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B::Concise was failing to traverse some children of PMOPs
[perl5.git] / ext / B / B / Concise.pm
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c99ca59a 1package B::Concise;
c27ea44e 2# Copyright (C) 2000-2003 Stephen McCamant. All rights reserved.
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3# This program is free software; you can redistribute and/or modify it
4# under the same terms as Perl itself.
5
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6# Note: we need to keep track of how many use declarations/BEGIN
7# blocks this module uses, so we can avoid printing them when user
8# asks for the BEGIN blocks in her program. Update the comments and
9# the count in concise_specials if you add or delete one. The
10# -MO=Concise counts as use #1.
78ad9108 11
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12use strict; # use #2
13use warnings; # uses #3 and #4, since warnings uses Carp
78ad9108 14
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15use Exporter (); # use #5
16
98517ccb 17our $VERSION = "0.81";
78ad9108 18our @ISA = qw(Exporter);
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19our @EXPORT_OK = qw( set_style set_style_standard add_callback
20 concise_subref concise_cv concise_main
21 add_style walk_output compile reset_sequence );
22our %EXPORT_TAGS =
23 ( io => [qw( walk_output compile reset_sequence )],
24 style => [qw( add_style set_style_standard )],
25 cb => [qw( add_callback )],
26 mech => [qw( concise_subref concise_cv concise_main )], );
78ad9108 27
8ec8fbef 28# use #6
c99ca59a 29use B qw(class ppname main_start main_root main_cv cstring svref_2object
6a077020 30 SVf_IOK SVf_NOK SVf_POK SVf_IVisUV SVf_FAKE OPf_KIDS OPf_SPECIAL
4df7f6af 31 CVf_ANON PAD_FAKELEX_ANON PAD_FAKELEX_MULTI SVf_ROK);
c99ca59a 32
f95e3c3c 33my %style =
c99ca59a 34 ("terse" =>
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35 ["(?(#label =>\n)?)(*( )*)#class (#addr) #name (?([#targ])?) "
36 . "#svclass~(?((#svaddr))?)~#svval~(?(label \"#coplabel\")?)\n",
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37 "(*( )*)goto #class (#addr)\n",
38 "#class pp_#name"],
39 "concise" =>
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40 ["#hyphseq2 (*( (x( ;)x))*)<#classsym> #exname#arg(?([#targarglife])?)"
41 . "~#flags(?(/#private)?)(?(:#hints)?)(x(;~->#next)x)\n"
cc02ea56 42 , " (*( )*) goto #seq\n",
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43 "(?(<#seq>)?)#exname#arg(?([#targarglife])?)"],
44 "linenoise" =>
45 ["(x(;(*( )*))x)#noise#arg(?([#targarg])?)(x( ;\n)x)",
46 "gt_#seq ",
47 "(?(#seq)?)#noise#arg(?([#targarg])?)"],
48 "debug" =>
49 ["#class (#addr)\n\top_next\t\t#nextaddr\n\top_sibling\t#sibaddr\n\t"
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50 . "op_ppaddr\tPL_ppaddr[OP_#NAME]\n\top_type\t\t#typenum\n" .
51 ($] > 5.009 ? '' : "\top_seq\t\t#seqnum\n")
d5ec2987 52 . "\top_flags\t#flagval\n\top_private\t#privval\t#hintsval\n"
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53 . "(?(\top_first\t#firstaddr\n)?)(?(\top_last\t\t#lastaddr\n)?)"
54 . "(?(\top_sv\t\t#svaddr\n)?)",
55 " GOTO #addr\n",
56 "#addr"],
57 "env" => [$ENV{B_CONCISE_FORMAT}, $ENV{B_CONCISE_GOTO_FORMAT},
58 $ENV{B_CONCISE_TREE_FORMAT}],
59 );
60
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61# Renderings, ie how Concise prints, is controlled by these vars
62# primary:
63our $stylename; # selects current style from %style
64my $order = "basic"; # how optree is walked & printed: basic, exec, tree
65
66# rendering mechanics:
67# these 'formats' are the line-rendering templates
68# they're updated from %style when $stylename changes
69my ($format, $gotofmt, $treefmt);
70
71# lesser players:
72my $base = 36; # how <sequence#> is displayed
73my $big_endian = 1; # more <sequence#> display
74my $tree_style = 0; # tree-order details
75my $banner = 1; # print banner before optree is traversed
cc02ea56 76my $do_main = 0; # force printing of main routine
f18deeb9 77my $show_src; # show source code
724aa791 78
cc02ea56 79# another factor: can affect all styles!
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80our @callbacks; # allow external management
81
82set_style_standard("concise");
83
c99ca59a 84my $curcv;
c27ea44e 85my $cop_seq_base;
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86
87sub set_style {
88 ($format, $gotofmt, $treefmt) = @_;
724aa791 89 #warn "set_style: deprecated, use set_style_standard instead\n"; # someday
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90 die "expecting 3 style-format args\n" unless @_ == 3;
91}
92
93sub add_style {
94 my ($newstyle,@args) = @_;
95 die "style '$newstyle' already exists, choose a new name\n"
96 if exists $style{$newstyle};
97 die "expecting 3 style-format args\n" unless @args == 3;
98 $style{$newstyle} = [@args];
724aa791 99 $stylename = $newstyle; # update rendering state
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100}
101
31b49ad4 102sub set_style_standard {
724aa791 103 ($stylename) = @_; # update rendering state
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104 die "err: style '$stylename' unknown\n" unless exists $style{$stylename};
105 set_style(@{$style{$stylename}});
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106}
107
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108sub add_callback {
109 push @callbacks, @_;
110}
c99ca59a 111
f95e3c3c 112# output handle, used with all Concise-output printing
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113our $walkHandle; # public for your convenience
114BEGIN { $walkHandle = \*STDOUT }
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115
116sub walk_output { # updates $walkHandle
117 my $handle = shift;
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118 return $walkHandle unless $handle; # allow use as accessor
119
f95e3c3c 120 if (ref $handle eq 'SCALAR') {
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121 require Config;
122 die "no perlio in this build, can't call walk_output (\\\$scalar)\n"
123 unless $Config::Config{useperlio};
f95e3c3c 124 # in 5.8+, open(FILEHANDLE,MODE,REFERENCE) writes to string
2ce64696 125 open my $tmp, '>', $handle; # but cant re-set existing STDOUT
f95e3c3c 126 $walkHandle = $tmp; # so use my $tmp as intermediate var
cc02ea56 127 return $walkHandle;
f95e3c3c 128 }
cc02ea56 129 my $iotype = ref $handle;
f95e3c3c 130 die "expecting argument/object that can print\n"
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131 unless $iotype eq 'GLOB' or $iotype and $handle->can('print');
132 $walkHandle = $handle;
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133}
134
8ec8fbef 135sub concise_subref {
c0939cee 136 my($order, $coderef, $name) = @_;
f95e3c3c 137 my $codeobj = svref_2object($coderef);
cc02ea56 138
c0939cee 139 return concise_stashref(@_)
cc02ea56 140 unless ref $codeobj eq 'B::CV';
c0939cee 141 concise_cv_obj($order, $codeobj, $name);
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142}
143
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144sub concise_stashref {
145 my($order, $h) = @_;
6cc5d258 146 local *s;
cc02ea56 147 foreach my $k (sort keys %$h) {
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148 next unless defined $h->{$k};
149 *s = $h->{$k};
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150 my $coderef = *s{CODE} or next;
151 reset_sequence();
152 print "FUNC: ", *s, "\n";
153 my $codeobj = svref_2object($coderef);
154 next unless ref $codeobj eq 'B::CV';
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155 eval { concise_cv_obj($order, $codeobj, $k) };
156 warn "err $@ on $codeobj" if $@;
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157 }
158}
159
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160# This should have been called concise_subref, but it was exported
161# under this name in versions before 0.56
c0939cee 162*concise_cv = \&concise_subref;
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163
164sub concise_cv_obj {
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165 my ($order, $cv, $name) = @_;
166 # name is either a string, or a CODE ref (copy of $cv arg??)
167
c99ca59a 168 $curcv = $cv;
d51cf0c9 169
2018a5c3 170 if (ref($cv->XSUBANY) =~ /B::(\w+)/) {
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171 print $walkHandle "$name is a constant sub, optimized to a $1\n";
172 return;
173 }
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174 if ($cv->XSUB) {
175 print $walkHandle "$name is XS code\n";
176 return;
177 }
178 if (class($cv->START) eq "NULL") {
179 no strict 'refs';
180 if (ref $name eq 'CODE') {
181 print $walkHandle "coderef $name has no START\n";
182 }
183 elsif (exists &$name) {
e75702e9 184 print $walkHandle "$name exists in stash, but has no START\n";
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185 }
186 else {
187 print $walkHandle "$name not in symbol table\n";
188 }
189 return;
190 }
c27ea44e 191 sequence($cv->START);
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192 if ($order eq "exec") {
193 walk_exec($cv->START);
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194 }
195 elsif ($order eq "basic") {
196 # walk_topdown($cv->ROOT, sub { $_[0]->concise($_[1]) }, 0);
197 my $root = $cv->ROOT;
198 unless (ref $root eq 'B::NULL') {
199 walk_topdown($root, sub { $_[0]->concise($_[1]) }, 0);
200 } else {
201 print $walkHandle "B::NULL encountered doing ROOT on $cv. avoiding disaster\n";
202 }
c99ca59a 203 } else {
f95e3c3c 204 print $walkHandle tree($cv->ROOT, 0);
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205 }
206}
207
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208sub concise_main {
209 my($order) = @_;
210 sequence(main_start);
211 $curcv = main_cv;
212 if ($order eq "exec") {
213 return if class(main_start) eq "NULL";
214 walk_exec(main_start);
215 } elsif ($order eq "tree") {
216 return if class(main_root) eq "NULL";
f95e3c3c 217 print $walkHandle tree(main_root, 0);
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218 } elsif ($order eq "basic") {
219 return if class(main_root) eq "NULL";
220 walk_topdown(main_root,
221 sub { $_[0]->concise($_[1]) }, 0);
222 }
223}
224
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225sub concise_specials {
226 my($name, $order, @cv_s) = @_;
227 my $i = 1;
228 if ($name eq "BEGIN") {
c0939cee 229 splice(@cv_s, 0, 8); # skip 7 BEGIN blocks in this file. NOW 8 ??
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230 } elsif ($name eq "CHECK") {
231 pop @cv_s; # skip the CHECK block that calls us
232 }
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233 for my $cv (@cv_s) {
234 print $walkHandle "$name $i:\n";
8ec8fbef 235 $i++;
c0939cee 236 concise_cv_obj($order, $cv, $name);
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237 }
238}
239
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240my $start_sym = "\e(0"; # "\cN" sometimes also works
241my $end_sym = "\e(B"; # "\cO" respectively
242
f95e3c3c 243my @tree_decorations =
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244 ([" ", "--", "+-", "|-", "| ", "`-", "-", 1],
245 [" ", "-", "+", "+", "|", "`", "", 0],
246 [" ", map("$start_sym$_$end_sym", "qq", "wq", "tq", "x ", "mq", "q"), 1],
247 [" ", map("$start_sym$_$end_sym", "q", "w", "t", "x", "m"), "", 0],
248 );
78ad9108 249
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250my @render_packs; # collect -stash=<packages>
251
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252sub compileOpts {
253 # set rendering state from options and args
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254 my (@options,@args);
255 if (@_) {
256 @options = grep(/^-/, @_);
257 @args = grep(!/^-/, @_);
258 }
c99ca59a 259 for my $o (@options) {
cc02ea56 260 # mode/order
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261 if ($o eq "-basic") {
262 $order = "basic";
263 } elsif ($o eq "-exec") {
264 $order = "exec";
265 } elsif ($o eq "-tree") {
266 $order = "tree";
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267 }
268 # tree-specific
269 elsif ($o eq "-compact") {
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270 $tree_style |= 1;
271 } elsif ($o eq "-loose") {
272 $tree_style &= ~1;
273 } elsif ($o eq "-vt") {
274 $tree_style |= 2;
275 } elsif ($o eq "-ascii") {
276 $tree_style &= ~2;
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277 }
278 # sequence numbering
279 elsif ($o =~ /^-base(\d+)$/) {
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280 $base = $1;
281 } elsif ($o eq "-bigendian") {
282 $big_endian = 1;
283 } elsif ($o eq "-littleendian") {
284 $big_endian = 0;
cc02ea56 285 }
9e0f9750 286 # miscellaneous, presentation
cc02ea56 287 elsif ($o eq "-nobanner") {
724aa791 288 $banner = 0;
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289 } elsif ($o eq "-banner") {
290 $banner = 1;
291 }
292 elsif ($o eq "-main") {
293 $do_main = 1;
294 } elsif ($o eq "-nomain") {
295 $do_main = 0;
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296 } elsif ($o eq "-src") {
297 $show_src = 1;
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298 }
299 elsif ($o =~ /^-stash=(.*)/) {
300 my $pkg = $1;
301 no strict 'refs';
902fde96 302 if (! %{$pkg.'::'}) {
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303 eval "require $pkg";
304 } else {
305 require Config;
306 if (!$Config::Config{usedl}
307 && keys %{$pkg.'::'} == 1
308 && $pkg->can('bootstrap')) {
309 # It is something that we're staticly linked to, but hasn't
310 # yet been used.
311 eval "require $pkg";
312 }
313 }
9e0f9750 314 push @render_packs, $pkg;
724aa791 315 }
cc02ea56 316 # line-style options
724aa791 317 elsif (exists $style{substr($o, 1)}) {
f95e3c3c 318 $stylename = substr($o, 1);
724aa791 319 set_style_standard($stylename);
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320 } else {
321 warn "Option $o unrecognized";
322 }
323 }
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324 return (@args);
325}
326
327sub compile {
328 my (@args) = compileOpts(@_);
c27ea44e 329 return sub {
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330 my @newargs = compileOpts(@_); # accept new rendering options
331 warn "disregarding non-options: @newargs\n" if @newargs;
332
333 for my $objname (@args) {
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334 next unless $objname; # skip null args to avoid noisy responses
335
cc02ea56
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336 if ($objname eq "BEGIN") {
337 concise_specials("BEGIN", $order,
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338 B::begin_av->isa("B::AV") ?
339 B::begin_av->ARRAY : ());
cc02ea56
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340 } elsif ($objname eq "INIT") {
341 concise_specials("INIT", $order,
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342 B::init_av->isa("B::AV") ?
343 B::init_av->ARRAY : ());
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344 } elsif ($objname eq "CHECK") {
345 concise_specials("CHECK", $order,
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346 B::check_av->isa("B::AV") ?
347 B::check_av->ARRAY : ());
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348 } elsif ($objname eq "UNITCHECK") {
349 concise_specials("UNITCHECK", $order,
350 B::unitcheck_av->isa("B::AV") ?
351 B::unitcheck_av->ARRAY : ());
cc02ea56
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352 } elsif ($objname eq "END") {
353 concise_specials("END", $order,
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354 B::end_av->isa("B::AV") ?
355 B::end_av->ARRAY : ());
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356 }
357 else {
358 # convert function names to subrefs
359 my $objref;
360 if (ref $objname) {
361 print $walkHandle "B::Concise::compile($objname)\n"
362 if $banner;
363 $objref = $objname;
8ec8fbef 364 } else {
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365 $objname = "main::" . $objname unless $objname =~ /::/;
366 print $walkHandle "$objname:\n";
367 no strict 'refs';
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368 unless (exists &$objname) {
369 print $walkHandle "err: unknown function ($objname)\n";
370 return;
371 }
cc02ea56 372 $objref = \&$objname;
8ec8fbef 373 }
c0939cee 374 concise_subref($order, $objref, $objname);
c99ca59a
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375 }
376 }
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377 for my $pkg (@render_packs) {
378 no strict 'refs';
379 concise_stashref($order, \%{$pkg.'::'});
380 }
381
382 if (!@args or $do_main or @render_packs) {
f95e3c3c 383 print $walkHandle "main program:\n" if $do_main;
31b49ad4 384 concise_main($order);
c99ca59a 385 }
cc02ea56 386 return @args; # something
c99ca59a
SM
387 }
388}
389
390my %labels;
724aa791 391my $lastnext; # remembers op-chain, used to insert gotos
c99ca59a
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392
393my %opclass = ('OP' => "0", 'UNOP' => "1", 'BINOP' => "2", 'LOGOP' => "|",
394 'LISTOP' => "@", 'PMOP' => "/", 'SVOP' => "\$", 'GVOP' => "*",
051f02e9 395 'PVOP' => '"', 'LOOP' => "{", 'COP' => ";", 'PADOP' => "#");
c99ca59a 396
8ec8fbef 397no warnings 'qw'; # "Possible attempt to put comments..."; use #7
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398my @linenoise =
399 qw'# () sc ( @? 1 $* gv *{ m$ m@ m% m? p/ *$ $ $# & a& pt \\ s\\ rf bl
c99ca59a
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400 ` *? <> ?? ?/ r/ c/ // qr s/ /c y/ = @= C sC Cp sp df un BM po +1 +I
401 -1 -I 1+ I+ 1- I- ** * i* / i/ %$ i% x + i+ - i- . " << >> < i<
402 > i> <= i, >= i. == i= != i! <? i? s< s> s, s. s= s! s? b& b^ b| -0 -i
403 ! ~ a2 si cs rd sr e^ lg sq in %x %o ab le ss ve ix ri sf FL od ch cy
404 uf lf uc lc qm @ [f [ @[ eh vl ky dl ex % ${ @{ uk pk st jn ) )[ a@
405 a% sl +] -] [- [+ so rv GS GW MS MW .. f. .f && || ^^ ?: &= |= -> s{ s}
406 v} ca wa di rs ;; ; ;d }{ { } {} f{ it {l l} rt }l }n }r dm }g }e ^o
407 ^c ^| ^# um bm t~ u~ ~d DB db ^s se ^g ^r {w }w pf pr ^O ^K ^R ^W ^d ^v
408 ^e ^t ^k t. fc ic fl .s .p .b .c .l .a .h g1 s1 g2 s2 ?. l? -R -W -X -r
409 -w -x -e -o -O -z -s -M -A -C -S -c -b -f -d -p -l -u -g -k -t -T -B cd
410 co cr u. cm ut r. l@ s@ r@ mD uD oD rD tD sD wD cD f$ w$ p$ sh e$ k$ g3
411 g4 s4 g5 s5 T@ C@ L@ G@ A@ S@ Hg Hc Hr Hw Mg Mc Ms Mr Sg Sc So rq do {e
412 e} {t t} g6 G6 6e g7 G7 7e g8 G8 8e g9 G9 9e 6s 7s 8s 9s 6E 7E 8E 9E Pn
c27ea44e 413 Pu GP SP EP Gn Gg GG SG EG g0 c$ lk t$ ;s n> // /= CO';
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414
415my $chars = "0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ";
416
19e169bf 417sub op_flags { # common flags (see BASOP.op_flags in op.h)
c99ca59a
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418 my($x) = @_;
419 my(@v);
420 push @v, "v" if ($x & 3) == 1;
421 push @v, "s" if ($x & 3) == 2;
422 push @v, "l" if ($x & 3) == 3;
423 push @v, "K" if $x & 4;
424 push @v, "P" if $x & 8;
425 push @v, "R" if $x & 16;
426 push @v, "M" if $x & 32;
427 push @v, "S" if $x & 64;
428 push @v, "*" if $x & 128;
429 return join("", @v);
430}
431
432sub base_n {
433 my $x = shift;
434 return "-" . base_n(-$x) if $x < 0;
435 my $str = "";
436 do { $str .= substr($chars, $x % $base, 1) } while $x = int($x / $base);
437 $str = reverse $str if $big_endian;
438 return $str;
439}
440
c27ea44e
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441my %sequence_num;
442my $seq_max = 1;
443
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444sub reset_sequence {
445 # reset the sequence
446 %sequence_num = ();
447 $seq_max = 1;
cc02ea56 448 $lastnext = 0;
f95e3c3c
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449}
450
c27ea44e
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451sub seq {
452 my($op) = @_;
453 return "-" if not exists $sequence_num{$$op};
454 return base_n($sequence_num{$$op});
455}
c99ca59a
SM
456
457sub walk_topdown {
458 my($op, $sub, $level) = @_;
459 $sub->($op, $level);
460 if ($op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
461 for (my $kid = $op->first; $$kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
462 walk_topdown($kid, $sub, $level + 1);
463 }
464 }
98517ccb 465 if (class($op) eq "PMOP") {
c6e79e55
SM
466 my $maybe_root = $op->pmreplroot;
467 if (ref($maybe_root) and $maybe_root->isa("B::OP")) {
468 # It really is the root of the replacement, not something
469 # else stored here for lack of space elsewhere
470 walk_topdown($maybe_root, $sub, $level + 1);
471 }
c99ca59a
SM
472 }
473}
474
475sub walklines {
476 my($ar, $level) = @_;
477 for my $l (@$ar) {
478 if (ref($l) eq "ARRAY") {
479 walklines($l, $level + 1);
480 } else {
481 $l->concise($level);
482 }
483 }
484}
485
486sub walk_exec {
487 my($top, $level) = @_;
488 my %opsseen;
489 my @lines;
490 my @todo = ([$top, \@lines]);
491 while (@todo and my($op, $targ) = @{shift @todo}) {
492 for (; $$op; $op = $op->next) {
493 last if $opsseen{$$op}++;
494 push @$targ, $op;
495 my $name = $op->name;
62e36f8a 496 if (class($op) eq "LOGOP") {
c99ca59a
SM
497 my $ar = [];
498 push @$targ, $ar;
499 push @todo, [$op->other, $ar];
500 } elsif ($name eq "subst" and $ {$op->pmreplstart}) {
501 my $ar = [];
502 push @$targ, $ar;
503 push @todo, [$op->pmreplstart, $ar];
504 } elsif ($name =~ /^enter(loop|iter)$/) {
7252851f
NC
505 if ($] > 5.009) {
506 $labels{${$op->nextop}} = "NEXT";
507 $labels{${$op->lastop}} = "LAST";
508 $labels{${$op->redoop}} = "REDO";
509 } else {
510 $labels{$op->nextop->seq} = "NEXT";
511 $labels{$op->lastop->seq} = "LAST";
512 $labels{$op->redoop->seq} = "REDO";
513 }
c99ca59a
SM
514 }
515 }
516 }
517 walklines(\@lines, 0);
518}
519
c27ea44e
SM
520# The structure of this routine is purposely modeled after op.c's peep()
521sub sequence {
522 my($op) = @_;
523 my $oldop = 0;
524 return if class($op) eq "NULL" or exists $sequence_num{$$op};
525 for (; $$op; $op = $op->next) {
526 last if exists $sequence_num{$$op};
527 my $name = $op->name;
528 if ($name =~ /^(null|scalar|lineseq|scope)$/) {
529 next if $oldop and $ {$op->next};
530 } else {
531 $sequence_num{$$op} = $seq_max++;
532 if (class($op) eq "LOGOP") {
533 my $other = $op->other;
534 $other = $other->next while $other->name eq "null";
535 sequence($other);
536 } elsif (class($op) eq "LOOP") {
537 my $redoop = $op->redoop;
538 $redoop = $redoop->next while $redoop->name eq "null";
539 sequence($redoop);
540 my $nextop = $op->nextop;
541 $nextop = $nextop->next while $nextop->name eq "null";
542 sequence($nextop);
543 my $lastop = $op->lastop;
544 $lastop = $lastop->next while $lastop->name eq "null";
545 sequence($lastop);
546 } elsif ($name eq "subst" and $ {$op->pmreplstart}) {
547 my $replstart = $op->pmreplstart;
548 $replstart = $replstart->next while $replstart->name eq "null";
549 sequence($replstart);
550 }
551 }
552 $oldop = $op;
553 }
554}
555
724aa791 556sub fmt_line { # generate text-line for op.
cc02ea56
JC
557 my($hr, $op, $text, $level) = @_;
558
559 $_->($hr, $op, \$text, \$level, $stylename) for @callbacks;
560
724aa791 561 return '' if $hr->{SKIP}; # suppress line if a callback said so
cc02ea56 562 return '' if $hr->{goto} and $hr->{goto} eq '-'; # no goto nowhere
f95e3c3c 563
cc02ea56 564 # spec: (?(text1#varText2)?)
c99ca59a 565 $text =~ s/\(\?\(([^\#]*?)\#(\w+)([^\#]*?)\)\?\)/
f95e3c3c
JC
566 $hr->{$2} ? $1.$hr->{$2}.$3 : ""/eg;
567
cc02ea56 568 # spec: (x(exec_text;basic_text)x)
c99ca59a 569 $text =~ s/\(x\((.*?);(.*?)\)x\)/$order eq "exec" ? $1 : $2/egs;
cc02ea56
JC
570
571 # spec: (*(text)*)
c99ca59a 572 $text =~ s/\(\*\(([^;]*?)\)\*\)/$1 x $level/egs;
cc02ea56
JC
573
574 # spec: (*(text1;text2)*)
c99ca59a 575 $text =~ s/\(\*\((.*?);(.*?)\)\*\)/$1 x ($level - 1) . $2 x ($level>0)/egs;
cc02ea56
JC
576
577 # convert #Var to tag=>val form: Var\t#var
578 $text =~ s/\#([A-Z][a-z]+)(\d+)?/\t\u$1\t\L#$1$2/gs;
579
580 # spec: #varN
724aa791
JC
581 $text =~ s/\#([a-zA-Z]+)(\d+)/sprintf("%-$2s", $hr->{$1})/eg;
582
cc02ea56
JC
583 $text =~ s/\#([a-zA-Z]+)/$hr->{$1}/eg; # populate #var's
584 $text =~ s/[ \t]*~+[ \t]*/ /g; # squeeze tildes
f18deeb9
JC
585
586 $text = "# $hr->{src}\n$text" if $show_src and $hr->{src};
587
f95e3c3c
JC
588 chomp $text;
589 return "$text\n" if $text ne "";
590 return $text; # suppress empty lines
c99ca59a
SM
591}
592
19e169bf
JC
593our %priv; # used to display each opcode's BASEOP.op_private values
594
c99ca59a
SM
595$priv{$_}{128} = "LVINTRO"
596 for ("pos", "substr", "vec", "threadsv", "gvsv", "rv2sv", "rv2hv", "rv2gv",
597 "rv2av", "rv2arylen", "aelem", "helem", "aslice", "hslice", "padsv",
241416b8 598 "padav", "padhv", "enteriter");
c99ca59a
SM
599$priv{$_}{64} = "REFC" for ("leave", "leavesub", "leavesublv", "leavewrite");
600$priv{"aassign"}{64} = "COMMON";
461824dc 601$priv{"aassign"}{32} = $] < 5.009 ? "PHASH" : "STATE";
952306ac 602$priv{"sassign"}{32} = "STATE";
c99ca59a 603$priv{"sassign"}{64} = "BKWARD";
7abc42fc 604$priv{$_}{64} = "RTIME" for ("match", "subst", "substcont", "qr");
c99ca59a
SM
605@{$priv{"trans"}}{1,2,4,8,16,64} = ("<UTF", ">UTF", "IDENT", "SQUASH", "DEL",
606 "COMPL", "GROWS");
bb16bae8 607$priv{transr} = $priv{trans};
c99ca59a
SM
608$priv{"repeat"}{64} = "DOLIST";
609$priv{"leaveloop"}{64} = "CONT";
0824d667 610$priv{$_}{4} = "DREFed" for (qw(rv2sv rv2av rv2hv));
c99ca59a 611@{$priv{$_}}{32,64,96} = ("DREFAV", "DREFHV", "DREFSV")
314d4778 612 for (qw(rv2gv rv2sv padsv aelem helem));
a5911867 613$priv{$_}{16} = "STATE" for ("padav", "padhv", "padsv");
d4797c1d 614@{$priv{"entersub"}}{16,32,64} = ("DBG","TARG","NOMOD");
c99ca59a
SM
615@{$priv{$_}}{4,8,128} = ("INARGS","AMPER","NO()") for ("entersub", "rv2cv");
616$priv{"gv"}{32} = "EARLYCV";
617$priv{"aelem"}{16} = $priv{"helem"}{16} = "LVDEFER";
241416b8
DM
618$priv{$_}{16} = "OURINTR" for ("gvsv", "rv2sv", "rv2av", "rv2hv", "r2gv",
619 "enteriter");
c99ca59a
SM
620$priv{$_}{16} = "TARGMY"
621 for (map(($_,"s$_"),"chop", "chomp"),
622 map(($_,"i_$_"), "postinc", "postdec", "multiply", "divide", "modulo",
623 "add", "subtract", "negate"), "pow", "concat", "stringify",
624 "left_shift", "right_shift", "bit_and", "bit_xor", "bit_or",
625 "complement", "atan2", "sin", "cos", "rand", "exp", "log", "sqrt",
626 "int", "hex", "oct", "abs", "length", "index", "rindex", "sprintf",
627 "ord", "chr", "crypt", "quotemeta", "join", "push", "unshift", "flock",
628 "chdir", "chown", "chroot", "unlink", "chmod", "utime", "rename",
629 "link", "symlink", "mkdir", "rmdir", "wait", "waitpid", "system",
630 "exec", "kill", "getppid", "getpgrp", "setpgrp", "getpriority",
631 "setpriority", "time", "sleep");
ef3e5ea9 632$priv{$_}{4} = "REVERSED" for ("enteriter", "iter");
d4797c1d 633@{$priv{"const"}}{4,8,16,32,64,128} = ("SHORT","STRICT","ENTERED",'$[',"BARE","WARN");
c99ca59a
SM
634$priv{"flip"}{64} = $priv{"flop"}{64} = "LINENUM";
635$priv{"list"}{64} = "GUESSED";
636$priv{"delete"}{64} = "SLICE";
637$priv{"exists"}{64} = "SUB";
7b9ef140 638@{$priv{"sort"}}{1,2,4,8,16,32,64} = ("NUM", "INT", "REV", "INPLACE","DESC","QSORT","STABLE");
484c818f 639$priv{"reverse"}{8} = "INPLACE";
c99ca59a 640$priv{"threadsv"}{64} = "SVREFd";
c27ea44e
SM
641@{$priv{$_}}{16,32,64,128} = ("INBIN","INCR","OUTBIN","OUTCR")
642 for ("open", "backtick");
c99ca59a 643$priv{"exit"}{128} = "VMS";
feaeca78
JH
644$priv{$_}{2} = "FTACCESS"
645 for ("ftrread", "ftrwrite", "ftrexec", "fteread", "ftewrite", "fteexec");
7b9ef140 646$priv{"entereval"}{2} = "HAS_HH";
32454ac8
NC
647if ($] >= 5.009) {
648 # Stacked filetests are post 5.8.x
649 $priv{$_}{4} = "FTSTACKED"
650 for ("ftrread", "ftrwrite", "ftrexec", "fteread", "ftewrite", "fteexec",
651 "ftis", "fteowned", "ftrowned", "ftzero", "ftsize", "ftmtime",
652 "ftatime", "ftctime", "ftsock", "ftchr", "ftblk", "ftfile", "ftdir",
653 "ftpipe", "ftlink", "ftsuid", "ftsgid", "ftsvtx", "fttty", "fttext",
654 "ftbinary");
655 # Lexical $_ is post 5.8.x
656 $priv{$_}{2} = "GREPLEX"
657 for ("mapwhile", "mapstart", "grepwhile", "grepstart");
658}
c99ca59a 659
d5ec2987
NC
660our %hints; # used to display each COP's op_hints values
661
662# strict refs, subs, vars
663@hints{2,512,1024} = ('$', '&', '*');
664# integers, locale, bytes, arybase
665@hints{1,4,8,16,32} = ('i', 'l', 'b', '[');
8b850bd5
NC
666# block scope, localise %^H, $^OPEN (in), $^OPEN (out)
667@hints{256,131072,262144,524288} = ('{','%','<','>');
d5ec2987
NC
668# overload new integer, float, binary, string, re
669@hints{4096,8192,16384,32768,65536} = ('I', 'F', 'B', 'S', 'R');
670# taint and eval
671@hints{1048576,2097152} = ('T', 'E');
584420f0
RGS
672# filetest access, UTF-8
673@hints{4194304,8388608} = ('X', 'U');
d5ec2987
NC
674
675sub _flags {
676 my($hash, $x) = @_;
c99ca59a 677 my @s;
d5ec2987
NC
678 for my $flag (sort {$b <=> $a} keys %$hash) {
679 if ($hash->{$flag} and $x & $flag and $x >= $flag) {
c99ca59a 680 $x -= $flag;
d5ec2987 681 push @s, $hash->{$flag};
c99ca59a
SM
682 }
683 }
684 push @s, $x if $x;
685 return join(",", @s);
686}
687
d5ec2987
NC
688sub private_flags {
689 my($name, $x) = @_;
690 _flags($priv{$name}, $x);
691}
692
693sub hints_flags {
694 my($x) = @_;
695 _flags(\%hints, $x);
696}
697
c27ea44e 698sub concise_sv {
2db5ca0a 699 my($sv, $hr, $preferpv) = @_;
c27ea44e 700 $hr->{svclass} = class($sv);
31b49ad4
SM
701 $hr->{svclass} = "UV"
702 if $hr->{svclass} eq "IV" and $sv->FLAGS & SVf_IVisUV;
5b493bdf 703 Carp::cluck("bad concise_sv: $sv") unless $sv and $$sv;
c27ea44e 704 $hr->{svaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $$sv);
50786ba8 705 if ($hr->{svclass} eq "GV" && $sv->isGV_with_GP()) {
c27ea44e 706 my $gv = $sv;
50786ba8 707 my $stash = $gv->STASH->NAME; if ($stash eq "main") {
c27ea44e
SM
708 $stash = "";
709 } else {
710 $stash = $stash . "::";
711 }
712 $hr->{svval} = "*$stash" . $gv->SAFENAME;
713 return "*$stash" . $gv->SAFENAME;
714 } else {
4df7f6af
NC
715 if ($] >= 5.011) {
716 while (class($sv) eq "IV" && $sv->FLAGS & SVf_ROK) {
717 $hr->{svval} .= "\\";
718 $sv = $sv->RV;
719 }
720 } else {
721 while (class($sv) eq "RV") {
722 $hr->{svval} .= "\\";
723 $sv = $sv->RV;
724 }
c27ea44e
SM
725 }
726 if (class($sv) eq "SPECIAL") {
40b5b14f 727 $hr->{svval} .= ["Null", "sv_undef", "sv_yes", "sv_no"]->[$$sv];
2db5ca0a
YST
728 } elsif ($preferpv && $sv->FLAGS & SVf_POK) {
729 $hr->{svval} .= cstring($sv->PV);
c27ea44e 730 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_NOK) {
40b5b14f 731 $hr->{svval} .= $sv->NV;
c27ea44e 732 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_IOK) {
31b49ad4 733 $hr->{svval} .= $sv->int_value;
c27ea44e 734 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_POK) {
40b5b14f 735 $hr->{svval} .= cstring($sv->PV);
31b49ad4
SM
736 } elsif (class($sv) eq "HV") {
737 $hr->{svval} .= 'HASH';
c27ea44e 738 }
cc02ea56
JC
739
740 $hr->{svval} = 'undef' unless defined $hr->{svval};
741 my $out = $hr->{svclass};
742 return $out .= " $hr->{svval}" ;
c27ea44e
SM
743 }
744}
745
f18deeb9
JC
746my %srclines;
747
748sub fill_srclines {
9e0f9750
JC
749 my $fullnm = shift;
750 if ($fullnm eq '-e') {
751 $srclines{$fullnm} = [ $fullnm, "-src not supported for -e" ];
752 return;
6cc5d258 753 }
9e0f9750 754 open (my $fh, '<', $fullnm)
6cc5d258 755 or warn "# $fullnm: $!, (chdirs not supported by this feature yet)\n"
f18deeb9
JC
756 and return;
757 my @l = <$fh>;
758 chomp @l;
9e0f9750
JC
759 unshift @l, $fullnm; # like @{_<$fullnm} in debug, array starts at 1
760 $srclines{$fullnm} = \@l;
f18deeb9
JC
761}
762
c99ca59a
SM
763sub concise_op {
764 my ($op, $level, $format) = @_;
765 my %h;
766 $h{exname} = $h{name} = $op->name;
767 $h{NAME} = uc $h{name};
768 $h{class} = class($op);
769 $h{extarg} = $h{targ} = $op->targ;
770 $h{extarg} = "" unless $h{extarg};
771 if ($h{name} eq "null" and $h{targ}) {
8ec8fbef 772 # targ holds the old type
c99ca59a
SM
773 $h{exname} = "ex-" . substr(ppname($h{targ}), 3);
774 $h{extarg} = "";
8ec8fbef
SM
775 } elsif ($op->name =~ /^leave(sub(lv)?|write)?$/) {
776 # targ potentially holds a reference count
777 if ($op->private & 64) {
778 my $refs = "ref" . ($h{targ} != 1 ? "s" : "");
779 $h{targarglife} = $h{targarg} = "$h{targ} $refs";
780 }
c99ca59a
SM
781 } elsif ($h{targ}) {
782 my $padname = (($curcv->PADLIST->ARRAY)[0]->ARRAY)[$h{targ}];
783 if (defined $padname and class($padname) ne "SPECIAL") {
0b40bd6d 784 $h{targarg} = $padname->PVX;
127212b2 785 if ($padname->FLAGS & SVf_FAKE) {
4ac6efe6
NC
786 if ($] < 5.009) {
787 $h{targarglife} = "$h{targarg}:FAKE";
788 } else {
789 # These changes relate to the jumbo closure fix.
790 # See changes 19939 and 20005
791 my $fake = '';
6c5e080d
NC
792 $fake .= 'a'
793 if $padname->PARENT_FAKELEX_FLAGS & PAD_FAKELEX_ANON;
794 $fake .= 'm'
795 if $padname->PARENT_FAKELEX_FLAGS & PAD_FAKELEX_MULTI;
809abb02
NC
796 $fake .= ':' . $padname->PARENT_PAD_INDEX
797 if $curcv->CvFLAGS & CVf_ANON;
4ac6efe6
NC
798 $h{targarglife} = "$h{targarg}:FAKE:$fake";
799 }
127212b2
DM
800 }
801 else {
809abb02
NC
802 my $intro = $padname->COP_SEQ_RANGE_LOW - $cop_seq_base;
803 my $finish = int($padname->COP_SEQ_RANGE_HIGH) - $cop_seq_base;
127212b2
DM
804 $finish = "end" if $finish == 999999999 - $cop_seq_base;
805 $h{targarglife} = "$h{targarg}:$intro,$finish";
806 }
c99ca59a
SM
807 } else {
808 $h{targarglife} = $h{targarg} = "t" . $h{targ};
809 }
810 }
811 $h{arg} = "";
812 $h{svclass} = $h{svaddr} = $h{svval} = "";
813 if ($h{class} eq "PMOP") {
814 my $precomp = $op->precomp;
7a9b44b9 815 if (defined $precomp) {
c27ea44e
SM
816 $precomp = cstring($precomp); # Escape literal control sequences
817 $precomp = "/$precomp/";
818 } else {
819 $precomp = "";
7a9b44b9 820 }
b2a3cfdd 821 my $pmreplroot = $op->pmreplroot;
34a48b4b 822 my $pmreplstart;
c6e79e55 823 if (ref($pmreplroot) eq "B::GV") {
b2a3cfdd 824 # with C<@stash_array = split(/pat/, str);>,
c6e79e55 825 # *stash_array is stored in /pat/'s pmreplroot.
b2a3cfdd 826 $h{arg} = "($precomp => \@" . $pmreplroot->NAME . ")";
c6e79e55
SM
827 } elsif (!ref($pmreplroot) and $pmreplroot) {
828 # same as the last case, except the value is actually a
829 # pad offset for where the GV is kept (this happens under
830 # ithreads)
831 my $gv = (($curcv->PADLIST->ARRAY)[1]->ARRAY)[$pmreplroot];
832 $h{arg} = "($precomp => \@" . $gv->NAME . ")";
b2a3cfdd 833 } elsif ($ {$op->pmreplstart}) {
c99ca59a
SM
834 undef $lastnext;
835 $pmreplstart = "replstart->" . seq($op->pmreplstart);
836 $h{arg} = "(" . join(" ", $precomp, $pmreplstart) . ")";
837 } else {
838 $h{arg} = "($precomp)";
839 }
bb16bae8 840 } elsif ($h{class} eq "PVOP" and $h{name} !~ '^transr?\z') {
c99ca59a
SM
841 $h{arg} = '("' . $op->pv . '")';
842 $h{svval} = '"' . $op->pv . '"';
843 } elsif ($h{class} eq "COP") {
844 my $label = $op->label;
c3caa09d 845 $h{coplabel} = $label;
c99ca59a
SM
846 $label = $label ? "$label: " : "";
847 my $loc = $op->file;
9e0f9750 848 my $pathnm = $loc;
c99ca59a 849 $loc =~ s[.*/][];
9e0f9750
JC
850 my $ln = $op->line;
851 $loc .= ":$ln";
c99ca59a
SM
852 my($stash, $cseq) = ($op->stash->NAME, $op->cop_seq - $cop_seq_base);
853 my $arybase = $op->arybase;
854 $arybase = $arybase ? ' $[=' . $arybase : "";
855 $h{arg} = "($label$stash $cseq $loc$arybase)";
f18deeb9 856 if ($show_src) {
9e0f9750 857 fill_srclines($pathnm) unless exists $srclines{$pathnm};
e9c69003
NC
858 # Would love to retain Jim's use of // but this code needs to be
859 # portable to 5.8.x
860 my $line = $srclines{$pathnm}[$ln];
861 $line = "-src unavailable under -e" unless defined $line;
862 $h{src} = "$ln: $line";
f18deeb9 863 }
c99ca59a
SM
864 } elsif ($h{class} eq "LOOP") {
865 $h{arg} = "(next->" . seq($op->nextop) . " last->" . seq($op->lastop)
866 . " redo->" . seq($op->redoop) . ")";
867 } elsif ($h{class} eq "LOGOP") {
868 undef $lastnext;
869 $h{arg} = "(other->" . seq($op->other) . ")";
5b493bdf
JC
870 }
871 elsif ($h{class} eq "SVOP" or $h{class} eq "PADOP") {
6a077020 872 unless ($h{name} eq 'aelemfast' and $op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
5b493bdf 873 my $idx = ($h{class} eq "SVOP") ? $op->targ : $op->padix;
2db5ca0a 874 my $preferpv = $h{name} eq "method_named";
5b493bdf
JC
875 if ($h{class} eq "PADOP" or !${$op->sv}) {
876 my $sv = (($curcv->PADLIST->ARRAY)[1]->ARRAY)[$idx];
2db5ca0a 877 $h{arg} = "[" . concise_sv($sv, \%h, $preferpv) . "]";
6a077020
DM
878 $h{targarglife} = $h{targarg} = "";
879 } else {
2db5ca0a 880 $h{arg} = "(" . concise_sv($op->sv, \%h, $preferpv) . ")";
6a077020 881 }
c99ca59a
SM
882 }
883 }
884 $h{seq} = $h{hyphseq} = seq($op);
885 $h{seq} = "" if $h{seq} eq "-";
7252851f
NC
886 if ($] > 5.009) {
887 $h{opt} = $op->opt;
7252851f
NC
888 $h{label} = $labels{$$op};
889 } else {
890 $h{seqnum} = $op->seq;
891 $h{label} = $labels{$op->seq};
892 }
c99ca59a
SM
893 $h{next} = $op->next;
894 $h{next} = (class($h{next}) eq "NULL") ? "(end)" : seq($h{next});
895 $h{nextaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $ {$op->next});
896 $h{sibaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $ {$op->sibling});
897 $h{firstaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $ {$op->first}) if $op->can("first");
898 $h{lastaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $ {$op->last}) if $op->can("last");
899
900 $h{classsym} = $opclass{$h{class}};
901 $h{flagval} = $op->flags;
902 $h{flags} = op_flags($op->flags);
903 $h{privval} = $op->private;
904 $h{private} = private_flags($h{name}, $op->private);
d5ec2987
NC
905 if ($op->can("hints")) {
906 $h{hintsval} = $op->hints;
907 $h{hints} = hints_flags($h{hintsval});
908 } else {
909 $h{hintsval} = $h{hints} = '';
910 }
c99ca59a 911 $h{addr} = sprintf("%#x", $$op);
c99ca59a
SM
912 $h{typenum} = $op->type;
913 $h{noise} = $linenoise[$op->type];
f95e3c3c 914
cc02ea56 915 return fmt_line(\%h, $op, $format, $level);
c99ca59a
SM
916}
917
918sub B::OP::concise {
919 my($op, $level) = @_;
920 if ($order eq "exec" and $lastnext and $$lastnext != $$op) {
724aa791 921 # insert a 'goto' line
cc02ea56
JC
922 my $synth = {"seq" => seq($lastnext), "class" => class($lastnext),
923 "addr" => sprintf("%#x", $$lastnext),
924 "goto" => seq($lastnext), # simplify goto '-' removal
925 };
926 print $walkHandle fmt_line($synth, $op, $gotofmt, $level+1);
c99ca59a
SM
927 }
928 $lastnext = $op->next;
f95e3c3c 929 print $walkHandle concise_op($op, $level, $format);
c99ca59a
SM
930}
931
31b49ad4
SM
932# B::OP::terse (see Terse.pm) now just calls this
933sub b_terse {
934 my($op, $level) = @_;
935
936 # This isn't necessarily right, but there's no easy way to get
937 # from an OP to the right CV. This is a limitation of the
938 # ->terse() interface style, and there isn't much to do about
939 # it. In particular, we can die in concise_op if the main pad
940 # isn't long enough, or has the wrong kind of entries, compared to
941 # the pad a sub was compiled with. The fix for that would be to
942 # make a backwards compatible "terse" format that never even
943 # looked at the pad, just like the old B::Terse. I don't think
944 # that's worth the effort, though.
945 $curcv = main_cv unless $curcv;
946
947 if ($order eq "exec" and $lastnext and $$lastnext != $$op) {
724aa791 948 # insert a 'goto'
31b49ad4
SM
949 my $h = {"seq" => seq($lastnext), "class" => class($lastnext),
950 "addr" => sprintf("%#x", $$lastnext)};
cc02ea56
JC
951 print # $walkHandle
952 fmt_line($h, $op, $style{"terse"}[1], $level+1);
31b49ad4
SM
953 }
954 $lastnext = $op->next;
cc02ea56
JC
955 print # $walkHandle
956 concise_op($op, $level, $style{"terse"}[0]);
31b49ad4
SM
957}
958
c99ca59a
SM
959sub tree {
960 my $op = shift;
961 my $level = shift;
962 my $style = $tree_decorations[$tree_style];
963 my($space, $single, $kids, $kid, $nokid, $last, $lead, $size) = @$style;
964 my $name = concise_op($op, $level, $treefmt);
965 if (not $op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
966 return $name . "\n";
967 }
968 my @lines;
969 for (my $kid = $op->first; $$kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
970 push @lines, tree($kid, $level+1);
971 }
972 my $i;
973 for ($i = $#lines; substr($lines[$i], 0, 1) eq " "; $i--) {
974 $lines[$i] = $space . $lines[$i];
975 }
976 if ($i > 0) {
977 $lines[$i] = $last . $lines[$i];
978 while ($i-- > 1) {
979 if (substr($lines[$i], 0, 1) eq " ") {
980 $lines[$i] = $nokid . $lines[$i];
981 } else {
f95e3c3c 982 $lines[$i] = $kid . $lines[$i];
c99ca59a
SM
983 }
984 }
985 $lines[$i] = $kids . $lines[$i];
986 } else {
987 $lines[0] = $single . $lines[0];
988 }
989 return("$name$lead" . shift @lines,
990 map(" " x (length($name)+$size) . $_, @lines));
991}
992
213a1a26
SM
993# *** Warning: fragile kludge ahead ***
994# Because the B::* modules run in the same interpreter as the code
2814eb74
PJ
995# they're compiling, their presence tends to distort the view we have of
996# the code we're looking at. In particular, perl gives sequence numbers
997# to COPs. If the program we're looking at were run on its own, this
998# would start at 1. Because all of B::Concise and all the modules it
999# uses are compiled first, though, by the time we get to the user's
1000# program the sequence number is already pretty high, which could be
1001# distracting if you're trying to tell OPs apart. Therefore we'd like to
1002# subtract an offset from all the sequence numbers we display, to
1003# restore the simpler view of the world. The trick is to know what that
1004# offset will be, when we're still compiling B::Concise! If we
213a1a26 1005# hardcoded a value, it would have to change every time B::Concise or
2814eb74
PJ
1006# other modules we use do. To help a little, what we do here is compile
1007# a little code at the end of the module, and compute the base sequence
1008# number for the user's program as being a small offset later, so all we
1009# have to worry about are changes in the offset.
7252851f
NC
1010
1011# [For 5.8.x and earlier perl is generating sequence numbers for all ops,
1012# and using them to reference labels]
1013
1014
213a1a26
SM
1015# When you say "perl -MO=Concise -e '$a'", the output should look like:
1016
1017# 4 <@> leave[t1] vKP/REFC ->(end)
1018# 1 <0> enter ->2
1019 #^ smallest OP sequence number should be 1
1020# 2 <;> nextstate(main 1 -e:1) v ->3
1021 # ^ smallest COP sequence number should be 1
1022# - <1> ex-rv2sv vK/1 ->4
1023# 3 <$> gvsv(*a) s ->4
1024
c27ea44e
SM
1025# If the second of the marked numbers there isn't 1, it means you need
1026# to update the corresponding magic number in the next line.
1027# Remember, this needs to stay the last things in the module.
e69a2255 1028
c27ea44e 1029# Why is this different for MacOS? Does it matter?
8ec8fbef 1030my $cop_seq_mnum = $^O eq 'MacOS' ? 12 : 11;
e69a2255 1031$cop_seq_base = svref_2object(eval 'sub{0;}')->START->cop_seq + $cop_seq_mnum;
c99ca59a
SM
1032
10331;
1034
1035__END__
1036
1037=head1 NAME
1038
1039B::Concise - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing concise info about ops
1040
1041=head1 SYNOPSIS
1042
1043 perl -MO=Concise[,OPTIONS] foo.pl
1044
78ad9108
PJ
1045 use B::Concise qw(set_style add_callback);
1046
c99ca59a
SM
1047=head1 DESCRIPTION
1048
1049This compiler backend prints the internal OPs of a Perl program's syntax
1050tree in one of several space-efficient text formats suitable for debugging
1051the inner workings of perl or other compiler backends. It can print OPs in
1052the order they appear in the OP tree, in the order they will execute, or
1053in a text approximation to their tree structure, and the format of the
3c4b39be 1054information displayed is customizable. Its function is similar to that of
c99ca59a
SM
1055perl's B<-Dx> debugging flag or the B<B::Terse> module, but it is more
1056sophisticated and flexible.
1057
f8a679e6
RGS
1058=head1 EXAMPLE
1059
f9f861ec
JC
1060Here's two outputs (or 'renderings'), using the -exec and -basic
1061(i.e. default) formatting conventions on the same code snippet.
19e169bf
JC
1062
1063 % perl -MO=Concise,-exec -e '$a = $b + 42'
1064 1 <0> enter
1065 2 <;> nextstate(main 1 -e:1) v
1066 3 <#> gvsv[*b] s
1067 4 <$> const[IV 42] s
1068 * 5 <2> add[t3] sK/2
1069 6 <#> gvsv[*a] s
1070 7 <2> sassign vKS/2
1071 8 <@> leave[1 ref] vKP/REFC
1072
f9f861ec
JC
1073In this -exec rendering, each opcode is executed in the order shown.
1074The add opcode, marked with '*', is discussed in more detail.
19e169bf
JC
1075
1076The 1st column is the op's sequence number, starting at 1, and is
f9f861ec
JC
1077displayed in base 36 by default. Here they're purely linear; the
1078sequences are very helpful when looking at code with loops and
1079branches.
19e169bf
JC
1080
1081The symbol between angle brackets indicates the op's type, for
1082example; <2> is a BINOP, <@> a LISTOP, and <#> is a PADOP, which is
1083used in threaded perls. (see L</"OP class abbreviations">).
1084
f9f861ec 1085The opname, as in B<'add[t1]'>, may be followed by op-specific
19e169bf
JC
1086information in parentheses or brackets (ex B<'[t1]'>).
1087
f9f861ec 1088The op-flags (ex B<'sK/2'>) are described in (L</"OP flags
19e169bf 1089abbreviations">).
f8a679e6
RGS
1090
1091 % perl -MO=Concise -e '$a = $b + 42'
8ec8fbef 1092 8 <@> leave[1 ref] vKP/REFC ->(end)
f8a679e6
RGS
1093 1 <0> enter ->2
1094 2 <;> nextstate(main 1 -e:1) v ->3
1095 7 <2> sassign vKS/2 ->8
19e169bf 1096 * 5 <2> add[t1] sK/2 ->6
f8a679e6
RGS
1097 - <1> ex-rv2sv sK/1 ->4
1098 3 <$> gvsv(*b) s ->4
1099 4 <$> const(IV 42) s ->5
1100 - <1> ex-rv2sv sKRM*/1 ->7
1101 6 <$> gvsv(*a) s ->7
1102
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JC
1103The default rendering is top-down, so they're not in execution order.
1104This form reflects the way the stack is used to parse and evaluate
1105expressions; the add operates on the two terms below it in the tree.
f8a679e6 1106
19e169bf
JC
1107Nullops appear as C<ex-opname>, where I<opname> is an op that has been
1108optimized away by perl. They're displayed with a sequence-number of
1109'-', because they are not executed (they don't appear in previous
1110example), they're printed here because they reflect the parse.
f8a679e6 1111
19e169bf
JC
1112The arrow points to the sequence number of the next op; they're not
1113displayed in -exec mode, for obvious reasons.
f8a679e6 1114
19e169bf
JC
1115Note that because this rendering was done on a non-threaded perl, the
1116PADOPs in the previous examples are now SVOPs, and some (but not all)
1117of the square brackets have been replaced by round ones. This is a
1118subtle feature to provide some visual distinction between renderings
1119on threaded and un-threaded perls.
f8a679e6 1120
f8a679e6 1121
c99ca59a
SM
1122=head1 OPTIONS
1123
1124Arguments that don't start with a hyphen are taken to be the names of
9e0f9750
JC
1125subroutines to render; if no such functions are specified, the main
1126body of the program (outside any subroutines, and not including use'd
1127or require'd files) is rendered. Passing C<BEGIN>, C<UNITCHECK>,
1128C<CHECK>, C<INIT>, or C<END> will cause all of the corresponding
1129special blocks to be printed. Arguments must follow options.
c99ca59a 1130
724aa791
JC
1131Options affect how things are rendered (ie printed). They're presented
1132here by their visual effect, 1st being strongest. They're grouped
1133according to how they interrelate; within each group the options are
1134mutually exclusive (unless otherwise stated).
1135
1136=head2 Options for Opcode Ordering
1137
1138These options control the 'vertical display' of opcodes. The display
1139'order' is also called 'mode' elsewhere in this document.
1140
c99ca59a
SM
1141=over 4
1142
1143=item B<-basic>
1144
1145Print OPs in the order they appear in the OP tree (a preorder
1146traversal, starting at the root). The indentation of each OP shows its
19e169bf
JC
1147level in the tree, and the '->' at the end of the line indicates the
1148next opcode in execution order. This mode is the default, so the flag
1149is included simply for completeness.
c99ca59a
SM
1150
1151=item B<-exec>
1152
1153Print OPs in the order they would normally execute (for the majority
1154of constructs this is a postorder traversal of the tree, ending at the
1155root). In most cases the OP that usually follows a given OP will
1156appear directly below it; alternate paths are shown by indentation. In
1157cases like loops when control jumps out of a linear path, a 'goto'
1158line is generated.
1159
1160=item B<-tree>
1161
1162Print OPs in a text approximation of a tree, with the root of the tree
1163at the left and 'left-to-right' order of children transformed into
1164'top-to-bottom'. Because this mode grows both to the right and down,
1165it isn't suitable for large programs (unless you have a very wide
1166terminal).
1167
724aa791
JC
1168=back
1169
1170=head2 Options for Line-Style
1171
1172These options select the line-style (or just style) used to render
1173each opcode, and dictates what info is actually printed into each line.
1174
1175=over 4
1176
1177=item B<-concise>
1178
1179Use the author's favorite set of formatting conventions. This is the
1180default, of course.
1181
1182=item B<-terse>
1183
1184Use formatting conventions that emulate the output of B<B::Terse>. The
1185basic mode is almost indistinguishable from the real B<B::Terse>, and the
1186exec mode looks very similar, but is in a more logical order and lacks
1187curly brackets. B<B::Terse> doesn't have a tree mode, so the tree mode
1188is only vaguely reminiscent of B<B::Terse>.
1189
1190=item B<-linenoise>
1191
1192Use formatting conventions in which the name of each OP, rather than being
1193written out in full, is represented by a one- or two-character abbreviation.
1194This is mainly a joke.
1195
1196=item B<-debug>
1197
1198Use formatting conventions reminiscent of B<B::Debug>; these aren't
1199very concise at all.
1200
1201=item B<-env>
1202
1203Use formatting conventions read from the environment variables
1204C<B_CONCISE_FORMAT>, C<B_CONCISE_GOTO_FORMAT>, and C<B_CONCISE_TREE_FORMAT>.
1205
1206=back
1207
1208=head2 Options for tree-specific formatting
1209
1210=over 4
1211
c99ca59a
SM
1212=item B<-compact>
1213
1214Use a tree format in which the minimum amount of space is used for the
1215lines connecting nodes (one character in most cases). This squeezes out
1216a few precious columns of screen real estate.
1217
1218=item B<-loose>
1219
1220Use a tree format that uses longer edges to separate OP nodes. This format
1221tends to look better than the compact one, especially in ASCII, and is
1222the default.
1223
1224=item B<-vt>
1225
1226Use tree connecting characters drawn from the VT100 line-drawing set.
1227This looks better if your terminal supports it.
1228
1229=item B<-ascii>
1230
1231Draw the tree with standard ASCII characters like C<+> and C<|>. These don't
1232look as clean as the VT100 characters, but they'll work with almost any
1233terminal (or the horizontal scrolling mode of less(1)) and are suitable
1234for text documentation or email. This is the default.
1235
724aa791 1236=back
c99ca59a 1237
724aa791
JC
1238These are pairwise exclusive, i.e. compact or loose, vt or ascii.
1239
1240=head2 Options controlling sequence numbering
1241
1242=over 4
c99ca59a
SM
1243
1244=item B<-base>I<n>
1245
1246Print OP sequence numbers in base I<n>. If I<n> is greater than 10, the
1247digit for 11 will be 'a', and so on. If I<n> is greater than 36, the digit
1248for 37 will be 'A', and so on until 62. Values greater than 62 are not
1249currently supported. The default is 36.
1250
1251=item B<-bigendian>
1252
1253Print sequence numbers with the most significant digit first. This is the
1254usual convention for Arabic numerals, and the default.
1255
1256=item B<-littleendian>
1257
724aa791
JC
1258Print seqence numbers with the least significant digit first. This is
1259obviously mutually exclusive with bigendian.
c99ca59a 1260
724aa791 1261=back
c99ca59a 1262
724aa791 1263=head2 Other options
c99ca59a 1264
f18deeb9
JC
1265=over 4
1266
1267=item B<-src>
1268
e6665613
JC
1269With this option, the rendering of each statement (starting with the
1270nextstate OP) will be preceded by the 1st line of source code that
1271generates it. For example:
f18deeb9
JC
1272
1273 1 <0> enter
1274 # 1: my $i;
1275 2 <;> nextstate(main 1 junk.pl:1) v:{
1276 3 <0> padsv[$i:1,10] vM/LVINTRO
1277 # 3: for $i (0..9) {
1278 4 <;> nextstate(main 3 junk.pl:3) v:{
1279 5 <0> pushmark s
1280 6 <$> const[IV 0] s
1281 7 <$> const[IV 9] s
1282 8 <{> enteriter(next->j last->m redo->9)[$i:1,10] lKS
1283 k <0> iter s
1284 l <|> and(other->9) vK/1
1285 # 4: print "line ";
1286 9 <;> nextstate(main 2 junk.pl:4) v
1287 a <0> pushmark s
1288 b <$> const[PV "line "] s
1289 c <@> print vK
1290 # 5: print "$i\n";
e6665613 1291 ...
f18deeb9 1292
9e0f9750
JC
1293=item B<-stash="somepackage">
1294
1295With this, "somepackage" will be required, then the stash is
1296inspected, and each function is rendered.
1297
f18deeb9
JC
1298=back
1299
1300The following options are pairwise exclusive.
cc02ea56 1301
724aa791 1302=over 4
c99ca59a 1303
724aa791 1304=item B<-main>
c99ca59a 1305
724aa791 1306Include the main program in the output, even if subroutines were also
cc02ea56
JC
1307specified. This rendering is normally suppressed when a subroutine
1308name or reference is given.
1309
1310=item B<-nomain>
1311
1312This restores the default behavior after you've changed it with '-main'
1313(it's not normally needed). If no subroutine name/ref is given, main is
1314rendered, regardless of this flag.
1315
1316=item B<-nobanner>
1317
1318Renderings usually include a banner line identifying the function name
1319or stringified subref. This suppresses the printing of the banner.
1320
1321TBC: Remove the stringified coderef; while it provides a 'cookie' for
1322each function rendered, the cookies used should be 1,2,3.. not a
1323random hex-address. It also complicates string comparison of two
1324different trees.
c99ca59a 1325
724aa791 1326=item B<-banner>
c99ca59a 1327
cc02ea56
JC
1328restores default banner behavior.
1329
1330=item B<-banneris> => subref
1331
1332TBC: a hookpoint (and an option to set it) for a user-supplied
1333function to produce a banner appropriate for users needs. It's not
1334ideal, because the rendering-state variables, which are a natural
1335candidate for use in concise.t, are unavailable to the user.
c99ca59a 1336
724aa791 1337=back
c99ca59a 1338
724aa791 1339=head2 Option Stickiness
c99ca59a 1340
724aa791
JC
1341If you invoke Concise more than once in a program, you should know that
1342the options are 'sticky'. This means that the options you provide in
1343the first call will be remembered for the 2nd call, unless you
1344re-specify or change them.
c99ca59a 1345
cc02ea56
JC
1346=head1 ABBREVIATIONS
1347
1348The concise style uses symbols to convey maximum info with minimal
1349clutter (like hex addresses). With just a little practice, you can
1350start to see the flowers, not just the branches, in the trees.
1351
1352=head2 OP class abbreviations
1353
1354These symbols appear before the op-name, and indicate the
1355B:: namespace that represents the ops in your Perl code.
1356
1357 0 OP (aka BASEOP) An OP with no children
1358 1 UNOP An OP with one child
1359 2 BINOP An OP with two children
1360 | LOGOP A control branch OP
1361 @ LISTOP An OP that could have lots of children
1362 / PMOP An OP with a regular expression
1363 $ SVOP An OP with an SV
1364 " PVOP An OP with a string
1365 { LOOP An OP that holds pointers for a loop
1366 ; COP An OP that marks the start of a statement
1367 # PADOP An OP with a GV on the pad
1368
1369=head2 OP flags abbreviations
1370
19e169bf
JC
1371OP flags are either public or private. The public flags alter the
1372behavior of each opcode in consistent ways, and are represented by 0
1373or more single characters.
cc02ea56
JC
1374
1375 v OPf_WANT_VOID Want nothing (void context)
1376 s OPf_WANT_SCALAR Want single value (scalar context)
1377 l OPf_WANT_LIST Want list of any length (list context)
19e169bf 1378 Want is unknown
cc02ea56
JC
1379 K OPf_KIDS There is a firstborn child.
1380 P OPf_PARENS This operator was parenthesized.
1381 (Or block needs explicit scope entry.)
1382 R OPf_REF Certified reference.
1383 (Return container, not containee).
1384 M OPf_MOD Will modify (lvalue).
1385 S OPf_STACKED Some arg is arriving on the stack.
1386 * OPf_SPECIAL Do something weird for this op (see op.h)
1387
19e169bf
JC
1388Private flags, if any are set for an opcode, are displayed after a '/'
1389
1390 8 <@> leave[1 ref] vKP/REFC ->(end)
1391 7 <2> sassign vKS/2 ->8
1392
1393They're opcode specific, and occur less often than the public ones, so
1394they're represented by short mnemonics instead of single-chars; see
00baac8f 1395F<op.h> for gory details, or try this quick 2-liner:
19e169bf
JC
1396
1397 $> perl -MB::Concise -de 1
1398 DB<1> |x \%B::Concise::priv
1399
c99ca59a
SM
1400=head1 FORMATTING SPECIFICATIONS
1401
724aa791
JC
1402For each line-style ('concise', 'terse', 'linenoise', etc.) there are
14033 format-specs which control how OPs are rendered.
1404
1405The first is the 'default' format, which is used in both basic and exec
1406modes to print all opcodes. The 2nd, goto-format, is used in exec
1407mode when branches are encountered. They're not real opcodes, and are
1408inserted to look like a closing curly brace. The tree-format is tree
1409specific.
1410
cc02ea56
JC
1411When a line is rendered, the correct format-spec is copied and scanned
1412for the following items; data is substituted in, and other
1413manipulations like basic indenting are done, for each opcode rendered.
1414
1415There are 3 kinds of items that may be populated; special patterns,
1416#vars, and literal text, which is copied verbatim. (Yes, it's a set
1417of s///g steps.)
1418
1419=head2 Special Patterns
1420
1421These items are the primitives used to perform indenting, and to
1422select text from amongst alternatives.
c99ca59a
SM
1423
1424=over 4
1425
1426=item B<(x(>I<exec_text>B<;>I<basic_text>B<)x)>
1427
1428Generates I<exec_text> in exec mode, or I<basic_text> in basic mode.
1429
1430=item B<(*(>I<text>B<)*)>
1431
1432Generates one copy of I<text> for each indentation level.
1433
1434=item B<(*(>I<text1>B<;>I<text2>B<)*)>
1435
1436Generates one fewer copies of I<text1> than the indentation level, followed
1437by one copy of I<text2> if the indentation level is more than 0.
1438
1439=item B<(?(>I<text1>B<#>I<var>I<Text2>B<)?)>
1440
1441If the value of I<var> is true (not empty or zero), generates the
1442value of I<var> surrounded by I<text1> and I<Text2>, otherwise
1443nothing.
1444
cc02ea56
JC
1445=item B<~>
1446
1447Any number of tildes and surrounding whitespace will be collapsed to
1448a single space.
1449
1450=back
1451
1452=head2 # Variables
1453
1454These #vars represent opcode properties that you may want as part of
1455your rendering. The '#' is intended as a private sigil; a #var's
1456value is interpolated into the style-line, much like "read $this".
1457
1458These vars take 3 forms:
1459
1460=over 4
1461
c99ca59a
SM
1462=item B<#>I<var>
1463
cc02ea56
JC
1464A property named 'var' is assumed to exist for the opcodes, and is
1465interpolated into the rendering.
c99ca59a
SM
1466
1467=item B<#>I<var>I<N>
1468
cc02ea56
JC
1469Generates the value of I<var>, left justified to fill I<N> spaces.
1470Note that this means while you can have properties 'foo' and 'foo2',
1471you cannot render 'foo2', but you could with 'foo2a'. You would be
1472wise not to rely on this behavior going forward ;-)
c99ca59a 1473
cc02ea56 1474=item B<#>I<Var>
c99ca59a 1475
cc02ea56
JC
1476This ucfirst form of #var generates a tag-value form of itself for
1477display; it converts '#Var' into a 'Var => #var' style, which is then
1478handled as described above. (Imp-note: #Vars cannot be used for
1479conditional-fills, because the => #var transform is done after the check
1480for #Var's value).
c99ca59a
SM
1481
1482=back
1483
cc02ea56
JC
1484The following variables are 'defined' by B::Concise; when they are
1485used in a style, their respective values are plugged into the
1486rendering of each opcode.
1487
1488Only some of these are used by the standard styles, the others are
1489provided for you to delve into optree mechanics, should you wish to
1490add a new style (see L</add_style> below) that uses them. You can
00baac8f 1491also add new ones using L</add_callback>.
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1492
1493=over 4
1494
1495=item B<#addr>
1496
cc02ea56 1497The address of the OP, in hexadecimal.
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1498
1499=item B<#arg>
1500
1501The OP-specific information of the OP (such as the SV for an SVOP, the
cc02ea56 1502non-local exit pointers for a LOOP, etc.) enclosed in parentheses.
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1503
1504=item B<#class>
1505
1506The B-determined class of the OP, in all caps.
1507
f8a679e6 1508=item B<#classsym>
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1509
1510A single symbol abbreviating the class of the OP.
1511
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1512=item B<#coplabel>
1513
1514The label of the statement or block the OP is the start of, if any.
1515
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1516=item B<#exname>
1517
1518The name of the OP, or 'ex-foo' if the OP is a null that used to be a foo.
1519
1520=item B<#extarg>
1521
1522The target of the OP, or nothing for a nulled OP.
1523
1524=item B<#firstaddr>
1525
19e169bf 1526The address of the OP's first child, in hexadecimal.
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SM
1527
1528=item B<#flags>
1529
1530The OP's flags, abbreviated as a series of symbols.
1531
1532=item B<#flagval>
1533
1534The numeric value of the OP's flags.
1535
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NC
1536=item B<#hints>
1537
1538The COP's hint flags, rendered with abbreviated names if possible. An empty
4f948f3a
RGS
1539string if this is not a COP. Here are the symbols used:
1540
1541 $ strict refs
1542 & strict subs
1543 * strict vars
1544 i integers
1545 l locale
1546 b bytes
1547 [ arybase
1548 { block scope
1549 % localise %^H
1550 < open in
1551 > open out
1552 I overload int
1553 F overload float
1554 B overload binary
1555 S overload string
1556 R overload re
1557 T taint
1558 E eval
1559 X filetest access
1560 U utf-8
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NC
1561
1562=item B<#hintsval>
1563
1564The numeric value of the COP's hint flags, or an empty string if this is not
1565a COP.
1566
f8a679e6 1567=item B<#hyphseq>
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SM
1568
1569The sequence number of the OP, or a hyphen if it doesn't have one.
1570
1571=item B<#label>
1572
1573'NEXT', 'LAST', or 'REDO' if the OP is a target of one of those in exec
1574mode, or empty otherwise.
1575
1576=item B<#lastaddr>
1577
19e169bf 1578The address of the OP's last child, in hexadecimal.
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1579
1580=item B<#name>
1581
1582The OP's name.
1583
1584=item B<#NAME>
1585
1586The OP's name, in all caps.
1587
1588=item B<#next>
1589
1590The sequence number of the OP's next OP.
1591
1592=item B<#nextaddr>
1593
19e169bf 1594The address of the OP's next OP, in hexadecimal.
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1595
1596=item B<#noise>
1597
c27ea44e 1598A one- or two-character abbreviation for the OP's name.
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1599
1600=item B<#private>
1601
1602The OP's private flags, rendered with abbreviated names if possible.
1603
1604=item B<#privval>
1605
1606The numeric value of the OP's private flags.
1607
1608=item B<#seq>
1609
2814eb74
PJ
1610The sequence number of the OP. Note that this is a sequence number
1611generated by B::Concise.
c99ca59a 1612
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1613=item B<#seqnum>
1614
16155.8.x and earlier only. 5.9 and later do not provide this.
1616
1617The real sequence number of the OP, as a regular number and not adjusted
1618to be relative to the start of the real program. (This will generally be
1619a fairly large number because all of B<B::Concise> is compiled before
1620your program is).
1621
2814eb74 1622=item B<#opt>
c99ca59a 1623
2814eb74
PJ
1624Whether or not the op has been optimised by the peephole optimiser.
1625
7252851f
NC
1626Only available in 5.9 and later.
1627
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1628=item B<#sibaddr>
1629
19e169bf 1630The address of the OP's next youngest sibling, in hexadecimal.
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1631
1632=item B<#svaddr>
1633
19e169bf 1634The address of the OP's SV, if it has an SV, in hexadecimal.
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1635
1636=item B<#svclass>
1637
1638The class of the OP's SV, if it has one, in all caps (e.g., 'IV').
1639
1640=item B<#svval>
1641
1642The value of the OP's SV, if it has one, in a short human-readable format.
1643
1644=item B<#targ>
1645
1646The numeric value of the OP's targ.
1647
1648=item B<#targarg>
1649
1650The name of the variable the OP's targ refers to, if any, otherwise the
1651letter t followed by the OP's targ in decimal.
1652
1653=item B<#targarglife>
1654
1655Same as B<#targarg>, but followed by the COP sequence numbers that delimit
1656the variable's lifetime (or 'end' for a variable in an open scope) for a
1657variable.
1658
1659=item B<#typenum>
1660
1661The numeric value of the OP's type, in decimal.
1662
1663=back
1664
f9f861ec
JC
1665=head1 One-Liner Command tips
1666
1667=over 4
1668
1669=item perl -MO=Concise,bar foo.pl
1670
1671Renders only bar() from foo.pl. To see main, drop the ',bar'. To see
1672both, add ',-main'
1673
1674=item perl -MDigest::MD5=md5 -MO=Concise,md5 -e1
1675
1676Identifies md5 as an XS function. The export is needed so that BC can
1677find it in main.
1678
1679=item perl -MPOSIX -MO=Concise,_POSIX_ARG_MAX -e1
1680
1681Identifies _POSIX_ARG_MAX as a constant sub, optimized to an IV.
1682Although POSIX isn't entirely consistent across platforms, this is
1683likely to be present in virtually all of them.
1684
1685=item perl -MPOSIX -MO=Concise,a -e 'print _POSIX_SAVED_IDS'
1686
1687This renders a print statement, which includes a call to the function.
1688It's identical to rendering a file with a use call and that single
1689statement, except for the filename which appears in the nextstate ops.
1690
1691=item perl -MPOSIX -MO=Concise,a -e 'sub a{_POSIX_SAVED_IDS}'
1692
1693This is B<very> similar to previous, only the first two ops differ. This
1694subroutine rendering is more representative, insofar as a single main
1695program will have many subs.
1696
6cc5d258
JC
1697=item perl -MB::Concise -e 'B::Concise::compile("-exec","-src", \%B::Concise::)->()'
1698
1699This renders all functions in the B::Concise package with the source
1700lines. It eschews the O framework so that the stashref can be passed
9e0f9750
JC
1701directly to B::Concise::compile(). See -stash option for a more
1702convenient way to render a package.
f9f861ec 1703
d5e42f17 1704=back
f9f861ec 1705
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1706=head1 Using B::Concise outside of the O framework
1707
cc02ea56
JC
1708The common (and original) usage of B::Concise was for command-line
1709renderings of simple code, as given in EXAMPLE. But you can also use
1710B<B::Concise> from your code, and call compile() directly, and
724aa791 1711repeatedly. By doing so, you can avoid the compile-time only
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JC
1712operation of O.pm, and even use the debugger to step through
1713B::Concise::compile() itself.
f95e3c3c 1714
cc02ea56
JC
1715Once you're doing this, you may alter Concise output by adding new
1716rendering styles, and by optionally adding callback routines which
1717populate new variables, if such were referenced from those (just
1718added) styles.
f95e3c3c 1719
724aa791 1720=head2 Example: Altering Concise Renderings
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PJ
1721
1722 use B::Concise qw(set_style add_callback);
cc02ea56 1723 add_style($yourStyleName => $defaultfmt, $gotofmt, $treefmt);
78ad9108 1724 add_callback
f95e3c3c
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1725 ( sub {
1726 my ($h, $op, $format, $level, $stylename) = @_;
78ad9108 1727 $h->{variable} = some_func($op);
cc02ea56
JC
1728 });
1729 $walker = B::Concise::compile(@options,@subnames,@subrefs);
1730 $walker->();
78ad9108 1731
f95e3c3c
JC
1732=head2 set_style()
1733
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JC
1734B<set_style> accepts 3 arguments, and updates the three format-specs
1735comprising a line-style (basic-exec, goto, tree). It has one minor
1736drawback though; it doesn't register the style under a new name. This
1737can become an issue if you render more than once and switch styles.
1738Thus you may prefer to use add_style() and/or set_style_standard()
1739instead.
1740
1741=head2 set_style_standard($name)
1742
1743This restores one of the standard line-styles: C<terse>, C<concise>,
1744C<linenoise>, C<debug>, C<env>, into effect. It also accepts style
1745names previously defined with add_style().
f95e3c3c 1746
345e2394 1747=head2 add_style ()
78ad9108 1748
f95e3c3c
JC
1749This subroutine accepts a new style name and three style arguments as
1750above, and creates, registers, and selects the newly named style. It is
1751an error to re-add a style; call set_style_standard() to switch between
1752several styles.
1753
345e2394 1754=head2 add_callback ()
f95e3c3c 1755
19e169bf
JC
1756If your newly minted styles refer to any new #variables, you'll need
1757to define a callback subroutine that will populate (or modify) those
1758variables. They are then available for use in the style you've
1759chosen.
f95e3c3c
JC
1760
1761The callbacks are called for each opcode visited by Concise, in the
1762same order as they are added. Each subroutine is passed five
1763parameters.
1764
1765 1. A hashref, containing the variable names and values which are
1766 populated into the report-line for the op
1767 2. the op, as a B<B::OP> object
1768 3. a reference to the format string
1769 4. the formatting (indent) level
1770 5. the selected stylename
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PJ
1771
1772To define your own variables, simply add them to the hash, or change
1773existing values if you need to. The level and format are passed in as
1774references to scalars, but it is unlikely that they will need to be
1775changed or even used.
1776
724aa791 1777=head2 Running B::Concise::compile()
f95e3c3c
JC
1778
1779B<compile> accepts options as described above in L</OPTIONS>, and
1780arguments, which are either coderefs, or subroutine names.
1781
cc02ea56
JC
1782It constructs and returns a $treewalker coderef, which when invoked,
1783traverses, or walks, and renders the optrees of the given arguments to
1784STDOUT. You can reuse this, and can change the rendering style used
1785each time; thereafter the coderef renders in the new style.
f95e3c3c
JC
1786
1787B<walk_output> lets you change the print destination from STDOUT to
19e169bf
JC
1788another open filehandle, or into a string passed as a ref (unless
1789you've built perl with -Uuseperlio).
f95e3c3c 1790
cc02ea56 1791 my $walker = B::Concise::compile('-terse','aFuncName', \&aSubRef); # 1
f95e3c3c 1792 walk_output(\my $buf);
cc02ea56
JC
1793 $walker->(); # 1 renders -terse
1794 set_style_standard('concise'); # 2
1795 $walker->(); # 2 renders -concise
1796 $walker->(@new); # 3 renders whatever
1797 print "3 different renderings: terse, concise, and @new: $buf\n";
1798
1799When $walker is called, it traverses the subroutines supplied when it
1800was created, and renders them using the current style. You can change
1801the style afterwards in several different ways:
1802
1803 1. call C<compile>, altering style or mode/order
1804 2. call C<set_style_standard>
1805 3. call $walker, passing @new options
1806
1807Passing new options to the $walker is the easiest way to change
1808amongst any pre-defined styles (the ones you add are automatically
1809recognized as options), and is the only way to alter rendering order
1810without calling compile again. Note however that rendering state is
1811still shared amongst multiple $walker objects, so they must still be
1812used in a coordinated manner.
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JC
1813
1814=head2 B::Concise::reset_sequence()
1815
1816This function (not exported) lets you reset the sequence numbers (note
1817that they're numbered arbitrarily, their goal being to be human
1818readable). Its purpose is mostly to support testing, i.e. to compare
1819the concise output from two identical anonymous subroutines (but
1820different instances). Without the reset, B::Concise, seeing that
1821they're separate optrees, generates different sequence numbers in
1822the output.
1823
1824=head2 Errors
1825
9a3b3024
JC
1826Errors in rendering (non-existent function-name, non-existent coderef)
1827are written to the STDOUT, or wherever you've set it via
1828walk_output().
31b49ad4 1829
9a3b3024
JC
1830Errors using the various *style* calls, and bad args to walk_output(),
1831result in die(). Use an eval if you wish to catch these errors and
1832continue processing.
78ad9108 1833
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1834=head1 AUTHOR
1835
31b49ad4 1836Stephen McCamant, E<lt>smcc@CSUA.Berkeley.EDUE<gt>.
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1837
1838=cut