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Re: Possible precedence problem on bitwise ^ operator
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
e476b1b5 12 (S) A severe warning (default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
30Default warnings are always enabled unless they are explicitly disabled
31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
6df41af2 53=item Allocation too large: %lx
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
f61d411c 57=item '!' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
921106c8 59(F) The '!' is allowed in pack() or unpack() only after certain types.
f61d411c 60See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
6df41af2 92=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 93
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94(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
95redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
96redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 97
6df41af2 98=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 99
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100(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
101redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
102into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
103though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
104which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 105
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106 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
107 while (<STDIN>) {
108 print;
109 print OUT;
110 }
111 close OUT;
c9f97d15 112
6df41af2 113=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 114
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115(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
116transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
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117one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
118a scalar value -- the length of an array, or the population info of a
119hash -- and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
120you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
121alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 122
6df41af2 123=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 124
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125(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
126with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
127impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
128for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 129
6df41af2 130=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 131
6df41af2 132(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 133
8ea97a1e 134=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element
a0d0e21e 135
8ea97a1e 136(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element, such as:
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137
138 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 139 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
a0d0e21e 140
8ea97a1e 141=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 142
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143(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
144such as:
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145
146 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 147 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 148
8ea97a1e 149or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 150
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151 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
152 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 153
6df41af2 154=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 155
6df41af2 156(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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157name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
158error.
a0d0e21e 159
f86702cc 160=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 161
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162(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
163that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
164will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
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165
166=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
167
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168(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
169spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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170
171=item assertion botched: %s
172
173(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
174
175=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
176
177(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
178
179=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
180
181(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
182must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
183know which context to supply to the right side.
184
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185=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
186
187(W) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
188thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
189Usually it's a good idea to first collect the return values of the
190created threads by joining them, and only then exit from the main
191thread. See L<threads>.
192
2393f1b9 193=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 194
49293501 195(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 196the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 197
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198=item Attempt to bless into a reference
199
200(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
201the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
202supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
203
204 bless $self, $proto;
205
206when you intended
207
208 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
209
210If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
211of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
212example by:
213
214 bless $self, "$proto";
215
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216=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
217
218(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
219which is not in its key set.
220
221=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
222
223(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
224declared readonly from a restricted hash.
225
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226=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
227
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228(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
229that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
230outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 231
54310121 232=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 233
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234(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
235strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
236strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
237of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 238
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239=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
240
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241(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
242free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
243SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
244free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
245try to free it.
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246
247=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
248
e476b1b5 249(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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250
251=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
252
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253(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
254see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
255earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
256This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
257that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
258mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
259corrupted.
a0d0e21e 260
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261=item Attempt to join self
262
263(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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264impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
265to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 266
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267=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
268
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269(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
270function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
271means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
272invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
273literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
274avoid this warning.
84902520 275
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276=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
277
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278(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
279used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
280dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 281
dc26df50 282=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %s
a0d0e21e 283
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284(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
285or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 286S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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287S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
288
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289=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
290
496a33f5 291(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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292substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
293most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
294
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295=item Bad filehandle: %s
296
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297(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
298symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
299open(), or did it in another package.
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300
301=item Bad free() ignored
302
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303(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
304been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 305setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 306
9ea8bc6d 307This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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308dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
309which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 310
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311=item Bad hash
312
313(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
314
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315=item Badly placed ()'s
316
317(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
318of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
319Perl yourself.
320
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321=item Bad name after %s::
322
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323(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
324didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
325of quotes, so
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326
327 $var = 'myvar';
328 $sym = mypack::$var;
329
330is not the same as
331
332 $var = 'myvar';
333 $sym = "mypack::$var";
334
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335=item Bad realloc() ignored
336
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337(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
338never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
339by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 340
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341=item Bad symbol for array
342
343(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
344wasn't a symbol table entry.
345
346=item Bad symbol for filehandle
347
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348(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
349that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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350
351=item Bad symbol for hash
352
353(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
354wasn't a symbol table entry.
355
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356=item Bareword found in conditional
357
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358(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
359conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
360of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
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361
362 open FOO || die;
363
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364It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
365a bareword:
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366
367 use constant TYPO => 1;
368 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
369
370The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
371
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372=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
373
374(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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375subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
376symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
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377
378=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
379
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380(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
381compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
382you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 383
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384=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
385
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386(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
387subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
388exited.
a0d0e21e 389
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390=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
391
392(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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393implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
394occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
395be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
396depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 397
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398=item \1 better written as $1
399
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400(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
401The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
402substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
403because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
404there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 405
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406=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
407
e476b1b5 408(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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409(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
410L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 411
69282e91 412=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 413
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414(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
415check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 416
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417=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
418
419(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
420Check you control flow and number of arguments.
421
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422=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
423
e476b1b5 424(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 425
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426=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
427
be771a83 428(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
b45f050a 429copyable.
4633a7c4 430
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431=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
432
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433(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
434iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
435which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 436
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437=item Callback called exit
438
4929bf7b 439(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
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440exited by calling exit.
441
6df41af2 442=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 443
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444(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
445parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
446that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
447early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
448subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
449checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
450function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
451the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 452
49704364 453=item Cannot compress integer in pack
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454
455(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
456compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
457attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
458See L<perlfunc/pack>.
459
49704364 460=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
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461
462(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
463format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
464
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465=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
466
467(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
468integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
469to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
470
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471=item Can't bless non-reference value
472
473(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
474encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
475
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476=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
477
478(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
479functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
480in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
481
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482=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
483
484(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
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485object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
486like this will reproduce the error:
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487
488 $BADREF = undef;
489 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
490 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
491
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492=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
493
54310121 494(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
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495ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
496didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
497object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
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498
499=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
500
501(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
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502object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
503defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
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504Something like this will reproduce the error:
505
506 $BADREF = 42;
507 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
508 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
509
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510=item Can't chdir to %s
511
512(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
513that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
514
0545a864 515=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 516
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517(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
518nosuid.
104d25b7 519
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520=item Can't coerce array into hash
521
522(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
523information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
524only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
525
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526=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
527
528(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 529(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
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530say things like:
531
532 *foo += 1;
533
534You CAN say
535
536 $foo = *foo;
537 $foo += 1;
538
539but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
540
541=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
542
543(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 544(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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545
546=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
547
548(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 549(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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550
551=item Can't create pipe mailbox
552
be771a83
GS
553(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
554quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 555
eb64745e 556=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 557
2f7e735d
AMS
558(F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared with a specific
559class qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration. The semantics may be
560extended for other types of variables in future.
eb64745e
GS
561
562=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
563
564(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my" or
565"our" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 566
6df41af2
GS
567=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
568
be771a83
GS
569(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
570a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 571
a0d0e21e
LW
572=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
573
be771a83
GS
574(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
575reason.
a0d0e21e 576
54310121 577=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 578
be771a83
GS
579(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
580reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
581C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 582
10f9c03d 583=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 584
e476b1b5 585(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
586characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
587inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 588
7253e4e3 589=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 590
b45f050a 591(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 592regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 593regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
594
595=item Can't do setegid!
596
be771a83
GS
597(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
598suidperl.
a0d0e21e
LW
599
600=item Can't do seteuid!
601
602(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
603
604=item Can't do setuid
605
be771a83
GS
606(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to do
607setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the form
608sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides under
609the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines. If the
610file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask your
611sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
a0d0e21e
LW
612
613=item Can't do waitpid with flags
614
be771a83
GS
615(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
616waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 617
a0d0e21e
LW
618=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
619
be771a83
GS
620(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
621point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
622line.
a0d0e21e
LW
623
624=item Can't exec "%s": %s
625
d1be9408 626(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
627named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
628permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
629C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
630architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
631can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
632#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
633
634=item Can't exec %s
635
be771a83
GS
636(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
637that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
638need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
639
640=item Can't execute %s
641
be771a83
GS
642(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
643found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 644
6df41af2 645=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 646
be771a83
GS
647(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
648is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 649
56ca2fc0
JH
650=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
651
652(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
89d60977 653could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property
56ca2fc0
JH
654(remember that the names of character properties consist only of
655alphanumeric characters), or maybe you forgot the C<Is> or C<In> prefix?
656
6df41af2
GS
657=item Can't find label %s
658
be771a83
GS
659(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
660possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
661
662=item Can't find %s on PATH
663
be771a83
GS
664(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
665found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 666
6df41af2 667=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 668
be771a83
GS
669(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
670found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
671script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e 672
96ebfdd7
RK
673=item Can't find %s property definition %s
674
675(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property (for
676example C<\p{Lu}> is all uppercase letters). If you did mean to use a
677Unicode property, see L<perlunicode> for the list of known properties.
678If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
679by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
680possible C<\E>).
681
a0d0e21e
LW
682=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
683
be771a83
GS
684(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
685that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
686nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 687
fb73857a
PP
688 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
689
be771a83
GS
690If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
691unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
692editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
693
694=item Can't fork
695
be771a83
GS
696(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
697pipeline.
a0d0e21e 698
748a9306
LW
699=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
700
be771a83
GS
701(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
702between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
703Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
704the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
705account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
706the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
707the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
708the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
709if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
710because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
711appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
712and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
713routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
714shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
715only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 716
a0d0e21e
LW
717=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
718
be771a83
GS
719(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
720pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
721
722=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
723
748a9306
LW
724(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
725mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 726
6df41af2 727=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 728
be771a83
GS
729(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
730loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
731
732=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
733
be771a83
GS
734(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
735a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
736you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
737See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 738
b150fb22
RH
739=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
740
be771a83
GS
741(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
742"string". (You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you
743probably don't want to.)
b150fb22 744
6df41af2
GS
745=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
746
be771a83
GS
747(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
748subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
749cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
750routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 751
0b5b802d
GS
752=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
753
be771a83
GS
754(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
755signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
756signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
757processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
758situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
759may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 760
6df41af2 761=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 762
6df41af2 763(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
764except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
765block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
766block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
767usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
768inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
769L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 770
748a9306
LW
771=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
772
2ba9eb46 773(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
774lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
775localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
776package name.
777
6df41af2 778=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 779
6df41af2
GS
780(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
781handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 782pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 783that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 784
ea071790 785=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
786
787(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
788found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
789unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
790need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
791the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
792to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
793L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 794
6df41af2
GS
795=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
796
be771a83
GS
797(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
798autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
799are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
800the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 801
a0d0e21e
LW
802=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
803
804(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
805functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 806method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
807
808=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
809
be771a83
GS
810(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
811doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 812
2f7da168
RK
813=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
814
815(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
816e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
817
3e3baf6d
TB
818=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
819
be771a83
GS
820(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
821VMS.
3e3baf6d 822
a0d0e21e
LW
823=item Can't modify %s in %s
824
be771a83
GS
825(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
826to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 827
54310121 828=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
829
830(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
831a NULL.
832
6df41af2
GS
833=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
834
835(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
836such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
837
5f05dabc 838=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 839
5f05dabc 840(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
841buffer.
842
6df41af2
GS
843=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
844
845(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
846there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
847count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
848grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
849though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
850once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 851
a0d0e21e
LW
852=item Can't open %s: %s
853
c47ff5f1 854(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
855filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
856switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
857is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
858the command line.
a0d0e21e 859
9a869a14
RGS
860=item Can't open a reference
861
862(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
863using the 3-arg open() syntax :
864
865 open FH, '>', $ref;
866
867but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
868open is not supported.
869
a0d0e21e
LW
870=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
871
be771a83
GS
872(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
873You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
874as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
875">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 876
748a9306
LW
877=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
878
be771a83
GS
879(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
880redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
881the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
882
883=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
884
be771a83
GS
885(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
886redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
887command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
888
889=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
890
be771a83
GS
891(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
892redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
893the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
894
895=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
896
be771a83
GS
897(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
898redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
899for stdout.
748a9306 900
584d69ec 901=item Can't open perl script%s: %s
a0d0e21e
LW
902
903(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
904
126c71c8
YST
905=item Can't provide tied hash usage; use keys(%hash) to test if empty
906
907(F) When a hash is evaluated in scalar context, bucket usage is
908returned if the hash is populated, and false is returned if the hash
909is empty. Bucket usage is not currently available for tied hashes.
910To test if a hash is empty or populated, use keys(%hash) in scalar
911context instead.
912
6df41af2
GS
913=item Can't read CRTL environ
914
915(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
916from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
917missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
918or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
919searched.
6df41af2 920
7bac28a0
PP
921=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
922
923(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
be771a83
GS
924pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when
925it was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
7bac28a0
PP
926this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
927
6df41af2
GS
928=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
929
930(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
931there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
932count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
933or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
934though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
935loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
936
64977eb6 937=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 938
be771a83
GS
939(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
940file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
941the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 942
a0d0e21e
LW
943=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
944
e476b1b5 945(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 946probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 947
748a9306
LW
948=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
949
be771a83
GS
950(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
951to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 952
6df41af2
GS
953=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
954
be771a83
GS
955(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
956to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
957method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 958
a0d0e21e
LW
959=item Can't reswap uid and euid
960
be771a83
GS
961(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
962suidperl.
a0d0e21e 963
cd06dffe
GS
964=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
965
be771a83
GS
966(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
967temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
968is not allowed.
cd06dffe 969
96ebfdd7
RK
970=item Can't return outside a subroutine
971
972(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
973there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
974
78f9721b
SM
975=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
976
977(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
978but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
979to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
980the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
981list context.
982
a0d0e21e
LW
983=item Can't stat script "%s"
984
be771a83
GS
985(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
986open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e
LW
987
988=item Can't swap uid and euid
989
be771a83
GS
990(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
991suidperl.
a0d0e21e
LW
992
993=item Can't take log of %g
994
fb73857a
PP
995(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
996negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
997standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
998negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
999
1000=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1001
1002(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1003negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1004with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1005
1006=item Can't undef active subroutine
1007
1008(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1009however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1010redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1011
1012=item Can't unshift
1013
1014(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1015as the main Perl stack.
1016
1017=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
1018
be771a83
GS
1019(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1020into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1021specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1022indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e
LW
1023
1024=item Can't upgrade to undef
1025
be771a83
GS
1026(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme of
1027upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the code
1028calling sv_upgrade.
a0d0e21e 1029
1db89ea5
BS
1030=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1031
e27ad1f2 1032(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1033table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1034for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1035
96ebfdd7
RK
1036=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1037
1038(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1039be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1040
6df41af2
GS
1041=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1042
be771a83
GS
1043(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1044references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1045
90b75b61 1046=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1047
1048(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1049Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1050provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1051
6df41af2
GS
1052=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1053
be771a83
GS
1054(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1055foreach.
6df41af2
GS
1056
1057=item Can't use global %s in "my"
1058
be771a83
GS
1059(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1060is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1061(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1062have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1063weren't.
1064
c07a80fd
PP
1065=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1066
1067(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1068You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1069and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1070Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1071lexical variable.
1072
a0d0e21e
LW
1073=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1074
1075(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1076reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1077test the type of the reference, if need be.
1078
748a9306 1079=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1080
be771a83
GS
1081(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1082references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1083
748a9306
LW
1084=item Can't use subscript on %s
1085
1086(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1087subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
1088didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
1089
6df41af2
GS
1090=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1091
75b44862
GS
1092(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1093creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1094backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1095expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1096value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1097instead.
6df41af2 1098
810b8aa5
GS
1099=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1100
1101(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1102references can be weakened.
1103
5f05dabc 1104=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1105
be771a83
GS
1106(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1107with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1108Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1109
49704364 1110=item Character in "C" format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1111
1112(W pack) You said
1113
1114 pack("C", $x)
1115
1116where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1117only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1118and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1119
1120 pack("C", $x & 255)
1121
1122If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1123instead.
1124
49704364 1125=item Character in "c" format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1126
1127(W pack) You said
1128
1129 pack("c", $x)
1130
1131where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1132is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1133and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1134
1135 pack("c", $x & 255);
1136
1137If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1138instead.
1139
96ebfdd7
RK
1140=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1141
1142(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1143
49704364
LW
1144=item Code missing after '/'
1145
1146(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1147template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1148
6df41af2
GS
1149=item %s: Command not found
1150
be771a83
GS
1151(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1152Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1153
7a2e2cd6
PP
1154=item Compilation failed in require
1155
1156(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1157Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1158encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1159
c3464db5
DD
1160=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1161
be771a83
GS
1162(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1163situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1164to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1165arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1166recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1167under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1168in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1169that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1170on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1171
38875929
DM
1172=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1173
1174(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1175cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
1176function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1177cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1178has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1179first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1180after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1181lock.
1182
38875929
DM
1183=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1184
1185(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1186cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
1187function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1188cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1189has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1190first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1191after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1192lock.
1193
69282e91 1194=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1195
be771a83
GS
1196(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1197to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1198L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1199
41ab332f 1200=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1201
be771a83
GS
1202(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1203an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1204specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1205corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1206L<overload>.
6df41af2 1207
779c5bc9
GS
1208=item Constant is not %s reference
1209
1210(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1211is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1212The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1213usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1214See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1215
4cee8e80
CS
1216=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1217
bb028877 1218(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1219eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1220commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1221
9607fc9c
PP
1222=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1223
be771a83
GS
1224(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1225for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1226workarounds.
9607fc9c 1227
e7ea3e70
IZ
1228=item Copy method did not return a reference
1229
64977eb6 1230(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1231L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1232
6798c92b
GS
1233=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1234
1235(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1236
a0d0e21e
LW
1237=item corrupted regexp pointers
1238
1239(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1240expression compiler gave it.
1241
1242=item corrupted regexp program
1243
be771a83
GS
1244(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1245valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1246
6df41af2
GS
1247=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1248
1249(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1250
49704364
LW
1251=item Count after length/code in unpack
1252
1253(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1254you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1255L<perlfunc/pack>.
1256
a0d0e21e
LW
1257=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1258
be771a83
GS
1259(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1260100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1261infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1262which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1263
f10b0346 1264=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1265
be771a83
GS
1266(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1267checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1268array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1269
f10b0346 1270=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1271
be771a83
GS
1272(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1273checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1274is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1275
62658f4d
PM
1276=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1277
1278(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1279there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1280
fc36a67e
PP
1281=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1282
be771a83
GS
1283(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1284long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1285that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1286
3cdd684c
TP
1287=item Did not produce a valid header
1288
1289See Server error.
1290
6df41af2
GS
1291=item %s did not return a true value
1292
1293(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1294it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1295traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1296do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1297
cc507455 1298=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1299
be771a83
GS
1300(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some
1301such.
4633a7c4 1302
cc507455 1303=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1304
be771a83
GS
1305(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1306variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1307seems superfluous.
33633739 1308
cc507455 1309=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1310
be771a83
GS
1311(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1312@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1313carried away.
748a9306 1314
7e1af8bc 1315=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1316
1317(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1318you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1319
3cdd684c
TP
1320=item Document contains no data
1321
1322See Server error.
1323
62658f4d
PM
1324=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1325
1326(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1327define a C<$VERSION.>
1328
49704364
LW
1329=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1330
1331(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1332See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1333
a0d0e21e
LW
1334=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1335
1336(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1337
1338=item do_study: out of memory
1339
1340(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1341
6df41af2
GS
1342=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1343
1344(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1345found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1346name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1347because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1348"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1349something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1350subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1351"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1352
ac206dc8
RGS
1353=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1354
1355(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1356qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1357
a0d0e21e
LW
1358=item Duplicate free() ignored
1359
be771a83
GS
1360(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1361already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1362
4633a7c4
LW
1363=item elseif should be elsif
1364
be771a83
GS
1365(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's ugly.
1366Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
1367"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1368unlikely to be what you want.
1369
ab13f0c7
JH
1370=item Empty %s
1371
af6f566e
HS
1372(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1373described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1374a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1375
85ab1d1d 1376=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1377
85ab1d1d 1378(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1379effective uids or gids failed.
1380
748a9306
LW
1381=item Error converting file specification %s
1382
5f05dabc 1383(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1384specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1385single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1386an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1387conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1388
e4d48cc9
GS
1389=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1390
be771a83
GS
1391(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1392expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1393is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1394
e4d48cc9
GS
1395=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1396
be771a83
GS
1397(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1398C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1399pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1400is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1401building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1402that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1403
6df41af2
GS
1404=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1405
be771a83
GS
1406(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1407assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1408pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1409
fc36a67e
PP
1410=item Excessively long <> operator
1411
1412(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1413Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1414filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1415variable and glob that.
1416
ed9aa3b7
SG
1417=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1418
1419(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented in MacPerl. See L<perlport>.
1420
f86702cc 1421=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1422
1423(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1424
1425=item Exiting eval via %s
1426
be771a83
GS
1427(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1428goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1429
1430=item Exiting format via %s
1431
9a2ff54b 1432(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1433goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1434
0a753a76
PP
1435=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1436
be771a83
GS
1437(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1438sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1439loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1440
a0d0e21e
LW
1441=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1442
be771a83
GS
1443(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1444as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1445
1446=item Exiting substitution via %s
1447
be771a83
GS
1448(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1449as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1450
7b8d334a
GS
1451=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1452
be771a83
GS
1453(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1454the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1455usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1456e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1457
6df41af2
GS
1458=item %s: Expression syntax
1459
be771a83
GS
1460(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1461Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1462
1463=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1464
1465(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a CHECK, INIT, or
1466END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the queue of such
1467routines has been prematurely ended.
1468
7253e4e3 1469=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1470
be771a83 1471(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1472character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1473in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1474"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1475problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1476
748a9306 1477=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1478
be771a83
GS
1479(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1480system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1481details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1482you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1483
1484=item fcntl is not implemented
1485
1486(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1487PDP-11 or something?
1488
af8c498a 1489=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1490
6c8d78fb
HS
1491(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1492it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1493"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1494write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1495
af8c498a 1496=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1497
6c8d78fb
HS
1498(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1499you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
be771a83
GS
1500with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1501intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
6c8d78fb
HS
1502Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0
1503(also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1504
1505=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1506
1507(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
1508as STDOUT or STDERR. This occured because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
1509previously.
1510
1511=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1512
1513(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
1514as STDIN. This occured because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1515
1516=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1517
1518(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1519a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1520happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1521name.
a0d0e21e 1522
56e90b21
GS
1523=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1524
be771a83 1525(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1526some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1527filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1528same name?
56e90b21 1529
6df41af2
GS
1530=item Format not terminated
1531
1532(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1533to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1534
a0d0e21e
LW
1535=item Format %s redefined
1536
e476b1b5 1537(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1538
1539 {
271595cc 1540 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1541 eval "format NAME =...";
1542 }
1543
a0d0e21e
LW
1544=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1545
e476b1b5 1546(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1547
1548 if ($foo = 123)
1549
1550when you meant
1551
1552 if ($foo == 123)
1553
1554(or something like that).
1555
6df41af2
GS
1556=item %s found where operator expected
1557
1558(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
be771a83
GS
1559sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
1560operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1561operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1562
a0d0e21e
LW
1563=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1564
1565(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1566
1567=item gethostent not implemented
1568
1569(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1570because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1571on the Internet.
1572
69282e91 1573=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1574
be771a83
GS
1575(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1576socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1577
748a9306
LW
1578=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1579
1580(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1581C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1582
6df41af2
GS
1583=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1584
be771a83
GS
1585(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1586forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1587L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1588
1589=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1590
1591(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1592must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), declared beforehand using
1593"our", or explicitly qualified to say which package the global variable
1594is in (using "::").
1595
e476b1b5
GS
1596=item glob failed (%s)
1597
be771a83
GS
1598(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1599C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1600C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1601nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1602resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1603broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1604config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1605were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1606empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1607think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1608C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1609
a0d0e21e
LW
1610=item Glob not terminated
1611
1612(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1613a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1614not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1615earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1616
6df41af2 1617=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1618
6df41af2
GS
1619(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1620version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1621
1622=item goto must have label
1623
1624(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1625unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1626
49704364 1627=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1628
49704364 1629(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is
18529408 1630supposed to follow something: a template character or a ()-group.
49704364 1631 See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1632
6df41af2
GS
1633=item %s had compilation errors
1634
1635(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1636
a0d0e21e
LW
1637=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1638
be771a83
GS
1639(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1640to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1641created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1642
1643=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1644
be771a83
GS
1645(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1646spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1647
6df41af2
GS
1648=item %s has too many errors
1649
1650(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1651Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1652
252aa082
JH
1653=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1654
e476b1b5 1655(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1656(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1657L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1658
8903cb82
PP
1659=item Identifier too long
1660
1661(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 1662about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
1663names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
1664of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1665
6df41af2 1666=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 1667
6df41af2 1668(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 1669
6df41af2 1670=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 1671
be771a83
GS
1672(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
1673binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
1674offending digit.
a0d0e21e 1675
4fdae800
PP
1676=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1677
d5898338 1678(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
1679would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
1680when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
1681version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
1682to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 1683
d37a9538
ST
1684=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
1685
420cdfc1 1686(W syntax) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration. Legal
d37a9538
ST
1687characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
1688
904d85c5
RGS
1689=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
1690
1691(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
1692you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
1693
a0d0e21e
LW
1694=item Illegal division by zero
1695
be771a83
GS
1696(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
1697your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
1698meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 1699
6df41af2
GS
1700=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
1701
be771a83
GS
1702(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
1703A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
1704number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 1705
a0d0e21e
LW
1706=item Illegal modulus zero
1707
be771a83
GS
1708(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
1709numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 1710
6df41af2 1711=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 1712
6df41af2
GS
1713(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
1714two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
1715
1716=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 1717
d1be9408 1718(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 1719
399388f4 1720=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 1721
d1be9408 1722(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 1723Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 1724
6df41af2 1725=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
6ff81951 1726
6df41af2 1727(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1c4db469 1728following switches: B<-[DIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 1729
6df41af2 1730=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 1731
75b44862 1732(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
1733internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
1734delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 1735
6df41af2 1736=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 1737
be771a83
GS
1738(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
1739name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1740didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
1741ignored.
54310121 1742
8fa7688f
SF
1743=item Impossible to activate assertion call
1744
1745(W assertions) You're calling an assertion function in a block that is
1746not under the control of the C<assertions> pragma.
1747
6df41af2 1748=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 1749
be771a83
GS
1750(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
1751the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
1752system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
1753times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
1754would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 1755
be771a83
GS
1756Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
1757also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 1758
979699d9
JH
1759=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
1760
1761(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
1762Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
1763encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
1764
a0d0e21e
LW
1765=item Insecure dependency in %s
1766
8b1a09fc 1767(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
1768The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
1769setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
1770tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
1771from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
1772such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
1773L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
1774
1775=item Insecure directory in %s
1776
be771a83
GS
1777(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
1778setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
1779the world. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 1780
62f468fc 1781=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1782
1783(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 1784setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
1785C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
1786supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
1787the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 1788
a7ae9550
GS
1789=item Integer overflow in %s number
1790
75b44862 1791(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
1792either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
1793your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
1794On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
1795representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
17960b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
1797transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
1798internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
1799operations.
bbce6d69 1800
46314c13
JP
1801=item Integer overflow in version
1802
1803(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
1804size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
1805because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
1806element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
1807trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
1808100/9.
1809
7253e4e3 1810=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
1811
1812(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 1813The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
1814discovered.
1815
748a9306
LW
1816=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1817
be771a83
GS
1818(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
1819you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
1820to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
1821L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
1822Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
1823terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 1824
7253e4e3 1825=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 1826
7253e4e3
RK
1827(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
1828<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1829discovered.
a0d0e21e 1830
6df41af2
GS
1831=item %s (...) interpreted as function
1832
75b44862 1833(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 1834followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 1835operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 1836L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 1837
09bef843
SB
1838=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
1839
1840The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
1841by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1842
1843=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
1844
be771a83
GS
1845The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
1846recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 1847
c635e13b
PP
1848=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1849
be771a83
GS
1850(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
1851L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 1852
7253e4e3 1853=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
1854
1855(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
1856greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
1857C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
1858up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1859problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 1860
d1573ac7 1861=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
1862
1863(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
1864character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
1865
09bef843
SB
1866=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
1867
0120eecf 1868(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
1869elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
1870parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
1871See L<attributes>.
09bef843 1872
49704364 1873=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 1874
49704364
LW
1875(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
1876See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1877(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 1878silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 1879
46314c13
JP
1880=item Invalid version format (multiple underscores)
1881
1882(F) Versions may contain at most a single underscore, which signals
1883that the version is a beta release. See L<version> for the allowed
1884version formats.
1885
1886=item Invalid version format (underscores before decimal)
1887
1888(F) Versions may not contain decimals after the optional underscore.
1889See L<version> for the allowed version formats.
1890
a0d0e21e
LW
1891=item ioctl is not implemented
1892
1893(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1894strange for a machine that supports C.
1895
c289d2f7
JH
1896=item ioctl() on unopened %s
1897
1898(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
1899Check you control flow and number of arguments.
1900
80cbd5ad
JH
1901=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
1902
1903(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
1904neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
1905
6ad11d81
JH
1906=item `%s' is not a code reference
1907
04a80ee0
RGS
1908(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
1909needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
1910to a subroutine.
1911
1912=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
1913
04a80ee0
RGS
1914(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
1915unaware of.
6ad11d81 1916
a0d0e21e
LW
1917=item junk on end of regexp
1918
1919(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1920
1921=item Label not found for "last %s"
1922
be771a83
GS
1923(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
1924of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1925L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1926
1927=item Label not found for "next %s"
1928
1929(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1930that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1931L<perlfunc/last>.
1932
1933=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1934
1935(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1936that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1937L<perlfunc/last>.
1938
85ab1d1d 1939=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1940
85ab1d1d 1941(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1942effective uids or gids failed.
1943
49704364
LW
1944=item length/code after end of string in unpack
1945
1946(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was alread used up when an unpack
1947length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
1948an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1949
69282e91 1950=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1951
be771a83
GS
1952(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
1953to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1954L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 1955
49704364 1956=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
1957
1958(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
7253e4e3
RK
1959handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release. The <-- HERE
1960shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2e50fd82 1961
2f7da168
RK
1962=item lstat() on filehandle %s
1963
1964(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
1965by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
1966instead on the filehandle.)
1967
96ebfdd7
RK
1968=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
1969
1970(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
1971values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
1972L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
1973
49704364
LW
1974=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
1975
1976(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
1977are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1978
1979=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
1980
1981(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
1982are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1983
6df41af2
GS
1984=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
1985
1986(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
1987
1988 prefix1;prefix2
1989
1990or
6df41af2
GS
1991 prefix1 prefix2
1992
be771a83
GS
1993with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
1994a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
1995appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 1996"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 1997
2f758a16
ST
1998=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
1999
d37a9538
ST
2000(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2001syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2002obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2003when the function is called.
2f758a16 2004
ba210ebe
JH
2005=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2006
2007Perl detected something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding rules.
2008
901b21bf
JH
2009One possible cause is that you read in data that you thought to be in
2010UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy 8-bit data). Another
2011possibility is careless use of utf8::upgrade().
2012
dea0fc0b
JH
2013=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
2014
2015Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2016doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2017
49704364 2018=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2019
2020(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
2021regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2022shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2023See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2024
25f58aea
PN
2025=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2026
2027(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2028interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2029"use" or "my".
2030
49704364 2031=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2032
2033(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2034checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2035See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2036
a0d0e21e
LW
2037=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2038
2039(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2040doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2041
3cdd684c
TP
2042=item Method %s not permitted
2043
2044See Server error.
2045
a0d0e21e
LW
2046=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2047
2048(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2049by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2050ended earlier on the current line.
2051
2052=item Misplaced _ in number
2053
d4ced10d
JH
2054(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2055separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2056
4a2d328f 2057=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 2058
4a2d328f 2059(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
2060double-quotish context.
2061
a0d0e21e
LW
2062=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2063
2064(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2065"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2066
06eaf0bc
GS
2067=item Missing command in piped open
2068
be771a83
GS
2069(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2070C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2071blank.
06eaf0bc 2072
961ce445
RGS
2073=item Missing control char name in \c
2074
2075(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2076character name.
2077
6df41af2
GS
2078=item Missing name in "my sub"
2079
be771a83
GS
2080(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2081they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2082
2083=item Missing $ on loop variable
2084
be771a83
GS
2085(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2086are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2087can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2088
cc507455 2089=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306
LW
2090
2091(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
2092found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
2093
ab13f0c7
JH
2094=item Missing right brace on %s
2095
2096(F) Missing right brace in C<\p{...}> or C<\P{...}>.
2097
d98d5fff 2098=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2099
be771a83
GS
2100(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2101ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2102were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2103
6df41af2
GS
2104=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2105
2106(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
2107found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
2108the previous line just because you saw this message.
2109
a0d0e21e
LW
2110=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2111
2112(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2113constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2114catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2115
2116 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2117 mod(2);
2118
2119Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2120
c5674021
PDF
2121Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2122is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2123
2124 $x = 1;
2125 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2126 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2127 }
c5674021 2128
7a4340ed 2129=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2130
2131(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2132subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2133backwards.
2134
7a4340ed 2135=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2136
be771a83
GS
2137(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2138couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2139
2140=item Module name must be constant
2141
2142(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2143
be98fb35 2144=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2145
be98fb35
GS
2146(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2147you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2148about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2149
ed9aa3b7
SG
2150=item More than one argument to open
2151
2152(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2153can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2154list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2155See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2156
a0d0e21e
LW
2157=item msg%s not implemented
2158
2159(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2160
2161=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2162
75b44862
GS
2163(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2164They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2165
49704364 2166=item '/' must be followed by 'a*', 'A*' or 'Z*'
09bef843 2167
6df41af2 2168(F) You had a pack template indicating a counted-length string,
be771a83
GS
2169Currently the only things that can have their length counted are a*, A*
2170or Z*. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2 2171
49704364 2172=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2173
49704364
LW
2174(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2175follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2176See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2177
2178=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2179
be771a83
GS
2180(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2181that yet.
6df41af2
GS
2182
2183=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
2184
be771a83
GS
2185(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2186sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2187local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2188
8b1a09fc
PP
2189=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2190
e476b1b5 2191(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2192If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2193again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2194provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e 2195
49704364
LW
2196=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2197
2198(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2199negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2200
a0d0e21e
LW
2201=item Negative length
2202
be771a83
GS
2203(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2204length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2205
ed9aa3b7
SG
2206=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2207
2208(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2209greater than or equal to zero.
2210
7253e4e3 2211=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2212
b45f050a 2213(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2214things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2215expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2216
7253e4e3 2217Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2218C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2219
6df41af2 2220=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2221
be771a83
GS
2222(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2223scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e
LW
2224
2225=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2226
be771a83
GS
2227(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2228setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2229will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2230securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2231
a0d0e21e
LW
2232=item No comma allowed after %s
2233
2234(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2235allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2236Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2237
0a753a76
PP
2238One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2239constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2240importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2241does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2242explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2243L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2244would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2245remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2246constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2247list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2248this error was triggered?
2249
748a9306
LW
2250=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2251
be771a83
GS
2252(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2253redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2254doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2255
a0d0e21e
LW
2256=item No DB::DB routine defined
2257
be771a83
GS
2258(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2259for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof) didn't
2260define a routine to be called at the beginning of each statement. Which
2261is odd, because the file should have been required automatically, and
2262should have blown up the require if it didn't parse right.
a0d0e21e
LW
2263
2264=item No dbm on this machine
2265
2266(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2267supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2268
2269=item No DBsub routine
2270
2271(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
2272but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
2273didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
2274ordinary subroutine call.
2275
96ebfdd7
RK
2276=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2277
2278(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2279
c47ff5f1 2280=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2281
be771a83
GS
2282(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2283redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2284find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2285
49704364
LW
2286=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2287
2288(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2289matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2290
c47ff5f1 2291=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2292
be771a83
GS
2293(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2294redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2295name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2296
6df41af2
GS
2297=item No #! line
2298
2299(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2300even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2301
2302=item "no" not allowed in expression
2303
be771a83
GS
2304(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2305returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2306
c47ff5f1 2307=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2308
be771a83
GS
2309(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2310redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2311doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2312
c47ff5f1 2313=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2314
be771a83
GS
2315(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2316redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2317find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2318
1ec3e8de
GS
2319=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2320
be771a83
GS
2321(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2322declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2323semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2324
a0d0e21e
LW
2325=item No Perl script found in input
2326
2327(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2328with #! and containing the word "perl".
2329
2330=item No setregid available
2331
2332(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2333your system.
2334
2335=item No setreuid available
2336
2337(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2338your system.
2339
a67e862a 2340=item No space allowed after -%c
a0d0e21e 2341
be771a83
GS
2342(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2343immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
a0d0e21e 2344
6df41af2
GS
2345=item No %s specified for -%c
2346
2347(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2348you haven't specified one.
2349
2c692339
RGS
2350=item No such class %s
2351
2352(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration, but
2353this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2354
6df41af2
GS
2355=item No such pipe open
2356
2357(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2358close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2359earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2360
a0d0e21e
LW
2361=item No such signal: SIG%s
2362
be771a83
GS
2363(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2364not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2365names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2366
2367=item Not a CODE reference
2368
2369(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2370subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2371use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2372also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2373
2374=item Not a format reference
2375
2376(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2377format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2378
2379=item Not a GLOB reference
2380
be771a83
GS
2381(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
2382symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2383something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
2384kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2385
2386=item Not a HASH reference
2387
be771a83
GS
2388(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
2389reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
2390find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2391
6df41af2
GS
2392=item Not an ARRAY reference
2393
be771a83
GS
2394(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
2395a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2396to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 2397
a0d0e21e
LW
2398=item Not a perl script
2399
2400(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2401even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2402mention perl.
2403
2404=item Not a SCALAR reference
2405
be771a83
GS
2406(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
2407a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2408to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2409
2410=item Not a subroutine reference
2411
2412(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2413subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2414use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2415also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2416
e7ea3e70 2417=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2418
2419(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2420doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2421
a0d0e21e
LW
2422=item Not enough arguments for %s
2423
2424(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2425
6df41af2
GS
2426=item Not enough format arguments
2427
be771a83
GS
2428(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
2429supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
2430
2431=item %s: not found
2432
be771a83
GS
2433(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
2434of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
2435yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2436
2437=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 2438
6df41af2
GS
2439(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
2440timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
2441to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
2442F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
2443need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2444
2445=item Null filename used
2446
be771a83
GS
2447(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
2448machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2449
6df41af2
GS
2450=item NULL OP IN RUN
2451
be771a83
GS
2452(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
2453pointer.
6df41af2 2454
55497cff
PP
2455=item Null picture in formline
2456
2457(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2458specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2459supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2460
a0d0e21e
LW
2461=item Null realloc
2462
2463(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2464
2465=item NULL regexp argument
2466
5f05dabc 2467(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2468
2469=item NULL regexp parameter
2470
2471(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2472
fc36a67e
PP
2473=item Number too long
2474
be771a83 2475(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 2476about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
2477versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
2478the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
2479"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 2480
6df41af2
GS
2481=item Octal number in vector unsupported
2482
be771a83
GS
2483(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
2484The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
2485future version.
6df41af2 2486
252aa082
JH
2487=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2488
75b44862 2489(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
2490(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2491L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2492
2493See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2494
6ad11d81
JH
2495=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
2496
04a80ee0
RGS
2497(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
2498arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 2499
b21befc1
MG
2500=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
2501
2502(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2503which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
2504
1930e939 2505=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2506
be771a83
GS
2507(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2508which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2509
bbce6d69
PP
2510=item Offset outside string
2511
2512(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
be771a83
GS
2513pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine. The sole
2514exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer will extend
2515the buffer and zero pad the new area.
bbce6d69 2516
c289d2f7 2517=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
2518
2519(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
2520never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
2521call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
2522
96ebfdd7
RK
2523=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
2524
2525(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
2526that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2527
a0d0e21e
LW
2528=item oops: oopsAV
2529
e476b1b5 2530(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
2531
2532=item oops: oopsHV
2533
e476b1b5 2534(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 2535
56f7f34b 2536=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2537
be771a83
GS
2538(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
2539handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
2540of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
2541C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2542
748a9306
LW
2543=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2544
be771a83
GS
2545(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
2546was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
2547use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
2548example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
2549"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 2550
6df41af2
GS
2551=item "our" variable %s redeclared
2552
be771a83
GS
2553(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
2554in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 2555
a80b8354
GS
2556=item Out of memory!
2557
2558(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
2559remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
2560no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 2561
19a52907
JH
2562At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
2563process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
2564C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
2565the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
2566and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
2567
6df41af2 2568=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 2569
6df41af2
GS
2570(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2571remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
2572the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
2573possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 2574
1b979e0a 2575=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2576
be771a83
GS
2577(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
2578insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
2579request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2580
2581The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2582depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
2583However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
2584emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
2585is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
2586where the failed request happened.
55497cff 2587
1b979e0a
IZ
2588=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2589
2590(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
2591is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
2592C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 2593
6df41af2
GS
2594=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2595
be771a83
GS
2596(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
2597parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
2598otherwise.
6df41af2 2599
49704364 2600=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 2601
49704364 2602(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
2603the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2604
2605=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
2606
be771a83
GS
2607(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
2608package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
2609some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
2610mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 2611
96ebfdd7
RK
2612=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
2613
2614(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
2615signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2616
a0d0e21e
LW
2617=item page overflow
2618
be771a83
GS
2619(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
2620page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 2621
6df41af2
GS
2622=item panic: %s
2623
2624(P) An internal error.
2625
a0d0e21e
LW
2626=item panic: ck_grep
2627
2628(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
2629
2630=item panic: ck_split
2631
2632(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
2633
2634=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
2635
be771a83
GS
2636(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
2637there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 2638
810b8aa5
GS
2639=item panic: del_backref
2640
2641(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
2642reference.
2643
a0d0e21e
LW
2644=item panic: die %s
2645
2646(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
2647it wasn't an eval context.
2648
a0d0e21e
LW
2649=item panic: do_subst
2650
be771a83
GS
2651(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational
2652data.
a0d0e21e 2653
2269b42e 2654=item panic: do_trans_%s
a0d0e21e 2655
2269b42e 2656(P) The internal do_trans routines were called with invalid operational
be771a83 2657data.
a0d0e21e 2658
c635e13b
PP
2659=item panic: frexp
2660
2661(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2662
a0d0e21e
LW
2663=item panic: goto
2664
2665(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2666and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2667
2668=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2669
2670(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2671
2672=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2673
2674(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2675
e446cec8
IZ
2676=item panic: kid popen errno read
2677
2678(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2679
a0d0e21e
LW
2680=item panic: last
2681
2682(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2683it wasn't a block context.
2684
2685=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2686
be771a83
GS
2687(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the
2688scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2689
2690=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2691
2692(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2693invalid enum on the top of it.
2694
810b8aa5
GS
2695=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
2696
2697(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
2698references to an object.
2699
6df41af2
GS
2700=item panic: malloc
2701
2702(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2703
a0d0e21e
LW
2704=item panic: mapstart
2705
2706(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2707
2708=item panic: null array
2709
2710(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2711
2712=item panic: pad_alloc
2713
2714(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2715and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2716
2717=item panic: pad_free curpad
2718
2719(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2720and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2721
2722=item panic: pad_free po
2723
2724(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2725
2726=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2727
2728(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2729and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2730
2731=item panic: pad_sv po
2732
2733(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2734
2735=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2736
2737(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2738and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2739
2740=item panic: pad_swipe po
2741
2742(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2743
2744=item panic: pp_iter
2745
2746(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2747
96ebfdd7
RK
2748=item panic: pp_match%s
2749
2750(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational
2751data.
2752
2269b42e
JH
2753=item panic: pp_split
2754
2755(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
2756
a0d0e21e
LW
2757=item panic: realloc
2758
2759(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2760
2761=item panic: restartop
2762
2763(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2764didn't supply the destination.
2765
2766=item panic: return
2767
2768(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2769then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2770
2771=item panic: scan_num
2772
2773(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2774
2775=item panic: sv_insert
2776
2777(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2778was string.
2779
2780=item panic: top_env
2781
6224f72b 2782(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e 2783
dea0fc0b
JH
2784=item panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen
2785
2786(P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8 with an odd (as opposed
64977eb6 2787to even) byte length.
dea0fc0b 2788
2f7da168
RK
2789=item panic: yylex
2790
2791(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
2792
7b8d334a 2793=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e 2794
e476b1b5 2795(W parenthesis) You said something like
a0d0e21e
LW
2796
2797 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2798
2799when you meant
2800
2801 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2802
54884818 2803Remember that "my", "our", and "local" bind tighter than comma.
a0d0e21e 2804
96ebfdd7
RK
2805=item C<-p> destination: %s
2806
2807(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
2808command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
2809redirected it with select().)
2810
2811=item (perhaps you forgot to load "%s"?)
2812
2813(F) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2814"Can't locate object method \"%s\" via package \"%s\"". It often means
2815that a method requires a package that has not been loaded.
2816
2817=item perlio: argument list not closed for layer "%s"
2818
2819(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
2820forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
2821data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
2822the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
2823If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
2824the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
2825
2826=item perlio: invalid separator character %s in layer specification list %s
2827
2828(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2829colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
2830If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2831list was terminated too soon.
2832
2833=item perlio: unknown layer "%s"
2834
2835(W layer) An attempt was made to push an unknown layer onto the Perl I/O
2836system. (Layers take care of transforming data between external and
2837internal representations.) Note that some layers, such as C<mmap>,
2838are not supported in all environments. If your program didn't
2839explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the result of the
2840value of the environment variable PERLIO.
2841
75b44862 2842=item Perl %s required--this is only version %s, stopped
a0d0e21e 2843
be771a83
GS
2844(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more
2845recent than the currently running version. How long has it been since
2846you upgraded, anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2847
6df41af2
GS
2848=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
2849
2850(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
fecfaeb8 2851C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2852
96ebfdd7
RK
2853=item PERL_SIGNALS illegal: "%s"
2854
2855See L<perlrun/PERL_SIGNALS> for legal values.
2856
6df41af2
GS
2857=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2858
2859(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
2860
2861 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2862 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
2863 LC_ALL = "En_US",
2864 LANG = (unset)
2865 are supported and installed on your system.
2866 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
2867
2868Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
2869settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
0ea6b70f
JH
2870This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your operating
2871system supplier and/or system administrator have set up the so-called
2872locale system but Perl could not use those settings. This was not
2873dead serious, fortunately: there is a "default locale" called "C" that
2874Perl can and will use, the script will be run. Before you really fix
2875the problem, however, you will get the same error message each time
2876you run Perl. How to really fix the problem can be found in
2877L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
6df41af2 2878
a0d0e21e
LW
2879=item Permission denied
2880
2881(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2882
bd3fa61c 2883=item pid %x not a child
748a9306 2884
be771a83
GS
2885(W exec) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a
2886process which isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is
2887fine from VMS' perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
748a9306 2888
49704364 2889=item 'P' must have an explicit size in unpack
3bf38418
WL
2890
2891(F) The unpack format P must have an explicit size, not "*".
2892
96ebfdd7
RK
2893=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
2894
2895(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
2896which provides a race condition that breaks security.
2897
2898=item POSIX class [:%s:] unknown in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2899
2900(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown. The <-- HERE
2901shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2902Note that the POSIX character classes do B<not> have the C<is> prefix
2903the corresponding C interfaces have: in other words, it's C<[[:print:]]>,
2904not C<isprint>. See L<perlre>.
2905
2906=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2907
2908(F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
2909the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2910
49704364 2911=item POSIX syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2912
9a0b3859 2913(W regexp) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
7253e4e3
RK
2914I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct, for example:
2915/[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that [= =] and [. .] are not currently
2916implemented; they are simply placeholders for future extensions and will
2917cause fatal errors. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
2918where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 2919
49704364 2920=item POSIX syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2921
2922(F regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
7253e4e3
RK
2923beginning with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
2924If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
2925expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
2926backslash: "\[." and ".\]". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression
2927about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 2928
49704364 2929=item POSIX syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2930
7253e4e3
RK
2931(F) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
2932with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions. If you
2933need to represent those character sequences inside a regular expression
2934character class, just quote the square brackets with the backslash: "\[="
2935and "=\]". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2936problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 2937
bbce6d69
PP
2938=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2939
e476b1b5 2940(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
75b44862 2941strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated as
be771a83
GS
2942literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
2943parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2944
774d564b
PP
2945You probably wrote something like this:
2946
54310121 2947 @list = qw(
774d564b 2948 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2949 b # another comment
774d564b 2950 );
bbce6d69
PP
2951
2952when you should have written this:
2953
774d564b 2954 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
2955 a
2956 b
774d564b
PP
2957 );
2958
2959If you really want comments, build your list the
2960old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2961
2962 @list = (
2963 'a', # a comment
2964 'b', # another comment
2965 );
bbce6d69
PP
2966
2967=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2968
be771a83
GS
2969(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore
2970commas aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used
2971different delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also
2972frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2973
54310121 2974You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2975
774d564b
PP
2976 qw! a, b, c !;
2977
2978which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2979commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2980
774d564b 2981 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2982
a0d0e21e
LW
2983=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2984
2985(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2986Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2987end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2988Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2989
276b2a0c
RGS
2990=item Possible precedence problem on bitwise %c operator
2991
2992(W precedence) Your program uses a bitwise logical operator in conjunction
2993with a numeric comparison operator, like this :
2994
2995 if ($x & $y == 0) { ... }
2996
2997This expression is actually equivalent to C<$x & ($y == 0)>, due to the
2998higher precedence of C<==>. This is probably not what you want. (If you
96a925ab
YST
2999really meant to write this, disable the warning, or, better, put the
3000parentheses explicitly and write C<$x & ($y == 0)>).
276b2a0c 3001
18623440
PS
3002=item Possible unintended interpolation of %s in string
3003
3004(W ambiguous) You said something like `@foo' in a double-quoted string
32b0a12e
AMS
3005but there was no array C<@foo> in scope at the time. If you wanted a
3006literal @foo, then write it as \@foo; otherwise find out what happened
3007to the array you apparently lost track of.
18623440 3008
6df41af2
GS
3009=item Possible Y2K bug: %s
3010
3011(W y2k) You are concatenating the number 19 with another number, which
3012could be a potential Year 2000 problem.
3013
8cd79558
GS
3014=item pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME : ATTRS" instead
3015
a1063b2d 3016(D deprecated) You have written something like this:
8cd79558
GS
3017
3018 sub doit
3019 {
3020 use attrs qw(locked);
3021 }
3022
3023You should use the new declaration syntax instead.
3024
3025 sub doit : locked
3026 {
3027 ...
3028
3029The C<use attrs> pragma is now obsolete, and is only provided for
3030backward-compatibility. See L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes">.
3031
a0d0e21e
LW
3032=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
3033
e476b1b5 3034(S precedence) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 3035
a0d0e21e
LW
3036 open FOO || die;
3037
3038is now misinterpreted as
3039
3040 open(FOO || die);
3041
be771a83
GS
3042because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary and
3043list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must put
3044parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator instead
3045of "||".
a0d0e21e 3046
3cdd684c
TP
3047=item Premature end of script headers
3048
3049See Server error.
3050
6df41af2
GS
3051=item printf() on closed filehandle %s
3052
be771a83 3053(W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 3054before now. Check your control flow.
6df41af2 3055
9a7dcd9c 3056=item print() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 3057
be771a83 3058(W closed) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 3059before now. Check your control flow.
a0d0e21e 3060
6df41af2 3061=item Process terminated by SIG%s
a0d0e21e 3062
6df41af2
GS
3063(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
3064applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
3065port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
3066L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
fecfaeb8 3067in L<perlos2>.
a0d0e21e 3068
3fe9a6f1 3069=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 3070
9a0b3859 3071(S prototype) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been
be771a83 3072declared or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 3073
ed9aa3b7
SG
3074=item Prototype not terminated
3075
2a6fd447 3076(F) You've omitted the closing parenthesis in a function prototype
ed9aa3b7
SG
3077definition.
3078
96ebfdd7
RK
3079=item Quantifier follows nothing in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3080
3081(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it if you
3082meant it literally. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
3083where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
3084
49704364 3085=item Quantifier in {,} bigger than %d in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
9baa0206 3086
b45f050a 3087(F) There is currently a limit to the size of the min and max values of the
7253e4e3 3088{min,max} construct. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where
b45f050a 3089the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
9baa0206 3090
49704364 3091=item Quantifier unexpected on zero-length expression; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
9baa0206 3092
b45f050a
JF
3093(W regexp) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where
3094it makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion. Try putting the
3095quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example, the way to match
3096"abc" provided that it is followed by three repetitions of "xyz" is
3097C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
9baa0206 3098
7253e4e3
RK
3099The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
3100discovered.
3101
89ea2908
GA
3102=item Range iterator outside integer range
3103
3104(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
3105are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
be771a83
GS
3106One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string increment
3107by prepending "0" to your numbers.
89ea2908 3108
96ebfdd7
RK
3109=item readline() on closed filehandle %s
3110
3111(W closed) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime
3112before now. Check your control flow.
3113
b5fe5ca2
SR
3114=item read() on closed filehandle %s
3115
3116(W closed) You tried to read from a closed filehandle.
3117
3118=item read() on unopened filehandle %s
3119
3120(W unopened) You tried to read from a filehandle that was never opened.
3121
6df41af2
GS
3122=item Reallocation too large: %lx
3123
3124(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
3125
4ad56ec9
IZ
3126=item realloc() of freed memory ignored
3127
be771a83
GS
3128(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
3129already been freed.
4ad56ec9 3130
a0d0e21e
LW
3131=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
3132
be771a83
GS
3133(F debugging) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce
3134the desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
a0d0e21e
LW
3135which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
3136
3e0ccd42 3137=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
3138
3139(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
3140an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
3141
7a4340ed 3142=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method %s
3e0ccd42 3143
be771a83
GS
3144(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking
3145a method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance
3146hierarchy.
3e0ccd42 3147
1930e939
TP
3148=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
3149
be771a83
GS
3150(W misc) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list
3151with an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This usually
3152means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant to use
3153parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
3154
3155 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
3156 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
3157 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
3158 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
3159
810b8aa5
GS
3160=item Reference is already weak
3161
e476b1b5 3162(W misc) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.
810b8aa5
GS
3163Doing so has no effect.
3164
a0d0e21e
LW
3165=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
3166
be771a83
GS
3167(W internal) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with
3168a reference count of other than 1.
a0d0e21e 3169
49704364 3170=item Reference to nonexistent group in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3171
3172(F) You used something like C<\7> in your regular expression, but there are
3173not at least seven sets of capturing parentheses in the expression. If you
3174wanted to have the character with value 7 inserted into the regular expression,
3175prepend a zero to make the number at least two digits: C<\07>
9baa0206 3176
7253e4e3 3177The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a 3178discovered.
9baa0206 3179
a0d0e21e
LW
3180=item regexp memory corruption
3181
3182(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
3183expression compiler gave it.
3184
b45f050a 3185=item Regexp out of space
a0d0e21e 3186
be771a83
GS
3187(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it
3188earlier.
a0d0e21e 3189
a0d0e21e
LW
3190=item Reversed %s= operator
3191
be771a83
GS
3192(W syntax) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must
3193always comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
a0d0e21e
LW
3194
3195=item Runaway format
3196
3197(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
3198produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
3199199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
3200themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
3201shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
3202
96ebfdd7
RK
3203=item Scalars leaked: %d
3204
3205(P) Something went wrong in Perl's internal bookkeeping of scalars:
3206not all scalar variables were deallocated by the time Perl exited.
3207What this usually indicates is a memory leak, which is of course bad,
3208especially if the Perl program is intended to be long-running.
3209
a0d0e21e
LW
3210=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
3211
be771a83
GS
3212(W syntax) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a
3213single element of an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar
3214value (indicated by $). The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always
3215behaves like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when evaluating its
3216argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves like a list when you assign to it,
3217and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
3218if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 3219
748a9306 3220On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 3221element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
3222Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
3223L<perlref>.
3224
a6006777
PP
3225=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
3226
75b44862 3227(W syntax) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single
be771a83
GS
3228element of a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value
3229(indicated by $). The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves
3230like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when evaluating its
3231argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves like a list when you assign to it,
3232and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
3233if you're expecting only one subscript.
3234
3235On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash element
3236as a list, you need to look into how references work, because Perl will
3237not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
a6006777
PP
3238L<perlref>.
3239
a0d0e21e
LW
3240=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
3241
54310121
PP
3242(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
3243or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
3244
3245=item Search pattern not terminated
3246
3247(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
3248construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 3249Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 3250
0cb1bcd7 3251Note that since Perl 5.9.0 a // can also be the I<defined-or>
5d9c98cd
JH
3252construct, not just the empty search pattern. Therefore code written
3253in Perl 5.9.0 or later that uses the // as the I<defined-or> can be
3254misparsed by pre-5.9.0 Perls as a non-terminated search pattern.
3255
9ddeeac9 3256=item %sseek() on unopened filehandle
a0d0e21e 3257
be771a83
GS
3258(W unopened) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a
3259filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
3260
3261=item select not implemented
3262
3263(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
3264
ae21d580 3265=item Self-ties of arrays and hashes are not supported
68a4a7e4 3266
ae21d580
JH
3267(F) Self-ties are of arrays and hashes are not supported in
3268the current implementation.
68a4a7e4 3269
6df41af2 3270=item Semicolon seems to be missing
a0d0e21e 3271
75b44862
GS
3272(W semicolon) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing
3273semicolon, or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
a0d0e21e
LW
3274
3275=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
3276
be771a83
GS
3277(S internal) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a
3278scalar that had previously been marked as free.
a0d0e21e 3279
6df41af2 3280=item sem%s not implemented
a0d0e21e 3281
6df41af2 3282(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
a0d0e21e 3283
69282e91 3284=item send() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 3285
be771a83 3286(W closed) The socket you're sending to got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 3287before now. Check your control flow.
a0d0e21e 3288
7253e4e3 3289=item Sequence (? incomplete in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
7b8d334a 3290
7253e4e3 3291(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?. The <-- HERE
b45f050a 3292shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See
be771a83 3293L<perlre>.
1b1626e4 3294
49704364 3295=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 3296
b45f050a 3297(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved but
7253e4e3 3298has not yet been written. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
b45f050a
JF
3299where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
3300
49704364 3301=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 3302
7253e4e3
RK
3303(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense. The
3304<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
3305discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3306
49704364 3307=item Sequence (?#... not terminated in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
3308
3309(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
7253e4e3
RK
3310parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. The <-- HERE shows in
3311the regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See
3312L<perlre>.
6df41af2 3313
96ebfdd7
RK
3314=item Sequence (?{...}) not terminated or not {}-balanced in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3315
3316(F) If the contents of a (?{...}) clause contains braces, they must balance
3317for Perl to properly detect the end of the clause. The <-- HERE shows in
3318the regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See
3319L<perlre>.
3320
6df41af2
GS
3321=item 500 Server error
3322
3323See Server error.
3324
a5f75d66
AD
3325=item Server error
3326
3cdd684c 3327This is the error message generally seen in a browser window when trying
be771a83
GS
3328to run a CGI program (including SSI) over the web. The actual error text
3329varies widely from server to server. The most frequently-seen variants
3330are "500 Server error", "Method (something) not permitted", "Document
3331contains no data", "Premature end of script headers", and "Did not
3332produce a valid header".
9607fc9c
PP
3333
3334B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
3335
be771a83
GS
3336You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the
3337user CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user
3338account you tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables
3339(like PATH) from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a
3340location where the CGI server can't find it, basically, more or less.
3341Please see the following for more information:
9607fc9c 3342
06a5f41f
JH
3343 http://www.perl.org/CGI_MetaFAQ.html
3344 http://www.htmlhelp.org/faq/cgifaq.html
3345 http://www.w3.org/Security/Faq/
a5f75d66 3346
be94a901
GS
3347You should also look at L<perlfaq9>.
3348
a0d0e21e
LW
3349=item setegid() not implemented
3350
be771a83
GS
3351(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't
3352support the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3353didn't think so.
a0d0e21e
LW
3354
3355=item seteuid() not implemented
3356
be771a83
GS
3357(F) You tried to assign to C<< $> >>, and your operating system doesn't
3358support the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3359didn't think so.
a0d0e21e 3360
81777298
GS
3361=item setpgrp can't take arguments
3362
be771a83
GS
3363(F) Your system has the setpgrp() from BSD 4.2, which takes no
3364arguments, unlike POSIX setpgid(), which takes a process ID and process
3365group ID.
81777298 3366
a0d0e21e
LW
3367=item setrgid() not implemented
3368
be771a83
GS
3369(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't
3370support the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3371didn't think so.
a0d0e21e
LW
3372
3373=item setruid() not implemented
3374
be771a83
GS
3375(F) You tried to assign to C<$<>, and your operating system doesn't
3376support the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3377didn't think so.
a0d0e21e 3378
6df41af2
GS
3379=item setsockopt() on closed socket %s
3380
be771a83
GS
3381(W closed) You tried to set a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
3382forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
3383L<perlfunc/setsockopt>.
3384
a0d0e21e
LW
3385=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
3386
be771a83
GS
3387(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the
3388world, because the world might have written on it already.
a0d0e21e
LW
3389