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1=head1 NAME
2
3perlapi - autogenerated documentation for the perl public API
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7This file contains the documentation of the perl public API generated by
8embed.pl, specifically a listing of functions, macros, flags, and variables
9that may be used by extension writers. The interfaces of any functions that
10are not listed here are subject to change without notice. For this reason,
11blindly using functions listed in proto.h is to be avoided when writing
12extensions.
13
14Note that all Perl API global variables must be referenced with the C<PL_>
15prefix. Some macros are provided for compatibility with the older,
16unadorned names, but this support may be disabled in a future release.
17
18The listing is alphabetical, case insensitive.
19
20=over 8
21
22=item AvFILL
23
24Same as C<av_len()>. Deprecated, use C<av_len()> instead.
25
26 int AvFILL(AV* av)
27
28=item av_clear
29
30Clears an array, making it empty. Does not free the memory used by the
31array itself.
32
33 void av_clear(AV* ar)
34
35=item av_extend
36
37Pre-extend an array. The C<key> is the index to which the array should be
38extended.
39
40 void av_extend(AV* ar, I32 key)
41
42=item av_fetch
43
44Returns the SV at the specified index in the array. The C<key> is the
45index. If C<lval> is set then the fetch will be part of a store. Check
46that the return value is non-null before dereferencing it to a C<SV*>.
47
48See L<Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays> for more information
49on how to use this function on tied arrays.
50
51 SV** av_fetch(AV* ar, I32 key, I32 lval)
52
53=item av_len
54
55Returns the highest index in the array. Returns -1 if the array is
56empty.
57
58 I32 av_len(AV* ar)
59
60=item av_make
61
62Creates a new AV and populates it with a list of SVs. The SVs are copied
63into the array, so they may be freed after the call to av_make. The new AV
64will have a reference count of 1.
65
66 AV* av_make(I32 size, SV** svp)
67
68=item av_pop
69
70Pops an SV off the end of the array. Returns C<&PL_sv_undef> if the array
71is empty.
72
73 SV* av_pop(AV* ar)
74
75=item av_push
76
77Pushes an SV onto the end of the array. The array will grow automatically
78to accommodate the addition.
79
80 void av_push(AV* ar, SV* val)
81
82=item av_shift
83
84Shifts an SV off the beginning of the array.
85
86 SV* av_shift(AV* ar)
87
88=item av_store
89
90Stores an SV in an array. The array index is specified as C<key>. The
91return value will be NULL if the operation failed or if the value did not
92need to be actually stored within the array (as in the case of tied
93arrays). Otherwise it can be dereferenced to get the original C<SV*>. Note
94that the caller is responsible for suitably incrementing the reference
95count of C<val> before the call, and decrementing it if the function
96returned NULL.
97
98See L<Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays> for
99more information on how to use this function on tied arrays.
100
101 SV** av_store(AV* ar, I32 key, SV* val)
102
103=item av_undef
104
105Undefines the array. Frees the memory used by the array itself.
106
107 void av_undef(AV* ar)
108
109=item av_unshift
110
111Unshift the given number of C<undef> values onto the beginning of the
112array. The array will grow automatically to accommodate the addition. You
113must then use C<av_store> to assign values to these new elements.
114
115 void av_unshift(AV* ar, I32 num)
116
117=item call_argv
118
119Performs a callback to the specified Perl sub. See L<perlcall>.
120
121NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
122
123 I32 call_argv(const char* sub_name, I32 flags, char** argv)
124
125=item call_method
126
127Performs a callback to the specified Perl method. The blessed object must
128be on the stack. See L<perlcall>.
129
130NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
131
132 I32 call_method(const char* methname, I32 flags)
133
134=item call_pv
135
136Performs a callback to the specified Perl sub. See L<perlcall>.
137
138NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
139
140 I32 call_pv(const char* sub_name, I32 flags)
141
142=item call_sv
143
144Performs a callback to the Perl sub whose name is in the SV. See
145L<perlcall>.
146
147NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
148
149 I32 call_sv(SV* sv, I32 flags)
150
151=item CLASS
152
153Variable which is setup by C<xsubpp> to indicate the
154class name for a C++ XS constructor. This is always a C<char*>. See C<THIS>.
155
156 char* CLASS
157
158=item Copy
159
160The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memcpy> function. The C<src> is the
161source, C<dest> is the destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is
162the type. May fail on overlapping copies. See also C<Move>.
163
164 void Copy(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)
165
166=item croak
167
168This is the XSUB-writer's interface to Perl's C<die> function. Use this
169function the same way you use the C C<printf> function. See
170C<warn>.
171
172 void croak(const char* pat, ...)
173
174=item CvSTASH
175
176Returns the stash of the CV.
177
178 HV* CvSTASH(CV* cv)
179
180=item dMARK
181
182Declare a stack marker variable, C<mark>, for the XSUB. See C<MARK> and
183C<dORIGMARK>.
184
185 dMARK;
186
187=item dORIGMARK
188
189Saves the original stack mark for the XSUB. See C<ORIGMARK>.
190
191 dORIGMARK;
192
193=item dSP
194
195Declares a local copy of perl's stack pointer for the XSUB, available via
196the C<SP> macro. See C<SP>.
197
198 dSP;
199
200=item dXSARGS
201
202Sets up stack and mark pointers for an XSUB, calling dSP and dMARK. This
203is usually handled automatically by C<xsubpp>. Declares the C<items>
204variable to indicate the number of items on the stack.
205
206 dXSARGS;
207
208=item dXSI32
209
210Sets up the C<ix> variable for an XSUB which has aliases. This is usually
211handled automatically by C<xsubpp>.
212
213 dXSI32;
214
215=item ENTER
216
217Opening bracket on a callback. See C<LEAVE> and L<perlcall>.
218
219 ENTER;
220
221=item eval_pv
222
223Tells Perl to C<eval> the given string and return an SV* result.
224
225NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
226
227 SV* eval_pv(const char* p, I32 croak_on_error)
228
229=item eval_sv
230
231Tells Perl to C<eval> the string in the SV.
232
233NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
234
235 I32 eval_sv(SV* sv, I32 flags)
236
237=item EXTEND
238
239Used to extend the argument stack for an XSUB's return values. Once
240used, guarrantees that there is room for at least C<nitems> to be pushed
241onto the stack.
242
243 void EXTEND(SP, int nitems)
244
245=item fbm_compile
246
247Analyses the string in order to make fast searches on it using fbm_instr()
248-- the Boyer-Moore algorithm.
249
250 void fbm_compile(SV* sv, U32 flags)
251
252=item fbm_instr
253
254Returns the location of the SV in the string delimited by C<str> and
255C<strend>. It returns C<Nullch> if the string can't be found. The C<sv>
256does not have to be fbm_compiled, but the search will not be as fast
257then.
258
259 char* fbm_instr(unsigned char* big, unsigned char* bigend, SV* littlesv, U32 flags)
260
261=item FREETMPS
262
263Closing bracket for temporaries on a callback. See C<SAVETMPS> and
264L<perlcall>.
265
266 FREETMPS;
267
268=item get_av
269
270Returns the AV of the specified Perl array. If C<create> is set and the
271Perl variable does not exist then it will be created. If C<create> is not
272set and the variable does not exist then NULL is returned.
273
274NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
275
276 AV* get_av(const char* name, I32 create)
277
278=item get_cv
279
280Returns the CV of the specified Perl subroutine. If C<create> is set and
281the Perl subroutine does not exist then it will be declared (which has the
282same effect as saying C<sub name;>). If C<create> is not set and the
283subroutine does not exist then NULL is returned.
284
285NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
286
287 CV* get_cv(const char* name, I32 create)
288
289=item get_hv
290
291Returns the HV of the specified Perl hash. If C<create> is set and the
292Perl variable does not exist then it will be created. If C<create> is not
293set and the variable does not exist then NULL is returned.
294
295NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
296
297 HV* get_hv(const char* name, I32 create)
298
299=item get_sv
300
301Returns the SV of the specified Perl scalar. If C<create> is set and the
302Perl variable does not exist then it will be created. If C<create> is not
303set and the variable does not exist then NULL is returned.
304
305NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
306
307 SV* get_sv(const char* name, I32 create)
308
309=item GIMME
310
311A backward-compatible version of C<GIMME_V> which can only return
312C<G_SCALAR> or C<G_ARRAY>; in a void context, it returns C<G_SCALAR>.
313Deprecated. Use C<GIMME_V> instead.
314
315 U32 GIMME
316
317=item GIMME_V
318
319The XSUB-writer's equivalent to Perl's C<wantarray>. Returns C<G_VOID>,
320C<G_SCALAR> or C<G_ARRAY> for void, scalar or array context,
321respectively.
322
323 U32 GIMME_V
324
325=item GvSV
326
327Return the SV from the GV.
328
329 SV* GvSV(GV* gv)
330
331=item gv_fetchmeth
332
333Returns the glob with the given C<name> and a defined subroutine or
334C<NULL>. The glob lives in the given C<stash>, or in the stashes
335accessible via @ISA and @UNIVERSAL.
336
337The argument C<level> should be either 0 or -1. If C<level==0>, as a
338side-effect creates a glob with the given C<name> in the given C<stash>
339which in the case of success contains an alias for the subroutine, and sets
340up caching info for this glob. Similarly for all the searched stashes.
341
342This function grants C<"SUPER"> token as a postfix of the stash name. The
343GV returned from C<gv_fetchmeth> may be a method cache entry, which is not
344visible to Perl code. So when calling C<perl_call_sv>, you should not use
345the GV directly; instead, you should use the method's CV, which can be
346obtained from the GV with the C<GvCV> macro.
347
348 GV* gv_fetchmeth(HV* stash, const char* name, STRLEN len, I32 level)
349
350=item gv_fetchmethod
351
352See L<gv_fetchmethod_autoload.
353
354 GV* gv_fetchmethod(HV* stash, const char* name)
355
356=item gv_fetchmethod_autoload
357
358Returns the glob which contains the subroutine to call to invoke the method
359on the C<stash>. In fact in the presence of autoloading this may be the
360glob for "AUTOLOAD". In this case the corresponding variable $AUTOLOAD is
361already setup.
362
363The third parameter of C<gv_fetchmethod_autoload> determines whether
364AUTOLOAD lookup is performed if the given method is not present: non-zero
365means yes, look for AUTOLOAD; zero means no, don't look for AUTOLOAD.
366Calling C<gv_fetchmethod> is equivalent to calling C<gv_fetchmethod_autoload>
367with a non-zero C<autoload> parameter.
368
369These functions grant C<"SUPER"> token as a prefix of the method name. Note
370that if you want to keep the returned glob for a long time, you need to
371check for it being "AUTOLOAD", since at the later time the call may load a
372different subroutine due to $AUTOLOAD changing its value. Use the glob
373created via a side effect to do this.
374
375These functions have the same side-effects and as C<gv_fetchmeth> with
376C<level==0>. C<name> should be writable if contains C<':'> or C<'
377''>. The warning against passing the GV returned by C<gv_fetchmeth> to
378C<perl_call_sv> apply equally to these functions.
379
380 GV* gv_fetchmethod_autoload(HV* stash, const char* name, I32 autoload)
381
382=item gv_stashpv
383
384Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package. If C<create> is
385set then the package will be created if it does not already exist. If
386C<create> is not set and the package does not exist then NULL is
387returned.
388
389 HV* gv_stashpv(const char* name, I32 create)
390
391=item gv_stashsv
392
393Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package. See
394C<gv_stashpv>.
395
396 HV* gv_stashsv(SV* sv, I32 create)
397
398=item G_ARRAY
399
400Used to indicate array context. See C<GIMME_V>, C<GIMME> and
401L<perlcall>.
402
403=item G_DISCARD
404
405Indicates that arguments returned from a callback should be discarded. See
406L<perlcall>.
407
408=item G_EVAL
409
410Used to force a Perl C<eval> wrapper around a callback. See
411L<perlcall>.
412
413=item G_NOARGS
414
415Indicates that no arguments are being sent to a callback. See
416L<perlcall>.
417
418=item G_SCALAR
419
420Used to indicate scalar context. See C<GIMME_V>, C<GIMME>, and
421L<perlcall>.
422
423=item G_VOID
424
425Used to indicate void context. See C<GIMME_V> and L<perlcall>.
426
427=item HEf_SVKEY
428
429This flag, used in the length slot of hash entries and magic structures,
430specifies the structure contains a C<SV*> pointer where a C<char*> pointer
431is to be expected. (For information only--not to be used).
432
433=item HeHASH
434
435Returns the computed hash stored in the hash entry.
436
437 U32 HeHASH(HE* he)
438
439=item HeKEY
440
441Returns the actual pointer stored in the key slot of the hash entry. The
442pointer may be either C<char*> or C<SV*>, depending on the value of
443C<HeKLEN()>. Can be assigned to. The C<HePV()> or C<HeSVKEY()> macros are
444usually preferable for finding the value of a key.
445
446 void* HeKEY(HE* he)
447
448=item HeKLEN
449
450If this is negative, and amounts to C<HEf_SVKEY>, it indicates the entry
451holds an C<SV*> key. Otherwise, holds the actual length of the key. Can
452be assigned to. The C<HePV()> macro is usually preferable for finding key
453lengths.
454
455 STRLEN HeKLEN(HE* he)
456
457=item HePV
458
459Returns the key slot of the hash entry as a C<char*> value, doing any
460necessary dereferencing of possibly C<SV*> keys. The length of the string
461is placed in C<len> (this is a macro, so do I<not> use C<&len>). If you do
462not care about what the length of the key is, you may use the global
463variable C<PL_na>, though this is rather less efficient than using a local
464variable. Remember though, that hash keys in perl are free to contain
465embedded nulls, so using C<strlen()> or similar is not a good way to find
466the length of hash keys. This is very similar to the C<SvPV()> macro
467described elsewhere in this document.
468
469 char* HePV(HE* he, STRLEN len)
470
471=item HeSVKEY
472
473Returns the key as an C<SV*>, or C<Nullsv> if the hash entry does not
474contain an C<SV*> key.
475
476 SV* HeSVKEY(HE* he)
477
478=item HeSVKEY_force
479
480Returns the key as an C<SV*>. Will create and return a temporary mortal
481C<SV*> if the hash entry contains only a C<char*> key.
482
483 SV* HeSVKEY_force(HE* he)
484
485=item HeSVKEY_set
486
487Sets the key to a given C<SV*>, taking care to set the appropriate flags to
488indicate the presence of an C<SV*> key, and returns the same
489C<SV*>.
490
491 SV* HeSVKEY_set(HE* he, SV* sv)
492
493=item HeVAL
494
495Returns the value slot (type C<SV*>) stored in the hash entry.
496
497 SV* HeVAL(HE* he)
498
499=item HvNAME
500
501Returns the package name of a stash. See C<SvSTASH>, C<CvSTASH>.
502
503 char* HvNAME(HV* stash)
504
505=item hv_clear
506
507Clears a hash, making it empty.
508
509 void hv_clear(HV* tb)
510
511=item hv_delete
512
513Deletes a key/value pair in the hash. The value SV is removed from the
514hash and returned to the caller. The C<klen> is the length of the key.
515The C<flags> value will normally be zero; if set to G_DISCARD then NULL
516will be returned.
517
518 SV* hv_delete(HV* tb, const char* key, U32 klen, I32 flags)
519
520=item hv_delete_ent
521
522Deletes a key/value pair in the hash. The value SV is removed from the
523hash and returned to the caller. The C<flags> value will normally be zero;
524if set to G_DISCARD then NULL will be returned. C<hash> can be a valid
525precomputed hash value, or 0 to ask for it to be computed.
526
527 SV* hv_delete_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, I32 flags, U32 hash)
528
529=item hv_exists
530
531Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified hash key exists. The
532C<klen> is the length of the key.
533
534 bool hv_exists(HV* tb, const char* key, U32 klen)
535
536=item hv_exists_ent
537
538Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified hash key exists. C<hash>
539can be a valid precomputed hash value, or 0 to ask for it to be
540computed.
541
542 bool hv_exists_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, U32 hash)
543
544=item hv_fetch
545
546Returns the SV which corresponds to the specified key in the hash. The
547C<klen> is the length of the key. If C<lval> is set then the fetch will be
548part of a store. Check that the return value is non-null before
549dereferencing it to a C<SV*>.
550
551See L<Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays> for more
552information on how to use this function on tied hashes.
553
554 SV** hv_fetch(HV* tb, const char* key, U32 klen, I32 lval)
555
556=item hv_fetch_ent
557
558Returns the hash entry which corresponds to the specified key in the hash.
559C<hash> must be a valid precomputed hash number for the given C<key>, or 0
560if you want the function to compute it. IF C<lval> is set then the fetch
561will be part of a store. Make sure the return value is non-null before
562accessing it. The return value when C<tb> is a tied hash is a pointer to a
563static location, so be sure to make a copy of the structure if you need to
564store it somewhere.
565
566See L<Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays> for more
567information on how to use this function on tied hashes.
568
569 HE* hv_fetch_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, I32 lval, U32 hash)
570
571=item hv_iterinit
572
573Prepares a starting point to traverse a hash table. Returns the number of
574keys in the hash (i.e. the same as C<HvKEYS(tb)>). The return value is
575currently only meaningful for hashes without tie magic.
576
577NOTE: Before version 5.004_65, C<hv_iterinit> used to return the number of
578hash buckets that happen to be in use. If you still need that esoteric
579value, you can get it through the macro C<HvFILL(tb)>.
580
581 I32 hv_iterinit(HV* tb)
582
583=item hv_iterkey
584
585Returns the key from the current position of the hash iterator. See
586C<hv_iterinit>.
587
588 char* hv_iterkey(HE* entry, I32* retlen)
589
590=item hv_iterkeysv
591
592Returns the key as an C<SV*> from the current position of the hash
593iterator. The return value will always be a mortal copy of the key. Also
594see C<hv_iterinit>.
595
596 SV* hv_iterkeysv(HE* entry)
597
598=item hv_iternext
599
600Returns entries from a hash iterator. See C<hv_iterinit>.
601
602 HE* hv_iternext(HV* tb)
603
604=item hv_iternextsv
605
606Performs an C<hv_iternext>, C<hv_iterkey>, and C<hv_iterval> in one
607operation.
608
609 SV* hv_iternextsv(HV* hv, char** key, I32* retlen)
610
611=item hv_iterval
612
613Returns the value from the current position of the hash iterator. See
614C<hv_iterkey>.
615
616 SV* hv_iterval(HV* tb, HE* entry)
617
618=item hv_magic
619
620Adds magic to a hash. See C<sv_magic>.
621
622 void hv_magic(HV* hv, GV* gv, int how)
623
624=item hv_store
625
626Stores an SV in a hash. The hash key is specified as C<key> and C<klen> is
627the length of the key. The C<hash> parameter is the precomputed hash
628value; if it is zero then Perl will compute it. The return value will be
629NULL if the operation failed or if the value did not need to be actually
630stored within the hash (as in the case of tied hashes). Otherwise it can
631be dereferenced to get the original C<SV*>. Note that the caller is
632responsible for suitably incrementing the reference count of C<val> before
633the call, and decrementing it if the function returned NULL.
634
635See L<Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays> for more
636information on how to use this function on tied hashes.
637
638 SV** hv_store(HV* tb, const char* key, U32 klen, SV* val, U32 hash)
639
640=item hv_store_ent
641
642Stores C<val> in a hash. The hash key is specified as C<key>. The C<hash>
643parameter is the precomputed hash value; if it is zero then Perl will
644compute it. The return value is the new hash entry so created. It will be
645NULL if the operation failed or if the value did not need to be actually
646stored within the hash (as in the case of tied hashes). Otherwise the
647contents of the return value can be accessed using the C<He???> macros
648described here. Note that the caller is responsible for suitably
649incrementing the reference count of C<val> before the call, and
650decrementing it if the function returned NULL.
651
652See L<Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays> for more
653information on how to use this function on tied hashes.
654
655 HE* hv_store_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, SV* val, U32 hash)
656
657=item hv_undef
658
659Undefines the hash.
660
661 void hv_undef(HV* tb)
662
663=item isALNUM
664
665Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an ascii alphanumeric
666character or digit.
667
668 bool isALNUM(char ch)
669
670=item isALPHA
671
672Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an ascii alphabetic
673character.
674
675 bool isALPHA(char ch)
676
677=item isDIGIT
678
679Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an ascii
680digit.
681
682 bool isDIGIT(char ch)
683
684=item isLOWER
685
686Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is a lowercase
687character.
688
689 bool isLOWER(char ch)
690
691=item isSPACE
692
693Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is whitespace.
694
695 bool isSPACE(char ch)
696
697=item isUPPER
698
699Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an uppercase
700character.
701
702 bool isUPPER(char ch)
703
704=item items
705
706Variable which is setup by C<xsubpp> to indicate the number of
707items on the stack. See L<perlxs/"Variable-length Parameter Lists">.
708
709 I32 items
710
711=item ix
712
713Variable which is setup by C<xsubpp> to indicate which of an
714XSUB's aliases was used to invoke it. See L<perlxs/"The ALIAS: Keyword">.
715
716 I32 ix
717
718=item LEAVE
719
720Closing bracket on a callback. See C<ENTER> and L<perlcall>.
721
722 LEAVE;
723
724=item looks_like_number
725
726Test if an the content of an SV looks like a number (or is a
727number).
728
729 I32 looks_like_number(SV* sv)
730
731=item MARK
732
733Stack marker variable for the XSUB. See C<dMARK>.
734
735=item mg_clear
736
737Clear something magical that the SV represents. See C<sv_magic>.
738
739 int mg_clear(SV* sv)
740
741=item mg_copy
742
743Copies the magic from one SV to another. See C<sv_magic>.
744
745 int mg_copy(SV* sv, SV* nsv, const char* key, I32 klen)
746
747=item mg_find
748
749Finds the magic pointer for type matching the SV. See C<sv_magic>.
750
751 MAGIC* mg_find(SV* sv, int type)
752
753=item mg_free
754
755Free any magic storage used by the SV. See C<sv_magic>.
756
757 int mg_free(SV* sv)
758
759=item mg_get
760
761Do magic after a value is retrieved from the SV. See C<sv_magic>.
762
763 int mg_get(SV* sv)
764
765=item mg_length
766
767Report on the SV's length. See C<sv_magic>.
768
769 U32 mg_length(SV* sv)
770
771=item mg_magical
772
773Turns on the magical status of an SV. See C<sv_magic>.
774
775 void mg_magical(SV* sv)
776
777=item mg_set
778
779Do magic after a value is assigned to the SV. See C<sv_magic>.
780
781 int mg_set(SV* sv)
782
783=item Move
784
785The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memmove> function. The C<src> is the
786source, C<dest> is the destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is
787the type. Can do overlapping moves. See also C<Copy>.
788
789 void Move(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)
790
791=item New
792
793The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function.
794
795 void New(int id, void* ptr, int nitems, type)
796
797=item newAV
798
799Creates a new AV. The reference count is set to 1.
800
801 AV* newAV()
802
803=item Newc
804
805The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function, with
806cast.
807
808 void Newc(int id, void* ptr, int nitems, type, cast)
809
810=item newCONSTSUB
811
812Creates a constant sub equivalent to Perl C<sub FOO () { 123 }> which is
813eligible for inlining at compile-time.
814
815 void newCONSTSUB(HV* stash, char* name, SV* sv)
816
817=item newHV
818
819Creates a new HV. The reference count is set to 1.
820
821 HV* newHV()
822
823=item newRV_inc
824
825Creates an RV wrapper for an SV. The reference count for the original SV is
826incremented.
827
828 SV* newRV_inc(SV* sv)
829
830=item newRV_noinc
831
832Creates an RV wrapper for an SV. The reference count for the original
833SV is B<not> incremented.
834
835 SV* newRV_noinc(SV *sv)
836
837=item NEWSV
838
839Creates a new SV. A non-zero C<len> parameter indicates the number of
840bytes of preallocated string space the SV should have. An extra byte for a
841tailing NUL is also reserved. (SvPOK is not set for the SV even if string
842space is allocated.) The reference count for the new SV is set to 1.
843C<id> is an integer id between 0 and 1299 (used to identify leaks).
844
845 SV* NEWSV(int id, STRLEN len)
846
847=item newSViv
848
849Creates a new SV and copies an integer into it. The reference count for the
850SV is set to 1.
851
852 SV* newSViv(IV i)
853
854=item newSVnv
855
856Creates a new SV and copies a floating point value into it.
857The reference count for the SV is set to 1.
858
859 SV* newSVnv(NV n)
860
861=item newSVpv
862
863Creates a new SV and copies a string into it. The reference count for the
864SV is set to 1. If C<len> is zero, Perl will compute the length using
865strlen(). For efficiency, consider using C<newSVpvn> instead.
866
867 SV* newSVpv(const char* s, STRLEN len)
868
869=item newSVpvf
870
871Creates a new SV an initialize it with the string formatted like
872C<sprintf>.
873
874 SV* newSVpvf(const char* pat, ...)
875
876=item newSVpvn
877
878Creates a new SV and copies a string into it. The reference count for the
879SV is set to 1. Note that if C<len> is zero, Perl will create a zero length
880string. You are responsible for ensuring that the source string is at least
881C<len> bytes long.
882
883 SV* newSVpvn(const char* s, STRLEN len)
884
885=item newSVrv
886
887Creates a new SV for the RV, C<rv>, to point to. If C<rv> is not an RV then
888it will be upgraded to one. If C<classname> is non-null then the new SV will
889be blessed in the specified package. The new SV is returned and its
890reference count is 1.
891
892 SV* newSVrv(SV* rv, const char* classname)
893
894=item newSVsv
895
896Creates a new SV which is an exact duplicate of the original SV.
897
898 SV* newSVsv(SV* old)
899
900=item newXS
901
902Used by C<xsubpp> to hook up XSUBs as Perl subs.
903
904=item newXSproto
905
906Used by C<xsubpp> to hook up XSUBs as Perl subs. Adds Perl prototypes to
907the subs.
908
909=item Newz
910
911The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function. The allocated
912memory is zeroed with C<memzero>.
913
914 void Newz(int id, void* ptr, int nitems, type)
915
916=item Nullav
917
918Null AV pointer.
919
920=item Nullch
921
922Null character pointer.
923
924=item Nullcv
925
926Null CV pointer.
927
928=item Nullhv
929
930Null HV pointer.
931
932=item Nullsv
933
934Null SV pointer.
935
936=item ORIGMARK
937
938The original stack mark for the XSUB. See C<dORIGMARK>.
939
940=item perl_alloc
941
942Allocates a new Perl interpreter. See L<perlembed>.
943
944 PerlInterpreter* perl_alloc()
945
946=item perl_construct
947
948Initializes a new Perl interpreter. See L<perlembed>.
949
950 void perl_construct(PerlInterpreter* interp)
951
952=item perl_destruct
953
954Shuts down a Perl interpreter. See L<perlembed>.
955
956 void perl_destruct(PerlInterpreter* interp)
957
958=item perl_free
959
960Releases a Perl interpreter. See L<perlembed>.
961
962 void perl_free(PerlInterpreter* interp)
963
964=item perl_parse
965
966Tells a Perl interpreter to parse a Perl script. See L<perlembed>.
967
968 int perl_parse(PerlInterpreter* interp, XSINIT_t xsinit, int argc, char** argv, char** env)
969
970=item perl_run
971
972Tells a Perl interpreter to run. See L<perlembed>.
973
974 int perl_run(PerlInterpreter* interp)
975
976=item PL_DBsingle
977
978When Perl is run in debugging mode, with the B<-d> switch, this SV is a
979boolean which indicates whether subs are being single-stepped.
980Single-stepping is automatically turned on after every step. This is the C
981variable which corresponds to Perl's $DB::single variable. See
982C<PL_DBsub>.
983
984 SV * PL_DBsingle
985
986=item PL_DBsub
987
988When Perl is run in debugging mode, with the B<-d> switch, this GV contains
989the SV which holds the name of the sub being debugged. This is the C
990variable which corresponds to Perl's $DB::sub variable. See
991C<PL_DBsingle>.
992
993 GV * PL_DBsub
994
995=item PL_DBtrace
996
997Trace variable used when Perl is run in debugging mode, with the B<-d>
998switch. This is the C variable which corresponds to Perl's $DB::trace
999variable. See C<PL_DBsingle>.
1000
1001 SV * PL_DBtrace
1002
1003=item PL_dowarn
1004
1005The C variable which corresponds to Perl's $^W warning variable.
1006
1007 bool PL_dowarn
1008
1009=item PL_modglobal
1010
1011C<PL_modglobal> is a general purpose, interpreter global HV for use by
1012extensions that need to keep information on a per-interpreter basis.
1013In a pinch, it can also be used as a symbol table for extensions
1014to share data among each other. It is a good idea to use keys
1015prefixed by the package name of the extension that owns the data.
1016
1017 HV* PL_modglobal
1018
1019=item PL_na
1020
1021A convenience variable which is typically used with C<SvPV> when one
1022doesn't care about the length of the string. It is usually more efficient
1023to either declare a local variable and use that instead or to use the
1024C<SvPV_nolen> macro.
1025
1026 STRLEN PL_na
1027
1028=item PL_sv_no
1029
1030This is the C<false> SV. See C<PL_sv_yes>. Always refer to this as
1031C<&PL_sv_no>.
1032
1033 SV PL_sv_no
1034
1035=item PL_sv_undef
1036
1037This is the C<undef> SV. Always refer to this as C<&PL_sv_undef>.
1038
1039 SV PL_sv_undef
1040
1041=item PL_sv_yes
1042
1043This is the C<true> SV. See C<PL_sv_no>. Always refer to this as
1044C<&PL_sv_yes>.
1045
1046 SV PL_sv_yes
1047
1048=item POPi
1049
1050Pops an integer off the stack.
1051
1052 IV POPi
1053
1054=item POPl
1055
1056Pops a long off the stack.
1057
1058 long POPl
1059
1060=item POPn
1061
1062Pops a double off the stack.
1063
1064 NV POPn
1065
1066=item POPp
1067
1068Pops a string off the stack.
1069
1070 char* POPp
1071
1072=item POPs
1073
1074Pops an SV off the stack.
1075
1076 SV* POPs
1077
1078=item PUSHi
1079
1080Push an integer onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element.
1081Handles 'set' magic. See C<XPUSHi>.
1082
1083 void PUSHi(IV iv)
1084
1085=item PUSHMARK
1086
1087Opening bracket for arguments on a callback. See C<PUTBACK> and
1088L<perlcall>.
1089
1090 PUSHMARK;
1091
1092=item PUSHn
1093
1094Push a double onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element.
1095Handles 'set' magic. See C<XPUSHn>.
1096
1097 void PUSHn(NV nv)
1098
1099=item PUSHp
1100
1101Push a string onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element.
1102The C<len> indicates the length of the string. Handles 'set' magic. See
1103C<XPUSHp>.
1104
1105 void PUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)
1106
1107=item PUSHs
1108
1109Push an SV onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element.
1110Does not handle 'set' magic. See C<XPUSHs>.
1111
1112 void PUSHs(SV* sv)
1113
1114=item PUSHu
1115
1116Push an unsigned integer onto the stack. The stack must have room for this
1117element. See C<XPUSHu>.
1118
1119 void PUSHu(UV uv)
1120
1121=item PUTBACK
1122
1123Closing bracket for XSUB arguments. This is usually handled by C<xsubpp>.
1124See C<PUSHMARK> and L<perlcall> for other uses.
1125
1126 PUTBACK;
1127
1128=item Renew
1129
1130The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<realloc> function.
1131
1132 void Renew(void* ptr, int nitems, type)
1133
1134=item Renewc
1135
1136The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<realloc> function, with
1137cast.
1138
1139 void Renewc(void* ptr, int nitems, type, cast)
1140
1141=item require_pv
1142
1143Tells Perl to C<require> a module.
1144
1145NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
1146
1147 void require_pv(const char* pv)
1148
1149=item RETVAL
1150
1151Variable which is setup by C<xsubpp> to hold the return value for an
1152XSUB. This is always the proper type for the XSUB. See
1153L<perlxs/"The RETVAL Variable">.
1154
1155 (whatever) RETVAL
1156
1157=item Safefree
1158
1159The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<free> function.
1160
1161 void Safefree(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)
1162
1163=item savepv
1164
1165Copy a string to a safe spot. This does not use an SV.
1166
1167 char* savepv(const char* sv)
1168
1169=item savepvn
1170
1171Copy a string to a safe spot. The C<len> indicates number of bytes to
1172copy. This does not use an SV.
1173
1174 char* savepvn(const char* sv, I32 len)
1175
1176=item SAVETMPS
1177
1178Opening bracket for temporaries on a callback. See C<FREETMPS> and
1179L<perlcall>.
1180
1181 SAVETMPS;
1182
1183=item SP
1184
1185Stack pointer. This is usually handled by C<xsubpp>. See C<dSP> and
1186C<SPAGAIN>.
1187
1188=item SPAGAIN
1189
1190Refetch the stack pointer. Used after a callback. See L<perlcall>.
1191
1192 SPAGAIN;
1193
1194=item ST
1195
1196Used to access elements on the XSUB's stack.
1197
1198 SV* ST(int ix)
1199
1200=item strEQ
1201
1202Test two strings to see if they are equal. Returns true or false.
1203
1204 bool strEQ(char* s1, char* s2)
1205
1206=item strGE
1207
1208Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is greater than or equal to
1209the second, C<s2>. Returns true or false.
1210
1211 bool strGE(char* s1, char* s2)
1212
1213=item strGT
1214
1215Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is greater than the second,
1216C<s2>. Returns true or false.
1217
1218 bool strGT(char* s1, char* s2)
1219
1220=item strLE
1221
1222Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is less than or equal to the
1223second, C<s2>. Returns true or false.
1224
1225 bool strLE(char* s1, char* s2)
1226
1227=item strLT
1228
1229Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is less than the second,
1230C<s2>. Returns true or false.
1231
1232 bool strLT(char* s1, char* s2)
1233
1234=item strNE
1235
1236Test two strings to see if they are different. Returns true or
1237false.
1238
1239 bool strNE(char* s1, char* s2)
1240
1241=item strnEQ
1242
1243Test two strings to see if they are equal. The C<len> parameter indicates
1244the number of bytes to compare. Returns true or false. (A wrapper for
1245C<strncmp>).
1246
1247 bool strnEQ(char* s1, char* s2, STRLEN len)
1248
1249=item strnNE
1250
1251Test two strings to see if they are different. The C<len> parameter
1252indicates the number of bytes to compare. Returns true or false. (A
1253wrapper for C<strncmp>).
1254
1255 bool strnNE(char* s1, char* s2, STRLEN len)
1256
1257=item StructCopy
1258
1259This is an architecture-independant macro to copy one structure to another.
1260
1261 void StructCopy(type src, type dest, type)
1262
1263=item SvCUR
1264
1265Returns the length of the string which is in the SV. See C<SvLEN>.
1266
1267 STRLEN SvCUR(SV* sv)
1268
1269=item SvCUR_set
1270
1271Set the length of the string which is in the SV. See C<SvCUR>.
1272
1273 void SvCUR_set(SV* sv, STRLEN len)
1274
1275=item SvEND
1276
1277Returns a pointer to the last character in the string which is in the SV.
1278See C<SvCUR>. Access the character as *(SvEND(sv)).
1279
1280 char* SvEND(SV* sv)
1281
1282=item SvGETMAGIC
1283
1284Invokes C<mg_get> on an SV if it has 'get' magic. This macro evaluates its
1285argument more than once.
1286
1287 void SvGETMAGIC(SV* sv)
1288
1289=item SvGROW
1290
1291Expands the character buffer in the SV so that it has room for the
1292indicated number of bytes (remember to reserve space for an extra trailing
1293NUL character). Calls C<sv_grow> to perform the expansion if necessary.
1294Returns a pointer to the character buffer.
1295
1296 void SvGROW(SV* sv, STRLEN len)
1297
1298=item SvIOK
1299
1300Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains an integer.
1301
1302 bool SvIOK(SV* sv)
1303
1304=item SvIOKp
1305
1306Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains an integer. Checks
1307the B<private> setting. Use C<SvIOK>.
1308
1309 bool SvIOKp(SV* sv)
1310
1311=item SvIOK_off
1312
1313Unsets the IV status of an SV.
1314
1315 void SvIOK_off(SV* sv)
1316
1317=item SvIOK_on
1318
1319Tells an SV that it is an integer.
1320
1321 void SvIOK_on(SV* sv)
1322
1323=item SvIOK_only
1324
1325Tells an SV that it is an integer and disables all other OK bits.
1326
1327 void SvIOK_only(SV* sv)
1328
1329=item SvIV
1330
1331Coerces the given SV to an integer and returns it.
1332
1333 IV SvIV(SV* sv)
1334
1335=item SvIVX
1336
1337Returns the integer which is stored in the SV, assuming SvIOK is
1338true.
1339
1340 IV SvIVX(SV* sv)
1341
1342=item SvLEN
1343
1344Returns the size of the string buffer in the SV. See C<SvCUR>.
1345
1346 STRLEN SvLEN(SV* sv)
1347
1348=item SvNIOK
1349
1350Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a number, integer or
1351double.
1352
1353 bool SvNIOK(SV* sv)
1354
1355=item SvNIOKp
1356
1357Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a number, integer or
1358double. Checks the B<private> setting. Use C<SvNIOK>.
1359
1360 bool SvNIOKp(SV* sv)
1361
1362=item SvNIOK_off
1363
1364Unsets the NV/IV status of an SV.
1365
1366 void SvNIOK_off(SV* sv)
1367
1368=item SvNOK
1369
1370Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a double.
1371
1372 bool SvNOK(SV* sv)
1373
1374=item SvNOKp
1375
1376Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a double. Checks the
1377B<private> setting. Use C<SvNOK>.
1378
1379 bool SvNOKp(SV* sv)
1380
1381=item SvNOK_off
1382
1383Unsets the NV status of an SV.
1384
1385 void SvNOK_off(SV* sv)
1386
1387=item SvNOK_on
1388
1389Tells an SV that it is a double.
1390
1391 void SvNOK_on(SV* sv)
1392
1393=item SvNOK_only
1394
1395Tells an SV that it is a double and disables all other OK bits.
1396
1397 void SvNOK_only(SV* sv)
1398
1399=item SvNV
1400
1401Coerce the given SV to a double and return it.
1402
1403 NV SvNV(SV* sv)
1404
1405=item SvNVX
1406
1407Returns the double which is stored in the SV, assuming SvNOK is
1408true.
1409
1410 NV SvNVX(SV* sv)
1411
1412=item SvOK
1413
1414Returns a boolean indicating whether the value is an SV.
1415
1416 bool SvOK(SV* sv)
1417
1418=item SvOOK
1419
1420Returns a boolean indicating whether the SvIVX is a valid offset value for
1421the SvPVX. This hack is used internally to speed up removal of characters
1422from the beginning of a SvPV. When SvOOK is true, then the start of the
1423allocated string buffer is really (SvPVX - SvIVX).
1424
1425 bool SvOOK(SV* sv)
1426
1427=item SvPOK
1428
1429Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a character
1430string.
1431
1432 bool SvPOK(SV* sv)
1433
1434=item SvPOKp
1435
1436Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a character string.
1437Checks the B<private> setting. Use C<SvPOK>.
1438
1439 bool SvPOKp(SV* sv)
1440
1441=item SvPOK_off
1442
1443Unsets the PV status of an SV.
1444
1445 void SvPOK_off(SV* sv)
1446
1447=item SvPOK_on
1448
1449Tells an SV that it is a string.
1450
1451 void SvPOK_on(SV* sv)
1452
1453=item SvPOK_only
1454
1455Tells an SV that it is a string and disables all other OK bits.
1456
1457 void SvPOK_only(SV* sv)
1458
1459=item SvPV
1460
1461Returns a pointer to the string in the SV, or a stringified form of the SV
1462if the SV does not contain a string. Handles 'get' magic.
1463
1464 char* SvPV(SV* sv, STRLEN len)
1465
1466=item SvPVX
1467
1468Returns a pointer to the string in the SV. The SV must contain a
1469string.
1470
1471 char* SvPVX(SV* sv)
1472
1473=item SvPV_force
1474
1475Like <SvPV> but will force the SV into becoming a string (SvPOK). You want
1476force if you are going to update the SvPVX directly.
1477
1478 char* SvPV_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)
1479
1480=item SvPV_nolen
1481
1482Returns a pointer to the string in the SV, or a stringified form of the SV
1483if the SV does not contain a string. Handles 'get' magic.
1484
1485 char* SvPV_nolen(SV* sv)
1486
1487=item SvREFCNT
1488
1489Returns the value of the object's reference count.
1490
1491 U32 SvREFCNT(SV* sv)
1492
1493=item SvREFCNT_dec
1494
1495Decrements the reference count of the given SV.
1496
1497 void SvREFCNT_dec(SV* sv)
1498
1499=item SvREFCNT_inc
1500
1501Increments the reference count of the given SV.
1502
1503 SV* SvREFCNT_inc(SV* sv)
1504
1505=item SvROK
1506
1507Tests if the SV is an RV.
1508
1509 bool SvROK(SV* sv)
1510
1511=item SvROK_off
1512
1513Unsets the RV status of an SV.
1514
1515 void SvROK_off(SV* sv)
1516
1517=item SvROK_on
1518
1519Tells an SV that it is an RV.
1520
1521 void SvROK_on(SV* sv)
1522
1523=item SvRV
1524
1525Dereferences an RV to return the SV.
1526
1527 SV* SvRV(SV* sv)
1528
1529=item SvSETMAGIC
1530
1531Invokes C<mg_set> on an SV if it has 'set' magic. This macro evaluates its
1532argument more than once.
1533
1534 void SvSETMAGIC(SV* sv)
1535
1536=item SvSetSV
1537
1538Calls C<sv_setsv> if dsv is not the same as ssv. May evaluate arguments
1539more than once.
1540
1541 void SvSetSV(SV* dsb, SV* ssv)
1542
1543=item SvSetSV_nosteal
1544
1545Calls a non-destructive version of C<sv_setsv> if dsv is not the same as
1546ssv. May evaluate arguments more than once.
1547
1548 void SvSetSV_nosteal(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)
1549
1550=item SvSTASH
1551
1552Returns the stash of the SV.
1553
1554 HV* SvSTASH(SV* sv)
1555
1556=item SvTAINT
1557
1558Taints an SV if tainting is enabled
1559
1560 void SvTAINT(SV* sv)
1561
1562=item SvTAINTED
1563
1564Checks to see if an SV is tainted. Returns TRUE if it is, FALSE if
1565not.
1566
1567 bool SvTAINTED(SV* sv)
1568
1569=item SvTAINTED_off
1570
1571Untaints an SV. Be I<very> careful with this routine, as it short-circuits
1572some of Perl's fundamental security features. XS module authors should not
1573use this function unless they fully understand all the implications of
1574unconditionally untainting the value. Untainting should be done in the
1575standard perl fashion, via a carefully crafted regexp, rather than directly
1576untainting variables.
1577
1578 void SvTAINTED_off(SV* sv)
1579
1580=item SvTAINTED_on
1581
1582Marks an SV as tainted.
1583
1584 void SvTAINTED_on(SV* sv)
1585
1586=item SvTRUE
1587
1588Returns a boolean indicating whether Perl would evaluate the SV as true or
1589false, defined or undefined. Does not handle 'get' magic.
1590
1591 bool SvTRUE(SV* sv)
1592
1593=item SvTYPE
1594
1595Returns the type of the SV. See C<svtype>.
1596
1597 svtype SvTYPE(SV* sv)
1598
1599=item svtype
1600
1601An enum of flags for Perl types. These are found in the file B<sv.h>
1602in the C<svtype> enum. Test these flags with the C<SvTYPE> macro.
1603
1604=item SVt_IV
1605
1606Integer type flag for scalars. See C<svtype>.
1607
1608=item SVt_NV
1609
1610Double type flag for scalars. See C<svtype>.
1611
1612=item SVt_PV
1613
1614Pointer type flag for scalars. See C<svtype>.
1615
1616=item SVt_PVAV
1617
1618Type flag for arrays. See C<svtype>.
1619
1620=item SVt_PVCV
1621
1622Type flag for code refs. See C<svtype>.
1623
1624=item SVt_PVHV
1625
1626Type flag for hashes. See C<svtype>.
1627
1628=item SVt_PVMG
1629
1630Type flag for blessed scalars. See C<svtype>.
1631
1632=item SvUPGRADE
1633
1634Used to upgrade an SV to a more complex form. Uses C<sv_upgrade> to
1635perform the upgrade if necessary. See C<svtype>.
1636
1637 void SvUPGRADE(SV* sv, svtype type)
1638
1639=item SvUV
1640
1641Coerces the given SV to an unsigned integer and returns it.
1642
1643 UV SvUV(SV* sv)
1644
1645=item SvUVX
1646
1647Returns the unsigned integer which is stored in the SV, assuming SvIOK is
1648true.
1649
1650 UV SvUVX(SV* sv)
1651
1652=item sv_2mortal
1653
1654Marks an SV as mortal. The SV will be destroyed when the current context
1655ends.
1656
1657 SV* sv_2mortal(SV* sv)
1658
1659=item sv_bless
1660
1661Blesses an SV into a specified package. The SV must be an RV. The package
1662must be designated by its stash (see C<gv_stashpv()>). The reference count
1663of the SV is unaffected.
1664
1665 SV* sv_bless(SV* sv, HV* stash)
1666
1667=item sv_catpv
1668
1669Concatenates the string onto the end of the string which is in the SV.
1670Handles 'get' magic, but not 'set' magic. See C<sv_catpv_mg>.
1671
1672 void sv_catpv(SV* sv, const char* ptr)
1673
1674=item sv_catpvf
1675
1676Processes its arguments like C<sprintf> and appends the formatted output
1677to an SV. Handles 'get' magic, but not 'set' magic. C<SvSETMAGIC()> must
1678typically be called after calling this function to handle 'set' magic.
1679
1680 void sv_catpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, ...)
1681
1682=item sv_catpvf_mg
1683
1684Like C<sv_catpvf>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1685
1686 void sv_catpvf_mg(SV *sv, const char* pat, ...)
1687
1688=item sv_catpvn
1689
1690Concatenates the string onto the end of the string which is in the SV. The
1691C<len> indicates number of bytes to copy. Handles 'get' magic, but not
1692'set' magic. See C<sv_catpvn_mg>.
1693
1694 void sv_catpvn(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len)
1695
1696=item sv_catpvn_mg
1697
1698Like C<sv_catpvn>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1699
1700 void sv_catpvn_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr, STRLEN len)
1701
1702=item sv_catpv_mg
1703
1704Like C<sv_catpv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1705
1706 void sv_catpv_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr)
1707
1708=item sv_catsv
1709
1710Concatenates the string from SV C<ssv> onto the end of the string in SV
1711C<dsv>. Handles 'get' magic, but not 'set' magic. See C<sv_catsv_mg>.
1712
1713 void sv_catsv(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)
1714
1715=item sv_catsv_mg
1716
1717Like C<sv_catsv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1718
1719 void sv_catsv_mg(SV *dstr, SV *sstr)
1720
1721=item sv_chop
1722
1723Efficient removal of characters from the beginning of the string buffer.
1724SvPOK(sv) must be true and the C<ptr> must be a pointer to somewhere inside
1725the string buffer. The C<ptr> becomes the first character of the adjusted
1726string.
1727
1728 void sv_chop(SV* sv, char* ptr)
1729
1730=item sv_cmp
1731
1732Compares the strings in two SVs. Returns -1, 0, or 1 indicating whether the
1733string in C<sv1> is less than, equal to, or greater than the string in
1734C<sv2>.
1735
1736 I32 sv_cmp(SV* sv1, SV* sv2)
1737
1738=item sv_dec
1739
1740Auto-decrement of the value in the SV.
1741
1742 void sv_dec(SV* sv)
1743
1744=item sv_derived_from
1745
1746Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is derived from the specified
1747class. This is the function that implements C<UNIVERSAL::isa>. It works
1748for class names as well as for objects.
1749
1750 bool sv_derived_from(SV* sv, const char* name)
1751
1752=item sv_eq
1753
1754Returns a boolean indicating whether the strings in the two SVs are
1755identical.
1756
1757 I32 sv_eq(SV* sv1, SV* sv2)
1758
1759=item sv_grow
1760
1761Expands the character buffer in the SV. This will use C<sv_unref> and will
1762upgrade the SV to C<SVt_PV>. Returns a pointer to the character buffer.
1763Use C<SvGROW>.
1764
1765 char* sv_grow(SV* sv, STRLEN newlen)
1766
1767=item sv_inc
1768
1769Auto-increment of the value in the SV.
1770
1771 void sv_inc(SV* sv)
1772
1773=item sv_insert
1774
1775Inserts a string at the specified offset/length within the SV. Similar to
1776the Perl substr() function.
1777
1778 void sv_insert(SV* bigsv, STRLEN offset, STRLEN len, char* little, STRLEN littlelen)
1779
1780=item sv_isa
1781
1782Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is blessed into the specified
1783class. This does not check for subtypes; use C<sv_derived_from> to verify
1784an inheritance relationship.
1785
1786 int sv_isa(SV* sv, const char* name)
1787
1788=item sv_isobject
1789
1790Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is an RV pointing to a blessed
1791object. If the SV is not an RV, or if the object is not blessed, then this
1792will return false.
1793
1794 int sv_isobject(SV* sv)
1795
1796=item sv_len
1797
1798Returns the length of the string in the SV. See also C<SvCUR>.
1799
1800 STRLEN sv_len(SV* sv)
1801
1802=item sv_magic
1803
1804Adds magic to an SV.
1805
1806 void sv_magic(SV* sv, SV* obj, int how, const char* name, I32 namlen)
1807
1808=item sv_mortalcopy
1809
1810Creates a new SV which is a copy of the original SV. The new SV is marked
1811as mortal.
1812
1813 SV* sv_mortalcopy(SV* oldsv)
1814
1815=item sv_newmortal
1816
1817Creates a new SV which is mortal. The reference count of the SV is set to 1.
1818
1819 SV* sv_newmortal()
1820
1821=item sv_setiv
1822
1823Copies an integer into the given SV. Does not handle 'set' magic. See
1824C<sv_setiv_mg>.
1825
1826 void sv_setiv(SV* sv, IV num)
1827
1828=item sv_setiv_mg
1829
1830Like C<sv_setiv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1831
1832 void sv_setiv_mg(SV *sv, IV i)
1833
1834=item sv_setnv
1835
1836Copies a double into the given SV. Does not handle 'set' magic. See
1837C<sv_setnv_mg>.
1838
1839 void sv_setnv(SV* sv, NV num)
1840
1841=item sv_setnv_mg
1842
1843Like C<sv_setnv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1844
1845 void sv_setnv_mg(SV *sv, NV num)
1846
1847=item sv_setpv
1848
1849Copies a string into an SV. The string must be null-terminated. Does not
1850handle 'set' magic. See C<sv_setpv_mg>.
1851
1852 void sv_setpv(SV* sv, const char* ptr)
1853
1854=item sv_setpvf
1855
1856Processes its arguments like C<sprintf> and sets an SV to the formatted
1857output. Does not handle 'set' magic. See C<sv_setpvf_mg>.
1858
1859 void sv_setpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, ...)
1860
1861=item sv_setpvf_mg
1862
1863Like C<sv_setpvf>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1864
1865 void sv_setpvf_mg(SV *sv, const char* pat, ...)
1866
1867=item sv_setpviv
1868
1869Copies an integer into the given SV, also updating its string value.
1870Does not handle 'set' magic. See C<sv_setpviv_mg>.
1871
1872 void sv_setpviv(SV* sv, IV num)
1873
1874=item sv_setpviv_mg
1875
1876Like C<sv_setpviv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1877
1878 void sv_setpviv_mg(SV *sv, IV iv)
1879
1880=item sv_setpvn
1881
1882Copies a string into an SV. The C<len> parameter indicates the number of
1883bytes to be copied. Does not handle 'set' magic. See C<sv_setpvn_mg>.
1884
1885 void sv_setpvn(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len)
1886
1887=item sv_setpvn_mg
1888
1889Like C<sv_setpvn>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1890
1891 void sv_setpvn_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr, STRLEN len)
1892
1893=item sv_setpv_mg
1894
1895Like C<sv_setpv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1896
1897 void sv_setpv_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr)
1898
1899=item sv_setref_iv
1900
1901Copies an integer into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV. The C<rv>
1902argument will be upgraded to an RV. That RV will be modified to point to
1903the new SV. The C<classname> argument indicates the package for the
1904blessing. Set C<classname> to C<Nullch> to avoid the blessing. The new SV
1905will be returned and will have a reference count of 1.
1906
1907 SV* sv_setref_iv(SV* rv, const char* classname, IV iv)
1908
1909=item sv_setref_nv
1910
1911Copies a double into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV. The C<rv>
1912argument will be upgraded to an RV. That RV will be modified to point to
1913the new SV. The C<classname> argument indicates the package for the
1914blessing. Set C<classname> to C<Nullch> to avoid the blessing. The new SV
1915will be returned and will have a reference count of 1.
1916
1917 SV* sv_setref_nv(SV* rv, const char* classname, NV nv)
1918
1919=item sv_setref_pv
1920
1921Copies a pointer into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV. The C<rv>
1922argument will be upgraded to an RV. That RV will be modified to point to
1923the new SV. If the C<pv> argument is NULL then C<PL_sv_undef> will be placed
1924into the SV. The C<classname> argument indicates the package for the
1925blessing. Set C<classname> to C<Nullch> to avoid the blessing. The new SV
1926will be returned and will have a reference count of 1.
1927
1928Do not use with other Perl types such as HV, AV, SV, CV, because those
1929objects will become corrupted by the pointer copy process.
1930
1931Note that C<sv_setref_pvn> copies the string while this copies the pointer.
1932
1933 SV* sv_setref_pv(SV* rv, const char* classname, void* pv)
1934
1935=item sv_setref_pvn
1936
1937Copies a string into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV. The length of the
1938string must be specified with C<n>. The C<rv> argument will be upgraded to
1939an RV. That RV will be modified to point to the new SV. The C<classname>
1940argument indicates the package for the blessing. Set C<classname> to
1941C<Nullch> to avoid the blessing. The new SV will be returned and will have
1942a reference count of 1.
1943
1944Note that C<sv_setref_pv> copies the pointer while this copies the string.
1945
1946 SV* sv_setref_pvn(SV* rv, const char* classname, char* pv, STRLEN n)
1947
1948=item sv_setsv
1949
1950Copies the contents of the source SV C<ssv> into the destination SV C<dsv>.
1951The source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal. Does not handle 'set'
1952magic. See the macro forms C<SvSetSV>, C<SvSetSV_nosteal> and
1953C<sv_setsv_mg>.
1954
1955 void sv_setsv(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)
1956
1957=item sv_setsv_mg
1958
1959Like C<sv_setsv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1960
1961 void sv_setsv_mg(SV *dstr, SV *sstr)
1962
1963=item sv_setuv
1964
1965Copies an unsigned integer into the given SV. Does not handle 'set' magic.
1966See C<sv_setuv_mg>.
1967
1968 void sv_setuv(SV* sv, UV num)
1969
1970=item sv_setuv_mg
1971
1972Like C<sv_setuv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1973
1974 void sv_setuv_mg(SV *sv, UV u)
1975
1976=item sv_unref
1977
1978Unsets the RV status of the SV, and decrements the reference count of
1979whatever was being referenced by the RV. This can almost be thought of
1980as a reversal of C<newSVrv>. See C<SvROK_off>.
1981
1982 void sv_unref(SV* sv)
1983
1984=item sv_upgrade
1985
1986Upgrade an SV to a more complex form. Use C<SvUPGRADE>. See
1987C<svtype>.
1988
1989 bool sv_upgrade(SV* sv, U32 mt)
1990
1991=item sv_usepvn
1992
1993Tells an SV to use C<ptr> to find its string value. Normally the string is
1994stored inside the SV but sv_usepvn allows the SV to use an outside string.
1995The C<ptr> should point to memory that was allocated by C<malloc>. The
1996string length, C<len>, must be supplied. This function will realloc the
1997memory pointed to by C<ptr>, so that pointer should not be freed or used by
1998the programmer after giving it to sv_usepvn. Does not handle 'set' magic.
1999See C<sv_usepvn_mg>.
2000
2001 void sv_usepvn(SV* sv, char* ptr, STRLEN len)
2002
2003=item sv_usepvn_mg
2004
2005Like C<sv_usepvn>, but also handles 'set' magic.
2006
2007 void sv_usepvn_mg(SV *sv, char *ptr, STRLEN len)
2008
2009=item sv_vcatpvfn
2010
2011Processes its arguments like C<vsprintf> and appends the formatted output
2012to an SV. Uses an array of SVs if the C style variable argument list is
2013missing (NULL). When running with taint checks enabled, indicates via
2014C<maybe_tainted> if results are untrustworthy (often due to the use of
2015locales).
2016
2017 void sv_vcatpvfn(SV* sv, const char* pat, STRLEN patlen, va_list* args, SV** svargs, I32 svmax, bool *maybe_tainted)
2018
2019=item sv_vsetpvfn
2020
2021Works like C<vcatpvfn> but copies the text into the SV instead of
2022appending it.
2023
2024 void sv_vsetpvfn(SV* sv, const char* pat, STRLEN patlen, va_list* args, SV** svargs, I32 svmax, bool *maybe_tainted)
2025
2026=item THIS
2027
2028Variable which is setup by C<xsubpp> to designate the object in a C++
2029XSUB. This is always the proper type for the C++ object. See C<CLASS> and
2030L<perlxs/"Using XS With C++">.
2031
2032 (whatever) THIS
2033
2034=item toLOWER
2035
2036Converts the specified character to lowercase.
2037
2038 char toLOWER(char ch)
2039
2040=item toUPPER
2041
2042Converts the specified character to uppercase.
2043
2044 char toUPPER(char ch)
2045
2046=item warn
2047
2048This is the XSUB-writer's interface to Perl's C<warn> function. Use this
2049function the same way you use the C C<printf> function. See
2050C<croak>.
2051
2052 void warn(const char* pat, ...)
2053
2054=item XPUSHi
2055
2056Push an integer onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary. Handles
2057'set' magic. See C<PUSHi>.
2058
2059 void XPUSHi(IV iv)
2060
2061=item XPUSHn
2062
2063Push a double onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary. Handles
2064'set' magic. See C<PUSHn>.
2065
2066 void XPUSHn(NV nv)
2067
2068=item XPUSHp
2069
2070Push a string onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary. The C<len>
2071indicates the length of the string. Handles 'set' magic. See
2072C<PUSHp>.
2073
2074 void XPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)
2075
2076=item XPUSHs
2077
2078Push an SV onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary. Does not
2079handle 'set' magic. See C<PUSHs>.
2080
2081 void XPUSHs(SV* sv)
2082
2083=item XPUSHu
2084
2085Push an unsigned integer onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.
2086See C<PUSHu>.
2087
2088 void XPUSHu(UV uv)
2089
2090=item XS
2091
2092Macro to declare an XSUB and its C parameter list. This is handled by
2093C<xsubpp>.
2094
2095=item XSRETURN
2096
2097Return from XSUB, indicating number of items on the stack. This is usually
2098handled by C<xsubpp>.
2099
2100 void XSRETURN(int nitems)
2101
2102=item XSRETURN_EMPTY
2103
2104Return an empty list from an XSUB immediately.
2105
2106 XSRETURN_EMPTY;
2107
2108=item XSRETURN_IV
2109
2110Return an integer from an XSUB immediately. Uses C<XST_mIV>.
2111
2112 void XSRETURN_IV(IV iv)
2113
2114=item XSRETURN_NO
2115
2116Return C<&PL_sv_no> from an XSUB immediately. Uses C<XST_mNO>.
2117
2118 XSRETURN_NO;
2119
2120=item XSRETURN_NV
2121
2122Return an double from an XSUB immediately. Uses C<XST_mNV>.
2123
2124 void XSRETURN_NV(NV nv)
2125
2126=item XSRETURN_PV
2127
2128Return a copy of a string from an XSUB immediately. Uses C<XST_mPV>.
2129
2130 void XSRETURN_PV(char* str)
2131
2132=item XSRETURN_UNDEF
2133
2134Return C<&PL_sv_undef> from an XSUB immediately. Uses C<XST_mUNDEF>.
2135
2136 XSRETURN_UNDEF;
2137
2138=item XSRETURN_YES
2139
2140Return C<&PL_sv_yes> from an XSUB immediately. Uses C<XST_mYES>.
2141
2142 XSRETURN_YES;
2143
2144=item XST_mIV
2145
2146Place an integer into the specified position C<pos> on the stack. The
2147value is stored in a new mortal SV.
2148
2149 void XST_mIV(int pos, IV iv)
2150
2151=item XST_mNO
2152
2153Place C<&PL_sv_no> into the specified position C<pos> on the
2154stack.
2155
2156 void XST_mNO(int pos)
2157
2158=item XST_mNV
2159
2160Place a double into the specified position C<pos> on the stack. The value
2161is stored in a new mortal SV.
2162
2163 void XST_mNV(int pos, NV nv)
2164
2165=item XST_mPV
2166
2167Place a copy of a string into the specified position C<pos> on the stack.
2168The value is stored in a new mortal SV.
2169
2170 void XST_mPV(int pos, char* str)
2171
2172=item XST_mUNDEF
2173
2174Place C<&PL_sv_undef> into the specified position C<pos> on the
2175stack.
2176
2177 void XST_mUNDEF(int pos)
2178
2179=item XST_mYES
2180
2181Place C<&PL_sv_yes> into the specified position C<pos> on the
2182stack.
2183
2184 void XST_mYES(int pos)
2185
2186=item XS_VERSION
2187
2188The version identifier for an XS module. This is usually
2189handled automatically by C<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>. See C<XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK>.
2190
2191=item XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK
2192
2193Macro to verify that a PM module's $VERSION variable matches the XS
2194module's C<XS_VERSION> variable. This is usually handled automatically by
2195C<xsubpp>. See L<perlxs/"The VERSIONCHECK: Keyword">.
2196
2197 XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK;
2198
2199=item Zero
2200
2201The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memzero> function. The C<dest> is the
2202destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is the type.
2203
2204 void Zero(void* dest, int nitems, type)
2205
2206=back
2207
2208=head1 AUTHORS
2209
2210Until May 1997, this document was maintained by Jeff Okamoto
2211<okamoto@corp.hp.com>. It is now maintained as part of Perl itself.
2212
2213With lots of help and suggestions from Dean Roehrich, Malcolm Beattie,
2214Andreas Koenig, Paul Hudson, Ilya Zakharevich, Paul Marquess, Neil
2215Bowers, Matthew Green, Tim Bunce, Spider Boardman, Ulrich Pfeifer,
2216Stephen McCamant, and Gurusamy Sarathy.
2217
2218API Listing originally by Dean Roehrich <roehrich@cray.com>.
2219
2220Updated to be autogenerated from comments in the source by Benjamin Stuhl.
2221
2222=head1 SEE ALSO
2223
2224perlguts(1), perlxs(1), perlxstut(1), perlintern(1)
2225