, tmpbuf, &len);
b7ac61fa
JH
1598}
1599
1600U32
1601Perl_to_uni_title_lc(pTHX_ U32 c)
1602{
ee099d14
JH
1603 /* XXX returns only the first character XXX -- do not use XXX */
1604 /* XXX no locale support yet */
1605 STRLEN len;
89ebb4a3 1606 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
ee099d14 1607 return (U32)to_uni_title(c, tmpbuf, &len);
b7ac61fa
JH
1608}
1609
1610U32
1611Perl_to_uni_lower_lc(pTHX_ U32 c)
1612{
ee099d14
JH
1613 /* XXX returns only the first character -- do not use XXX */
1614 /* XXX no locale support yet */
1615 STRLEN len;
89ebb4a3 1616 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
ee099d14 1617 return (U32)to_uni_lower(c, tmpbuf, &len);
b7ac61fa
JH
1618}
1619
7452cf6a 1620static bool
5141f98e 1621S_is_utf8_common(pTHX_ const U8 *const p, SV **swash,
bde6a22d
NC
1622 const char *const swashname)
1623{
97aff369 1624 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1625
1626 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_COMMON;
1627
bde6a22d
NC
1628 if (!is_utf8_char(p))
1629 return FALSE;
1630 if (!*swash)
711a919c 1631 *swash = swash_init("utf8", swashname, &PL_sv_undef, 1, 0);
bde6a22d
NC
1632 return swash_fetch(*swash, p, TRUE) != 0;
1633}
1634
1635bool
7fc63493 1636Perl_is_utf8_alnum(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 1637{
97aff369 1638 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1639
1640 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_ALNUM;
1641
671c33bf
NC
1642 /* NOTE: "IsWord", not "IsAlnum", since Alnum is a true
1643 * descendant of isalnum(3), in other words, it doesn't
1644 * contain the '_'. --jhi */
d4c19fe8 1645 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_alnum, "IsWord");
a0ed51b3
LW
1646}
1647
1648bool
7fc63493 1649Perl_is_utf8_idfirst(pTHX_ const U8 *p) /* The naming is historical. */
a0ed51b3 1650{
97aff369 1651 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1652
1653 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_IDFIRST;
1654
82686b01
JH
1655 if (*p == '_')
1656 return TRUE;
bde6a22d 1657 /* is_utf8_idstart would be more logical. */
d4c19fe8 1658 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idstart, "IdStart");
82686b01
JH
1659}
1660
1661bool
c11ff943
KW
1662Perl_is_utf8_xidfirst(pTHX_ const U8 *p) /* The naming is historical. */
1663{
1664 dVAR;
1665
1666 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_XIDFIRST;
1667
1668 if (*p == '_')
1669 return TRUE;
1670 /* is_utf8_idstart would be more logical. */
1671 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_xidstart, "XIdStart");
1672}
1673
1674bool
b6912c02
KW
1675Perl__is_utf8__perl_idstart(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
1676{
1677 dVAR;
1678
1679 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8__PERL_IDSTART;
1680
1681 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_perl_idstart, "_Perl_IDStart");
1682}
1683
1684bool
7fc63493 1685Perl_is_utf8_idcont(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
82686b01 1686{
97aff369 1687 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1688
1689 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_IDCONT;
1690
d4c19fe8 1691 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idcont, "IdContinue");
a0ed51b3
LW
1692}
1693
1694bool
c11ff943
KW
1695Perl_is_utf8_xidcont(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
1696{
1697 dVAR;
1698
1699 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_XIDCONT;
1700
c11ff943
KW
1701 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idcont, "XIdContinue");
1702}
1703
1704bool
7fc63493 1705Perl_is_utf8_alpha(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 1706{
97aff369 1707 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1708
1709 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_ALPHA;
1710
d4c19fe8 1711 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_alpha, "IsAlpha");
a0ed51b3
LW
1712}
1713
1714bool
7fc63493 1715Perl_is_utf8_ascii(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 1716{
97aff369 1717 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1718
1719 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_ASCII;
1720
bc39fe24
KW
1721 /* ASCII characters are the same whether in utf8 or not. So the macro
1722 * works on both utf8 and non-utf8 representations. */
1723 return isASCII(*p);
b8c5462f
JH
1724}
1725
1726bool
7fc63493 1727Perl_is_utf8_space(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 1728{
97aff369 1729 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1730
1731 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_SPACE;
1732
a34094a9 1733 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_space, "IsXPerlSpace");
a0ed51b3
LW
1734}
1735
1736bool
d1eb3177
YO
1737Perl_is_utf8_perl_space(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
1738{
1739 dVAR;
1740
1741 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PERL_SPACE;
1742
c4428693
KW
1743 /* Only true if is an ASCII space-like character, and ASCII is invariant
1744 * under utf8, so can just use the macro */
1745 return isSPACE_A(*p);
d1eb3177
YO
1746}
1747
1748bool
1749Perl_is_utf8_perl_word(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
1750{
1751 dVAR;
1752
1753 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PERL_WORD;
1754
c4428693
KW
1755 /* Only true if is an ASCII word character, and ASCII is invariant
1756 * under utf8, so can just use the macro */
1757 return isWORDCHAR_A(*p);
d1eb3177
YO
1758}
1759
1760bool
7fc63493 1761Perl_is_utf8_digit(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 1762{
97aff369 1763 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1764
1765 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_DIGIT;
1766
d4c19fe8 1767 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_digit, "IsDigit");
a0ed51b3
LW
1768}
1769
1770bool
d1eb3177
YO
1771Perl_is_utf8_posix_digit(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
1772{
1773 dVAR;
1774
1775 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_POSIX_DIGIT;
1776
c4428693
KW
1777 /* Only true if is an ASCII digit character, and ASCII is invariant
1778 * under utf8, so can just use the macro */
1779 return isDIGIT_A(*p);
d1eb3177
YO
1780}
1781
1782bool
7fc63493 1783Perl_is_utf8_upper(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 1784{
97aff369 1785 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1786
1787 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_UPPER;
1788
d4c19fe8 1789 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_upper, "IsUppercase");
a0ed51b3
LW
1790}
1791
1792bool
7fc63493 1793Perl_is_utf8_lower(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 1794{
97aff369 1795 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1796
1797 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_LOWER;
1798
d4c19fe8 1799 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_lower, "IsLowercase");
a0ed51b3
LW
1800}
1801
1802bool
7fc63493 1803Perl_is_utf8_cntrl(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 1804{
97aff369 1805 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1806
1807 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CNTRL;
1808
7b952154
KW
1809 if (isASCII(*p)) {
1810 return isCNTRL_A(*p);
1811 }
1812
1813 /* All controls are in Latin1 */
1814 if (! UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p)) {
1815 return 0;
1816 }
1817 return isCNTRL_L1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)));
b8c5462f
JH
1818}
1819
1820bool
7fc63493 1821Perl_is_utf8_graph(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 1822{
97aff369 1823 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1824
1825 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_GRAPH;
1826
d4c19fe8 1827 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_graph, "IsGraph");
b8c5462f
JH
1828}
1829
1830bool
7fc63493 1831Perl_is_utf8_print(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 1832{
97aff369 1833 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1834
1835 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PRINT;
1836
d4c19fe8 1837 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_print, "IsPrint");
a0ed51b3
LW
1838}
1839
1840bool
7fc63493 1841Perl_is_utf8_punct(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 1842{
97aff369 1843 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1844
1845 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PUNCT;
1846
d4c19fe8 1847 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_punct, "IsPunct");
b8c5462f
JH
1848}
1849
1850bool
7fc63493 1851Perl_is_utf8_xdigit(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 1852{
97aff369 1853 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1854
1855 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_XDIGIT;
1856
d1eb3177 1857 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_xdigit, "IsXDigit");
b8c5462f
JH
1858}
1859
1860bool
7fc63493 1861Perl_is_utf8_mark(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 1862{
97aff369 1863 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1864
1865 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_MARK;
1866
d4c19fe8 1867 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_mark, "IsM");
a0ed51b3
LW
1868}
1869
37e2e78e
KW
1870bool
1871Perl_is_utf8_X_begin(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
1872{
1873 dVAR;
1874
1875 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_X_BEGIN;
1876
1877 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_X_begin, "_X_Begin");
1878}
1879
1880bool
1881Perl_is_utf8_X_extend(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
1882{
1883 dVAR;
1884
1885 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_X_EXTEND;
1886
1887 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_X_extend, "_X_Extend");
1888}
1889
1890bool
1891Perl_is_utf8_X_prepend(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
1892{
1893 dVAR;
1894
1895 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_X_PREPEND;
1896
1897 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_X_prepend, "GCB=Prepend");
1898}
1899
1900bool
1901Perl_is_utf8_X_non_hangul(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
1902{
1903 dVAR;
1904
1905 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_X_NON_HANGUL;
1906
1907 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_X_non_hangul, "HST=Not_Applicable");
1908}
1909
1910bool
1911Perl_is_utf8_X_L(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
1912{
1913 dVAR;
1914
1915 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_X_L;
1916
1917 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_X_L, "GCB=L");
1918}
1919
1920bool
1921Perl_is_utf8_X_LV(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
1922{
1923 dVAR;
1924
1925 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_X_LV;
1926
1927 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_X_LV, "GCB=LV");
1928}
1929
1930bool
1931Perl_is_utf8_X_LVT(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
1932{
1933 dVAR;
1934
1935 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_X_LVT;
1936
1937 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_X_LVT, "GCB=LVT");
1938}
1939
1940bool
1941Perl_is_utf8_X_T(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
1942{
1943 dVAR;
1944
1945 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_X_T;
1946
1947 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_X_T, "GCB=T");
1948}
1949
1950bool
1951Perl_is_utf8_X_V(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
1952{
1953 dVAR;
1954
1955 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_X_V;
1956
1957 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_X_V, "GCB=V");
1958}
1959
1960bool
1961Perl_is_utf8_X_LV_LVT_V(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
1962{
1963 dVAR;
1964
1965 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_X_LV_LVT_V;
1966
1967 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_X_LV_LVT_V, "_X_LV_LVT_V");
1968}
1969
6b5c0936 1970/*
87cea99e 1971=for apidoc to_utf8_case
6b5c0936
JH
1972
1973The "p" contains the pointer to the UTF-8 string encoding
1974the character that is being converted.
1975
1976The "ustrp" is a pointer to the character buffer to put the
1977conversion result to. The "lenp" is a pointer to the length
1978of the result.
1979
0134edef 1980The "swashp" is a pointer to the swash to use.
6b5c0936 1981
36bb2ab6 1982Both the special and normal mappings are stored in lib/unicore/To/Foo.pl,
8fe4d5b2 1983and loaded by SWASHNEW, using lib/utf8_heavy.pl. The special (usually,
0134edef 1984but not always, a multicharacter mapping), is tried first.
6b5c0936 1985
0134edef
JH
1986The "special" is a string like "utf8::ToSpecLower", which means the
1987hash %utf8::ToSpecLower. The access to the hash is through
1988Perl_to_utf8_case().
6b5c0936 1989
0134edef
JH
1990The "normal" is a string like "ToLower" which means the swash
1991%utf8::ToLower.
1992
1993=cut */
6b5c0936 1994
2104c8d9 1995UV
9a957fbc
AL
1996Perl_to_utf8_case(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp,
1997 SV **swashp, const char *normal, const char *special)
a0ed51b3 1998{
97aff369 1999 dVAR;
89ebb4a3 2000 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
0134edef 2001 STRLEN len = 0;
aec46f14 2002 const UV uv0 = utf8_to_uvchr(p, NULL);
1feea2c7
JH
2003 /* The NATIVE_TO_UNI() and UNI_TO_NATIVE() mappings
2004 * are necessary in EBCDIC, they are redundant no-ops
2005 * in ASCII-ish platforms, and hopefully optimized away. */
f54cb97a 2006 const UV uv1 = NATIVE_TO_UNI(uv0);
7918f24d
NC
2007
2008 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UTF8_CASE;
2009
9ae3ac1a
KW
2010 /* Note that swash_fetch() doesn't output warnings for these because it
2011 * assumes we will */
8457b38f 2012 if (uv1 >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST) {
9ae3ac1a 2013 if (uv1 <= UNICODE_SURROGATE_LAST) {
8457b38f
KW
2014 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_SURROGATE)) {
2015 const char* desc = (PL_op) ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : normal;
2016 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE),
2017 "Operation \"%s\" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%04"UVXf"", desc, uv1);
2018 }
9ae3ac1a
KW
2019 }
2020 else if (UNICODE_IS_SUPER(uv1)) {
8457b38f
KW
2021 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_NON_UNICODE)) {
2022 const char* desc = (PL_op) ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : normal;
2023 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE),
2024 "Operation \"%s\" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%04"UVXf"", desc, uv1);
2025 }
9ae3ac1a
KW
2026 }
2027
2028 /* Note that non-characters are perfectly legal, so no warning should
2029 * be given */
2030 }
2031
1feea2c7 2032 uvuni_to_utf8(tmpbuf, uv1);
0134edef
JH
2033
2034 if (!*swashp) /* load on-demand */
2035 *swashp = swash_init("utf8", normal, &PL_sv_undef, 4, 0);
2036
a6f87d8c 2037 if (special) {
0134edef 2038 /* It might be "special" (sometimes, but not always,
2a37f04d 2039 * a multicharacter mapping) */
6673a63c 2040 HV * const hv = get_hv(special, 0);
b08cf34e
JH
2041 SV **svp;
2042
35da51f7 2043 if (hv &&
b08cf34e
JH
2044 (svp = hv_fetch(hv, (const char*)tmpbuf, UNISKIP(uv1), FALSE)) &&
2045 (*svp)) {
cfd0369c 2046 const char *s;
47654450 2047
cfd0369c 2048 s = SvPV_const(*svp, len);
47654450
JH
2049 if (len == 1)
2050 len = uvuni_to_utf8(ustrp, NATIVE_TO_UNI(*(U8*)s)) - ustrp;
2a37f04d 2051 else {
2f9475ad
JH
2052#ifdef EBCDIC
2053 /* If we have EBCDIC we need to remap the characters
2054 * since any characters in the low 256 are Unicode
2055 * code points, not EBCDIC. */
7cda7a3d 2056 U8 *t = (U8*)s, *tend = t + len, *d;
2f9475ad
JH
2057
2058 d = tmpbuf;
b08cf34e 2059 if (SvUTF8(*svp)) {
2f9475ad
JH
2060 STRLEN tlen = 0;
2061
2062 while (t < tend) {
d4c19fe8 2063 const UV c = utf8_to_uvchr(t, &tlen);
2f9475ad
JH
2064 if (tlen > 0) {
2065 d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
2066 t += tlen;
2067 }
2068 else
2069 break;
2070 }
2071 }
2072 else {
36fec512
JH
2073 while (t < tend) {
2074 d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, UNI_TO_NATIVE(*t));
2075 t++;
2076 }
2f9475ad
JH
2077 }
2078 len = d - tmpbuf;
2079 Copy(tmpbuf, ustrp, len, U8);
2080#else
d2dcd0fb 2081 Copy(s, ustrp, len, U8);
2f9475ad 2082#endif
29e98929 2083 }
983ffd37 2084 }
0134edef
JH
2085 }
2086
2087 if (!len && *swashp) {
d4c19fe8
AL
2088 const UV uv2 = swash_fetch(*swashp, tmpbuf, TRUE);
2089
0134edef
JH
2090 if (uv2) {
2091 /* It was "normal" (a single character mapping). */
d4c19fe8 2092 const UV uv3 = UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv2);
e9101d72 2093 len = uvchr_to_utf8(ustrp, uv3) - ustrp;
2a37f04d
JH
2094 }
2095 }
1feea2c7 2096
37e2e78e
KW
2097 if (!len) /* Neither: just copy. In other words, there was no mapping
2098 defined, which means that the code point maps to itself */
0134edef
JH
2099 len = uvchr_to_utf8(ustrp, uv0) - ustrp;
2100
2a37f04d
JH
2101 if (lenp)
2102 *lenp = len;
2103
0134edef 2104 return len ? utf8_to_uvchr(ustrp, 0) : 0;
a0ed51b3
LW
2105}
2106
d3e79532 2107/*
87cea99e 2108=for apidoc to_utf8_upper
d3e79532
JH
2109
2110Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its uppercase version and
2111store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in bytes in lenp. Note
89ebb4a3
JH
2112that the ustrp needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since
2113the uppercase version may be longer than the original character.
d3e79532
JH
2114
2115The first character of the uppercased version is returned
2116(but note, as explained above, that there may be more.)
2117
2118=cut */
2119
2104c8d9 2120UV
7fc63493 2121Perl_to_utf8_upper(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 2122{
97aff369 2123 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2124
2125 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UTF8_UPPER;
2126
3a4c58c9
KW
2127 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
2128 return _to_upper_title_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp, 'S');
2129 }
2130 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
2131 return _to_upper_title_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
2132 ustrp, lenp, 'S');
2133 }
2134
50bda2c3 2135 return CALL_UPPER_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp);
983ffd37 2136}
a0ed51b3 2137
d3e79532 2138/*
87cea99e 2139=for apidoc to_utf8_title
d3e79532
JH
2140
2141Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its titlecase version and
2142store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in bytes in lenp. Note
89ebb4a3
JH
2143that the ustrp needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the
2144titlecase version may be longer than the original character.
d3e79532
JH
2145
2146The first character of the titlecased version is returned
2147(but note, as explained above, that there may be more.)
2148
2149=cut */
2150
983ffd37 2151UV
7fc63493 2152Perl_to_utf8_title(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)
983ffd37 2153{
97aff369 2154 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2155
2156 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UTF8_TITLE;
2157
3a4c58c9
KW
2158 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
2159 return _to_upper_title_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp, 's');
2160 }
2161 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
2162 return _to_upper_title_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
2163 ustrp, lenp, 's');
2164 }
2165
50bda2c3 2166 return CALL_TITLE_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
2167}
2168
d3e79532 2169/*
87cea99e 2170=for apidoc to_utf8_lower
d3e79532
JH
2171
2172Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its lowercase version and
2173store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in bytes in lenp. Note
89ebb4a3
JH
2174that the ustrp needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the
2175lowercase version may be longer than the original character.
d3e79532
JH
2176
2177The first character of the lowercased version is returned
2178(but note, as explained above, that there may be more.)
2179
2180=cut */
2181
2104c8d9 2182UV
7fc63493 2183Perl_to_utf8_lower(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 2184{
97aff369 2185 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2186
2187 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UTF8_LOWER;
2188
968c5e6a
KW
2189 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
2190 return to_lower_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp);
2191 }
2192 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
2193 return to_lower_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)), ustrp, lenp);
2194 }
2195
50bda2c3 2196 return CALL_LOWER_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp);
b4e400f9
JH
2197}
2198
d3e79532 2199/*
87cea99e 2200=for apidoc to_utf8_fold
d3e79532
JH
2201
2202Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its foldcase version and
2203store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in bytes in lenp. Note
89ebb4a3 2204that the ustrp needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the
d3e79532
JH
2205foldcase version may be longer than the original character (up to
2206three characters).
2207
2208The first character of the foldcased version is returned
2209(but note, as explained above, that there may be more.)
2210
2211=cut */
2212
36bb2ab6
KW
2213/* Not currently externally documented is 'flags', which currently is non-zero
2214 * if full case folds are to be used; otherwise simple folds */
2215
b4e400f9 2216UV
36bb2ab6 2217Perl__to_utf8_fold_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, U8 flags)
b4e400f9 2218{
97aff369 2219 dVAR;
7918f24d 2220
36bb2ab6 2221 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_FOLD_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2222
a1dde8de
KW
2223 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
2224 return _to_fold_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp, flags);
2225 }
2226 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
2227 return _to_fold_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
2228 ustrp, lenp, flags);
2229 }
2230
50bda2c3 2231 return CALL_FOLD_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp, flags);
a0ed51b3
LW
2232}
2233
711a919c 2234/* Note:
ed8b0411 2235 * Returns a "swash" which is a hash described in utf8.c:S_swash_fetch().
711a919c
ST
2236 * C<pkg> is a pointer to a package name for SWASHNEW, should be "utf8".
2237 * For other parameters, see utf8::SWASHNEW in lib/utf8_heavy.pl.
2238 */
a0ed51b3 2239SV*
7fc63493 2240Perl_swash_init(pTHX_ const char* pkg, const char* name, SV *listsv, I32 minbits, I32 none)
a0ed51b3 2241{
27da23d5 2242 dVAR;
a0ed51b3 2243 SV* retval;
8e84507e 2244 dSP;
7fc63493
AL
2245 const size_t pkg_len = strlen(pkg);
2246 const size_t name_len = strlen(name);
da51bb9b 2247 HV * const stash = gv_stashpvn(pkg, pkg_len, 0);
f8be5cf0 2248 SV* errsv_save;
88c57d91 2249 GV *method;
ce3b816e 2250
7918f24d
NC
2251 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWASH_INIT;
2252
96ca9f55
DM
2253 PUSHSTACKi(PERLSI_MAGIC);
2254 ENTER;
ec34a119 2255 SAVEHINTS();
96ca9f55 2256 save_re_context();
ba6ff154
FC
2257 if (PL_parser && PL_parser->error_count)
2258 SAVEI8(PL_parser->error_count), PL_parser->error_count = 0;
88c57d91
NC
2259 method = gv_fetchmeth(stash, "SWASHNEW", 8, -1);
2260 if (!method) { /* demand load utf8 */
ce3b816e 2261 ENTER;
f8be5cf0 2262 errsv_save = newSVsv(ERRSV);
dc0c6abb
NC
2263 /* It is assumed that callers of this routine are not passing in any
2264 user derived data. */
2265 /* Need to do this after save_re_context() as it will set PL_tainted to
2266 1 while saving $1 etc (see the code after getrx: in Perl_magic_get).
2267 Even line to create errsv_save can turn on PL_tainted. */
2268 SAVEBOOL(PL_tainted);
2269 PL_tainted = 0;
71bed85a 2270 Perl_load_module(aTHX_ PERL_LOADMOD_NOIMPORT, newSVpvn(pkg,pkg_len),
a0714e2c 2271 NULL);
f8be5cf0
JH
2272 if (!SvTRUE(ERRSV))
2273 sv_setsv(ERRSV, errsv_save);
2274 SvREFCNT_dec(errsv_save);
ce3b816e
GS
2275 LEAVE;
2276 }
2277 SPAGAIN;
a0ed51b3
LW
2278 PUSHMARK(SP);
2279 EXTEND(SP,5);
6e449a3a
MHM
2280 mPUSHp(pkg, pkg_len);
2281 mPUSHp(name, name_len);
a0ed51b3 2282 PUSHs(listsv);
6e449a3a
MHM
2283 mPUSHi(minbits);
2284 mPUSHi(none);
a0ed51b3 2285 PUTBACK;
f8be5cf0 2286 errsv_save = newSVsv(ERRSV);
88c57d91
NC
2287 /* If we already have a pointer to the method, no need to use call_method()
2288 to repeat the lookup. */
2289 if (method ? call_sv(MUTABLE_SV(method), G_SCALAR)
8b563eef 2290 : call_sv(newSVpvs_flags("SWASHNEW", SVs_TEMP), G_SCALAR | G_METHOD))
8e84507e 2291 retval = newSVsv(*PL_stack_sp--);
a0ed51b3 2292 else
e24b16f9 2293 retval = &PL_sv_undef;
f8be5cf0
JH
2294 if (!SvTRUE(ERRSV))
2295 sv_setsv(ERRSV, errsv_save);
2296 SvREFCNT_dec(errsv_save);
a0ed51b3
LW
2297 LEAVE;
2298 POPSTACK;
923e4eb5 2299 if (IN_PERL_COMPILETIME) {
623e6609 2300 CopHINTS_set(PL_curcop, PL_hints);
a0ed51b3 2301 }
bc45ce41
JH
2302 if (!SvROK(retval) || SvTYPE(SvRV(retval)) != SVt_PVHV) {
2303 if (SvPOK(retval))
35c1215d 2304 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't find Unicode property definition \"%"SVf"\"",
be2597df 2305 SVfARG(retval));
cea2e8a9 2306 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "SWASHNEW didn't return an HV ref");
bc45ce41 2307 }
a0ed51b3
LW
2308 return retval;
2309}
2310
035d37be
JH
2311
2312/* This API is wrong for special case conversions since we may need to
2313 * return several Unicode characters for a single Unicode character
2314 * (see lib/unicore/SpecCase.txt) The SWASHGET in lib/utf8_heavy.pl is
2315 * the lower-level routine, and it is similarly broken for returning
38684baa
KW
2316 * multiple values. --jhi
2317 * For those, you should use to_utf8_case() instead */
979f2922 2318/* Now SWASHGET is recasted into S_swash_get in this file. */
680c470c
ST
2319
2320/* Note:
2321 * Returns the value of property/mapping C<swash> for the first character
2322 * of the string C<ptr>. If C<do_utf8> is true, the string C<ptr> is
2323 * assumed to be in utf8. If C<do_utf8> is false, the string C<ptr> is
2324 * assumed to be in native 8-bit encoding. Caches the swatch in C<swash>.
af2af982
KW
2325 *
2326 * A "swash" is a hash which contains initially the keys/values set up by
2327 * SWASHNEW. The purpose is to be able to completely represent a Unicode
2328 * property for all possible code points. Things are stored in a compact form
2329 * (see utf8_heavy.pl) so that calculation is required to find the actual
2330 * property value for a given code point. As code points are looked up, new
2331 * key/value pairs are added to the hash, so that the calculation doesn't have
2332 * to ever be re-done. Further, each calculation is done, not just for the
2333 * desired one, but for a whole block of code points adjacent to that one.
2334 * For binary properties on ASCII machines, the block is usually for 64 code
2335 * points, starting with a code point evenly divisible by 64. Thus if the
2336 * property value for code point 257 is requested, the code goes out and
2337 * calculates the property values for all 64 code points between 256 and 319,
2338 * and stores these as a single 64-bit long bit vector, called a "swatch",
2339 * under the key for code point 256. The key is the UTF-8 encoding for code
2340 * point 256, minus the final byte. Thus, if the length of the UTF-8 encoding
2341 * for a code point is 13 bytes, the key will be 12 bytes long. If the value
2342 * for code point 258 is then requested, this code realizes that it would be
2343 * stored under the key for 256, and would find that value and extract the
2344 * relevant bit, offset from 256.
2345 *
2346 * Non-binary properties are stored in as many bits as necessary to represent
2347 * their values (32 currently, though the code is more general than that), not
2348 * as single bits, but the principal is the same: the value for each key is a
2349 * vector that encompasses the property values for all code points whose UTF-8
2350 * representations are represented by the key. That is, for all code points
2351 * whose UTF-8 representations are length N bytes, and the key is the first N-1
2352 * bytes of that.
680c470c 2353 */
a0ed51b3 2354UV
680c470c 2355Perl_swash_fetch(pTHX_ SV *swash, const U8 *ptr, bool do_utf8)
a0ed51b3 2356{
27da23d5 2357 dVAR;
ef8f7699 2358 HV *const hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(swash));
3568d838
JH
2359 U32 klen;
2360 U32 off;
a0ed51b3 2361 STRLEN slen;
7d85a32c 2362 STRLEN needents;
cfd0369c 2363 const U8 *tmps = NULL;
a0ed51b3 2364 U32 bit;
979f2922 2365 SV *swatch;
3568d838 2366 U8 tmputf8[2];
35da51f7 2367 const UV c = NATIVE_TO_ASCII(*ptr);
3568d838 2368
7918f24d
NC
2369 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWASH_FETCH;
2370
3568d838 2371 if (!do_utf8 && !UNI_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
979f2922
ST
2372 tmputf8[0] = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(c);
2373 tmputf8[1] = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(c);
2374 ptr = tmputf8;
3568d838
JH
2375 }
2376 /* Given a UTF-X encoded char 0xAA..0xYY,0xZZ
37e2e78e 2377 * then the "swatch" is a vec() for all the chars which start
3568d838
JH
2378 * with 0xAA..0xYY
2379 * So the key in the hash (klen) is length of encoded char -1
2380 */
2381 klen = UTF8SKIP(ptr) - 1;
2382 off = ptr[klen];
a0ed51b3 2383
979f2922 2384 if (klen == 0) {
37e2e78e 2385 /* If char is invariant then swatch is for all the invariant chars
1e54db1a 2386 * In both UTF-8 and UTF-8-MOD that happens to be UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK
7d85a32c 2387 */
979f2922
ST
2388 needents = UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK;
2389 off = NATIVE_TO_UTF(ptr[klen]);
2390 }
2391 else {
7d85a32c 2392 /* If char is encoded then swatch is for the prefix */
979f2922
ST
2393 needents = (1 << UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT);
2394 off = NATIVE_TO_UTF(ptr[klen]) & UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK;
2395 }
7d85a32c 2396
a0ed51b3
LW
2397 /*
2398 * This single-entry cache saves about 1/3 of the utf8 overhead in test
2399 * suite. (That is, only 7-8% overall over just a hash cache. Still,
2400 * it's nothing to sniff at.) Pity we usually come through at least
2401 * two function calls to get here...
2402 *
2403 * NB: this code assumes that swatches are never modified, once generated!
2404 */
2405
3568d838 2406 if (hv == PL_last_swash_hv &&
a0ed51b3 2407 klen == PL_last_swash_klen &&
27da23d5 2408 (!klen || memEQ((char *)ptr, (char *)PL_last_swash_key, klen)) )
a0ed51b3
LW
2409 {
2410 tmps = PL_last_swash_tmps;
2411 slen = PL_last_swash_slen;
2412 }
2413 else {
2414 /* Try our second-level swatch cache, kept in a hash. */
e1ec3a88 2415 SV** svp = hv_fetch(hv, (const char*)ptr, klen, FALSE);
a0ed51b3 2416
979f2922
ST
2417 /* If not cached, generate it via swash_get */
2418 if (!svp || !SvPOK(*svp)
2419 || !(tmps = (const U8*)SvPV_const(*svp, slen))) {
2b9d42f0
NIS
2420 /* We use utf8n_to_uvuni() as we want an index into
2421 Unicode tables, not a native character number.
2422 */
aec46f14 2423 const UV code_point = utf8n_to_uvuni(ptr, UTF8_MAXBYTES, 0,
872c91ae
JH
2424 ckWARN(WARN_UTF8) ?
2425 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY);
680c470c 2426 swatch = swash_get(swash,
979f2922 2427 /* On EBCDIC & ~(0xA0-1) isn't a useful thing to do */
361ee0fe 2428 (klen) ? (code_point & ~((UV)needents - 1)) : 0,
979f2922
ST
2429 needents);
2430
923e4eb5 2431 if (IN_PERL_COMPILETIME)
623e6609 2432 CopHINTS_set(PL_curcop, PL_hints);
a0ed51b3 2433
979f2922 2434 svp = hv_store(hv, (const char *)ptr, klen, swatch, 0);
a0ed51b3 2435
979f2922
ST
2436 if (!svp || !(tmps = (U8*)SvPV(*svp, slen))
2437 || (slen << 3) < needents)
660a4616 2438 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_fetch got improper swatch");
a0ed51b3
LW
2439 }
2440
2441 PL_last_swash_hv = hv;
16d8f38a 2442 assert(klen <= sizeof(PL_last_swash_key));
eac04b2e 2443 PL_last_swash_klen = (U8)klen;
cfd0369c
NC
2444 /* FIXME change interpvar.h? */
2445 PL_last_swash_tmps = (U8 *) tmps;
a0ed51b3
LW
2446 PL_last_swash_slen = slen;
2447 if (klen)
2448 Copy(ptr, PL_last_swash_key, klen, U8);
2449 }
2450
a410ec23
KW
2451 if (UTF8_IS_SUPER(ptr) && ckWARN_d(WARN_NON_UNICODE)) {
2452 SV** const bitssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "BITS", FALSE);
2453
2454 /* This outputs warnings for binary properties only, assuming that
2455 * to_utf8_case() will output any for non-binary. Also, surrogates
2456 * aren't checked for, as that would warn on things like /\p{Gc=Cs}/ */
2457
2458 if (SvUV(*bitssvp) == 1) {
2459 /* User-defined properties can silently match above-Unicode */
2460 SV** const user_defined_svp = hv_fetchs(hv, "USER_DEFINED", FALSE);
2461 if (! user_defined_svp || ! SvUV(*user_defined_svp)) {
2462 const UV code_point = utf8n_to_uvuni(ptr, UTF8_MAXBYTES, 0, 0);
2463 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE),
2464 "Code point 0x%04"UVXf" is not Unicode, all \\p{} matches fail; all \\P{} matches succeed", code_point);
2465 }
2466 }
2467 }
2468
9faf8d75 2469 switch ((int)((slen << 3) / needents)) {
a0ed51b3
LW
2470 case 1:
2471 bit = 1 << (off & 7);
2472 off >>= 3;
2473 return (tmps[off] & bit) != 0;
2474 case 8:
2475 return tmps[off];
2476 case 16:
2477 off <<= 1;
2478 return (tmps[off] << 8) + tmps[off + 1] ;
2479 case 32:
2480 off <<= 2;
2481 return (tmps[off] << 24) + (tmps[off+1] << 16) + (tmps[off+2] << 8) + tmps[off + 3] ;
2482 }
660a4616 2483 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_fetch got swatch of unexpected bit width");
670f1322 2484 NORETURN_FUNCTION_END;
a0ed51b3 2485}
2b9d42f0 2486
319009ee
KW
2487/* Read a single line of the main body of the swash input text. These are of
2488 * the form:
2489 * 0053 0056 0073
2490 * where each number is hex. The first two numbers form the minimum and
2491 * maximum of a range, and the third is the value associated with the range.
2492 * Not all swashes should have a third number
2493 *
2494 * On input: l points to the beginning of the line to be examined; it points
2495 * to somewhere in the string of the whole input text, and is
2496 * terminated by a \n or the null string terminator.
2497 * lend points to the null terminator of that string
2498 * wants_value is non-zero if the swash expects a third number
2499 * typestr is the name of the swash's mapping, like 'ToLower'
2500 * On output: *min, *max, and *val are set to the values read from the line.
2501 * returns a pointer just beyond the line examined. If there was no
2502 * valid min number on the line, returns lend+1
2503 */
2504
2505STATIC U8*
2506S_swash_scan_list_line(pTHX_ U8* l, U8* const lend, UV* min, UV* max, UV* val,
2507 const bool wants_value, const U8* const typestr)
2508{
2509 const int typeto = typestr[0] == 'T' && typestr[1] == 'o';
2510 STRLEN numlen; /* Length of the number */
02470786
KW
2511 I32 flags = PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT
2512 | PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX
2513 | PERL_SCAN_SILENT_NON_PORTABLE;
319009ee
KW
2514
2515 /* nl points to the next \n in the scan */
2516 U8* const nl = (U8*)memchr(l, '\n', lend - l);
2517
2518 /* Get the first number on the line: the range minimum */
2519 numlen = lend - l;
2520 *min = grok_hex((char *)l, &numlen, &flags, NULL);
2521 if (numlen) /* If found a hex number, position past it */
2522 l += numlen;
2523 else if (nl) { /* Else, go handle next line, if any */
2524 return nl + 1; /* 1 is length of "\n" */
2525 }
2526 else { /* Else, no next line */
2527 return lend + 1; /* to LIST's end at which \n is not found */
2528 }
2529
2530 /* The max range value follows, separated by a BLANK */
2531 if (isBLANK(*l)) {
2532 ++l;
02470786
KW
2533 flags = PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT
2534 | PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX
2535 | PERL_SCAN_SILENT_NON_PORTABLE;
319009ee
KW
2536 numlen = lend - l;
2537 *max = grok_hex((char *)l, &numlen, &flags, NULL);
2538 if (numlen)
2539 l += numlen;
2540 else /* If no value here, it is a single element range */
2541 *max = *min;
2542
2543 /* Non-binary tables have a third entry: what the first element of the
2544 * range maps to */
2545 if (wants_value) {
2546 if (isBLANK(*l)) {
2547 ++l;
02470786
KW
2548 flags = PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT
2549 | PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX
2550 | PERL_SCAN_SILENT_NON_PORTABLE;
319009ee
KW
2551 numlen = lend - l;
2552 *val = grok_hex((char *)l, &numlen, &flags, NULL);
2553 if (numlen)
2554 l += numlen;
2555 else
2556 *val = 0;
2557 }
2558 else {
2559 *val = 0;
2560 if (typeto) {
2561 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s: illegal mapping '%s'",
2562 typestr, l);
2563 }
2564 }
2565 }
2566 else
2567 *val = 0; /* bits == 1, then any val should be ignored */
2568 }
2569 else { /* Nothing following range min, should be single element with no
2570 mapping expected */
2571 *max = *min;
2572 if (wants_value) {
2573 *val = 0;
2574 if (typeto) {
2575 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s: illegal mapping '%s'", typestr, l);
2576 }
2577 }
2578 else
2579 *val = 0; /* bits == 1, then val should be ignored */
2580 }
2581
2582 /* Position to next line if any, or EOF */
2583 if (nl)
2584 l = nl + 1;
2585 else
2586 l = lend;
2587
2588 return l;
2589}
2590
979f2922
ST
2591/* Note:
2592 * Returns a swatch (a bit vector string) for a code point sequence
2593 * that starts from the value C<start> and comprises the number C<span>.
2594 * A C<swash> must be an object created by SWASHNEW (see lib/utf8_heavy.pl).
2595 * Should be used via swash_fetch, which will cache the swatch in C<swash>.
2596 */
2597STATIC SV*
2598S_swash_get(pTHX_ SV* swash, UV start, UV span)
2599{
2600 SV *swatch;
77f9f126 2601 U8 *l, *lend, *x, *xend, *s, *send;
979f2922 2602 STRLEN lcur, xcur, scur;
ef8f7699 2603 HV *const hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(swash));
972dd592
KW
2604
2605 /* The string containing the main body of the table */
017a3ce5 2606 SV** const listsvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "LIST", FALSE);
972dd592 2607
017a3ce5
GA
2608 SV** const typesvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "TYPE", FALSE);
2609 SV** const bitssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "BITS", FALSE);
2610 SV** const nonesvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "NONE", FALSE);
2611 SV** const extssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "EXTRAS", FALSE);
77f9f126 2612 SV** const invert_it_svp = hv_fetchs(hv, "INVERT_IT", FALSE);
0bd48802 2613 const U8* const typestr = (U8*)SvPV_nolen(*typesvp);
0bd48802
AL
2614 const STRLEN bits = SvUV(*bitssvp);
2615 const STRLEN octets = bits >> 3; /* if bits == 1, then octets == 0 */
2616 const UV none = SvUV(*nonesvp);
84ea5ef6 2617 UV end = start + span;
979f2922 2618
7918f24d
NC
2619 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWASH_GET;
2620
979f2922 2621 if (bits != 1 && bits != 8 && bits != 16 && bits != 32) {
660a4616
ST
2622 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_get doesn't expect bits %"UVuf,
2623 (UV)bits);
979f2922
ST
2624 }
2625
84ea5ef6
KW
2626 /* If overflowed, use the max possible */
2627 if (end < start) {
2628 end = UV_MAX;
2629 span = end - start;
2630 }
2631
979f2922 2632 /* create and initialize $swatch */
979f2922 2633 scur = octets ? (span * octets) : (span + 7) / 8;
e524fe40
NC
2634 swatch = newSV(scur);
2635 SvPOK_on(swatch);
979f2922
ST
2636 s = (U8*)SvPVX(swatch);
2637 if (octets && none) {
0bd48802 2638 const U8* const e = s + scur;
979f2922
ST
2639 while (s < e) {
2640 if (bits == 8)
2641 *s++ = (U8)(none & 0xff);
2642 else if (bits == 16) {
2643 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 8) & 0xff);
2644 *s++ = (U8)( none & 0xff);
2645 }
2646 else if (bits == 32) {
2647 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 24) & 0xff);
2648 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 16) & 0xff);
2649 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 8) & 0xff);
2650 *s++ = (U8)( none & 0xff);
2651 }
2652 }
2653 *s = '\0';
2654 }
2655 else {
2656 (void)memzero((U8*)s, scur + 1);
2657 }
2658 SvCUR_set(swatch, scur);
2659 s = (U8*)SvPVX(swatch);
2660
af2af982
KW
2661 /* read $swash->{LIST}. XXX Note that this is a linear scan through a
2662 * sorted list. A binary search would be much more efficient */
979f2922
ST
2663 l = (U8*)SvPV(*listsvp, lcur);
2664 lend = l + lcur;
2665 while (l < lend) {
35da51f7 2666 UV min, max, val;
319009ee
KW
2667 l = S_swash_scan_list_line(aTHX_ l, lend, &min, &max, &val,
2668 cBOOL(octets), typestr);
2669 if (l > lend) {
979f2922
ST
2670 break;
2671 }
2672
972dd592 2673 /* If looking for something beyond this range, go try the next one */
979f2922
ST
2674 if (max < start)
2675 continue;
2676
2677 if (octets) {
35da51f7 2678 UV key;
979f2922
ST
2679 if (min < start) {
2680 if (!none || val < none) {
2681 val += start - min;
2682 }
2683 min = start;
2684 }
2685 for (key = min; key <= max; key++) {
2686 STRLEN offset;
2687 if (key >= end)
2688 goto go_out_list;
6cb05c12
KW
2689 /* XXX If it should ever happen (very unlikely) that we would
2690 * want a non-binary result for the code point at UV_MAX,
2691 * special handling would need to be inserted here, as is done
2692 * below for the binary case */
979f2922
ST
2693 /* offset must be non-negative (start <= min <= key < end) */
2694 offset = octets * (key - start);
2695 if (bits == 8)
2696 s[offset] = (U8)(val & 0xff);
2697 else if (bits == 16) {
2698 s[offset ] = (U8)((val >> 8) & 0xff);
2699 s[offset + 1] = (U8)( val & 0xff);
2700 }
2701 else if (bits == 32) {
2702 s[offset ] = (U8)((val >> 24) & 0xff);
2703 s[offset + 1] = (U8)((val >> 16) & 0xff);
2704 s[offset + 2] = (U8)((val >> 8) & 0xff);
2705 s[offset + 3] = (U8)( val & 0xff);
2706 }
2707
2708 if (!none || val < none)
2709 ++val;
2710 }
2711 }
711a919c 2712 else { /* bits == 1, then val should be ignored */
35da51f7 2713 UV key;
979f2922
ST
2714 if (min < start)
2715 min = start;
6cb05c12
KW
2716
2717 /* Special case when the upper-end is the highest possible code
2718 * point representable on the platform. Otherwise, the code below
2719 * exits before setting this bit. Done here to avoid testing for
2720 * this extremely unlikely possibility in the loop */
2721 if (UNLIKELY(end == UV_MAX && max == UV_MAX)) {
2722 const STRLEN offset = (STRLEN)(max - start);
2723 s[offset >> 3] |= 1 << (offset & 7);
2724 }
979f2922 2725 for (key = min; key <= max; key++) {
0bd48802 2726 const STRLEN offset = (STRLEN)(key - start);
979f2922
ST
2727 if (key >= end)
2728 goto go_out_list;
2729 s[offset >> 3] |= 1 << (offset & 7);
2730 }
2731 }
2732 } /* while */
2733 go_out_list:
2734
9479a769 2735 /* Invert if the data says it should be. Assumes that bits == 1 */
77f9f126 2736 if (invert_it_svp && SvUV(*invert_it_svp)) {
0bda3001
KW
2737
2738 /* Unicode properties should come with all bits above PERL_UNICODE_MAX
2739 * be 0, and their inversion should also be 0, as we don't succeed any
2740 * Unicode property matches for non-Unicode code points */
2741 if (start <= PERL_UNICODE_MAX) {
2742
2743 /* The code below assumes that we never cross the
2744 * Unicode/above-Unicode boundary in a range, as otherwise we would
2745 * have to figure out where to stop flipping the bits. Since this
2746 * boundary is divisible by a large power of 2, and swatches comes
2747 * in small powers of 2, this should be a valid assumption */
2748 assert(start + span - 1 <= PERL_UNICODE_MAX);
2749
507a8485
KW
2750 send = s + scur;
2751 while (s < send) {
2752 *s = ~(*s);
2753 s++;
2754 }
0bda3001 2755 }
77f9f126
KW
2756 }
2757
d73c39c5
KW
2758 /* read $swash->{EXTRAS}
2759 * This code also copied to swash_to_invlist() below */
979f2922
ST
2760 x = (U8*)SvPV(*extssvp, xcur);
2761 xend = x + xcur;
2762 while (x < xend) {
2763 STRLEN namelen;
2764 U8 *namestr;
2765 SV** othersvp;
2766 HV* otherhv;
2767 STRLEN otherbits;
2768 SV **otherbitssvp, *other;
711a919c 2769 U8 *s, *o, *nl;
979f2922
ST
2770 STRLEN slen, olen;
2771
35da51f7 2772 const U8 opc = *x++;
979f2922
ST
2773 if (opc == '\n')
2774 continue;
2775
2776 nl = (U8*)memchr(x, '\n', xend - x);
2777
2778 if (opc != '-' && opc != '+' && opc != '!' && opc != '&') {
2779 if (nl) {
2780 x = nl + 1; /* 1 is length of "\n" */
2781 continue;
2782 }
2783 else {
2784 x = xend; /* to EXTRAS' end at which \n is not found */
2785 break;
2786 }
2787 }
2788
2789 namestr = x;
2790 if (nl) {
2791 namelen = nl - namestr;
2792 x = nl + 1;
2793 }
2794 else {
2795 namelen = xend - namestr;
2796 x = xend;
2797 }
2798
2799 othersvp = hv_fetch(hv, (char *)namestr, namelen, FALSE);
ef8f7699 2800 otherhv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(*othersvp));
017a3ce5 2801 otherbitssvp = hv_fetchs(otherhv, "BITS", FALSE);
979f2922
ST
2802 otherbits = (STRLEN)SvUV(*otherbitssvp);
2803 if (bits < otherbits)
660a4616 2804 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_get found swatch size mismatch");
979f2922
ST
2805
2806 /* The "other" swatch must be destroyed after. */
2807 other = swash_get(*othersvp, start, span);
2808 o = (U8*)SvPV(other, olen);
2809
2810 if (!olen)
660a4616 2811 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_get got improper swatch");
979f2922
ST
2812
2813 s = (U8*)SvPV(swatch, slen);
2814 if (bits == 1 && otherbits == 1) {
2815 if (slen != olen)
660a4616 2816 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_get found swatch length mismatch");
979f2922
ST
2817
2818 switch (opc) {
2819 case '+':
2820 while (slen--)
2821 *s++ |= *o++;
2822 break;
2823 case '!':
2824 while (slen--)
2825 *s++ |= ~*o++;
2826 break;
2827 case '-':
2828 while (slen--)
2829 *s++ &= ~*o++;
2830 break;
2831 case '&':
2832 while (slen--)
2833 *s++ &= *o++;
2834 break;
2835 default:
2836 break;
2837 }
2838 }
711a919c 2839 else {
979f2922
ST
2840 STRLEN otheroctets = otherbits >> 3;
2841 STRLEN offset = 0;
35da51f7 2842 U8* const send = s + slen;
979f2922
ST
2843
2844 while (s < send) {
2845 UV otherval = 0;
2846
2847 if (otherbits == 1) {
2848 otherval = (o[offset >> 3] >> (offset & 7)) & 1;
2849 ++offset;
2850 }
2851 else {
2852 STRLEN vlen = otheroctets;
2853 otherval = *o++;
2854 while (--vlen) {
2855 otherval <<= 8;
2856 otherval |= *o++;
2857 }
2858 }
2859
711a919c 2860 if (opc == '+' && otherval)
6f207bd3 2861 NOOP; /* replace with otherval */
979f2922
ST
2862 else if (opc == '!' && !otherval)
2863 otherval = 1;
2864 else if (opc == '-' && otherval)
2865 otherval = 0;
2866 else if (opc == '&' && !otherval)
2867 otherval = 0;
2868 else {
711a919c 2869 s += octets; /* no replacement */
979f2922
ST
2870 continue;
2871 }
2872
2873 if (bits == 8)
2874 *s++ = (U8)( otherval & 0xff);
2875 else if (bits == 16) {
2876 *s++ = (U8)((otherval >> 8) & 0xff);
2877 *s++ = (U8)( otherval & 0xff);
2878 }
2879 else if (bits == 32) {
2880 *s++ = (U8)((otherval >> 24) & 0xff);
2881 *s++ = (U8)((otherval >> 16) & 0xff);
2882 *s++ = (U8)((otherval >> 8) & 0xff);
2883 *s++ = (U8)( otherval & 0xff);
2884 }
2885 }
2886 }
2887 sv_free(other); /* through with it! */
2888 } /* while */
2889 return swatch;
2890}
2891
064c021d 2892HV*
4c2e1131 2893Perl__swash_inversion_hash(pTHX_ SV* const swash)
064c021d
KW
2894{
2895
5662e334
KW
2896 /* Subject to change or removal. For use only in one place in regcomp.c.
2897 * Can't be used on a property that is subject to user override, as it
2898 * relies on the value of SPECIALS in the swash which would be set by
2899 * utf8_heavy.pl to the hash in the non-overriden file, and hence is not set
2900 * for overridden properties
064c021d
KW
2901 *
2902 * Returns a hash which is the inversion and closure of a swash mapping.
2903 * For example, consider the input lines:
2904 * 004B 006B
2905 * 004C 006C
2906 * 212A 006B
2907 *
2908 * The returned hash would have two keys, the utf8 for 006B and the utf8 for
2909 * 006C. The value for each key is an array. For 006C, the array would
2910 * have a two elements, the utf8 for itself, and for 004C. For 006B, there
2911 * would be three elements in its array, the utf8 for 006B, 004B and 212A.
2912 *
2913 * Essentially, for any code point, it gives all the code points that map to
2914 * it, or the list of 'froms' for that point.
2915 *
5662e334
KW
2916 * Currently it ignores any additions or deletions from other swashes,
2917 * looking at just the main body of the swash, and if there are SPECIALS
2918 * in the swash, at that hash
2919 *
2920 * The specials hash can be extra code points, and most likely consists of
2921 * maps from single code points to multiple ones (each expressed as a string
2922 * of utf8 characters). This function currently returns only 1-1 mappings.
2923 * However consider this possible input in the specials hash:
2924 * "\xEF\xAC\x85" => "\x{0073}\x{0074}", # U+FB05 => 0073 0074
2925 * "\xEF\xAC\x86" => "\x{0073}\x{0074}", # U+FB06 => 0073 0074
2926 *
2927 * Both FB05 and FB06 map to the same multi-char sequence, which we don't
2928 * currently handle. But it also means that FB05 and FB06 are equivalent in
2929 * a 1-1 mapping which we should handle, and this relationship may not be in
2930 * the main table. Therefore this function examines all the multi-char
2931 * sequences and adds the 1-1 mappings that come out of that. */
064c021d
KW
2932
2933 U8 *l, *lend;
2934 STRLEN lcur;
2935 HV *const hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(swash));
2936
2937 /* The string containing the main body of the table */
2938 SV** const listsvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "LIST", FALSE);
2939
2940 SV** const typesvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "TYPE", FALSE);
2941 SV** const bitssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "BITS", FALSE);
2942 SV** const nonesvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "NONE", FALSE);
2943 /*SV** const extssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "EXTRAS", FALSE);*/
2944 const U8* const typestr = (U8*)SvPV_nolen(*typesvp);
2945 const STRLEN bits = SvUV(*bitssvp);
2946 const STRLEN octets = bits >> 3; /* if bits == 1, then octets == 0 */
2947 const UV none = SvUV(*nonesvp);
5662e334 2948 SV **specials_p = hv_fetchs(hv, "SPECIALS", 0);
064c021d
KW
2949
2950 HV* ret = newHV();
2951
2952 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__SWASH_INVERSION_HASH;
2953
2954 /* Must have at least 8 bits to get the mappings */
2955 if (bits != 8 && bits != 16 && bits != 32) {
2956 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_inversion_hash doesn't expect bits %"UVuf,
2957 (UV)bits);
2958 }
2959
5662e334
KW
2960 if (specials_p) { /* It might be "special" (sometimes, but not always, a
2961 mapping to more than one character */
2962
2963 /* Construct an inverse mapping hash for the specials */
2964 HV * const specials_hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(*specials_p));
2965 HV * specials_inverse = newHV();
2966 char *char_from; /* the lhs of the map */
2967 I32 from_len; /* its byte length */
2968 char *char_to; /* the rhs of the map */
2969 I32 to_len; /* its byte length */
2970 SV *sv_to; /* and in a sv */
2971 AV* from_list; /* list of things that map to each 'to' */
2972
2973 hv_iterinit(specials_hv);
2974
2975 /* The keys are the characters (in utf8) that map to the corresponding
2976 * utf8 string value. Iterate through the list creating the inverse
2977 * list. */
2978 while ((sv_to = hv_iternextsv(specials_hv, &char_from, &from_len))) {
2979 SV** listp;
2980 if (! SvPOK(sv_to)) {
2981 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: value returned from hv_iternextsv() unexpectedly is not a string");
2982 }
2983 /*DEBUG_U(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Found mapping from %"UVXf", First char of to is %"UVXf"\n", utf8_to_uvchr((U8*) char_from, 0), utf8_to_uvchr((U8*) SvPVX(sv_to), 0)));*/
2984
2985 /* Each key in the inverse list is a mapped-to value, and the key's
2986 * hash value is a list of the strings (each in utf8) that map to
2987 * it. Those strings are all one character long */
2988 if ((listp = hv_fetch(specials_inverse,
2989 SvPVX(sv_to),
2990 SvCUR(sv_to), 0)))
2991 {
2992 from_list = (AV*) *listp;
2993 }
2994 else { /* No entry yet for it: create one */
2995 from_list = newAV();
2996 if (! hv_store(specials_inverse,
2997 SvPVX(sv_to),
2998 SvCUR(sv_to),
2999 (SV*) from_list, 0))
3000 {
3001 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: hv_store() unexpectedly failed");
3002 }
3003 }
3004
3005 /* Here have the list associated with this 'to' (perhaps newly
3006 * created and empty). Just add to it. Note that we ASSUME that
3007 * the input is guaranteed to not have duplications, so we don't
3008 * check for that. Duplications just slow down execution time. */
3009 av_push(from_list, newSVpvn_utf8(char_from, from_len, TRUE));
3010 }
3011
3012 /* Here, 'specials_inverse' contains the inverse mapping. Go through
3013 * it looking for cases like the FB05/FB06 examples above. There would
3014 * be an entry in the hash like
3015 * 'st' => [ FB05, FB06 ]
3016 * In this example we will create two lists that get stored in the
3017 * returned hash, 'ret':
3018 * FB05 => [ FB05, FB06 ]
3019 * FB06 => [ FB05, FB06 ]
3020 *
3021 * Note that there is nothing to do if the array only has one element.
3022 * (In the normal 1-1 case handled below, we don't have to worry about
3023 * two lists, as everything gets tied to the single list that is
3024 * generated for the single character 'to'. But here, we are omitting
3025 * that list, ('st' in the example), so must have multiple lists.) */
3026 while ((from_list = (AV *) hv_iternextsv(specials_inverse,
3027 &char_to, &to_len)))
3028 {
3029 if (av_len(from_list) > 0) {
3030 int i;
3031
3032 /* We iterate over all combinations of i,j to place each code
3033 * point on each list */
3034 for (i = 0; i <= av_len(from_list); i++) {
3035 int j;
3036 AV* i_list = newAV();
3037 SV** entryp = av_fetch(from_list, i, FALSE);
3038 if (entryp == NULL) {
3039 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: av_fetch() unexpectedly failed");
3040 }
3041 if (hv_fetch(ret, SvPVX(*entryp), SvCUR(*entryp), FALSE)) {
3042 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: unexpected entry for %s", SvPVX(*entryp));
3043 }
3044 if (! hv_store(ret, SvPVX(*entryp), SvCUR(*entryp),
3045 (SV*) i_list, FALSE))
3046 {
3047 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: hv_store() unexpectedly failed");
3048 }
3049
3050 /* For debugging: UV u = utf8_to_uvchr((U8*) SvPVX(*entryp), 0);*/
3051 for (j = 0; j <= av_len(from_list); j++) {
3052 entryp = av_fetch(from_list, j, FALSE);
3053 if (entryp == NULL) {
3054 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: av_fetch() unexpectedly failed");
3055 }
3056
3057 /* When i==j this adds itself to the list */
3058 av_push(i_list, newSVuv(utf8_to_uvchr(
3059 (U8*) SvPVX(*entryp), 0)));
3060 /*DEBUG_U(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Adding %"UVXf" to list for %"UVXf"\n", utf8_to_uvchr((U8*) SvPVX(*entryp), 0), u));*/
3061 }
3062 }
3063 }
3064 }
3065 SvREFCNT_dec(specials_inverse); /* done with it */
3066 } /* End of specials */
3067
064c021d
KW
3068 /* read $swash->{LIST} */
3069 l = (U8*)SvPV(*listsvp, lcur);
3070 lend = l + lcur;
3071
3072 /* Go through each input line */
3073 while (l < lend) {
3074 UV min, max, val;
3075 UV inverse;
3076 l = S_swash_scan_list_line(aTHX_ l, lend, &min, &max, &val,
3077 cBOOL(octets), typestr);
3078 if (l > lend) {
3079 break;
3080 }
3081
3082 /* Each element in the range is to be inverted */
3083 for (inverse = min; inverse <= max; inverse++) {
3084 AV* list;
064c021d
KW
3085 SV** listp;
3086 IV i;
3087 bool found_key = FALSE;
5662e334 3088 bool found_inverse = FALSE;
064c021d
KW
3089
3090 /* The key is the inverse mapping */
3091 char key[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
3092 char* key_end = (char *) uvuni_to_utf8((U8*) key, val);
3093 STRLEN key_len = key_end - key;
3094
064c021d
KW
3095 /* Get the list for the map */
3096 if ((listp = hv_fetch(ret, key, key_len, FALSE))) {
3097 list = (AV*) *listp;
3098 }
3099 else { /* No entry yet for it: create one */
3100 list = newAV();
3101 if (! hv_store(ret, key, key_len, (SV*) list, FALSE)) {
3102 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: hv_store() unexpectedly failed");
3103 }
3104 }
3105
5662e334
KW
3106 /* Look through list to see if this inverse mapping already is
3107 * listed, or if there is a mapping to itself already */
508f7cfa 3108 for (i = 0; i <= av_len(list); i++) {
064c021d
KW
3109 SV** entryp = av_fetch(list, i, FALSE);
3110 SV* entry;
3111 if (entryp == NULL) {
3112 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: av_fetch() unexpectedly failed");
3113 }
3114 entry = *entryp;
5662e334 3115 /*DEBUG_U(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "list for %"UVXf" contains %"UVXf"\n", val, SvUV(entry)));*/
56ca34ca 3116 if (SvUV(entry) == val) {
064c021d 3117 found_key = TRUE;
5662e334
KW
3118 }
3119 if (SvUV(entry) == inverse) {
3120 found_inverse = TRUE;
3121 }
3122
3123 /* No need to continue searching if found everything we are
3124 * looking for */
3125 if (found_key && found_inverse) {
064c021d
KW
3126 break;
3127 }
3128 }
56ca34ca
KW
3129
3130 /* Make sure there is a mapping to itself on the list */
064c021d 3131 if (! found_key) {
d397ff6a 3132 av_push(list, newSVuv(val));
5662e334 3133 /*DEBUG_U(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Adding %"UVXf" to list for %"UVXf"\n", val, val));*/
064c021d
KW
3134 }
3135
3136
3137 /* Simply add the value to the list */
5662e334
KW
3138 if (! found_inverse) {
3139 av_push(list, newSVuv(inverse));
3140 /*DEBUG_U(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Adding %"UVXf" to list for %"UVXf"\n", inverse, val));*/
3141 }
064c021d
KW
3142
3143 /* swash_get() increments the value of val for each element in the
3144 * range. That makes more compact tables possible. You can
3145 * express the capitalization, for example, of all consecutive
3146 * letters with a single line: 0061\t007A\t0041 This maps 0061 to
3147 * 0041, 0062 to 0042, etc. I (khw) have never understood 'none',
bd3f2f94
KW
3148 * and it's not documented; it appears to be used only in
3149 * implementing tr//; I copied the semantics from swash_get(), just
3150 * in case */
064c021d
KW
3151 if (!none || val < none) {
3152 ++val;
3153 }
3154 }
3155 }
3156
3157 return ret;
3158}
3159
a25abddc 3160SV*
d764b54e
KW
3161Perl__swash_to_invlist(pTHX_ SV* const swash)
3162{
3163
3164 /* Subject to change or removal. For use only in one place in regcomp.c */
3165
3166 U8 *l, *lend;
3167 char *loc;
3168 STRLEN lcur;
3169 HV *const hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(swash));
3170 UV elements = 0; /* Number of elements in the inversion list */
b443038a 3171 U8 empty[] = "";
d764b54e
KW
3172
3173 /* The string containing the main body of the table */
3174 SV** const listsvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "LIST", FALSE);
3175 SV** const typesvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "TYPE", FALSE);
3176 SV** const bitssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "BITS", FALSE);
d73c39c5 3177 SV** const extssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "EXTRAS", FALSE);
77f9f126 3178 SV** const invert_it_svp = hv_fetchs(hv, "INVERT_IT", FALSE);
d764b54e
KW
3179
3180 const U8* const typestr = (U8*)SvPV_nolen(*typesvp);
3181 const STRLEN bits = SvUV(*bitssvp);
3182 const STRLEN octets = bits >> 3; /* if bits == 1, then octets == 0 */
d73c39c5
KW
3183 U8 *x, *xend;
3184 STRLEN xcur;
d764b54e 3185
a25abddc 3186 SV* invlist;
d764b54e
KW
3187
3188 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__SWASH_TO_INVLIST;
3189
3190 /* read $swash->{LIST} */
b443038a
KW
3191 if (SvPOK(*listsvp)) {
3192 l = (U8*)SvPV(*listsvp, lcur);
3193 }
3194 else {
3195 /* LIST legitimately doesn't contain a string during compilation phases
3196 * of Perl itself, before the Unicode tables are generated. In this
3197 * case, just fake things up by creating an empty list */
3198 l = empty;
3199 lcur = 0;
3200 }
d764b54e
KW
3201 loc = (char *) l;
3202 lend = l + lcur;
3203
3204 /* Scan the input to count the number of lines to preallocate array size
3205 * based on worst possible case, which is each line in the input creates 2
3206 * elements in the inversion list: 1) the beginning of a range in the list;
3207 * 2) the beginning of a range not in the list. */
3208 while ((loc = (strchr(loc, '\n'))) != NULL) {
3209 elements += 2;
3210 loc++;
3211 }
3212
3213 /* If the ending is somehow corrupt and isn't a new line, add another
3214 * element for the final range that isn't in the inversion list */
3215 if (! (*lend == '\n' || (*lend == '\0' && *(lend - 1) == '\n'))) {
3216 elements++;
3217 }
3218
3219 invlist = _new_invlist(elements);
3220
3221 /* Now go through the input again, adding each range to the list */
3222 while (l < lend) {
3223 UV start, end;
3224 UV val; /* Not used by this function */
3225
3226 l = S_swash_scan_list_line(aTHX_ l, lend, &start, &end, &val,
3227 cBOOL(octets), typestr);
3228
3229 if (l > lend) {
3230 break;
3231 }
3232
3233 _append_range_to_invlist(invlist, start, end);
3234 }
3235
77f9f126
KW
3236 /* Invert if the data says it should be */
3237 if (invert_it_svp && SvUV(*invert_it_svp)) {
45bb2768 3238 _invlist_invert_prop(invlist);
77f9f126
KW
3239 }
3240
d73c39c5
KW
3241 /* This code is copied from swash_get()
3242 * read $swash->{EXTRAS} */
3243 x = (U8*)SvPV(*extssvp, xcur);
3244 xend = x + xcur;
3245 while (x < xend) {
3246 STRLEN namelen;
3247 U8 *namestr;
3248 SV** othersvp;
3249 HV* otherhv;
3250 STRLEN otherbits;
3251 SV **otherbitssvp, *other;
3252 U8 *nl;
3253
3254 const U8 opc = *x++;
3255 if (opc == '\n')
3256 continue;
3257
3258 nl = (U8*)memchr(x, '\n', xend - x);
3259
3260 if (opc != '-' && opc != '+' && opc != '!' && opc != '&') {
3261 if (nl) {
3262 x = nl + 1; /* 1 is length of "\n" */
3263 continue;
3264 }
3265 else {
3266 x = xend; /* to EXTRAS' end at which \n is not found */
3267 break;
3268 }
3269 }
3270
3271 namestr = x;
3272 if (nl) {
3273 namelen = nl - namestr;
3274 x = nl + 1;
3275 }
3276 else {
3277 namelen = xend - namestr;
3278 x = xend;
3279 }
3280
3281 othersvp = hv_fetch(hv, (char *)namestr, namelen, FALSE);
3282 otherhv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(*othersvp));
3283 otherbitssvp = hv_fetchs(otherhv, "BITS", FALSE);
3284 otherbits = (STRLEN)SvUV(*otherbitssvp);
3285
3286 if (bits != otherbits || bits != 1) {
3287 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: _swash_to_invlist only operates on boolean properties");
3288 }
3289
3290 /* The "other" swatch must be destroyed after. */
3291 other = _swash_to_invlist((SV *)*othersvp);
3292
3293 /* End of code copied from swash_get() */
3294 switch (opc) {
3295 case '+':
3296 _invlist_union(invlist, other, &invlist);
3297 break;
3298 case '!':
3299 _invlist_invert(other);
3300 _invlist_union(invlist, other, &invlist);
3301 break;
3302 case '-':
3303 _invlist_subtract(invlist, other, &invlist);
3304 break;
3305 case '&':
3306 _invlist_intersection(invlist, other, &invlist);
3307 break;
3308 default:
3309 break;
3310 }
3311 sv_free(other); /* through with it! */
3312 }
3313
d764b54e
KW
3314 return invlist;
3315}
3316
0f830e0b 3317/*
87cea99e 3318=for apidoc uvchr_to_utf8
0f830e0b 3319
6ee84de2 3320Adds the UTF-8 representation of the Native code point C<uv> to the end
0f830e0b
NC
3321of the string C<d>; C<d> should be have at least C<UTF8_MAXBYTES+1> free
3322bytes available. The return value is the pointer to the byte after the
3323end of the new character. In other words,
3324
3325 d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, uv);
3326
3327is the recommended wide native character-aware way of saying
3328
3329 *(d++) = uv;
3330
3331=cut
3332*/
3333
3334/* On ASCII machines this is normally a macro but we want a
3335 real function in case XS code wants it
3336*/
0f830e0b
NC
3337U8 *
3338Perl_uvchr_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv)
3339{
7918f24d
NC
3340 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UVCHR_TO_UTF8;
3341
0f830e0b
NC
3342 return Perl_uvuni_to_utf8_flags(aTHX_ d, NATIVE_TO_UNI(uv), 0);
3343}
3344
b851fbc1
JH
3345U8 *
3346Perl_uvchr_to_utf8_flags(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)
3347{
7918f24d
NC
3348 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UVCHR_TO_UTF8_FLAGS;
3349
b851fbc1
JH
3350 return Perl_uvuni_to_utf8_flags(aTHX_ d, NATIVE_TO_UNI(uv), flags);
3351}
2b9d42f0
NIS
3352
3353/*
87cea99e 3354=for apidoc utf8n_to_uvchr
0f830e0b 3355
48ef279e 3356Returns the native character value of the first character in the string
0f830e0b
NC
3357C<s>
3358which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<retlen> will be set to the
3359length, in bytes, of that character.
3360
6ee84de2 3361length and flags are the same as utf8n_to_uvuni().
0f830e0b
NC
3362
3363=cut
3364*/
3365/* On ASCII machines this is normally a macro but we want
3366 a real function in case XS code wants it
3367*/
0f830e0b 3368UV
48ef279e 3369Perl_utf8n_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen,
0f830e0b
NC
3370U32 flags)
3371{
3372 const UV uv = Perl_utf8n_to_uvuni(aTHX_ s, curlen, retlen, flags);
7918f24d
NC
3373
3374 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8N_TO_UVCHR;
3375
0f830e0b
NC
3376 return UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv);
3377}
3378
0876b9a0
KW
3379bool
3380Perl_check_utf8_print(pTHX_ register const U8* s, const STRLEN len)
3381{
3382 /* May change: warns if surrogates, non-character code points, or
af2af982
KW
3383 * non-Unicode code points are in s which has length len bytes. Returns
3384 * TRUE if none found; FALSE otherwise. The only other validity check is
3385 * to make sure that this won't exceed the string's length */
0876b9a0
KW
3386
3387 const U8* const e = s + len;
3388 bool ok = TRUE;
3389
3390 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_CHECK_UTF8_PRINT;
3391
3392 while (s < e) {
3393 if (UTF8SKIP(s) > len) {
3394 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
3395 "%s in %s", unees, PL_op ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : "print");
3396 return FALSE;
3397 }
732fbc05 3398 if (UNLIKELY(*s >= UTF8_FIRST_PROBLEMATIC_CODE_POINT_FIRST_BYTE)) {
0876b9a0
KW
3399 STRLEN char_len;
3400 if (UTF8_IS_SUPER(s)) {
8457b38f
KW
3401 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_NON_UNICODE)) {
3402 UV uv = utf8_to_uvchr(s, &char_len);
3403 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE),
3404 "Code point 0x%04"UVXf" is not Unicode, may not be portable", uv);
3405 ok = FALSE;
3406 }
0876b9a0
KW
3407 }
3408 else if (UTF8_IS_SURROGATE(s)) {
8457b38f
KW
3409 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_SURROGATE)) {
3410 UV uv = utf8_to_uvchr(s, &char_len);
3411 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE),
3412 "Unicode surrogate U+%04"UVXf" is illegal in UTF-8", uv);
3413 ok = FALSE;
3414 }
0876b9a0
KW
3415 }
3416 else if
8457b38f
KW
3417 ((UTF8_IS_NONCHAR_GIVEN_THAT_NON_SUPER_AND_GE_PROBLEMATIC(s))
3418 && (ckWARN_d(WARN_NONCHAR)))
0876b9a0
KW
3419 {
3420 UV uv = utf8_to_uvchr(s, &char_len);
8457b38f 3421 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NONCHAR),
0876b9a0
KW
3422 "Unicode non-character U+%04"UVXf" is illegal for open interchange", uv);
3423 ok = FALSE;
3424 }
3425 }
3426 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
3427 }
3428
3429 return ok;
3430}
3431
0f830e0b 3432/*
87cea99e 3433=for apidoc pv_uni_display
d2cc3551
JH
3434
3435Build to the scalar dsv a displayable version of the string spv,
3436length len, the displayable version being at most pvlim bytes long
3437(if longer, the rest is truncated and "..." will be appended).
0a2ef054 3438
9e55ce06 3439The flags argument can have UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT set to display
00e86452 3440isPRINT()able characters as themselves, UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH
0a2ef054
JH
3441to display the \\[nrfta\\] as the backslashed versions (like '\n')
3442(UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH is preferred over UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT for \\).
3443UNI_DISPLAY_QQ (and its alias UNI_DISPLAY_REGEX) have both
3444UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH and UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT turned on.
3445
d2cc3551
JH
3446The pointer to the PV of the dsv is returned.
3447
3448=cut */
e6b2e755 3449char *
e1ec3a88 3450Perl_pv_uni_display(pTHX_ SV *dsv, const U8 *spv, STRLEN len, STRLEN pvlim, UV flags)
e6b2e755
JH
3451{
3452 int truncated = 0;
e1ec3a88 3453 const char *s, *e;
e6b2e755 3454
7918f24d
NC
3455 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_PV_UNI_DISPLAY;
3456
76f68e9b 3457 sv_setpvs(dsv, "");
7fddd944 3458 SvUTF8_off(dsv);
e1ec3a88 3459 for (s = (const char *)spv, e = s + len; s < e; s += UTF8SKIP(s)) {
e6b2e755 3460 UV u;
a49f32c6
NC
3461 /* This serves double duty as a flag and a character to print after
3462 a \ when flags & UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH is true.
3463 */
3464 char ok = 0;
c728cb41 3465
e6b2e755
JH
3466 if (pvlim && SvCUR(dsv) >= pvlim) {
3467 truncated++;
3468 break;
3469 }
3470 u = utf8_to_uvchr((U8*)s, 0);
c728cb41 3471 if (u < 256) {
a3b680e6 3472 const unsigned char c = (unsigned char)u & 0xFF;
0bd48802 3473 if (flags & UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH) {
a49f32c6 3474 switch (c) {
c728cb41 3475 case '\n':
a49f32c6 3476 ok = 'n'; break;
c728cb41 3477 case '\r':
a49f32c6 3478 ok = 'r'; break;
c728cb41 3479 case '\t':
a49f32c6 3480 ok = 't'; break;
c728cb41 3481 case '\f':
a49f32c6 3482 ok = 'f'; break;
c728cb41 3483 case '\a':
a49f32c6 3484 ok = 'a'; break;
c728cb41 3485 case '\\':
a49f32c6 3486 ok = '\\'; break;
c728cb41
JH
3487 default: break;
3488 }
a49f32c6 3489 if (ok) {
88c9ea1e 3490 const char string = ok;
76f68e9b 3491 sv_catpvs(dsv, "\\");
5e7aa789 3492 sv_catpvn(dsv, &string, 1);
a49f32c6 3493 }
c728cb41 3494 }
00e86452 3495 /* isPRINT() is the locale-blind version. */
a49f32c6 3496 if (!ok && (flags & UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT) && isPRINT(c)) {
88c9ea1e 3497 const char string = c;
5e7aa789 3498 sv_catpvn(dsv, &string, 1);
a49f32c6 3499 ok = 1;
0a2ef054 3500 }
c728cb41
JH
3501 }
3502 if (!ok)
9e55ce06 3503 Perl_sv_catpvf(aTHX_ dsv, "\\x{%"UVxf"}", u);
e6b2e755
JH
3504 }
3505 if (truncated)
396482e1 3506 sv_catpvs(dsv, "...");
48ef279e 3507
e6b2e755
JH
3508 return SvPVX(dsv);
3509}
2b9d42f0 3510
d2cc3551 3511/*
87cea99e 3512=for apidoc sv_uni_display
d2cc3551
JH
3513
3514Build to the scalar dsv a displayable version of the scalar sv,
0a2ef054 3515the displayable version being at most pvlim bytes long
d2cc3551 3516(if longer, the rest is truncated and "..." will be appended).
0a2ef054
JH
3517
3518The flags argument is as in pv_uni_display().
3519
d2cc3551
JH
3520The pointer to the PV of the dsv is returned.
3521
d4c19fe8
AL
3522=cut
3523*/
e6b2e755
JH
3524char *
3525Perl_sv_uni_display(pTHX_ SV *dsv, SV *ssv, STRLEN pvlim, UV flags)
3526{
7918f24d
NC
3527 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UNI_DISPLAY;
3528
cfd0369c
NC
3529 return Perl_pv_uni_display(aTHX_ dsv, (const U8*)SvPVX_const(ssv),
3530 SvCUR(ssv), pvlim, flags);
701a277b
JH
3531}
3532
d2cc3551 3533/*
e6226b18 3534=for apidoc foldEQ_utf8
d2cc3551 3535
d51c1b21 3536Returns true if the leading portions of the strings s1 and s2 (either or both
e6226b18 3537of which may be in UTF-8) are the same case-insensitively; false otherwise.
d51c1b21 3538How far into the strings to compare is determined by other input parameters.
8b35872c
KW
3539
3540If u1 is true, the string s1 is assumed to be in UTF-8-encoded Unicode;
3541otherwise it is assumed to be in native 8-bit encoding. Correspondingly for u2
3542with respect to s2.
3543
d51c1b21
KW
3544If the byte length l1 is non-zero, it says how far into s1 to check for fold
3545equality. In other words, s1+l1 will be used as a goal to reach. The
8b35872c
KW
3546scan will not be considered to be a match unless the goal is reached, and
3547scanning won't continue past that goal. Correspondingly for l2 with respect to
3548s2.
3549
3550If pe1 is non-NULL and the pointer it points to is not NULL, that pointer is
3551considered an end pointer beyond which scanning of s1 will not continue under
3552any circumstances. This means that if both l1 and pe1 are specified, and pe1
3553is less than s1+l1, the match will never be successful because it can never
d51c1b21
KW
3554get as far as its goal (and in fact is asserted against). Correspondingly for
3555pe2 with respect to s2.
8b35872c 3556
d51c1b21
KW
3557At least one of s1 and s2 must have a goal (at least one of l1 and l2 must be
3558non-zero), and if both do, both have to be
8b35872c
KW
3559reached for a successful match. Also, if the fold of a character is multiple
3560characters, all of them must be matched (see tr21 reference below for
3561'folding').
3562
e6226b18 3563Upon a successful match, if pe1 is non-NULL,
8b35872c
KW
3564it will be set to point to the beginning of the I<next> character of s1 beyond
3565what was matched. Correspondingly for pe2 and s2.
d2cc3551
JH
3566
3567For case-insensitiveness, the "casefolding" of Unicode is used
3568instead of upper/lowercasing both the characters, see
3569http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr21/ (Case Mappings).
3570
3571=cut */
a33c29bc
KW
3572
3573/* A flags parameter has been added which may change, and hence isn't
3574 * externally documented. Currently it is:
3575 * 0 for as-documented above
3576 * FOLDEQ_UTF8_NOMIX_ASCII meaning that if a non-ASCII character folds to an
3577 ASCII one, to not match
5e64d0fa
KW
3578 * FOLDEQ_UTF8_LOCALE meaning that locale rules are to be used for code
3579 * points below 256; unicode rules for above 255; and
3580 * folds that cross those boundaries are disallowed,
3581 * like the NOMIX_ASCII option
18f762c3
KW
3582 * FOLDEQ_S1_ALREADY_FOLDED s1 has already been folded before calling this
3583 * routine. This allows that step to be skipped.
3584 * FOLDEQ_S2_ALREADY_FOLDED Similarly.
a33c29bc 3585 */
701a277b 3586I32
eda9cac1 3587Perl_foldEQ_utf8_flags(pTHX_ const char *s1, char **pe1, register UV l1, bool u1, const char *s2, char **pe2, register UV l2, bool u2, U32 flags)
332ddc25 3588{
8b35872c
KW
3589 dVAR;
3590 register const U8 *p1 = (const U8*)s1; /* Point to current char */
3591 register const U8 *p2 = (const U8*)s2;
48ef279e 3592 register const U8 *g1 = NULL; /* goal for s1 */
8b35872c 3593 register const U8 *g2 = NULL;
48ef279e
KW
3594 register const U8 *e1 = NULL; /* Don't scan s1 past this */
3595 register U8 *f1 = NULL; /* Point to current folded */
8b35872c
KW
3596 register const U8 *e2 = NULL;
3597 register U8 *f2 = NULL;
48ef279e 3598 STRLEN n1 = 0, n2 = 0; /* Number of bytes in current char */
8b35872c
KW
3599 U8 foldbuf1[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
3600 U8 foldbuf2[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
8b35872c 3601
eda9cac1 3602 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_FOLDEQ_UTF8_FLAGS;
8b35872c 3603
18f762c3
KW
3604 /* The algorithm requires that input with the flags on the first line of
3605 * the assert not be pre-folded. */
3606 assert( ! ((flags & (FOLDEQ_UTF8_NOMIX_ASCII | FOLDEQ_UTF8_LOCALE))
3607 && (flags & (FOLDEQ_S1_ALREADY_FOLDED | FOLDEQ_S2_ALREADY_FOLDED))));
3608
8b35872c 3609 if (pe1) {
48ef279e 3610 e1 = *(U8**)pe1;
8b35872c
KW
3611 }
3612
3613 if (l1) {
48ef279e 3614 g1 = (const U8*)s1 + l1;
8b35872c
KW
3615 }
3616
3617 if (pe2) {
48ef279e 3618 e2 = *(U8**)pe2;
8b35872c
KW
3619 }
3620
3621 if (l2) {
48ef279e 3622 g2 = (const U8*)s2 + l2;
8b35872c
KW
3623 }
3624
3625 /* Must have at least one goal */
3626 assert(g1 || g2);
3627
3628 if (g1) {
3629
48ef279e
KW
3630 /* Will never match if goal is out-of-bounds */
3631 assert(! e1 || e1 >= g1);
8b35872c 3632
48ef279e
KW
3633 /* Here, there isn't an end pointer, or it is beyond the goal. We
3634 * only go as far as the goal */
3635 e1 = g1;
8b35872c 3636 }
313b38e5
NC
3637 else {
3638 assert(e1); /* Must have an end for looking at s1 */
3639 }
8b35872c
KW
3640
3641 /* Same for goal for s2 */
3642 if (g2) {
48ef279e
KW
3643 assert(! e2 || e2 >= g2);
3644 e2 = g2;
8b35872c 3645 }
313b38e5
NC
3646 else {
3647 assert(e2);
3648 }
8b35872c 3649
18f762c3
KW
3650 /* If both operands are already folded, we could just do a memEQ on the
3651 * whole strings at once, but it would be better if the caller realized
3652 * this and didn't even call us */
3653
8b35872c
KW
3654 /* Look through both strings, a character at a time */
3655 while (p1 < e1 && p2 < e2) {
3656
d51c1b21 3657 /* If at the beginning of a new character in s1, get its fold to use
5e64d0fa
KW
3658 * and the length of the fold. (exception: locale rules just get the
3659 * character to a single byte) */
48ef279e 3660 if (n1 == 0) {
18f762c3
KW
3661 if (flags & FOLDEQ_S1_ALREADY_FOLDED) {
3662 f1 = (U8 *) p1;
3663 n1 = UTF8SKIP(f1);
a33c29bc 3664
5e64d0fa
KW
3665 /* If in locale matching, we use two sets of rules, depending on if
3666 * the code point is above or below 255. Here, we test for and
3667 * handle locale rules */
18f762c3
KW
3668 }
3669 else {
1b4059d5
KW
3670 if ((flags & FOLDEQ_UTF8_LOCALE)
3671 && (! u1 || UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p1)
3672 || UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p1)))
5e64d0fa 3673 {
1b4059d5
KW
3674 /* There is no mixing of code points above and below 255. */
3675 if (u2 && (! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p2)
3676 && ! UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p2)))
3677 {
3678 return 0;
3679 }
5e64d0fa 3680
1b4059d5
KW
3681 /* We handle locale rules by converting, if necessary, the
3682 * code point to a single byte. */
3683 if (! u1 || UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p1)) {
3684 *foldbuf1 = *p1;
3685 }
3686 else {
3687 *foldbuf1 = TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p1, *(p1 + 1));
3688 }
3689 n1 = 1;
5e64d0fa 3690 }
1b4059d5
KW
3691 else if (isASCII(*p1)) { /* Note, that here won't be
3692 both ASCII and using locale
3693 rules */
3694
3695 /* If trying to mix non- with ASCII, and not supposed to,
3696 * fail */
3697 if ((flags & FOLDEQ_UTF8_NOMIX_ASCII) && ! isASCII(*p2)) {
3698 return 0;
3699 }
3700 n1 = 1;
3701 *foldbuf1 = toLOWER(*p1); /* Folds in the ASCII range are
3702 just lowercased */
5e64d0fa 3703 }
1b4059d5
KW
3704 else if (u1) {
3705 to_utf8_fold(p1, foldbuf1, &n1);
a33c29bc 3706 }
9cef8533
KW
3707 else { /* Not utf8, get utf8 fold */
3708 to_uni_fold(NATIVE_TO_UNI(*p1), foldbuf1, &n1);
1b4059d5
KW
3709 }
3710 f1 = foldbuf1;
18f762c3 3711 }
48ef279e 3712 }
8b35872c 3713
48ef279e 3714 if (n2 == 0) { /* Same for s2 */
18f762c3
KW
3715 if (flags & FOLDEQ_S2_ALREADY_FOLDED) {
3716 f2 = (U8 *) p2;
3717 n2 = UTF8SKIP(f2);
3718 }
3719 else {
227968da
KW
3720 if ((flags & FOLDEQ_UTF8_LOCALE)
3721 && (! u2 || UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p2) || UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p2)))
5e64d0fa 3722 {
227968da
KW
3723 /* Here, the next char in s2 is < 256. We've already
3724 * worked on s1, and if it isn't also < 256, can't match */
3725 if (u1 && (! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p1)
3726 && ! UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p1)))
3727 {
3728 return 0;
3729 }
3730 if (! u2 || UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p2)) {
3731 *foldbuf2 = *p2;
3732 }
3733 else {
3734 *foldbuf2 = TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p2, *(p2 + 1));
3735 }
3736
3737 /* Use another function to handle locale rules. We've made
3738 * sure that both characters to compare are single bytes */
3739 if (! foldEQ_locale((char *) f1, (char *) foldbuf2, 1)) {
3740 return 0;
3741 }
3742 n1 = n2 = 0;
5e64d0fa 3743 }
227968da
KW
3744 else if (isASCII(*p2)) {
3745 if (flags && ! isASCII(*p1)) {
3746 return 0;
3747 }
3748 n2 = 1;
3749 *foldbuf2 = toLOWER(*p2);
5e64d0fa 3750 }
227968da
KW
3751 else if (u2) {
3752 to_utf8_fold(p2, foldbuf2, &n2);
5001101e 3753 }
227968da 3754 else {
9cef8533 3755 to_uni_fold(NATIVE_TO_UNI(*p2), foldbuf2, &n2);
a33c29bc 3756 }
227968da 3757 f2 = foldbuf2;
18f762c3 3758 }
48ef279e 3759 }
8b35872c 3760
5001101e 3761 /* Here f1 and f2 point to the beginning of the strings to compare.
227968da
KW
3762 * These strings are the folds of the next character from each input
3763 * string, stored in utf8. */
5e64d0fa 3764
48ef279e
KW
3765 /* While there is more to look for in both folds, see if they