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locale.c: Improve embedded NUL collation handling
[perl5.git] / locale.c
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1/* locale.c
2 *
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3 * Copyright (C) 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001,
4 * 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 by Larry Wall and others
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5 *
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8 *
9 */
10
11/*
4ac71550 12 * A Elbereth Gilthoniel,
cdad3b53 13 * silivren penna míriel
4ac71550 14 * o menel aglar elenath!
cdad3b53 15 * Na-chaered palan-díriel
4ac71550
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16 * o galadhremmin ennorath,
17 * Fanuilos, le linnathon
18 * nef aear, si nef aearon!
19 *
20 * [p.238 of _The Lord of the Rings_, II/i: "Many Meetings"]
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21 */
22
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23/* utility functions for handling locale-specific stuff like what
24 * character represents the decimal point.
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25 *
26 * All C programs have an underlying locale. Perl generally doesn't pay any
27 * attention to it except within the scope of a 'use locale'. For most
28 * categories, it accomplishes this by just using different operations if it is
29 * in such scope than if not. However, various libc functions called by Perl
30 * are affected by the LC_NUMERIC category, so there are macros in perl.h that
31 * are used to toggle between the current locale and the C locale depending on
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32 * the desired behavior of those functions at the moment. And, LC_MESSAGES is
33 * switched to the C locale for outputting the message unless within the scope
34 * of 'use locale'.
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35 */
36
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37#include "EXTERN.h"
38#define PERL_IN_LOCALE_C
39#include "perl.h"
40
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41#ifdef I_LANGINFO
42# include <langinfo.h>
43#endif
44
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45#include "reentr.h"
46
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47/* If the environment says to, we can output debugging information during
48 * initialization. This is done before option parsing, and before any thread
49 * creation, so can be a file-level static */
50#ifdef DEBUGGING
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51# ifdef PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT
52 /* no global syms allowed */
53# define debug_initialization 0
54# define DEBUG_INITIALIZATION_set(v)
55# else
2fcc0ca9 56static bool debug_initialization = FALSE;
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57# define DEBUG_INITIALIZATION_set(v) (debug_initialization = v)
58# endif
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59#endif
60
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61#ifdef USE_LOCALE
62
98994639 63/*
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64 * Standardize the locale name from a string returned by 'setlocale', possibly
65 * modifying that string.
98994639 66 *
0ef2a2b2 67 * The typical return value of setlocale() is either
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68 * (1) "xx_YY" if the first argument of setlocale() is not LC_ALL
69 * (2) "xa_YY xb_YY ..." if the first argument of setlocale() is LC_ALL
70 * (the space-separated values represent the various sublocales,
0ef2a2b2 71 * in some unspecified order). This is not handled by this function.
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72 *
73 * In some platforms it has a form like "LC_SOMETHING=Lang_Country.866\n",
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74 * which is harmful for further use of the string in setlocale(). This
75 * function removes the trailing new line and everything up through the '='
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76 *
77 */
78STATIC char *
79S_stdize_locale(pTHX_ char *locs)
80{
7452cf6a 81 const char * const s = strchr(locs, '=');
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82 bool okay = TRUE;
83
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84 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_STDIZE_LOCALE;
85
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86 if (s) {
87 const char * const t = strchr(s, '.');
98994639 88 okay = FALSE;
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89 if (t) {
90 const char * const u = strchr(t, '\n');
91 if (u && (u[1] == 0)) {
92 const STRLEN len = u - s;
93 Move(s + 1, locs, len, char);
94 locs[len] = 0;
95 okay = TRUE;
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96 }
97 }
98 }
99
100 if (!okay)
101 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't fix broken locale name \"%s\"", locs);
102
103 return locs;
104}
105
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106#endif
107
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108void
109Perl_set_numeric_radix(pTHX)
110{
111#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
112# ifdef HAS_LOCALECONV
7452cf6a 113 const struct lconv* const lc = localeconv();
98994639 114
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115 if (lc && lc->decimal_point) {
116 if (lc->decimal_point[0] == '.' && lc->decimal_point[1] == 0) {
117 SvREFCNT_dec(PL_numeric_radix_sv);
a0714e2c 118 PL_numeric_radix_sv = NULL;
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119 }
120 else {
121 if (PL_numeric_radix_sv)
122 sv_setpv(PL_numeric_radix_sv, lc->decimal_point);
123 else
124 PL_numeric_radix_sv = newSVpv(lc->decimal_point, 0);
9f10db87 125 if (! is_invariant_string((U8 *) lc->decimal_point, 0)
28acfe03 126 && is_utf8_string((U8 *) lc->decimal_point, 0)
c1284011 127 && _is_cur_LC_category_utf8(LC_NUMERIC))
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128 {
129 SvUTF8_on(PL_numeric_radix_sv);
130 }
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131 }
132 }
133 else
a0714e2c 134 PL_numeric_radix_sv = NULL;
69014004 135
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136#ifdef DEBUGGING
137 if (DEBUG_L_TEST || debug_initialization) {
138 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Locale radix is '%s', ?UTF-8=%d\n",
69014004 139 (PL_numeric_radix_sv)
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140 ? SvPVX(PL_numeric_radix_sv)
141 : "NULL",
142 (PL_numeric_radix_sv)
39eb7305 143 ? cBOOL(SvUTF8(PL_numeric_radix_sv))
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144 : 0);
145 }
146#endif
69014004 147
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148# endif /* HAS_LOCALECONV */
149#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
150}
151
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152/* Is the C string input 'name' "C" or "POSIX"? If so, and 'name' is the
153 * return of setlocale(), then this is extremely likely to be the C or POSIX
154 * locale. However, the output of setlocale() is documented to be opaque, but
155 * the odds are extremely small that it would return these two strings for some
156 * other locale. Note that VMS in these two locales includes many non-ASCII
157 * characters as controls and punctuation (below are hex bytes):
158 * cntrl: 00-1F 7F 84-97 9B-9F
159 * punct: 21-2F 3A-40 5B-60 7B-7E A1-A3 A5 A7-AB B0-B3 B5-B7 B9-BD BF-CF D1-DD DF-EF F1-FD
160 * Oddly, none there are listed as alphas, though some represent alphabetics
161 * http://www.nntp.perl.org/group/perl.perl5.porters/2013/02/msg198753.html */
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162#define isNAME_C_OR_POSIX(name) ((name) != NULL \
163 && ((*(name) == 'C' && (*(name + 1)) == '\0') \
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164 || strEQ((name), "POSIX")))
165
98994639 166void
8772537c 167Perl_new_numeric(pTHX_ const char *newnum)
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168{
169#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
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170
171 /* Called after all libc setlocale() calls affecting LC_NUMERIC, to tell
172 * core Perl this and that 'newnum' is the name of the new locale.
173 * It installs this locale as the current underlying default.
174 *
175 * The default locale and the C locale can be toggled between by use of the
176 * set_numeric_local() and set_numeric_standard() functions, which should
177 * probably not be called directly, but only via macros like
178 * SET_NUMERIC_STANDARD() in perl.h.
179 *
180 * The toggling is necessary mainly so that a non-dot radix decimal point
181 * character can be output, while allowing internal calculations to use a
182 * dot.
183 *
184 * This sets several interpreter-level variables:
bb304765 185 * PL_numeric_name The underlying locale's name: a copy of 'newnum'
0d071d52 186 * PL_numeric_local A boolean indicating if the toggled state is such
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187 * that the current locale is the program's underlying
188 * locale
189 * PL_numeric_standard An int indicating if the toggled state is such
190 * that the current locale is the C locale. If non-zero,
191 * it is in C; if > 1, it means it may not be toggled away
192 * from C.
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193 * Note that both of the last two variables can be true at the same time,
194 * if the underlying locale is C. (Toggling is a no-op under these
195 * circumstances.)
196 *
197 * Any code changing the locale (outside this file) should use
198 * POSIX::setlocale, which calls this function. Therefore this function
199 * should be called directly only from this file and from
200 * POSIX::setlocale() */
201
b03f34cf 202 char *save_newnum;
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203
204 if (! newnum) {
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205 Safefree(PL_numeric_name);
206 PL_numeric_name = NULL;
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207 PL_numeric_standard = TRUE;
208 PL_numeric_local = TRUE;
209 return;
210 }
211
b03f34cf 212 save_newnum = stdize_locale(savepv(newnum));
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213
214 PL_numeric_standard = isNAME_C_OR_POSIX(save_newnum);
215 PL_numeric_local = TRUE;
216
b03f34cf 217 if (! PL_numeric_name || strNE(PL_numeric_name, save_newnum)) {
98994639 218 Safefree(PL_numeric_name);
b03f34cf 219 PL_numeric_name = save_newnum;
b03f34cf 220 }
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221 else {
222 Safefree(save_newnum);
223 }
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224
225 /* Keep LC_NUMERIC in the C locale. This is for XS modules, so they don't
226 * have to worry about the radix being a non-dot. (Core operations that
227 * need the underlying locale change to it temporarily). */
228 set_numeric_standard();
229
e19f01cb 230 set_numeric_radix();
6959d69d 231
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232#else
233 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(newnum);
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234#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
235}
236
237void
238Perl_set_numeric_standard(pTHX)
239{
240#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
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241 /* Toggle the LC_NUMERIC locale to C. Most code should use the macros like
242 * SET_NUMERIC_STANDARD() in perl.h instead of calling this directly. The
243 * macro avoids calling this routine if toggling isn't necessary according
244 * to our records (which could be wrong if some XS code has changed the
245 * locale behind our back) */
0d071d52 246
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247 setlocale(LC_NUMERIC, "C");
248 PL_numeric_standard = TRUE;
249 PL_numeric_local = isNAME_C_OR_POSIX(PL_numeric_name);
250 set_numeric_radix();
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251#ifdef DEBUGGING
252 if (DEBUG_L_TEST || debug_initialization) {
253 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
254 "Underlying LC_NUMERIC locale now is C\n");
255 }
256#endif
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257
258#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
259}
260
261void
262Perl_set_numeric_local(pTHX)
263{
264#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
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265 /* Toggle the LC_NUMERIC locale to the current underlying default. Most
266 * code should use the macros like SET_NUMERIC_LOCAL() in perl.h instead of
267 * calling this directly. The macro avoids calling this routine if
268 * toggling isn't necessary according to our records (which could be wrong
269 * if some XS code has changed the locale behind our back) */
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270
271 setlocale(LC_NUMERIC, PL_numeric_name);
272 PL_numeric_standard = isNAME_C_OR_POSIX(PL_numeric_name);
273 PL_numeric_local = TRUE;
274 set_numeric_radix();
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275#ifdef DEBUGGING
276 if (DEBUG_L_TEST || debug_initialization) {
277 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
69014004 278 "Underlying LC_NUMERIC locale now is %s\n",
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279 PL_numeric_name);
280 }
281#endif
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282
283#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
284}
285
286/*
287 * Set up for a new ctype locale.
288 */
289void
8772537c 290Perl_new_ctype(pTHX_ const char *newctype)
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291{
292#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
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293
294 /* Called after all libc setlocale() calls affecting LC_CTYPE, to tell
295 * core Perl this and that 'newctype' is the name of the new locale.
296 *
297 * This function sets up the folding arrays for all 256 bytes, assuming
298 * that tofold() is tolc() since fold case is not a concept in POSIX,
299 *
300 * Any code changing the locale (outside this file) should use
301 * POSIX::setlocale, which calls this function. Therefore this function
302 * should be called directly only from this file and from
303 * POSIX::setlocale() */
304
27da23d5 305 dVAR;
68067e4e 306 UV i;
98994639 307
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308 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_NEW_CTYPE;
309
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310 /* We will replace any bad locale warning with 1) nothing if the new one is
311 * ok; or 2) a new warning for the bad new locale */
312 if (PL_warn_locale) {
313 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(PL_warn_locale);
314 PL_warn_locale = NULL;
315 }
316
c1284011 317 PL_in_utf8_CTYPE_locale = _is_cur_LC_category_utf8(LC_CTYPE);
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318
319 /* A UTF-8 locale gets standard rules. But note that code still has to
320 * handle this specially because of the three problematic code points */
321 if (PL_in_utf8_CTYPE_locale) {
322 Copy(PL_fold_latin1, PL_fold_locale, 256, U8);
323 }
324 else {
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325 /* Assume enough space for every character being bad. 4 spaces each
326 * for the 94 printable characters that are output like "'x' "; and 5
327 * spaces each for "'\\' ", "'\t' ", and "'\n' "; plus a terminating
328 * NUL */
329 char bad_chars_list[ (94 * 4) + (3 * 5) + 1 ];
330
331 bool check_for_problems = ckWARN_d(WARN_LOCALE); /* No warnings means
332 no check */
333 bool multi_byte_locale = FALSE; /* Assume is a single-byte locale
334 to start */
335 unsigned int bad_count = 0; /* Count of bad characters */
336
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337 for (i = 0; i < 256; i++) {
338 if (isUPPER_LC((U8) i))
339 PL_fold_locale[i] = (U8) toLOWER_LC((U8) i);
340 else if (isLOWER_LC((U8) i))
341 PL_fold_locale[i] = (U8) toUPPER_LC((U8) i);
342 else
343 PL_fold_locale[i] = (U8) i;
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344
345 /* If checking for locale problems, see if the native ASCII-range
346 * printables plus \n and \t are in their expected categories in
347 * the new locale. If not, this could mean big trouble, upending
348 * Perl's and most programs' assumptions, like having a
349 * metacharacter with special meaning become a \w. Fortunately,
350 * it's very rare to find locales that aren't supersets of ASCII
351 * nowadays. It isn't a problem for most controls to be changed
352 * into something else; we check only \n and \t, though perhaps \r
353 * could be an issue as well. */
354 if (check_for_problems
355 && (isGRAPH_A(i) || isBLANK_A(i) || i == '\n'))
356 {
357 if ((isALPHANUMERIC_A(i) && ! isALPHANUMERIC_LC(i))
358 || (isPUNCT_A(i) && ! isPUNCT_LC(i))
359 || (isBLANK_A(i) && ! isBLANK_LC(i))
360 || (i == '\n' && ! isCNTRL_LC(i)))
361 {
362 if (bad_count) { /* Separate multiple entries with a
363 blank */
364 bad_chars_list[bad_count++] = ' ';
365 }
366 bad_chars_list[bad_count++] = '\'';
367 if (isPRINT_A(i)) {
368 bad_chars_list[bad_count++] = (char) i;
369 }
370 else {
371 bad_chars_list[bad_count++] = '\\';
372 if (i == '\n') {
373 bad_chars_list[bad_count++] = 'n';
374 }
375 else {
376 assert(i == '\t');
377 bad_chars_list[bad_count++] = 't';
378 }
379 }
380 bad_chars_list[bad_count++] = '\'';
381 bad_chars_list[bad_count] = '\0';
382 }
383 }
384 }
385
386#ifdef MB_CUR_MAX
387 /* We only handle single-byte locales (outside of UTF-8 ones; so if
d35fca5f 388 * this locale requires more than one byte, there are going to be
8c6180a9 389 * problems. */
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390 if (check_for_problems && MB_CUR_MAX > 1
391
392 /* Some platforms return MB_CUR_MAX > 1 for even the "C"
393 * locale. Just assume that the implementation for them (plus
394 * for POSIX) is correct and the > 1 value is spurious. (Since
395 * these are specially handled to never be considered UTF-8
396 * locales, as long as this is the only problem, everything
397 * should work fine */
398 && strNE(newctype, "C") && strNE(newctype, "POSIX"))
399 {
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400 multi_byte_locale = TRUE;
401 }
402#endif
403
404 if (bad_count || multi_byte_locale) {
780fcc9f 405 PL_warn_locale = Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_
8c6180a9 406 "Locale '%s' may not work well.%s%s%s\n",
780fcc9f 407 newctype,
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408 (multi_byte_locale)
409 ? " Some characters in it are not recognized by"
410 " Perl."
411 : "",
412 (bad_count)
413 ? "\nThe following characters (and maybe others)"
414 " may not have the same meaning as the Perl"
415 " program expects:\n"
416 : "",
417 (bad_count)
418 ? bad_chars_list
419 : ""
420 );
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421 /* If we are actually in the scope of the locale, output the
422 * message now. Otherwise we save it to be output at the first
423 * operation using this locale, if that actually happens. Most
424 * programs don't use locales, so they are immune to bad ones */
425 if (IN_LC(LC_CTYPE)) {
426
427 /* We have to save 'newctype' because the setlocale() just
428 * below may destroy it. The next setlocale() further down
429 * should restore it properly so that the intermediate change
430 * here is transparent to this function's caller */
431 const char * const badlocale = savepv(newctype);
432
433 setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "C");
434
435 /* The '0' below suppresses a bogus gcc compiler warning */
436 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_LOCALE), SvPVX(PL_warn_locale), 0);
437 setlocale(LC_CTYPE, badlocale);
c0f3a893 438 Safefree(badlocale);
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439 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(PL_warn_locale);
440 PL_warn_locale = NULL;
441 }
baa60164 442 }
31f05a37 443 }
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444
445#endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
7918f24d 446 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_NEW_CTYPE;
8772537c 447 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(newctype);
96a5add6 448 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
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449}
450
98994639 451void
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452Perl__warn_problematic_locale()
453{
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454
455#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
456
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457 dTHX;
458
459 /* Internal-to-core function that outputs the message in PL_warn_locale,
460 * and then NULLS it. Should be called only through the macro
461 * _CHECK_AND_WARN_PROBLEMATIC_LOCALE */
462
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463 if (PL_warn_locale) {
464 /*GCC_DIAG_IGNORE(-Wformat-security); Didn't work */
465 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_LOCALE),
466 SvPVX(PL_warn_locale),
467 0 /* dummy to avoid compiler warning */ );
468 /* GCC_DIAG_RESTORE; */
469 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(PL_warn_locale);
470 PL_warn_locale = NULL;
471 }
472
473#endif
474
475}
476
477void
8772537c 478Perl_new_collate(pTHX_ const char *newcoll)
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479{
480#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
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481
482 /* Called after all libc setlocale() calls affecting LC_COLLATE, to tell
483 * core Perl this and that 'newcoll' is the name of the new locale.
484 *
485 * Any code changing the locale (outside this file) should use
486 * POSIX::setlocale, which calls this function. Therefore this function
487 * should be called directly only from this file and from
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488 * POSIX::setlocale().
489 *
490 * The design of locale collation is that every locale change is given an
491 * index 'PL_collation_ix'. The first time a string particpates in an
492 * operation that requires collation while locale collation is active, it
493 * is given PERL_MAGIC_collxfrm magic (via sv_collxfrm_flags()). That
494 * magic includes the collation index, and the transformation of the string
495 * by strxfrm(), q.v. That transformation is used when doing comparisons,
496 * instead of the string itself. If a string changes, the magic is
497 * cleared. The next time the locale changes, the index is incremented,
498 * and so we know during a comparison that the transformation is not
499 * necessarily still valid, and so is recomputed. Note that if the locale
500 * changes enough times, the index could wrap (a U32), and it is possible
501 * that a transformation would improperly be considered valid, leading to
502 * an unlikely bug */
0d071d52 503
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504 if (! newcoll) {
505 if (PL_collation_name) {
506 ++PL_collation_ix;
507 Safefree(PL_collation_name);
508 PL_collation_name = NULL;
509 }
510 PL_collation_standard = TRUE;
00bf60ca 511 is_standard_collation:
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512 PL_collxfrm_base = 0;
513 PL_collxfrm_mult = 2;
165a1c52 514 PL_in_utf8_COLLATE_locale = FALSE;
6696cfa7 515 *PL_strxfrm_min_char = '\0';
a4a439fb 516 PL_strxfrm_max_cp = 0;
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517 return;
518 }
519
d35fca5f 520 /* If this is not the same locale as currently, set the new one up */
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521 if (! PL_collation_name || strNE(PL_collation_name, newcoll)) {
522 ++PL_collation_ix;
523 Safefree(PL_collation_name);
524 PL_collation_name = stdize_locale(savepv(newcoll));
a39edc4c 525 PL_collation_standard = isNAME_C_OR_POSIX(newcoll);
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526 if (PL_collation_standard) {
527 goto is_standard_collation;
528 }
98994639 529
165a1c52 530 PL_in_utf8_COLLATE_locale = _is_cur_LC_category_utf8(LC_COLLATE);
6696cfa7 531 *PL_strxfrm_min_char = '\0';
a4a439fb 532 PL_strxfrm_max_cp = 0;
165a1c52 533
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534 /* A locale collation definition includes primary, secondary, tertiary,
535 * etc. weights for each character. To sort, the primary weights are
536 * used, and only if they compare equal, then the secondary weights are
537 * used, and only if they compare equal, then the tertiary, etc.
538 *
539 * strxfrm() works by taking the input string, say ABC, and creating an
540 * output transformed string consisting of first the primary weights,
541 * A¹B¹C¹ followed by the secondary ones, A²B²C²; and then the
542 * tertiary, etc, yielding A¹B¹C¹ A²B²C² A³B³C³ .... Some characters
543 * may not have weights at every level. In our example, let's say B
544 * doesn't have a tertiary weight, and A doesn't have a secondary
545 * weight. The constructed string is then going to be
546 * A¹B¹C¹ B²C² A³C³ ....
547 * This has the desired effect that strcmp() will look at the secondary
548 * or tertiary weights only if the strings compare equal at all higher
549 * priority weights. The spaces shown here, like in
550 * "A¹B¹C¹ * A²B²C² "
551 * are not just for readability. In the general case, these must
552 * actually be bytes, which we will call here 'separator weights'; and
553 * they must be smaller than any other weight value, but since these
554 * are C strings, only the terminating one can be a NUL (some
555 * implementations may include a non-NUL separator weight just before
556 * the NUL). Implementations tend to reserve 01 for the separator
557 * weights. They are needed so that a shorter string's secondary
558 * weights won't be misconstrued as primary weights of a longer string,
559 * etc. By making them smaller than any other weight, the shorter
560 * string will sort first. (Actually, if all secondary weights are
561 * smaller than all primary ones, there is no need for a separator
562 * weight between those two levels, etc.)
563 *
564 * The length of the transformed string is roughly a linear function of
565 * the input string. It's not exactly linear because some characters
566 * don't have weights at all levels. When we call strxfrm() we have to
567 * allocate some memory to hold the transformed string. The
568 * calculations below try to find coefficients 'm' and 'b' for this
569 * locale so that m*x + b equals how much space we need, given the size
570 * of the input string in 'x'. If we calculate too small, we increase
571 * the size as needed, and call strxfrm() again, but it is better to
572 * get it right the first time to avoid wasted expensive string
573 * transformations. */
574
98994639 575 {
79f120c8
KW
576 /* We use the string below to find how long the tranformation of it
577 * is. Almost all locales are supersets of ASCII, or at least the
578 * ASCII letters. We use all of them, half upper half lower,
579 * because if we used fewer, we might hit just the ones that are
580 * outliers in a particular locale. Most of the strings being
581 * collated will contain a preponderance of letters, and even if
582 * they are above-ASCII, they are likely to have the same number of
583 * weight levels as the ASCII ones. It turns out that digits tend
584 * to have fewer levels, and some punctuation has more, but those
585 * are relatively sparse in text, and khw believes this gives a
586 * reasonable result, but it could be changed if experience so
587 * dictates. */
588 const char longer[] = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMnopqrstuvwxyz";
589 char * x_longer; /* Transformed 'longer' */
590 Size_t x_len_longer; /* Length of 'x_longer' */
591
592 char * x_shorter; /* We also transform a substring of 'longer' */
593 Size_t x_len_shorter;
594
a4a439fb 595 /* _mem_collxfrm() is used get the transformation (though here we
79f120c8
KW
596 * are interested only in its length). It is used because it has
597 * the intelligence to handle all cases, but to work, it needs some
598 * values of 'm' and 'b' to get it started. For the purposes of
599 * this calculation we use a very conservative estimate of 'm' and
600 * 'b'. This assumes a weight can be multiple bytes, enough to
601 * hold any UV on the platform, and there are 5 levels, 4 weight
602 * bytes, and a trailing NUL. */
603 PL_collxfrm_base = 5;
604 PL_collxfrm_mult = 5 * sizeof(UV);
605
606 /* Find out how long the transformation really is */
a4a439fb
KW
607 x_longer = _mem_collxfrm(longer,
608 sizeof(longer) - 1,
609 &x_len_longer,
610
611 /* We avoid converting to UTF-8 in the
612 * called function by telling it the
613 * string is in UTF-8 if the locale is a
614 * UTF-8 one. Since the string passed
615 * here is invariant under UTF-8, we can
616 * claim it's UTF-8 even though it isn't.
617 * */
618 PL_in_utf8_COLLATE_locale);
79f120c8
KW
619 Safefree(x_longer);
620
621 /* Find out how long the transformation of a substring of 'longer'
622 * is. Together the lengths of these transformations are
623 * sufficient to calculate 'm' and 'b'. The substring is all of
624 * 'longer' except the first character. This minimizes the chances
625 * of being swayed by outliers */
a4a439fb 626 x_shorter = _mem_collxfrm(longer + 1,
79f120c8 627 sizeof(longer) - 2,
a4a439fb
KW
628 &x_len_shorter,
629 PL_in_utf8_COLLATE_locale);
79f120c8
KW
630 Safefree(x_shorter);
631
632 /* If the results are nonsensical for this simple test, the whole
633 * locale definition is suspect. Mark it so that locale collation
634 * is not active at all for it. XXX Should we warn? */
635 if ( x_len_shorter == 0
636 || x_len_longer == 0
637 || x_len_shorter >= x_len_longer)
638 {
639 PL_collxfrm_mult = 0;
640 PL_collxfrm_base = 0;
641 }
642 else {
643 SSize_t base; /* Temporary */
644
645 /* We have both: m * strlen(longer) + b = x_len_longer
646 * m * strlen(shorter) + b = x_len_shorter;
647 * subtracting yields:
648 * m * (strlen(longer) - strlen(shorter))
649 * = x_len_longer - x_len_shorter
650 * But we have set things up so that 'shorter' is 1 byte smaller
651 * than 'longer'. Hence:
652 * m = x_len_longer - x_len_shorter
653 *
654 * But if something went wrong, make sure the multiplier is at
655 * least 1.
656 */
657 if (x_len_longer > x_len_shorter) {
658 PL_collxfrm_mult = (STRLEN) x_len_longer - x_len_shorter;
659 }
660 else {
661 PL_collxfrm_mult = 1;
662 }
663
664 /* mx + b = len
665 * so: b = len - mx
666 * but in case something has gone wrong, make sure it is
667 * non-negative */
668 base = x_len_longer - PL_collxfrm_mult * (sizeof(longer) - 1);
669 if (base < 0) {
670 base = 0;
671 }
672
673 /* Add 1 for the trailing NUL */
674 PL_collxfrm_base = base + 1;
675 }
58eebef2
KW
676
677#ifdef DEBUGGING
678 if (DEBUG_L_TEST || debug_initialization) {
679 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
680 "%s:%d: ?UTF-8 locale=%d; x_len_shorter=%"UVuf", "
681 "x_len_longer=%"UVuf","
682 " collate multipler=%"UVuf", collate base=%"UVuf"\n",
683 __FILE__, __LINE__,
684 PL_in_utf8_COLLATE_locale,
685 x_len_shorter, x_len_longer,
686 PL_collxfrm_mult, PL_collxfrm_base);
687 }
688#endif
98994639
HS
689 }
690 }
691
f2ce9e1c
JH
692#else
693 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(newcoll);
98994639
HS
694#endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
695}
696
b385bb4d
KW
697#ifdef WIN32
698
699char *
700Perl_my_setlocale(pTHX_ int category, const char* locale)
701{
702 /* This, for Windows, emulates POSIX setlocale() behavior. There is no
703 * difference unless the input locale is "", which means on Windows to get
704 * the machine default, which is set via the computer's "Regional and
705 * Language Options" (or its current equivalent). In POSIX, it instead
706 * means to find the locale from the user's environment. This routine
707 * looks in the environment, and, if anything is found, uses that instead
708 * of going to the machine default. If there is no environment override,
709 * the machine default is used, as normal, by calling the real setlocale()
710 * with "". The POSIX behavior is to use the LC_ALL variable if set;
711 * otherwise to use the particular category's variable if set; otherwise to
712 * use the LANG variable. */
713
175c4cf9 714 bool override_LC_ALL = FALSE;
89f7b9aa
KW
715 char * result;
716
b385bb4d
KW
717 if (locale && strEQ(locale, "")) {
718# ifdef LC_ALL
719 locale = PerlEnv_getenv("LC_ALL");
720 if (! locale) {
721#endif
722 switch (category) {
723# ifdef LC_ALL
724 case LC_ALL:
481465ea 725 override_LC_ALL = TRUE;
b385bb4d
KW
726 break; /* We already know its variable isn't set */
727# endif
728# ifdef USE_LOCALE_TIME
729 case LC_TIME:
730 locale = PerlEnv_getenv("LC_TIME");
731 break;
732# endif
733# ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
734 case LC_CTYPE:
735 locale = PerlEnv_getenv("LC_CTYPE");
736 break;
737# endif
738# ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
739 case LC_COLLATE:
740 locale = PerlEnv_getenv("LC_COLLATE");
741 break;
742# endif
743# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MONETARY
744 case LC_MONETARY:
745 locale = PerlEnv_getenv("LC_MONETARY");
746 break;
747# endif
748# ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
749 case LC_NUMERIC:
750 locale = PerlEnv_getenv("LC_NUMERIC");
751 break;
752# endif
753# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MESSAGES
754 case LC_MESSAGES:
755 locale = PerlEnv_getenv("LC_MESSAGES");
756 break;
757# endif
758 default:
759 /* This is a category, like PAPER_SIZE that we don't
760 * know about; and so can't provide a wrapper. */
761 break;
762 }
763 if (! locale) {
764 locale = PerlEnv_getenv("LANG");
481465ea 765 if (! locale) {
b385bb4d
KW
766 locale = "";
767 }
768 }
769# ifdef LC_ALL
770 }
771# endif
772 }
773
89f7b9aa 774 result = setlocale(category, locale);
bbc98134
KW
775 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: %s\n", __FILE__, __LINE__,
776 _setlocale_debug_string(category, locale, result)));
89f7b9aa 777
481465ea 778 if (! override_LC_ALL) {
89f7b9aa
KW
779 return result;
780 }
781
dfd77d7a 782 /* Here the input category was LC_ALL, and we have set it to what is in the
481465ea
KW
783 * LANG variable or the system default if there is no LANG. But these have
784 * lower priority than the other LC_foo variables, so override it for each
785 * one that is set. (If they are set to "", it means to use the same thing
786 * we just set LC_ALL to, so can skip) */
89f7b9aa
KW
787# ifdef USE_LOCALE_TIME
788 result = PerlEnv_getenv("LC_TIME");
730252b2 789 if (result && strNE(result, "")) {
89f7b9aa 790 setlocale(LC_TIME, result);
bbc98134
KW
791 DEBUG_Lv(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: %s\n",
792 __FILE__, __LINE__,
793 _setlocale_debug_string(LC_TIME, result, "not captured")));
89f7b9aa
KW
794 }
795# endif
796# ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
797 result = PerlEnv_getenv("LC_CTYPE");
730252b2 798 if (result && strNE(result, "")) {
89f7b9aa 799 setlocale(LC_CTYPE, result);
bbc98134
KW
800 DEBUG_Lv(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: %s\n",
801 __FILE__, __LINE__,
802 _setlocale_debug_string(LC_CTYPE, result, "not captured")));
89f7b9aa
KW
803 }
804# endif
805# ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
806 result = PerlEnv_getenv("LC_COLLATE");
730252b2 807 if (result && strNE(result, "")) {
89f7b9aa 808 setlocale(LC_COLLATE, result);
bbc98134
KW
809 DEBUG_Lv(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: %s\n",
810 __FILE__, __LINE__,
811 _setlocale_debug_string(LC_COLLATE, result, "not captured")));
89f7b9aa
KW
812 }
813# endif
814# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MONETARY
815 result = PerlEnv_getenv("LC_MONETARY");
730252b2 816 if (result && strNE(result, "")) {
89f7b9aa 817 setlocale(LC_MONETARY, result);
bbc98134
KW
818 DEBUG_Lv(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: %s\n",
819 __FILE__, __LINE__,
820 _setlocale_debug_string(LC_MONETARY, result, "not captured")));
89f7b9aa
KW
821 }
822# endif
823# ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
824 result = PerlEnv_getenv("LC_NUMERIC");
730252b2 825 if (result && strNE(result, "")) {
89f7b9aa 826 setlocale(LC_NUMERIC, result);
bbc98134
KW
827 DEBUG_Lv(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: %s\n",
828 __FILE__, __LINE__,
829 _setlocale_debug_string(LC_NUMERIC, result, "not captured")));
89f7b9aa
KW
830 }
831# endif
832# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MESSAGES
833 result = PerlEnv_getenv("LC_MESSAGES");
730252b2 834 if (result && strNE(result, "")) {
89f7b9aa 835 setlocale(LC_MESSAGES, result);
bbc98134
KW
836 DEBUG_Lv(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: %s\n",
837 __FILE__, __LINE__,
838 _setlocale_debug_string(LC_MESSAGES, result, "not captured")));
89f7b9aa
KW
839 }
840# endif
841
bbc98134
KW
842 result = setlocale(LC_ALL, NULL);
843 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: %s\n",
844 __FILE__, __LINE__,
845 _setlocale_debug_string(LC_ALL, NULL, result)));
89f7b9aa 846
bbc98134 847 return result;
b385bb4d
KW
848}
849
850#endif
851
852
98994639
HS
853/*
854 * Initialize locale awareness.
855 */
856int
857Perl_init_i18nl10n(pTHX_ int printwarn)
858{
0e92a118
KW
859 /* printwarn is
860 *
861 * 0 if not to output warning when setup locale is bad
862 * 1 if to output warning based on value of PERL_BADLANG
863 * >1 if to output regardless of PERL_BADLANG
864 *
865 * returns
98994639 866 * 1 = set ok or not applicable,
0e92a118
KW
867 * 0 = fallback to a locale of lower priority
868 * -1 = fallback to all locales failed, not even to the C locale
6b058d42
KW
869 *
870 * Under -DDEBUGGING, if the environment variable PERL_DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT is
871 * set, debugging information is output.
872 *
873 * This looks more complicated than it is, mainly due to the #ifdefs.
874 *
875 * We try to set LC_ALL to the value determined by the environment. If
876 * there is no LC_ALL on this platform, we try the individual categories we
877 * know about. If this works, we are done.
878 *
879 * But if it doesn't work, we have to do something else. We search the
880 * environment variables ourselves instead of relying on the system to do
881 * it. We look at, in order, LC_ALL, LANG, a system default locale (if we
882 * think there is one), and the ultimate fallback "C". This is all done in
883 * the same loop as above to avoid duplicating code, but it makes things
884 * more complex. After the original failure, we add the fallback
885 * possibilities to the list of locales to try, and iterate the loop
886 * through them all until one succeeds.
887 *
888 * On Ultrix, the locale MUST come from the environment, so there is
889 * preliminary code to set it. I (khw) am not sure that it is necessary,
890 * and that this couldn't be folded into the loop, but barring any real
891 * platforms to test on, it's staying as-is
892 *
893 * A slight complication is that in embedded Perls, the locale may already
894 * be set-up, and we don't want to get it from the normal environment
895 * variables. This is handled by having a special environment variable
896 * indicate we're in this situation. We simply set setlocale's 2nd
897 * parameter to be a NULL instead of "". That indicates to setlocale that
898 * it is not to change anything, but to return the current value,
899 * effectively initializing perl's db to what the locale already is.
900 *
901 * We play the same trick with NULL if a LC_ALL succeeds. We call
902 * setlocale() on the individual categores with NULL to get their existing
903 * values for our db, instead of trying to change them.
904 * */
98994639 905
0e92a118
KW
906 int ok = 1;
907
98994639 908#if defined(USE_LOCALE)
98994639
HS
909#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
910 char *curctype = NULL;
911#endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
912#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
913 char *curcoll = NULL;
914#endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
915#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
916 char *curnum = NULL;
917#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
918#ifdef __GLIBC__
175c4cf9 919 const char * const language = savepv(PerlEnv_getenv("LANGUAGE"));
98994639 920#endif
65ebb059 921
ccd65d51
KW
922 /* NULL uses the existing already set up locale */
923 const char * const setlocale_init = (PerlEnv_getenv("PERL_SKIP_LOCALE_INIT"))
924 ? NULL
925 : "";
c3fcd832
KW
926 const char* trial_locales[5]; /* 5 = 1 each for "", LC_ALL, LANG, "", C */
927 unsigned int trial_locales_count;
175c4cf9
KW
928 const char * const lc_all = savepv(PerlEnv_getenv("LC_ALL"));
929 const char * const lang = savepv(PerlEnv_getenv("LANG"));
98994639 930 bool setlocale_failure = FALSE;
65ebb059
KW
931 unsigned int i;
932 char *p;
175c4cf9
KW
933
934 /* A later getenv() could zap this, so only use here */
935 const char * const bad_lang_use_once = PerlEnv_getenv("PERL_BADLANG");
936
937 const bool locwarn = (printwarn > 1
938 || (printwarn
939 && (! bad_lang_use_once
22ff3130
HS
940 || (
941 /* disallow with "" or "0" */
942 *bad_lang_use_once
943 && strNE("0", bad_lang_use_once)))));
0e92a118 944 bool done = FALSE;
5d1187d1
KW
945 char * sl_result; /* return from setlocale() */
946 char * locale_param;
6bce99ee
JH
947#ifdef WIN32
948 /* In some systems you can find out the system default locale
949 * and use that as the fallback locale. */
950# define SYSTEM_DEFAULT_LOCALE
951#endif
952#ifdef SYSTEM_DEFAULT_LOCALE
65ebb059 953 const char *system_default_locale = NULL;
6bce99ee 954#endif
98994639 955
2fcc0ca9 956#ifdef DEBUGGING
27cdc72e 957 DEBUG_INITIALIZATION_set((PerlEnv_getenv("PERL_DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT"))
2fcc0ca9 958 ? TRUE
27cdc72e 959 : FALSE);
2fcc0ca9
KW
960# define DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(category, locale, result) \
961 STMT_START { \
962 if (debug_initialization) { \
963 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, \
964 "%s:%d: %s\n", \
965 __FILE__, __LINE__, \
966 _setlocale_debug_string(category, \
967 locale, \
968 result)); \
969 } \
970 } STMT_END
971#else
972# define DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(a,b,c)
973#endif
974
0e92a118
KW
975#ifndef LOCALE_ENVIRON_REQUIRED
976 PERL_UNUSED_VAR(done);
5d1187d1 977 PERL_UNUSED_VAR(locale_param);
0e92a118 978#else
98994639
HS
979
980 /*
981 * Ultrix setlocale(..., "") fails if there are no environment
982 * variables from which to get a locale name.
983 */
984
b3e384bf 985# ifdef LC_ALL
98994639 986 if (lang) {
5d1187d1
KW
987 sl_result = my_setlocale(LC_ALL, setlocale_init);
988 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_ALL, setlocale_init, sl_result);
989 if (sl_result)
98994639
HS
990 done = TRUE;
991 else
992 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
993 }
5d1187d1 994 if (! setlocale_failure) {
b3e384bf 995# ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
5d1187d1
KW
996 locale_param = (! done && (lang || PerlEnv_getenv("LC_CTYPE")))
997 ? setlocale_init
998 : NULL;
999 curctype = my_setlocale(LC_CTYPE, locale_param);
1000 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_CTYPE, locale_param, sl_result);
1001 if (! curctype)
98994639
HS
1002 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
1003 else
1004 curctype = savepv(curctype);
b3e384bf
KW
1005# endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
1006# ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
5d1187d1
KW
1007 locale_param = (! done && (lang || PerlEnv_getenv("LC_COLLATE")))
1008 ? setlocale_init
1009 : NULL;
1010 curcoll = my_setlocale(LC_COLLATE, locale_param);
1011 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_COLLATE, locale_param, sl_result);
1012 if (! curcoll)
98994639
HS
1013 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
1014 else
1015 curcoll = savepv(curcoll);
b3e384bf
KW
1016# endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
1017# ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
5d1187d1
KW
1018 locale_param = (! done && (lang || PerlEnv_getenv("LC_NUMERIC")))
1019 ? setlocale_init
1020 : NULL;
1021 curnum = my_setlocale(LC_NUMERIC, locale_param);
1022 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_NUMERIC, locale_param, sl_result);
1023 if (! curnum)
98994639
HS
1024 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
1025 else
1026 curnum = savepv(curnum);
b3e384bf 1027# endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
a782673d 1028# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MESSAGES
5d1187d1
KW
1029 locale_param = (! done && (lang || PerlEnv_getenv("LC_MESSAGES")))
1030 ? setlocale_init
1031 : NULL;
1032 sl_result = my_setlocale(LC_MESSAGES, locale_param);
1033 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_MESSAGES, locale_param, sl_result);
1034 if (! sl_result)
a782673d
KW
1035 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
1036 }
1037# endif /* USE_LOCALE_MESSAGES */
c835d6be 1038# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MONETARY
5d1187d1
KW
1039 locale_param = (! done && (lang || PerlEnv_getenv("LC_MONETARY")))
1040 ? setlocale_init
1041 : NULL;
1042 sl_result = my_setlocale(LC_MONETARY, locale_param);
1043 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_MONETARY, locale_param, sl_result);
1044 if (! sl_result) {
c835d6be
KW
1045 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
1046 }
1047# endif /* USE_LOCALE_MONETARY */
98994639
HS
1048 }
1049
b3e384bf 1050# endif /* LC_ALL */
98994639
HS
1051
1052#endif /* !LOCALE_ENVIRON_REQUIRED */
1053
65ebb059 1054 /* We try each locale in the list until we get one that works, or exhaust
20a240df
KW
1055 * the list. Normally the loop is executed just once. But if setting the
1056 * locale fails, inside the loop we add fallback trials to the array and so
1057 * will execute the loop multiple times */
c3fcd832
KW
1058 trial_locales[0] = setlocale_init;
1059 trial_locales_count = 1;
65ebb059
KW
1060 for (i= 0; i < trial_locales_count; i++) {
1061 const char * trial_locale = trial_locales[i];
1062
1063 if (i > 0) {
1064
1065 /* XXX This is to preserve old behavior for LOCALE_ENVIRON_REQUIRED
1066 * when i==0, but I (khw) don't think that behavior makes much
1067 * sense */
1068 setlocale_failure = FALSE;
1069
6bce99ee
JH
1070#ifdef SYSTEM_DEFAULT_LOCALE
1071# ifdef WIN32
65ebb059
KW
1072 /* On Windows machines, an entry of "" after the 0th means to use
1073 * the system default locale, which we now proceed to get. */
1074 if (strEQ(trial_locale, "")) {
1075 unsigned int j;
1076
1077 /* Note that this may change the locale, but we are going to do
1078 * that anyway just below */
1079 system_default_locale = setlocale(LC_ALL, "");
5d1187d1 1080 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_ALL, "", system_default_locale);
65ebb059
KW
1081
1082 /* Skip if invalid or it's already on the list of locales to
1083 * try */
1084 if (! system_default_locale) {
1085 goto next_iteration;
1086 }
1087 for (j = 0; j < trial_locales_count; j++) {
1088 if (strEQ(system_default_locale, trial_locales[j])) {
1089 goto next_iteration;
1090 }
1091 }
1092
1093 trial_locale = system_default_locale;
1094 }
6bce99ee
JH
1095# endif /* WIN32 */
1096#endif /* SYSTEM_DEFAULT_LOCALE */
65ebb059
KW
1097 }
1098
98994639 1099#ifdef LC_ALL
5d1187d1
KW
1100 sl_result = my_setlocale(LC_ALL, trial_locale);
1101 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_ALL, trial_locale, sl_result);
1102 if (! sl_result) {
49c85077 1103 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
7cd8b568
KW
1104 }
1105 else {
1106 /* Since LC_ALL succeeded, it should have changed all the other
1107 * categories it can to its value; so we massage things so that the
1108 * setlocales below just return their category's current values.
1109 * This adequately handles the case in NetBSD where LC_COLLATE may
1110 * not be defined for a locale, and setting it individually will
1111 * fail, whereas setting LC_ALL suceeds, leaving LC_COLLATE set to
1112 * the POSIX locale. */
1113 trial_locale = NULL;
1114 }
98994639
HS
1115#endif /* LC_ALL */
1116
49c85077 1117 if (!setlocale_failure) {
98994639 1118#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
49c85077 1119 Safefree(curctype);
5d1187d1
KW
1120 curctype = my_setlocale(LC_CTYPE, trial_locale);
1121 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_CTYPE, trial_locale, curctype);
1122 if (! curctype)
49c85077
KW
1123 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
1124 else
1125 curctype = savepv(curctype);
98994639
HS
1126#endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
1127#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
49c85077 1128 Safefree(curcoll);
5d1187d1
KW
1129 curcoll = my_setlocale(LC_COLLATE, trial_locale);
1130 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_COLLATE, trial_locale, curcoll);
1131 if (! curcoll)
49c85077
KW
1132 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
1133 else
1134 curcoll = savepv(curcoll);
98994639
HS
1135#endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
1136#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
49c85077 1137 Safefree(curnum);
5d1187d1
KW
1138 curnum = my_setlocale(LC_NUMERIC, trial_locale);
1139 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_NUMERIC, trial_locale, curnum);
1140 if (! curnum)
49c85077
KW
1141 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
1142 else
1143 curnum = savepv(curnum);
98994639 1144#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
a782673d 1145#ifdef USE_LOCALE_MESSAGES
5d1187d1
KW
1146 sl_result = my_setlocale(LC_MESSAGES, trial_locale);
1147 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_MESSAGES, trial_locale, sl_result);
1148 if (! (sl_result))
a782673d
KW
1149 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
1150#endif /* USE_LOCALE_MESSAGES */
c835d6be 1151#ifdef USE_LOCALE_MONETARY
5d1187d1
KW
1152 sl_result = my_setlocale(LC_MONETARY, trial_locale);
1153 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_MONETARY, trial_locale, sl_result);
1154 if (! (sl_result))
c835d6be
KW
1155 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
1156#endif /* USE_LOCALE_MONETARY */
1157
49c85077
KW
1158 if (! setlocale_failure) { /* Success */
1159 break;
1160 }
65ebb059 1161 }
98994639 1162
49c85077
KW
1163 /* Here, something failed; will need to try a fallback. */
1164 ok = 0;
65ebb059 1165
49c85077
KW
1166 if (i == 0) {
1167 unsigned int j;
98994639 1168
65ebb059 1169 if (locwarn) { /* Output failure info only on the first one */
98994639
HS
1170#ifdef LC_ALL
1171
49c85077
KW
1172 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
1173 "perl: warning: Setting locale failed.\n");
98994639
HS
1174
1175#else /* !LC_ALL */
1176
49c85077
KW
1177 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
1178 "perl: warning: Setting locale failed for the categories:\n\t");
20a240df 1179# ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
49c85077
KW
1180 if (! curctype)
1181 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log, "LC_CTYPE ");
20a240df
KW
1182# endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
1183# ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
49c85077
KW
1184 if (! curcoll)
1185 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log, "LC_COLLATE ");
20a240df
KW
1186# endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
1187# ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
49c85077
KW
1188 if (! curnum)
1189 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log, "LC_NUMERIC ");
20a240df 1190# endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
a782673d 1191 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log, "and possibly others\n");
98994639
HS
1192
1193#endif /* LC_ALL */
1194
49c85077
KW
1195 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
1196 "perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:\n");
98994639
HS
1197
1198#ifdef __GLIBC__
49c85077
KW
1199 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
1200 "\tLANGUAGE = %c%s%c,\n",
1201 language ? '"' : '(',
1202 language ? language : "unset",
1203 language ? '"' : ')');
98994639
HS
1204#endif
1205
49c85077
KW
1206 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
1207 "\tLC_ALL = %c%s%c,\n",
1208 lc_all ? '"' : '(',
1209 lc_all ? lc_all : "unset",
1210 lc_all ? '"' : ')');
98994639
HS
1211
1212#if defined(USE_ENVIRON_ARRAY)
49c85077
KW
1213 {
1214 char **e;
1215 for (e = environ; *e; e++) {
1216 if (strnEQ(*e, "LC_", 3)
1217 && strnNE(*e, "LC_ALL=", 7)
1218 && (p = strchr(*e, '=')))
1219 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log, "\t%.*s = \"%s\",\n",
1220 (int)(p - *e), *e, p + 1);
1221 }
1222 }
98994639 1223#else
49c85077
KW
1224 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
1225 "\t(possibly more locale environment variables)\n");
98994639
HS
1226#endif
1227
49c85077
KW
1228 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
1229 "\tLANG = %c%s%c\n",
1230 lang ? '"' : '(',
1231 lang ? lang : "unset",
1232 lang ? '"' : ')');
98994639 1233
49c85077
KW
1234 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
1235 " are supported and installed on your system.\n");
1236 }
98994639 1237
65ebb059 1238 /* Calculate what fallback locales to try. We have avoided this
f6bab5f6 1239 * until we have to, because failure is quite unlikely. This will
65ebb059
KW
1240 * usually change the upper bound of the loop we are in.
1241 *
1242 * Since the system's default way of setting the locale has not
1243 * found one that works, We use Perl's defined ordering: LC_ALL,
1244 * LANG, and the C locale. We don't try the same locale twice, so
1245 * don't add to the list if already there. (On POSIX systems, the
1246 * LC_ALL element will likely be a repeat of the 0th element "",
6b058d42
KW
1247 * but there's no harm done by doing it explicitly.
1248 *
1249 * Note that this tries the LC_ALL environment variable even on
1250 * systems which have no LC_ALL locale setting. This may or may
1251 * not have been originally intentional, but there's no real need
1252 * to change the behavior. */
65ebb059
KW
1253 if (lc_all) {
1254 for (j = 0; j < trial_locales_count; j++) {
1255 if (strEQ(lc_all, trial_locales[j])) {
1256 goto done_lc_all;
1257 }
1258 }
1259 trial_locales[trial_locales_count++] = lc_all;
1260 }
1261 done_lc_all:
98994639 1262
65ebb059
KW
1263 if (lang) {
1264 for (j = 0; j < trial_locales_count; j++) {
1265 if (strEQ(lang, trial_locales[j])) {
1266 goto done_lang;
1267 }
1268 }
1269 trial_locales[trial_locales_count++] = lang;
1270 }
1271 done_lang:
1272
1273#if defined(WIN32) && defined(LC_ALL)
1274 /* For Windows, we also try the system default locale before "C".
1275 * (If there exists a Windows without LC_ALL we skip this because
1276 * it gets too complicated. For those, the "C" is the next
1277 * fallback possibility). The "" is the same as the 0th element of
1278 * the array, but the code at the loop above knows to treat it
1279 * differently when not the 0th */
1280 trial_locales[trial_locales_count++] = "";
1281#endif
1282
1283 for (j = 0; j < trial_locales_count; j++) {
1284 if (strEQ("C", trial_locales[j])) {
1285 goto done_C;
1286 }
1287 }
1288 trial_locales[trial_locales_count++] = "C";
98994639 1289
65ebb059
KW
1290 done_C: ;
1291 } /* end of first time through the loop */
98994639 1292
65ebb059
KW
1293#ifdef WIN32
1294 next_iteration: ;
1295#endif
1296
1297 } /* end of looping through the trial locales */
1298
1299 if (ok < 1) { /* If we tried to fallback */
1300 const char* msg;
1301 if (! setlocale_failure) { /* fallback succeeded */
1302 msg = "Falling back to";
1303 }
1304 else { /* fallback failed */
98994639 1305
65ebb059
KW
1306 /* We dropped off the end of the loop, so have to decrement i to
1307 * get back to the value the last time through */
1308 i--;
98994639 1309
65ebb059
KW
1310 ok = -1;
1311 msg = "Failed to fall back to";
1312
1313 /* To continue, we should use whatever values we've got */
98994639 1314#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
49c85077
KW
1315 Safefree(curctype);
1316 curctype = savepv(setlocale(LC_CTYPE, NULL));
5d1187d1 1317 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_CTYPE, NULL, curctype);
98994639
HS
1318#endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
1319#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
49c85077
KW
1320 Safefree(curcoll);
1321 curcoll = savepv(setlocale(LC_COLLATE, NULL));
5d1187d1 1322 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_COLLATE, NULL, curcoll);
98994639
HS
1323#endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
1324#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
49c85077
KW
1325 Safefree(curnum);
1326 curnum = savepv(setlocale(LC_NUMERIC, NULL));
5d1187d1 1327 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_NUMERIC, NULL, curnum);
98994639 1328#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
65ebb059
KW
1329 }
1330
1331 if (locwarn) {
1332 const char * description;
1333 const char * name = "";
1334 if (strEQ(trial_locales[i], "C")) {
1335 description = "the standard locale";
1336 name = "C";
1337 }
6bce99ee 1338#ifdef SYSTEM_DEFAULT_LOCALE
65ebb059
KW
1339 else if (strEQ(trial_locales[i], "")) {
1340 description = "the system default locale";
1341 if (system_default_locale) {
1342 name = system_default_locale;
1343 }
1344 }
6bce99ee 1345#endif /* SYSTEM_DEFAULT_LOCALE */
65ebb059
KW
1346 else {
1347 description = "a fallback locale";
1348 name = trial_locales[i];
1349 }
1350 if (name && strNE(name, "")) {
1351 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
1352 "perl: warning: %s %s (\"%s\").\n", msg, description, name);
1353 }
1354 else {
1355 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
1356 "perl: warning: %s %s.\n", msg, description);
1357 }
1358 }
1359 } /* End of tried to fallback */
98994639
HS
1360
1361#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
1362 new_ctype(curctype);
1363#endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
1364
1365#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
1366 new_collate(curcoll);
1367#endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
1368
1369#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
1370 new_numeric(curnum);
1371#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
b310b053 1372
8ef6e574 1373#if defined(USE_PERLIO) && defined(USE_LOCALE_CTYPE)
49c85077
KW
1374 /* Set PL_utf8locale to TRUE if using PerlIO _and_ the current LC_CTYPE
1375 * locale is UTF-8. If PL_utf8locale and PL_unicode (set by -C or by
1376 * $ENV{PERL_UNICODE}) are true, perl.c:S_parse_body() will turn on the
1377 * PerlIO :utf8 layer on STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR, _and_ the default open
1378 * discipline. */
c1284011 1379 PL_utf8locale = _is_cur_LC_category_utf8(LC_CTYPE);
49c85077 1380
a05d7ebb 1381 /* Set PL_unicode to $ENV{PERL_UNICODE} if using PerlIO.
fde18df1
JH
1382 This is an alternative to using the -C command line switch
1383 (the -C if present will override this). */
1384 {
dd374669 1385 const char *p = PerlEnv_getenv("PERL_UNICODE");
a05d7ebb 1386 PL_unicode = p ? parse_unicode_opts(&p) : 0;
5a22a2bb
NC
1387 if (PL_unicode & PERL_UNICODE_UTF8CACHEASSERT_FLAG)
1388 PL_utf8cache = -1;
b310b053 1389 }
ec71e770 1390#endif
b310b053 1391
98994639 1392#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
43c5f42d 1393 Safefree(curctype);
98994639
HS
1394#endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
1395#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
43c5f42d 1396 Safefree(curcoll);
98994639
HS
1397#endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
1398#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
43c5f42d 1399 Safefree(curnum);
98994639 1400#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
8ef6e574 1401
175c4cf9
KW
1402#ifdef __GLIBC__
1403 Safefree(language);
1404#endif
1405
1406 Safefree(lc_all);
1407 Safefree(lang);
1408
e3305790
KW
1409#else /* !USE_LOCALE */
1410 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(printwarn);
1411#endif /* USE_LOCALE */
1412
2fcc0ca9
KW
1413#ifdef DEBUGGING
1414 /* So won't continue to output stuff */
27cdc72e 1415 DEBUG_INITIALIZATION_set(FALSE);
2fcc0ca9
KW
1416#endif
1417
98994639
HS
1418 return ok;
1419}
1420
98994639
HS
1421#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
1422
a4a439fb 1423char *
a4a439fb
KW
1424Perl__mem_collxfrm(pTHX_ const char *input_string,
1425 STRLEN len, /* Length of 'input_string' */
1426 STRLEN *xlen, /* Set to length of returned string
1427 (not including the collation index
1428 prefix) */
1429 bool utf8 /* Is the input in UTF-8? */
6696cfa7 1430 )
98994639 1431{
a4a439fb
KW
1432
1433 /* _mem_collxfrm() is a bit like strxfrm() but with two important
1434 * differences. First, it handles embedded NULs. Second, it allocates a bit
1435 * more memory than needed for the transformed data itself. The real
55e5378d 1436 * transformed data begins at offset COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN. *xlen is set to
a4a439fb
KW
1437 * the length of that, and doesn't include the collation index size.
1438 * Please see sv_collxfrm() to see how this is used. */
1439
55e5378d
KW
1440#define COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN sizeof(PL_collation_ix)
1441
6696cfa7
KW
1442 char * s = (char *) input_string;
1443 STRLEN s_strlen = strlen(input_string);
79f120c8 1444 char *xbuf = NULL;
55e5378d 1445 STRLEN xAlloc; /* xalloc is a reserved word in VC */
17f41037 1446 STRLEN length_in_chars;
c664130f 1447 bool first_time = TRUE; /* Cleared after first loop iteration */
98994639 1448
a4a439fb
KW
1449 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__MEM_COLLXFRM;
1450
1451 /* Must be NUL-terminated */
1452 assert(*(input_string + len) == '\0');
7918f24d 1453
79f120c8
KW
1454 /* If this locale has defective collation, skip */
1455 if (PL_collxfrm_base == 0 && PL_collxfrm_mult == 0) {
1456 goto bad;
1457 }
1458
6696cfa7
KW
1459 /* Replace any embedded NULs with the control that sorts before any others.
1460 * This will give as good as possible results on strings that don't
1461 * otherwise contain that character, but otherwise there may be
1462 * less-than-perfect results with that character and NUL. This is
1463 * unavoidable unless we replace strxfrm with our own implementation.
1464 *
6696cfa7
KW
1465 * This is one of the few places in the perl core, where we can use
1466 * standard functions like strlen() and strcat(). It's because we're
1467 * looking for NULs. */
1468 if (s_strlen < len) {
1469 char * e = s + len;
1470 char * sans_nuls;
1471 STRLEN cur_min_char_len;
94762aa0 1472 int try_non_controls;
6696cfa7
KW
1473
1474 /* If we don't know what control character sorts lowest for this
1475 * locale, find it */
1476 if (*PL_strxfrm_min_char == '\0') {
1477 int j;
58eebef2
KW
1478#ifdef DEBUGGING
1479 U8 cur_min_cp = 1; /* The code point that sorts lowest, so far */
1480#endif
1481 char * cur_min_x = NULL; /* And its xfrm, (except it also
6696cfa7
KW
1482 includes the collation index
1483 prefixed. */
1484
91c0e2e0 1485 DEBUG_Lv(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Looking to replace NUL\n"));
94762aa0
KW
1486
1487 /* Unlikely, but it may be that no control will work to replace
1488 * NUL, in which case we instead look for any character */
1489 for (try_non_controls = 0;
1490 try_non_controls < 2;
1491 try_non_controls++)
1492 {
6696cfa7
KW
1493 /* Look through all legal code points (NUL isn't) */
1494 for (j = 1; j < 256; j++) {
1495 char * x; /* j's xfrm plus collation index */
1496 STRLEN x_len; /* length of 'x' */
1497 STRLEN trial_len = 1;
1498
1499 /* Create a 1 byte string of the current code point, but with
1500 * room to be 2 bytes */
1501 char cur_source[] = { (char) j, '\0' , '\0' };
1502
1503 if (PL_in_utf8_COLLATE_locale) {
94762aa0 1504 if (! try_non_controls && ! isCNTRL_L1(j)) {
6696cfa7
KW
1505 continue;
1506 }
1507
1508 /* If needs to be 2 bytes, find them */
1509 if (! UVCHR_IS_INVARIANT(j)) {
a4a439fb
KW
1510 char * d = cur_source;
1511 append_utf8_from_native_byte((U8) j, (U8 **) &d);
1512 trial_len = 2;
6696cfa7
KW
1513 }
1514 }
94762aa0 1515 else if (! try_non_controls && ! isCNTRL_LC(j)) {
6696cfa7
KW
1516 continue;
1517 }
1518
1519 /* Then transform it */
a4a439fb
KW
1520 x = _mem_collxfrm(cur_source, trial_len, &x_len,
1521 PL_in_utf8_COLLATE_locale);
6696cfa7 1522
94762aa0
KW
1523 /* Ignore any character that didn't successfully transform */
1524 if (! x) {
6696cfa7
KW
1525 continue;
1526 }
1527
1528 /* If this character's transformation is lower than
1529 * the current lowest, this one becomes the lowest */
1530 if ( cur_min_x == NULL
55e5378d
KW
1531 || strLT(x + COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN,
1532 cur_min_x + COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN))
6696cfa7 1533 {
81547f2e
DM
1534 PL_strxfrm_min_char[0] = cur_source[0];
1535 PL_strxfrm_min_char[1] = cur_source[1];
1536 PL_strxfrm_min_char[2] = cur_source[2];
6696cfa7 1537 cur_min_x = x;
58eebef2
KW
1538#ifdef DEBUGGING
1539 cur_min_cp = j;
1540#endif
6696cfa7
KW
1541 }
1542 else {
1543 Safefree(x);
1544 }
1545 } /* end of loop through all bytes */
1546
94762aa0
KW
1547 if (cur_min_x) {
1548 break;
1549 }
1550
1551 /* Unlikely, but possible, if there aren't any controls that
1552 * work in the locale, repeat the loop, looking for any
1553 * character that works */
1554 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1555 "_mem_collxfrm: No control worked. Trying non-controls\n"));
6696cfa7
KW
1556 }
1557
94762aa0
KW
1558 if (! cur_min_x) {
1559 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1560 "_mem_collxfrm: Couldn't find any character to replace"
1561 " embedded NULs in locale %s with", PL_collation_name));
1562 goto bad;
58eebef2
KW
1563 }
1564
94762aa0
KW
1565 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1566 "_mem_collxfrm: Replacing embedded NULs in locale %s with "
1567 "0x%02X\n", PL_collation_name, cur_min_cp));
1568
6696cfa7
KW
1569 Safefree(cur_min_x);
1570 }
1571
1572 /* The worst case length for the replaced string would be if every
1573 * character in it is NUL. Multiply that by the length of each
1574 * replacement, and allow for a trailing NUL */
1575 cur_min_char_len = strlen(PL_strxfrm_min_char);
1576 Newx(sans_nuls, (len * cur_min_char_len) + 1, char);
1577 *sans_nuls = '\0';
1578
1579
1580 /* Replace each NUL with the lowest collating control. Loop until have
1581 * exhausted all the NULs */
1582 while (s + s_strlen < e) {
1583 strcat(sans_nuls, s);
1584
1585 /* Do the actual replacement */
1586 strcat(sans_nuls, PL_strxfrm_min_char);
1587
1588 /* Move past the input NUL */
1589 s += s_strlen + 1;
1590 s_strlen = strlen(s);
1591 }
1592
1593 /* And add anything that trails the final NUL */
1594 strcat(sans_nuls, s);
1595
1596 /* Switch so below we transform this modified string */
1597 s = sans_nuls;
1598 len = strlen(s);
1599 }
1600
a4a439fb
KW
1601 /* Make sure the UTF8ness of the string and locale match */
1602 if (utf8 != PL_in_utf8_COLLATE_locale) {
1603 const char * const t = s; /* Temporary so we can later find where the
1604 input was */
1605
1606 /* Here they don't match. Change the string's to be what the locale is
1607 * expecting */
1608
1609 if (! utf8) { /* locale is UTF-8, but input isn't; upgrade the input */
1610 s = (char *) bytes_to_utf8((const U8 *) s, &len);
1611 utf8 = TRUE;
1612 }
1613 else { /* locale is not UTF-8; but input is; downgrade the input */
1614
1615 s = (char *) bytes_from_utf8((const U8 *) s, &len, &utf8);
1616
1617 /* If the downgrade was successful we are done, but if the input
1618 * contains things that require UTF-8 to represent, have to do
1619 * damage control ... */
1620 if (UNLIKELY(utf8)) {
1621
1622 /* What we do is construct a non-UTF-8 string with
1623 * 1) the characters representable by a single byte converted
1624 * to be so (if necessary);
1625 * 2) and the rest converted to collate the same as the
1626 * highest collating representable character. That makes
1627 * them collate at the end. This is similar to how we
1628 * handle embedded NULs, but we use the highest collating
1629 * code point instead of the smallest. Like the NUL case,
1630 * this isn't perfect, but is the best we can reasonably
1631 * do. Every above-255 code point will sort the same as
1632 * the highest-sorting 0-255 code point. If that code
1633 * point can combine in a sequence with some other code
1634 * points for weight calculations, us changing something to
1635 * be it can adversely affect the results. But in most
1636 * cases, it should work reasonably. And note that this is
1637 * really an illegal situation: using code points above 255
1638 * on a locale where only 0-255 are valid. If two strings
1639 * sort entirely equal, then the sort order for the
1640 * above-255 code points will be in code point order. */
1641
1642 utf8 = FALSE;
1643
1644 /* If we haven't calculated the code point with the maximum
1645 * collating order for this locale, do so now */
1646 if (! PL_strxfrm_max_cp) {
1647 int j;
1648
1649 /* The current transformed string that collates the
1650 * highest (except it also includes the prefixed collation
1651 * index. */
1652 char * cur_max_x = NULL;
1653
1654 /* Look through all legal code points (NUL isn't) */
1655 for (j = 1; j < 256; j++) {
1656 char * x;
1657 STRLEN x_len;
1658
1659 /* Create a 1-char string of the current code point. */
1660 char cur_source[] = { (char) j, '\0' };
1661
1662 /* Then transform it */
1663 x = _mem_collxfrm(cur_source, 1, &x_len, FALSE);
1664
1665 /* If something went wrong (which it shouldn't), just
1666 * ignore this code point */
94762aa0 1667 if (! x) {
a4a439fb
KW
1668 continue;
1669 }
1670
1671 /* If this character's transformation is higher than
1672 * the current highest, this one becomes the highest */
1673 if ( cur_max_x == NULL
55e5378d
KW
1674 || strGT(x + COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN,
1675 cur_max_x + COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN))
a4a439fb
KW
1676 {
1677 PL_strxfrm_max_cp = j;
1678 cur_max_x = x;
1679 }
1680 else {
1681 Safefree(x);
1682 }
1683 }
1684
94762aa0
KW
1685 if (! cur_max_x) {
1686 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1687 "_mem_collxfrm: Couldn't find any character to"
1688 " replace above-Latin1 chars in locale %s with",
1689 PL_collation_name));
1690 goto bad;
1691 }
1692
58eebef2
KW
1693 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1694 "_mem_collxfrm: highest 1-byte collating character"
1695 " in locale %s is 0x%02X\n",
1696 PL_collation_name,
1697 PL_strxfrm_max_cp));
58eebef2 1698
a4a439fb
KW
1699 Safefree(cur_max_x);
1700 }
1701
1702 /* Here we know which legal code point collates the highest.
1703 * We are ready to construct the non-UTF-8 string. The length
1704 * will be at least 1 byte smaller than the input string
1705 * (because we changed at least one 2-byte character into a
1706 * single byte), but that is eaten up by the trailing NUL */
1707 Newx(s, len, char);
1708
1709 {
1710 STRLEN i;
1711 STRLEN d= 0;
1712
1713 for (i = 0; i < len; i+= UTF8SKIP(t + i)) {
1714 U8 cur_char = t[i];
1715 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(cur_char)) {
1716 s[d++] = cur_char;
1717 }
1718 else if (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(cur_char)) {
1719 s[d++] = EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(cur_char, t[i+1]);
1720 }
1721 else { /* Replace illegal cp with highest collating
1722 one */
1723 s[d++] = PL_strxfrm_max_cp;
1724 }
1725 }
1726 s[d++] = '\0';
1727 Renew(s, d, char); /* Free up unused space */
1728 }
1729 }
1730 }
1731
1732 /* Here, we have constructed a modified version of the input. It could
1733 * be that we already had a modified copy before we did this version.
1734 * If so, that copy is no longer needed */
1735 if (t != input_string) {
1736 Safefree(t);
1737 }
1738 }
1739
17f41037
KW
1740 length_in_chars = (utf8)
1741 ? utf8_length((U8 *) s, (U8 *) s + len)
1742 : len;
1743
59c018b9
KW
1744 /* The first element in the output is the collation id, used by
1745 * sv_collxfrm(); then comes the space for the transformed string. The
1746 * equation should give us a good estimate as to how much is needed */
55e5378d 1747 xAlloc = COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN
a4a439fb 1748 + PL_collxfrm_base
17f41037 1749 + (PL_collxfrm_mult * length_in_chars);
a02a5408 1750 Newx(xbuf, xAlloc, char);
bb0f664e 1751 if (UNLIKELY(! xbuf))
98994639
HS
1752 goto bad;
1753
d35fca5f 1754 /* Store the collation id */
98994639 1755 *(U32*)xbuf = PL_collation_ix;
d35fca5f
KW
1756
1757 /* Then the transformation of the input. We loop until successful, or we
1758 * give up */
4ebeff16 1759 for (;;) {
55e5378d 1760 *xlen = strxfrm(xbuf + COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN, s, xAlloc - COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN);
4ebeff16
KW
1761
1762 /* If the transformed string occupies less space than we told strxfrm()
1763 * was available, it means it successfully transformed the whole
1764 * string. */
55e5378d 1765 if (*xlen < xAlloc - COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN) {
17f41037
KW
1766
1767 /* If the first try didn't get it, it means our prediction was low.
1768 * Modify the coefficients so that we predict a larger value in any
1769 * future transformations */
1770 if (! first_time) {
1771 STRLEN needed = *xlen + 1; /* +1 For trailing NUL */
1772 STRLEN computed_guess = PL_collxfrm_base
1773 + (PL_collxfrm_mult * length_in_chars);
e1c30f0c
KW
1774
1775 /* On zero-length input, just keep current slope instead of
1776 * dividing by 0 */
1777 const STRLEN new_m = (length_in_chars != 0)
1778 ? needed / length_in_chars
1779 : PL_collxfrm_mult;
17f41037
KW
1780
1781 DEBUG_Lv(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1782 "%s: %d: initial size of %"UVuf" bytes for a length "
1783 "%"UVuf" string was insufficient, %"UVuf" needed\n",
1784 __FILE__, __LINE__,
1785 (UV) computed_guess, (UV) length_in_chars, (UV) needed));
1786
1787 /* If slope increased, use it, but discard this result for
1788 * length 1 strings, as we can't be sure that it's a real slope
1789 * change */
1790 if (length_in_chars > 1 && new_m > PL_collxfrm_mult) {
1791#ifdef DEBUGGING
1792 STRLEN old_m = PL_collxfrm_mult;
1793 STRLEN old_b = PL_collxfrm_base;
1794#endif
1795 PL_collxfrm_mult = new_m;
1796 PL_collxfrm_base = 1; /* +1 For trailing NUL */
1797 computed_guess = PL_collxfrm_base
1798 + (PL_collxfrm_mult * length_in_chars);
1799 if (computed_guess < needed) {
1800 PL_collxfrm_base += needed - computed_guess;
1801 }
1802
1803 DEBUG_Lv(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1804 "%s: %d: slope is now %"UVuf"; was %"UVuf", base "
1805 "is now %"UVuf"; was %"UVuf"\n",
1806 __FILE__, __LINE__,
1807 (UV) PL_collxfrm_mult, (UV) old_m,
1808 (UV) PL_collxfrm_base, (UV) old_b));
1809 }
1810 else { /* Slope didn't change, but 'b' did */
1811 const STRLEN new_b = needed
1812 - computed_guess
1813 + PL_collxfrm_base;
1814 DEBUG_Lv(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1815 "%s: %d: base is now %"UVuf"; was %"UVuf"\n",
1816 __FILE__, __LINE__,
1817 (UV) new_b, (UV) PL_collxfrm_base));
1818 PL_collxfrm_base = new_b;
1819 }
1820 }
1821
4ebeff16
KW
1822 break;
1823 }
bb0f664e 1824
55e5378d 1825 if (UNLIKELY(*xlen >= PERL_INT_MAX))
4ebeff16 1826 goto bad;
d35fca5f 1827
c664130f
KW
1828 /* A well-behaved strxfrm() returns exactly how much space it needs
1829 * (not including the trailing NUL) when it fails due to not enough
1830 * space being provided. Assume that this is the case unless it's been
1831 * proven otherwise */
1832 if (LIKELY(PL_strxfrm_is_behaved) && first_time) {
55e5378d 1833 xAlloc = *xlen + COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN + 1;
c664130f
KW
1834 }
1835 else { /* Here, either:
1836 * 1) The strxfrm() has previously shown bad behavior; or
1837 * 2) It isn't the first time through the loop, which means
1838 * that the strxfrm() is now showing bad behavior, because
1839 * we gave it what it said was needed in the previous
1840 * iteration, and it came back saying it needed still more.
1841 * (Many versions of cygwin fit this. When the buffer size
1842 * isn't sufficient, they return the input size instead of
1843 * how much is needed.)
1844 * Increase the buffer size by a fixed percentage and try again. */
6ddd902c 1845 xAlloc += (xAlloc / 4) + 1;
c664130f 1846 PL_strxfrm_is_behaved = FALSE;
c664130f 1847
58eebef2
KW
1848#ifdef DEBUGGING
1849 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
1850 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1851 "_mem_collxfrm required more space than previously calculated"
1852 " for locale %s, trying again with new guess=%d+%"UVuf"\n",
1853 PL_collation_name, (int) COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN,
1854 (UV) xAlloc - COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN);
1855 }
1856#endif
1857 }
c664130f 1858
4ebeff16
KW
1859 Renew(xbuf, xAlloc, char);
1860 if (UNLIKELY(! xbuf))
1861 goto bad;
c664130f
KW
1862
1863 first_time = FALSE;
4ebeff16 1864 }
98994639 1865
6696cfa7 1866
58eebef2
KW
1867#ifdef DEBUGGING
1868 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
1869 unsigned i;
91c0e2e0
KW
1870 char * t = s;
1871 bool prev_was_printable = TRUE;
1872 bool first_time = TRUE;
58eebef2 1873 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
91c0e2e0
KW
1874 "_mem_collxfrm[%d]: returning %"UVuf" for locale %s string '",
1875 PL_collation_ix, *xlen, PL_collation_name);
1876 while (t < s + len ) {
1877 UV cp = (utf8)
1878 ? utf8_to_uvchr_buf((U8 *) t, s + len, NULL)
1879 : * (U8 *) t;
1880 if (isPRINT(cp)) {
1881 if (! prev_was_printable) {
1882 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, " ");
1883 }
1884 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%c", (U8) cp);
1885 prev_was_printable = TRUE;
1886 }
1887 else {
1888 if (! first_time) {
1889 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, " ");
1890 }
1891 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%02"UVXf"", cp);
1892 prev_was_printable = FALSE;
1893 }
1894 t += (utf8) ? UTF8SKIP(t) : 1;
1895 first_time = FALSE;
1896 }
1897 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "'\nIts xfrm is");
58eebef2
KW
1898 for (i = COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN; i < *xlen + COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN; i++) {
1899 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, " %02x", (U8) xbuf[i]);
1900 }
1901 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "\n");
1902 }
1903#endif
1904
3c5f993e 1905 /* Free up unneeded space; retain ehough for trailing NUL */
55e5378d 1906 Renew(xbuf, COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN + *xlen + 1, char);
98994639 1907
6696cfa7
KW
1908 if (s != input_string) {
1909 Safefree(s);
98994639
HS
1910 }
1911
98994639
HS
1912 return xbuf;
1913
1914 bad:
1915 Safefree(xbuf);
6696cfa7
KW
1916 if (s != input_string) {
1917 Safefree(s);
1918 }
98994639 1919 *xlen = 0;
58eebef2
KW
1920#ifdef DEBUGGING
1921 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
1922 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "_mem_collxfrm[%d] returning NULL\n",
1923 PL_collation_ix);
1924 }
1925#endif
98994639
HS
1926 return NULL;
1927}
1928
1929#endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
58eebef2 1930
8ef6e574
KW
1931#ifdef USE_LOCALE
1932
c1284011
KW
1933bool
1934Perl__is_cur_LC_category_utf8(pTHX_ int category)
7d74bb61
KW
1935{
1936 /* Returns TRUE if the current locale for 'category' is UTF-8; FALSE
1937 * otherwise. 'category' may not be LC_ALL. If the platform doesn't have
119ee68b 1938 * nl_langinfo(), nor MB_CUR_MAX, this employs a heuristic, which hence
609548d2
KW
1939 * could give the wrong result. The result will very likely be correct for
1940 * languages that have commonly used non-ASCII characters, but for notably
1941 * English, it comes down to if the locale's name ends in something like
1942 * "UTF-8". It errs on the side of not being a UTF-8 locale. */
7d74bb61
KW
1943
1944 char *save_input_locale = NULL;
7d74bb61
KW
1945 STRLEN final_pos;
1946
8ef6e574 1947#ifdef LC_ALL
7d74bb61 1948 assert(category != LC_ALL);
8ef6e574 1949#endif
7d74bb61
KW
1950
1951 /* First dispose of the trivial cases */
b07fffd1 1952 save_input_locale = setlocale(category, NULL);
7d74bb61 1953 if (! save_input_locale) {
69014004
KW
1954 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1955 "Could not find current locale for category %d\n",
1956 category));
7d74bb61
KW
1957 return FALSE; /* XXX maybe should croak */
1958 }
b07fffd1 1959 save_input_locale = stdize_locale(savepv(save_input_locale));
a39edc4c 1960 if (isNAME_C_OR_POSIX(save_input_locale)) {
69014004
KW
1961 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1962 "Current locale for category %d is %s\n",
1963 category, save_input_locale));
b07fffd1 1964 Safefree(save_input_locale);
7d74bb61
KW
1965 return FALSE;
1966 }
1967
1d958db2
KW
1968#if defined(USE_LOCALE_CTYPE) \
1969 && (defined(MB_CUR_MAX) || (defined(HAS_NL_LANGINFO) && defined(CODESET)))
7d74bb61 1970
1d958db2 1971 { /* Next try nl_langinfo or MB_CUR_MAX if available */
7d74bb61
KW
1972
1973 char *save_ctype_locale = NULL;
119ee68b 1974 bool is_utf8;
7d74bb61 1975
119ee68b 1976 if (category != LC_CTYPE) { /* These work only on LC_CTYPE */
7d74bb61
KW
1977
1978 /* Get the current LC_CTYPE locale */
4f72bb37 1979 save_ctype_locale = setlocale(LC_CTYPE, NULL);
7d74bb61 1980 if (! save_ctype_locale) {
69014004
KW
1981 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1982 "Could not find current locale for LC_CTYPE\n"));
7d74bb61
KW
1983 goto cant_use_nllanginfo;
1984 }
4f72bb37 1985 save_ctype_locale = stdize_locale(savepv(save_ctype_locale));
7d74bb61
KW
1986
1987 /* If LC_CTYPE and the desired category use the same locale, this
1988 * means that finding the value for LC_CTYPE is the same as finding
1989 * the value for the desired category. Otherwise, switch LC_CTYPE
1990 * to the desired category's locale */
1991 if (strEQ(save_ctype_locale, save_input_locale)) {
1992 Safefree(save_ctype_locale);
1993 save_ctype_locale = NULL;
1994 }
1995 else if (! setlocale(LC_CTYPE, save_input_locale)) {
69014004
KW
1996 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1997 "Could not change LC_CTYPE locale to %s\n",
1998 save_input_locale));
7d74bb61
KW
1999 Safefree(save_ctype_locale);
2000 goto cant_use_nllanginfo;
2001 }
2002 }
2003
69014004
KW
2004 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Current LC_CTYPE locale=%s\n",
2005 save_input_locale));
2006
7d74bb61 2007 /* Here the current LC_CTYPE is set to the locale of the category whose
1d958db2
KW
2008 * information is desired. This means that nl_langinfo() and MB_CUR_MAX
2009 * should give the correct results */
119ee68b 2010
1d958db2
KW
2011# if defined(HAS_NL_LANGINFO) && defined(CODESET)
2012 {
4f72bb37 2013 char *codeset = nl_langinfo(CODESET);
1d958db2 2014 if (codeset && strNE(codeset, "")) {
4f72bb37 2015 codeset = savepv(codeset);
119ee68b 2016
1d958db2
KW
2017 /* If we switched LC_CTYPE, switch back */
2018 if (save_ctype_locale) {
2019 setlocale(LC_CTYPE, save_ctype_locale);
2020 Safefree(save_ctype_locale);
2021 }
2022
2023 is_utf8 = foldEQ(codeset, STR_WITH_LEN("UTF-8"))
2024 || foldEQ(codeset, STR_WITH_LEN("UTF8"));
2025
69014004
KW
2026 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2027 "\tnllanginfo returned CODESET '%s'; ?UTF8 locale=%d\n",
2028 codeset, is_utf8));
1d958db2
KW
2029 Safefree(codeset);
2030 Safefree(save_input_locale);
2031 return is_utf8;
2032 }
119ee68b
KW
2033 }
2034
1d958db2
KW
2035# endif
2036# ifdef MB_CUR_MAX
2037
2038 /* Here, either we don't have nl_langinfo, or it didn't return a
2039 * codeset. Try MB_CUR_MAX */
2040
119ee68b
KW
2041 /* Standard UTF-8 needs at least 4 bytes to represent the maximum
2042 * Unicode code point. Since UTF-8 is the only non-single byte
2043 * encoding we handle, we just say any such encoding is UTF-8, and if
2044 * turns out to be wrong, other things will fail */
2045 is_utf8 = MB_CUR_MAX >= 4;
2046
69014004
KW
2047 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2048 "\tMB_CUR_MAX=%d; ?UTF8 locale=%d\n",
2049 (int) MB_CUR_MAX, is_utf8));
2050
119ee68b
KW
2051 Safefree(save_input_locale);
2052
2053# ifdef HAS_MBTOWC
2054
2055 /* ... But, most system that have MB_CUR_MAX will also have mbtowc(),
2056 * since they are both in the C99 standard. We can feed a known byte
2057 * string to the latter function, and check that it gives the expected
2058 * result */
2059 if (is_utf8) {
2060 wchar_t wc;
856b881c 2061 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(mbtowc(&wc, NULL, 0));/* Reset any shift state */
69014004 2062 errno = 0;
f019f68f 2063 if ((size_t)mbtowc(&wc, HYPHEN_UTF8, strlen(HYPHEN_UTF8))
119ee68b
KW
2064 != strlen(HYPHEN_UTF8)
2065 || wc != (wchar_t) 0x2010)
2066 {
2067 is_utf8 = FALSE;
abdcbdb8 2068 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "\thyphen=U+%x\n", (unsigned int)wc));
69014004
KW
2069 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2070 "\treturn from mbtowc=%d; errno=%d; ?UTF8 locale=0\n",
2071 mbtowc(&wc, HYPHEN_UTF8, strlen(HYPHEN_UTF8)), errno));
119ee68b
KW
2072 }
2073 }
119ee68b
KW
2074# endif
2075
1d958db2
KW
2076 /* If we switched LC_CTYPE, switch back */
2077 if (save_ctype_locale) {
2078 setlocale(LC_CTYPE, save_ctype_locale);
2079 Safefree(save_ctype_locale);
119ee68b 2080 }
7d74bb61 2081
1d958db2 2082 return is_utf8;
119ee68b 2083# endif
7d74bb61 2084 }
119ee68b 2085
7d74bb61
KW
2086 cant_use_nllanginfo:
2087
0080c90a
KW
2088#else /* nl_langinfo should work if available, so don't bother compiling this
2089 fallback code. The final fallback of looking at the name is
2090 compiled, and will be executed if nl_langinfo fails */
7d74bb61 2091
97f4de96
KW
2092 /* nl_langinfo not available or failed somehow. Next try looking at the
2093 * currency symbol to see if it disambiguates things. Often that will be
2094 * in the native script, and if the symbol isn't in UTF-8, we know that the
2095 * locale isn't. If it is non-ASCII UTF-8, we infer that the locale is
609548d2
KW
2096 * too, as the odds of a non-UTF8 string being valid UTF-8 are quite small
2097 * */
fa9b773e
KW
2098
2099#ifdef HAS_LOCALECONV
fa9b773e 2100# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MONETARY
fa9b773e
KW
2101 {
2102 char *save_monetary_locale = NULL;
fa9b773e 2103 bool only_ascii = FALSE;
13542a67
KW
2104 bool is_utf8 = FALSE;
2105 struct lconv* lc;
fa9b773e 2106
97f4de96
KW
2107 /* Like above for LC_CTYPE, we first set LC_MONETARY to the locale of
2108 * the desired category, if it isn't that locale already */
2109
fa9b773e
KW
2110 if (category != LC_MONETARY) {
2111
4f72bb37 2112 save_monetary_locale = setlocale(LC_MONETARY, NULL);
fa9b773e 2113 if (! save_monetary_locale) {
69014004
KW
2114 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2115 "Could not find current locale for LC_MONETARY\n"));
fa9b773e
KW
2116 goto cant_use_monetary;
2117 }
4f72bb37 2118 save_monetary_locale = stdize_locale(savepv(save_monetary_locale));
fa9b773e 2119
13542a67
KW
2120 if (strEQ(save_monetary_locale, save_input_locale)) {
2121 Safefree(save_monetary_locale);
2122 save_monetary_locale = NULL;
2123 }
2124 else if (! setlocale(LC_MONETARY, save_input_locale)) {
59c234b4
KW
2125 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2126 "Could not change LC_MONETARY locale to %s\n",
2127 save_input_locale));
2128 Safefree(save_monetary_locale);
2129 goto cant_use_monetary;
fa9b773e
KW
2130 }
2131 }
2132
2133 /* Here the current LC_MONETARY is set to the locale of the category
2134 * whose information is desired. */
2135
13542a67
KW
2136 lc = localeconv();
2137 if (! lc
2138 || ! lc->currency_symbol
9f10db87 2139 || is_invariant_string((U8 *) lc->currency_symbol, 0))
13542a67
KW
2140 {
2141 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Couldn't get currency symbol for %s, or contains only ASCII; can't use for determining if UTF-8 locale\n", save_input_locale));
2142 only_ascii = TRUE;
2143 }
2144 else {
2145 is_utf8 = is_utf8_string((U8 *) lc->currency_symbol, 0);
fa9b773e
KW
2146 }
2147
2148 /* If we changed it, restore LC_MONETARY to its original locale */
2149 if (save_monetary_locale) {
2150 setlocale(LC_MONETARY, save_monetary_locale);
2151 Safefree(save_monetary_locale);
2152 }
2153
13542a67 2154 if (! only_ascii) {
fa9b773e 2155
59c234b4
KW
2156 /* It isn't a UTF-8 locale if the symbol is not legal UTF-8;
2157 * otherwise assume the locale is UTF-8 if and only if the symbol
2158 * is non-ascii UTF-8. */
2159 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "\t?Currency symbol for %s is UTF-8=%d\n",
2160 save_input_locale, is_utf8));
2161 Safefree(save_input_locale);
2162 return is_utf8;
13542a67 2163 }
fa9b773e
KW
2164 }
2165 cant_use_monetary:
2166
2167# endif /* USE_LOCALE_MONETARY */
2168#endif /* HAS_LOCALECONV */
2169
15f7e74e
KW
2170#if defined(HAS_STRFTIME) && defined(USE_LOCALE_TIME)
2171
2172/* Still haven't found a non-ASCII string to disambiguate UTF-8 or not. Try
2173 * the names of the months and weekdays, timezone, and am/pm indicator */
2174 {
2175 char *save_time_locale = NULL;
2176 int hour = 10;
2177 bool is_dst = FALSE;
2178 int dom = 1;
2179 int month = 0;
2180 int i;
2181 char * formatted_time;
2182
2183
2184 /* Like above for LC_MONETARY, we set LC_TIME to the locale of the
2185 * desired category, if it isn't that locale already */
2186
2187 if (category != LC_TIME) {
2188
2189 save_time_locale = setlocale(LC_TIME, NULL);
2190 if (! save_time_locale) {
2191 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2192 "Could not find current locale for LC_TIME\n"));
2193 goto cant_use_time;
2194 }
2195 save_time_locale = stdize_locale(savepv(save_time_locale));
2196
2197 if (strEQ(save_time_locale, save_input_locale)) {
2198 Safefree(save_time_locale);
2199 save_time_locale = NULL;
2200 }
2201 else if (! setlocale(LC_TIME, save_input_locale)) {
2202 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2203 "Could not change LC_TIME locale to %s\n",
2204 save_input_locale));
2205 Safefree(save_time_locale);
2206 goto cant_use_time;
2207 }
2208 }
2209
2210 /* Here the current LC_TIME is set to the locale of the category
2211 * whose information is desired. Look at all the days of the week and
9f10db87 2212 * month names, and the timezone and am/pm indicator for UTF-8 variant
15f7e74e
KW
2213 * characters. The first such a one found will tell us if the locale
2214 * is UTF-8 or not */
2215
2216 for (i = 0; i < 7 + 12; i++) { /* 7 days; 12 months */
2217 formatted_time = my_strftime("%A %B %Z %p",
2218 0, 0, hour, dom, month, 112, 0, 0, is_dst);
9f10db87 2219 if (! formatted_time || is_invariant_string((U8 *) formatted_time, 0)) {
15f7e74e
KW
2220
2221 /* Here, we didn't find a non-ASCII. Try the next time through
2222 * with the complemented dst and am/pm, and try with the next
2223 * weekday. After we have gotten all weekdays, try the next
2224 * month */
2225 is_dst = ! is_dst;
2226 hour = (hour + 12) % 24;
2227 dom++;
2228 if (i > 6) {
2229 month++;
2230 }
2231 continue;
2232 }
2233
2234 /* Here, we have a non-ASCII. Return TRUE is it is valid UTF8;
2235 * false otherwise. But first, restore LC_TIME to its original
2236 * locale if we changed it */
2237 if (save_time_locale) {
2238 setlocale(LC_TIME, save_time_locale);
2239 Safefree(save_time_locale);
2240 }
2241
2242 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "\t?time-related strings for %s are UTF-8=%d\n",
2243 save_input_locale,
2244 is_utf8_string((U8 *) formatted_time, 0)));
2245 Safefree(save_input_locale);
2246 return is_utf8_string((U8 *) formatted_time, 0);
2247 }
2248
2249 /* Falling off the end of the loop indicates all the names were just
2250 * ASCII. Go on to the next test. If we changed it, restore LC_TIME
2251 * to its original locale */
2252 if (save_time_locale) {
2253 setlocale(LC_TIME, save_time_locale);
2254 Safefree(save_time_locale);
2255 }
2256 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "All time-related words for %s contain only ASCII; can't use for determining if UTF-8 locale\n", save_input_locale));
2257 }
2258 cant_use_time:
2259
2260#endif
2261
2262#if 0 && defined(USE_LOCALE_MESSAGES) && defined(HAS_SYS_ERRLIST)
855aeb93
JH
2263
2264/* This code is ifdefd out because it was found to not be necessary in testing
5857e934
KW
2265 * on our dromedary test machine, which has over 700 locales. There, this
2266 * added no value to looking at the currency symbol and the time strings. I
2267 * left it in so as to avoid rewriting it if real-world experience indicates
2268 * that dromedary is an outlier. Essentially, instead of returning abpve if we
855aeb93
JH
2269 * haven't found illegal utf8, we continue on and examine all the strerror()
2270 * messages on the platform for utf8ness. If all are ASCII, we still don't
2271 * know the answer; but otherwise we have a pretty good indication of the
5857e934
KW
2272 * utf8ness. The reason this doesn't help much is that the messages may not
2273 * have been translated into the locale. The currency symbol and time strings
2274 * are much more likely to have been translated. */
2275 {
855aeb93 2276 int e;
5857e934
KW
2277 bool is_utf8 = FALSE;
2278 bool non_ascii = FALSE;
855aeb93 2279 char *save_messages_locale = NULL;
5857e934 2280 const char * errmsg = NULL;
855aeb93 2281
5857e934
KW
2282 /* Like above, we set LC_MESSAGES to the locale of the desired
2283 * category, if it isn't that locale already */
855aeb93
JH
2284
2285 if (category != LC_MESSAGES) {
2286
5857e934 2287 save_messages_locale = setlocale(LC_MESSAGES, NULL);
855aeb93 2288 if (! save_messages_locale) {
5857e934
KW
2289 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2290 "Could not find current locale for LC_MESSAGES\n"));
855aeb93
JH
2291 goto cant_use_messages;
2292 }
5857e934 2293 save_messages_locale = stdize_locale(savepv(save_messages_locale));
855aeb93
JH
2294
2295 if (strEQ(save_messages_locale, save_input_locale)) {
5857e934
KW
2296 Safefree(save_messages_locale);
2297 save_messages_locale = NULL;
855aeb93
JH
2298 }
2299 else if (! setlocale(LC_MESSAGES, save_input_locale)) {
5857e934
KW
2300 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2301 "Could not change LC_MESSAGES locale to %s\n",
2302 save_input_locale));
855aeb93
JH
2303 Safefree(save_messages_locale);
2304 goto cant_use_messages;
2305 }
2306 }
2307
2308 /* Here the current LC_MESSAGES is set to the locale of the category
5857e934
KW
2309 * whose information is desired. Look through all the messages. We
2310 * can't use Strerror() here because it may expand to code that
2311 * segfaults in miniperl */
855aeb93 2312
5857e934
KW
2313 for (e = 0; e <= sys_nerr; e++) {
2314 errno = 0;
2315 errmsg = sys_errlist[e];
2316 if (errno || !errmsg) {
855aeb93
JH
2317 break;
2318 }
5857e934 2319 errmsg = savepv(errmsg);
9f10db87 2320 if (! is_invariant_string((U8 *) errmsg, 0)) {
5857e934
KW
2321 non_ascii = TRUE;
2322 is_utf8 = is_utf8_string((U8 *) errmsg, 0);
2323 break;
855aeb93
JH
2324 }
2325 }
5857e934 2326 Safefree(errmsg);
855aeb93
JH
2327
2328 /* And, if we changed it, restore LC_MESSAGES to its original locale */
2329 if (save_messages_locale) {
2330 setlocale(LC_MESSAGES, save_messages_locale);
2331 Safefree(save_messages_locale);
2332 }
2333
5857e934
KW
2334 if (non_ascii) {
2335
2336 /* Any non-UTF-8 message means not a UTF-8 locale; if all are valid,
2337 * any non-ascii means it is one; otherwise we assume it isn't */
2338 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "\t?error messages for %s are UTF-8=%d\n",
2339 save_input_locale,
2340 is_utf8));
2341 Safefree(save_input_locale);
2342 return is_utf8;
2343 }
855aeb93 2344
5857e934 2345 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "All error messages for %s contain only ASCII; can't use for determining if UTF-8 locale\n", save_input_locale));
855aeb93
JH
2346 }
2347 cant_use_messages:
2348
2349#endif
fa9b773e 2350
0080c90a
KW
2351#endif /* the code that is compiled when no nl_langinfo */
2352
92c0a900
KW
2353#ifndef EBCDIC /* On os390, even if the name ends with "UTF-8', it isn't a
2354 UTF-8 locale */
97f4de96
KW
2355 /* As a last resort, look at the locale name to see if it matches
2356 * qr/UTF -? * 8 /ix, or some other common locale names. This "name", the
2357 * return of setlocale(), is actually defined to be opaque, so we can't
2358 * really rely on the absence of various substrings in the name to indicate
2359 * its UTF-8ness, but if it has UTF8 in the name, it is extremely likely to
2360 * be a UTF-8 locale. Similarly for the other common names */
2361
2362 final_pos = strlen(save_input_locale) - 1;
2363 if (final_pos >= 3) {
2364 char *name = save_input_locale;
2365
2366 /* Find next 'U' or 'u' and look from there */
2367 while ((name += strcspn(name, "Uu") + 1)
2368 <= save_input_locale + final_pos - 2)
2369 {
305b8651
KW
2370 if (!isALPHA_FOLD_NE(*name, 't')
2371 || isALPHA_FOLD_NE(*(name + 1), 'f'))
97f4de96
KW
2372 {
2373 continue;
2374 }
2375 name += 2;
2376 if (*(name) == '-') {
2377 if ((name > save_input_locale + final_pos - 1)) {
2378 break;
2379 }
2380 name++;
2381 }
2382 if (*(name) == '8') {
97f4de96
KW
2383 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2384 "Locale %s ends with UTF-8 in name\n",
2385 save_input_locale));
00c54b9c 2386 Safefree(save_input_locale);
97f4de96
KW
2387 return TRUE;
2388 }
2389 }
2390 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2391 "Locale %s doesn't end with UTF-8 in name\n",
2392 save_input_locale));
2393 }
92c0a900 2394#endif
97f4de96
KW
2395
2396#ifdef WIN32
2397 /* http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/dd317756.aspx */
2398 if (final_pos >= 4
2399 && *(save_input_locale + final_pos - 0) == '1'
2400 && *(save_input_locale + final_pos - 1) == '0'
2401 && *(save_input_locale + final_pos - 2) == '0'
2402 && *(save_input_locale + final_pos - 3) == '5'
2403 && *(save_input_locale + final_pos - 4) == '6')
2404 {
2405 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2406 "Locale %s ends with 10056 in name, is UTF-8 locale\n",
2407 save_input_locale));
2408 Safefree(save_input_locale);
2409 return TRUE;
2410 }
2411#endif
2412
2413 /* Other common encodings are the ISO 8859 series, which aren't UTF-8. But
2414 * since we are about to return FALSE anyway, there is no point in doing
2415 * this extra work */
2416#if 0
2417 if (instr(save_input_locale, "8859")) {
2418 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2419 "Locale %s has 8859 in name, not UTF-8 locale\n",
2420 save_input_locale));
2421 Safefree(save_input_locale);
2422 return FALSE;
2423 }
2424#endif
2425
69014004
KW
2426 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2427 "Assuming locale %s is not a UTF-8 locale\n",
2428 save_input_locale));
fa9b773e 2429 Safefree(save_input_locale);
7d74bb61
KW
2430 return FALSE;
2431}
2432
8ef6e574 2433#endif
7d74bb61 2434
d6ded950
KW
2435
2436bool
2437Perl__is_in_locale_category(pTHX_ const bool compiling, const int category)
2438{
1a4f13e1 2439 dVAR;
d6ded950
KW
2440 /* Internal function which returns if we are in the scope of a pragma that
2441 * enables the locale category 'category'. 'compiling' should indicate if
2442 * this is during the compilation phase (TRUE) or not (FALSE). */
2443
2444 const COP * const cop = (compiling) ? &PL_compiling : PL_curcop;
2445
2446 SV *categories = cop_hints_fetch_pvs(cop, "locale", 0);
2447 if (! categories || categories == &PL_sv_placeholder) {
2448 return FALSE;
2449 }
2450
2451 /* The pseudo-category 'not_characters' is -1, so just add 1 to each to get
2452 * a valid unsigned */
2453 assert(category >= -1);
2454 return cBOOL(SvUV(categories) & (1U << (category + 1)));
2455}
2456
2c6ee1a7 2457char *
6ebbc862
KW
2458Perl_my_strerror(pTHX_ const int errnum)
2459{
2460 /* Returns a mortalized copy of the text of the error message associated
2461 * with 'errnum'. It uses the current locale's text unless the platform
2462 * doesn't have the LC_MESSAGES category or we are not being called from
2463 * within the scope of 'use locale'. In the former case, it uses whatever
2464 * strerror returns; in the latter case it uses the text from the C locale.
2465 *
2466 * The function just calls strerror(), but temporarily switches, if needed,
2467 * to the C locale */
2468
2469 char *errstr;
2470
2471#ifdef USE_LOCALE_MESSAGES /* If platform doesn't have messages category, we
2472 don't do any switching to the C locale; we just
2473 use whatever strerror() returns */
2474 const bool within_locale_scope = IN_LC(LC_MESSAGES);
2475
a0b53297 2476 dVAR;
2c6ee1a7 2477
6ebbc862
KW
2478# ifdef USE_THREAD_SAFE_LOCALE
2479 locale_t save_locale;
2480# else
2481 char * save_locale;
2482 bool locale_is_C;
2c6ee1a7 2483
6ebbc862
KW
2484 /* We have a critical section to prevent another thread from changing the
2485 * locale out from under us (or zapping the buffer returned from
2486 * setlocale() ) */
2487 LOCALE_LOCK;
2488
2489# endif
2490
2491 if (! within_locale_scope) {
a0b53297 2492
6ebbc862
KW
2493# ifdef USE_THREAD_SAFE_LOCALE /* Use the thread-safe locale functions */
2494
2495 save_locale = uselocale(PL_C_locale_obj);
2496
2497# else /* Not thread-safe build */
a0b53297
KW
2498
2499 save_locale = setlocale(LC_MESSAGES, NULL);
6ebbc862 2500 locale_is_C = isNAME_C_OR_POSIX(save_locale);
2c6ee1a7 2501
6ebbc862
KW
2502 /* Switch to the C locale if not already in it */
2503 if (! locale_is_C) {
2c6ee1a7 2504
6ebbc862
KW
2505 /* The setlocale() just below likely will zap 'save_locale', so
2506 * create a copy. */
2507 save_locale = savepv(save_locale);
2c6ee1a7 2508 setlocale(LC_MESSAGES, "C");
6ebbc862 2509 }
2c6ee1a7 2510
6ebbc862 2511# endif
2c6ee1a7 2512
6ebbc862 2513 } /* end of ! within_locale_scope */
a0b53297 2514
6ebbc862 2515#endif
a0b53297 2516
6ebbc862
KW
2517 errstr = Strerror(errnum);
2518 if (errstr) {
2519 errstr = savepv(errstr);
2520 SAVEFREEPV(errstr);
2521 }
2522
2523#ifdef USE_LOCALE_MESSAGES
2524
2525 if (! within_locale_scope) {
a0b53297 2526
6ebbc862
KW
2527# ifdef USE_THREAD_SAFE_LOCALE
2528
2529 uselocale(save_locale);
2c6ee1a7 2530 }
6ebbc862
KW
2531
2532# else
2533
2534 if (! locale_is_C) {
2535 setlocale(LC_MESSAGES, save_locale);
2536 Safefree(save_locale);
2537 }
2538 }
2539
2540 LOCALE_UNLOCK;
2541
2542# endif
2c6ee1a7
KW
2543#endif
2544
6ebbc862 2545 return errstr;
2c6ee1a7
KW
2546}
2547
66610fdd 2548/*
747c467a
KW
2549
2550=head1 Locale-related functions and macros
2551
2552=for apidoc sync_locale
2553
2554Changing the program's locale should be avoided by XS code. Nevertheless,
2555certain non-Perl libraries called from XS, such as C<Gtk> do so. When this
2556happens, Perl needs to be told that the locale has changed. Use this function
2557to do so, before returning to Perl.
2558
2559=cut
2560*/
2561
2562void
2563Perl_sync_locale(pTHX)
2564{
2565
2566#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
2567 new_ctype(setlocale(LC_CTYPE, NULL));
2568#endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
2569
2570#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
2571 new_collate(setlocale(LC_COLLATE, NULL));
2572#endif
2573
2574#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
2575 set_numeric_local(); /* Switch from "C" to underlying LC_NUMERIC */
2576 new_numeric(setlocale(LC_NUMERIC, NULL));
2577#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
2578
2579}
2580
5d1187d1
KW
2581#if defined(DEBUGGING) && defined(USE_LOCALE)
2582
2583char *
2584Perl__setlocale_debug_string(const int category, /* category number,
2585 like LC_ALL */
2586 const char* const locale, /* locale name */
2587
2588 /* return value from setlocale() when attempting to
2589 * set 'category' to 'locale' */
2590 const char* const retval)
2591{
2592 /* Returns a pointer to a NUL-terminated string in static storage with
2593 * added text about the info passed in. This is not thread safe and will
2594 * be overwritten by the next call, so this should be used just to
fa07b8e5 2595 * formulate a string to immediately print or savepv() on. */
5d1187d1 2596
398a990f
DM
2597 /* initialise to a non-null value to keep it out of BSS and so keep
2598 * -DPERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT_PRIVATE happy */
2599 static char ret[128] = "x";
5d1187d1 2600
fa07b8e5 2601 my_strlcpy(ret, "setlocale(", sizeof(ret));
5d1187d1
KW
2602
2603 switch (category) {
2604 default:
fa07b8e5 2605 my_snprintf(ret, sizeof(ret), "%s? %d", ret, category);
5d1187d1
KW
2606 break;
2607# ifdef LC_ALL
2608 case LC_ALL:
fa07b8e5 2609 my_strlcat(ret, "LC_ALL", sizeof(ret));
5d1187d1
KW
2610 break;
2611# endif
2612# ifdef LC_CTYPE
2613 case LC_CTYPE:
fa07b8e5 2614 my_strlcat(ret, "LC_CTYPE", sizeof(ret));
5d1187d1
KW
2615 break;
2616# endif
2617# ifdef LC_NUMERIC
2618 case LC_NUMERIC:
fa07b8e5 2619 my_strlcat(ret, "LC_NUMERIC", sizeof(ret));
5d1187d1
KW
2620 break;
2621# endif
2622# ifdef LC_COLLATE
2623 case LC_COLLATE:
fa07b8e5 2624 my_strlcat(ret, "LC_COLLATE", sizeof(ret));
5d1187d1
KW
2625 break;
2626# endif
2627# ifdef LC_TIME
2628 case LC_TIME:
fa07b8e5 2629 my_strlcat(ret, "LC_TIME", sizeof(ret));
5d1187d1
KW
2630 break;
2631# endif
2632# ifdef LC_MONETARY
2633 case LC_MONETARY:
fa07b8e5 2634 my_strlcat(ret, "LC_MONETARY", sizeof(ret));
5d1187d1
KW
2635 break;
2636# endif
2637# ifdef LC_MESSAGES
2638 case LC_MESSAGES:
fa07b8e5 2639 my_strlcat(ret, "LC_MESSAGES", sizeof(ret));
5d1187d1
KW
2640 break;
2641# endif
2642 }
2643
fa07b8e5 2644 my_strlcat(ret, ", ", sizeof(ret));
5d1187d1
KW
2645
2646 if (locale) {
fa07b8e5
KW
2647 my_strlcat(ret, "\"", sizeof(ret));
2648 my_strlcat(ret, locale, sizeof(ret));
2649 my_strlcat(ret, "\"", sizeof(ret));
5d1187d1
KW
2650 }
2651 else {
fa07b8e5 2652 my_strlcat(ret, "NULL", sizeof(ret));
5d1187d1
KW
2653 }
2654
fa07b8e5 2655 my_strlcat(ret, ") returned ", sizeof(ret));
5d1187d1
KW
2656
2657 if (retval) {
fa07b8e5
KW
2658 my_strlcat(ret, "\"", sizeof(ret));
2659 my_strlcat(ret, retval, sizeof(ret));
2660 my_strlcat(ret, "\"", sizeof(ret));
5d1187d1
KW
2661 }
2662 else {
fa07b8e5 2663 my_strlcat(ret, "NULL", sizeof(ret));
5d1187d1
KW
2664 }
2665
2666 assert(strlen(ret) < sizeof(ret));
2667
2668 return ret;
2669}
2670
2671#endif
747c467a
KW
2672
2673
2674/*
14d04a33 2675 * ex: set ts=8 sts=4 sw=4 et:
37442d52 2676 */