This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
DProf tweak
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
CommitLineData
a0d0e21e
LW
1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
12 (S) A severe warning (mandatory).
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
748a9306 18Optional warnings are enabled by using the B<-w> switch. Warnings may
68dc0745
PP
19be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}> to a reference to a routine that
20will be called on each warning instead of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
748a9306
LW
21Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
22L<perlfunc/eval>.
a0d0e21e
LW
23
24Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 25just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
702d120d 26The symbols C<"%(-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
a0d0e21e
LW
27
28=over 4
29
30=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
31
32(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
33to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
34if you want to localize a package variable.
35
9fbbe825 36=item "my" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s
2ba9eb46 37
9fbbe825
GS
38(W) A lexical variable has been redeclared in the current scope or statement,
39effectively eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost
40always a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
2ba9eb46
PP
41until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
42destroyed.
43
a0d0e21e
LW
44=item "no" not allowed in expression
45
46(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
47no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
48
49=item "use" not allowed in expression
50
51(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
52no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
53
f61d411c 54=item '!' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 55
f61d411c
JH
56(F) The '!' is allowed in pack() and unpack() only after certain types.
57See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 58
a0d0e21e
LW
59=item % may only be used in unpack
60
5f05dabc 61(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
a0d0e21e
LW
62checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
63way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
64
c9f97d15
IZ
65=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
66
67(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
68by Perl. This combination appears in an interpolated variable or a
69C<'>-delimited regular expression.
70
a0d0e21e
LW
71=item %s (...) interpreted as function
72
73(W) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 74by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 75found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
a0d0e21e
LW
76
77=item %s argument is not a HASH element
78
5f05dabc 79(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash element, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
80
81 $foo{$bar}
82 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
83
5f05dabc
PP
84=item %s argument is not a HASH element or slice
85
86(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash element, such as
87
88 $foo{$bar}
89 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
90
91or a hash slice, such as
92
93 @foo{$bar, $baz, $xyzzy}
94 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
95
a0d0e21e
LW
96=item %s did not return a true value
97
98(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
99it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
100traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
101do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
102
103=item %s found where operator expected
104
105(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
106sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
107it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
108delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
109
f86702cc 110=item %s had compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
111
112(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
113
f86702cc 114=item %s has too many errors
a0d0e21e
LW
115
116(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
117Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
118
119=item %s matches null string many times
120
121(W) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
122regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
123
124=item %s never introduced
125
126(S) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
127before it could possibly have been used.
128
129=item %s syntax OK
130
131(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
132
f86702cc 133=item %s: Command not found
cb1a09d0
AD
134
135(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
136of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
137Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 138
f86702cc 139=item %s: Expression syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
140
141(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
142of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
143Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 144
f86702cc 145=item %s: Undefined variable
cb1a09d0
AD
146
147(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
148of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
149Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0
AD
150
151=item %s: not found
152
8b1a09fc 153(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 154instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
155into Perl yourself.
156
a99e4ac2
GS
157=item (in cleanup) %s
158
159(W) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
160the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by
161the system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast
162number of times, the warning is issued only once for any number
163of failures that would otherwise result in the same message being
164repeated.
165
166Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag
167could also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
168
702d120d
G
169=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
170
171(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
172found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
173the previous line just because you saw this message.
174
a0d0e21e
LW
175=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
176
177(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
178which provides a race condition that breaks security.
179
180=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
181
182(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
183know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
184
08e9d68e
DD
185=item C<-p> destination: %s
186
187(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
188command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
189redirected it with select().)
190
a5f75d66
AD
191=item 500 Server error
192
193See Server error.
194
a0d0e21e
LW
195=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
196
197(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
198if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
199
200=item @ outside of string
201
2ba9eb46 202(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
a0d0e21e
LW
203the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
204
742c16d1
MJD
205=item <> should be quotes
206
207(F) You wrote C<require E<lt>fileE<gt>> when you should have written
208C<require 'file'>.
209
a0d0e21e
LW
210=item accept() on closed fd
211
212(W) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
213the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
214
215=item Allocation too large: %lx
216
54310121 217(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
55497cff 218
2ae324a7
PP
219=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
220
2c268ad5 221(W) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and transliteration (tr///)
2ae324a7
PP
222operators work on scalar values. If you apply one of them to an array
223or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to a scalar value -- the
224length of an array, or the population info of a hash -- and then work on
225that scalar value. This is probably not what you meant to do. See
226L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for alternatives.
227
a0d0e21e
LW
228=item Arg too short for msgsnd
229
230(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
231
748a9306
LW
232=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
233
234(W)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
235you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 236a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 237
5315574d
GS
238=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
239
240(W) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl keyword,
241and you have used the name without qualification for calling one or the
242other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the subroutine is
243not imported.
244
245To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
246before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
247Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
248imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
249
250To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
251on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or by declaring the subroutine
252to be an object method (see L<attrs>).
253
a0d0e21e
LW
254=item Args must match #! line
255
256(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
3a52c276
CS
257with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
258impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
259for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 260
f86702cc 261=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e
LW
262
263(W) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
264expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
265will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
266
267=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
268
269(D) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
270is now heavily deprecated.
271
272=item assertion botched: %s
273
274(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
275
276=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
277
278(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
279
280=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
281
282(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
283must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
284know which context to supply to the right side.
285
286=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
287
288(P) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
289be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
290of those arenas.
291
54310121 292=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69
PP
293
294(P) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
295optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
296indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
297that can no longer be found in the table.
298
a0d0e21e
LW
299=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
300
301(W) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
302routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
303the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
304routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
305it.
306
307=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
308
309(P) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
310
311=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
312
313(W) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
314would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
315and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
316could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
317SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
318when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
319
dcdda58d
GS
320=item Attempt to join self
321
322(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
323impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may
324need to move the join() to some other thread.
325
84902520
TB
326=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
327
328(W) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
329function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
330means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
331invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
332literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
333avoid this warning.
334
b7a902f4
PP
335=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
336
337(W) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 338as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
b7a902f4
PP
339dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
340
a0d0e21e
LW
341=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
342
343(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 344shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 345S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
a0d0e21e
LW
346S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
347
a0d0e21e
LW
348=item Bad filehandle: %s
349
350(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
351has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
352did it in another package.
353
354=item Bad free() ignored
355
356(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
33c8a3fe
IZ
357malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
358setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
359
360This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
361"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
362C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
363system malloc().
a0d0e21e 364
aa689395
PP
365=item Bad hash
366
367(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
368
f1192cee
GA
369=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
370
6f54a448
GS
371(F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a
372pseudo-hash is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
373See L<perlref>.
57079c46 374
a0d0e21e
LW
375=item Bad name after %s::
376
377(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
378finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
379so
380
381 $var = 'myvar';
382 $sym = mypack::$var;
383
384is not the same as
385
386 $var = 'myvar';
387 $sym = "mypack::$var";
388
389=item Bad symbol for array
390
391(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
392wasn't a symbol table entry.
393
394=item Bad symbol for filehandle
395
396(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
397wasn't a symbol table entry.
398
399=item Bad symbol for hash
400
401(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
402wasn't a symbol table entry.
403
8b1a09fc 404=item Badly placed ()'s
cb1a09d0
AD
405
406(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
407of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
408Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 409
3fe9a6f1
PP
410=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
411
412(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
d98d5fff 413subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>" symbol.
54310121 414Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
3fe9a6f1 415
c3e0f903
GS
416=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
417
418(W) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but
419the compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point.
420Perhaps you need to predeclare a package?
421
a0d0e21e
LW
422=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
423
424(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
425Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
426
68dc0745
PP
427=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
428
429(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
430implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had
431already occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}>
432could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code
433likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
434
a0d0e21e
LW
435=item bind() on closed fd
436
437(W) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
438the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
439
4633a7c4
LW
440=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
441
442(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
443
f675dbe5
CB
444=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
445
446(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to iterate over
447%ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition which was too long,
448so it was truncated to the string shown.
449
a0d0e21e
LW
450=item Callback called exit
451
452(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via perl_call_sv()
453exited by calling exit.
454
0a753a76
PP
455=item Can't "goto" outside a block
456
457(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look
458like a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually
459occurs if you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which
460is a no-no. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
461
84902520
TB
462=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
463
464(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a
465foreach loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
466
a0d0e21e
LW
467=item Can't "last" outside a block
468
469(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
470except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
471current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
0a753a76
PP
472"loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can usually double
473the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner curlies
474will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
475
476=item Can't "next" outside a block
477
478(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
479there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
0a753a76
PP
480count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
481usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 482curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
a0d0e21e 483
f675dbe5
CB
484=item Can't read CRTL environ
485
486(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
487from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
488missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
489or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not searched.
490
a0d0e21e
LW
491=item Can't "redo" outside a block
492
493(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
494there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
0a753a76
PP
495count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
496usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 497curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
a0d0e21e
LW
498
499=item Can't bless non-reference value
500
501(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
502encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
503
504=item Can't break at that line
505
54310121 506(S) A warning intended to only be printed while running within the debugger, indicating
a0d0e21e
LW
507the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
508be stopped at.
509
510=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
511
512(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
513functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
514in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
515
516=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
517
54310121 518(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
a0d0e21e
LW
519ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
520you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
521an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
522
523=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
524
525(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
526object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
72b5445b
GS
527a defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
528Something like this will reproduce the error:
529
530 $BADREF = 42;
531 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
532 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
533
534=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
535
536(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
537object reference or package name contains an undefined value.
a0d0e21e
LW
538Something like this will reproduce the error:
539
540 $BADREF = undef;
541 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
542 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
543
544=item Can't chdir to %s
545
546(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
547that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
548
104d25b7
JH
549=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s"
550
551(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for nosuid.
552
a0d0e21e
LW
553=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
554
555(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 556(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
557say things like:
558
559 *foo += 1;
560
561You CAN say
562
563 $foo = *foo;
564 $foo += 1;
565
566but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
567
568=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
569
570(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 571(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
572
573=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
574
575(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 576(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 577
57079c46
GA
578=item Can't coerce array into hash
579
580(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
581information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
582only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
583
a0d0e21e
LW
584=item Can't create pipe mailbox
585
748a9306
LW
586(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
587or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e
LW
588
589=item Can't declare %s in my
590
5f05dabc 591(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as lexical variables.
a0d0e21e
LW
592They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
593
594=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
595
596(S) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
597
54310121 598=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 599
54310121 600(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try reading
3fe9a6f1 601from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say C<-i.bak>, or some
a0d0e21e
LW
602such.
603
8b1a09fc 604=item Can't do inplace edit: %s E<gt> 14 characters
a0d0e21e
LW
605
606(S) There isn't enough room in the filename to make a backup name for the file.
607
608=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
609
610(S) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
611/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
612
613=item Can't do setegid!
614
615(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
616of suidperl.
617
618=item Can't do seteuid!
619
620(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
621
622=item Can't do setuid
623
624(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
625do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
626form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
627under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
628If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
629your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
630
631=item Can't do waitpid with flags
632
633(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
634without flags is emulated.
635
8b1a09fc 636=item Can't do {n,m} with n E<gt> m
a0d0e21e
LW
637
638(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
639your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
640
641=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
642
643(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
644For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
645
646=item Can't exec "%s": %s
647
5f05dabc 648(W) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
a0d0e21e
LW
649program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
650were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
651executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
652#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
653similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
654
655=item Can't exec %s
656
657(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
658what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
659mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
660
661=item Can't execute %s
662
2a92aaa0
GS
663(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute found
664in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
665
666=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
667
668(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
669in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The script
670exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
671
672=item Can't find %s on PATH
673
a0d0e21e 674(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
2a92aaa0 675in the PATH.
a0d0e21e
LW
676
677=item Can't find label %s
678
679(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
680for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
681
682=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
683
684(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 685the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
a0d0e21e
LW
686levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
687
fb73857a
PP
688 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
689
690If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
691included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good
692programmer's editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
693
694=item Can't fork
695
696(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
697
748a9306
LW
698=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
699
700(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
701access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
702access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
703that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
704assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
705it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
706retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
707but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 708routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
748a9306
LW
709appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
710returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
711knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
712see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
713code takes stat buffers lightly.)
714
a0d0e21e
LW
715=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
716
748a9306
LW
717(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
718can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
719
720=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
721
748a9306
LW
722(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
723mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e
LW
724
725=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
726
727(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
728call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 729you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
a0d0e21e
LW
730L<perlfunc/goto>.
731
b150fb22
RH
732=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
733
734(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval "string".
735(You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you probably don't want to.)
736
706a304b 737=item Can't localize through a reference
4633a7c4 738
706a304b
SM
739(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
740handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
741pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be
742sure that $ref will still be a reference.
4633a7c4 743
748a9306
LW
744=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
745
2ba9eb46 746(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
747lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
748localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
749package name.
750
0ebe0038
SM
751=item Can't localize pseudo-hash element
752
753(F) You said something like C<local $ar-E<gt>{'key'}>, where $ar is
754a reference to a pseudo-hash. That hasn't been implemented yet, but
755you can get a similar effect by localizing the corresponding array
756element directly -- C<local $ar-E<gt>[$ar-E<gt>[0]{'key'}]>.
757
4727527e
IZ
758=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
759
760(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows autoload,
761but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes are a misprint
762in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit> the file, say, by
763doing C<make install>.
764
ec889f3a
GS
765=item Can't locate %s
766
767(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
768found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
769unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
770to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the extra
771library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or
772maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>
773and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e
LW
774
775=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
776
777(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
778functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 779method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
780
781=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
782
783(W) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
784to exist.
785
3e3baf6d
TB
786=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
787
788(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.
789
a0d0e21e
LW
790=item Can't modify %s in %s
791
792(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 793change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 794
54310121 795=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
796
797(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
798a NULL.
799
5f05dabc 800=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 801
5f05dabc 802(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
803buffer.
804
805=item Can't open %s: %s
806
08e9d68e
DD
807(S) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<E<lt>E<gt>>
808filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
809switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
810is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named
811on the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
812
813=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
814
815(W) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
816try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
7e1af8bc 817IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using "E<gt>",
a0d0e21e
LW
818and then read it in under a different file handle.
819
748a9306
LW
820=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
821
822(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
823couldn't open the file specified after '2E<gt>' or '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the
824command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
825
826=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
827
828(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 829couldn't open the file specified after 'E<lt>' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
830
831=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
832
833(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
834couldn't open the file specified after 'E<gt>' or 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command
835line for writing.
748a9306
LW
836
837=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
838
839(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
840couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
841
a0d0e21e
LW
842=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
843
844(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
845
7bac28a0
PP
846=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
847
848(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
849pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when it
850was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
851this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
852
a0d0e21e
LW
853=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
854
855(S) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason, probably because
856you don't have write permission to the directory.
857
748a9306
LW
858=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
859
860(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
861reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
862
a0d0e21e
LW
863=item Can't reswap uid and euid
864
865(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
866of suidperl.
867
868=item Can't return outside a subroutine
869
870(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
871there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
872
873=item Can't stat script "%s"
874
875(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
876it open already. Bizarre.
877
878=item Can't swap uid and euid
879
880(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
881of suidperl.
882
883=item Can't take log of %g
884
fb73857a
PP
885(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
886negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
887standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for
888the negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
889
890=item Can't take sqrt of %g
891
892(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
893negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
894with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
895
896=item Can't undef active subroutine
897
898(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
899however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
900redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
901
902=item Can't unshift
903
904(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
905as the main Perl stack.
906
907=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
908
909(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
910it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
911so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
912message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
913
914=item Can't upgrade to undef
915
916(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
917of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
918code calling sv_upgrade.
919
1d2dff63
GS
920=item Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available
921
922(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
923Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
924provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
925
c07a80fd
PP
926=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
927
928(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
8b1a09fc 929You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the E<lt>=E<gt> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
930and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
931Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
932lexical variable.
933
e9fa98b2
HS
934=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
935
936(F) You've used the /e switch to evaluate the replacement for a
937substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
938most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
939
a0d0e21e
LW
940=item Can't use %s for loop variable
941
942(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
943
944=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
945
946(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
947reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
948test the type of the reference, if need be.
949
748a9306
LW
950=item Can't use \1 to mean $1 in expression
951
952(W) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
953a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 954to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
LW
955Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
956out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
957
44a8e56a
PP
958=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while \"strict refs\" in use
959
960(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
961are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
962
748a9306 963=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
964
965(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
966are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
967
968=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
969
970(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
54310121 971be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
a0d0e21e 972
a0d0e21e
LW
973=item Can't use global %s in "my"
974
975(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 976not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
a0d0e21e
LW
977the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
978variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
979weren't.
980
748a9306
LW
981=item Can't use subscript on %s
982
983(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
984subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
985didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
986
810b8aa5
GS
987=item Can't weaken a nonreference
988
989(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
990references can be weakened.
991
5f05dabc 992=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
993
994(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
995an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
996Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
997
3f4520fe 998=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
b6c543e3
IZ
999
1000(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but
1001there is no builtin with the name C<word>.
1002
3f4520fe 1003=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
e7ea3e70
IZ
1004
1005(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1006opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1007package. If method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
1008
b8c5462f 1009=item Character class [:%s:] unknown
4599a1de 1010
b8c5462f 1011(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown.
4599a1de 1012
b8c5462f
JH
1013=item Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes
1014
1015(W) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
644a2880
JH
1016I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct,
1017for example: /[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that the last two constructs
1018are not currently implemented, they are placeholders for future extensions.
b8c5462f 1019
644a2880 1020=item Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
4599a1de
JH
1021
1022(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
b8c5462f 1023with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
4599a1de
JH
1024If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1025expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
b8c5462f 1026backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
4599a1de
JH
1027
1028=item Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
1029
1030(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
1031beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions.
1032If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1033expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
1034backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
1035
a0d0e21e
LW
1036=item chmod: mode argument is missing initial 0
1037
1038(W) A novice will sometimes say
1039
1040 chmod 777, $filename
1041
1042not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
1043to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
1044
8b1a09fc 1045=item Close on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
1046
1047(W) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1048
7a2e2cd6
PP
1049=item Compilation failed in require
1050
1051(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
1052Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it encountered
1053were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
1054
c3464db5
DD
1055=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1056
1057(W) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex situations
1058where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited to 32766,
1059or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1060arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1061recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1062under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather
1063than in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular
1064expression so that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlbook>
1065for information on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
1066
a0d0e21e
LW
1067=item connect() on closed fd
1068
1069(W) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1070the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
1071
779c5bc9
GS
1072=item Constant is not %s reference
1073
1074(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
1075is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference. The
1076message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This usually
1077indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
1078See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1079
4cee8e80
CS
1080=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1081
1082(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
1083inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1084workarounds.
1085
9607fc9c
PP
1086=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1087
1088(S) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
1089inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1090workarounds.
1091
e7ea3e70
IZ
1092=item Copy method did not return a reference
1093
1094(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
1095
a0d0e21e
LW
1096=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1097
1098(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1099
1100=item corrupted regexp pointers
1101
1102(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1103expression compiler gave it.
1104
1105=item corrupted regexp program
1106
1107(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
1108a valid magic number.
1109
1110=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1111
1112(W) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
3e3baf6d 1113times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
a0d0e21e
LW
1114recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
1115case it indicates something else.
1116
f10b0346 1117=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302
MJD
1118
1119(D) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it checks for an
1120undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the array is empty,
1121just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
1122
f10b0346 1123=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302
MJD
1124
1125(D) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it checks for an
1126undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash is empty,
1127just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
1128
fc36a67e
PP
1129=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1130
1131(F) In a here document construct like C<E<lt>E<lt>FOO>, the label
1132C<FOO> is too long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously
1133twisted to write code that triggers this error.
1134
4633a7c4
LW
1135=item Did you mean &%s instead?
1136
1137(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
1138
748a9306 1139=item Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?
a0d0e21e 1140
748a9306
LW
1141(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
1142On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
1143
7e1af8bc 1144=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1145
1146(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1147you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1148
54310121 1149=item Do you need to predeclare %s?
748a9306
LW
1150
1151(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1152found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1153name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1154because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
1155"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
1156referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
1157to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
1158can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
1159declaration.
a0d0e21e
LW
1160
1161=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1162
1163(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1164
1165=item do_study: out of memory
1166
1167(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1168
1169=item Duplicate free() ignored
1170
1171(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
1172been freed.
1173
4633a7c4
LW
1174=item elseif should be elsif
1175
1176(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1177ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1178named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
1179unlikely to be what you want.
1180
a0d0e21e
LW
1181=item END failed--cleanup aborted
1182
1183(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing an END subroutine.
1184The interpreter is immediately exited.
1185
85ab1d1d 1186=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1187
85ab1d1d 1188(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1189effective uids or gids failed.
1190
748a9306
LW
1191=item Error converting file specification %s
1192
5f05dabc 1193(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
1194specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
1195single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
1196passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
1197case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
1198
e4d48cc9
GS
1199=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1200
1201(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular expression
1202that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which is unsafe.
1203See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
1204
1205=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1206
1207(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion,
1208but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'> pragma is
1209in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1210
1211=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1212
1213(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the C<(?{ ... })>
3c247ff3
GS
1214zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the pattern contains
1215interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it is not allowed.
e4d48cc9
GS
1216If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly building the pattern
1217from an interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval().
1218See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1219
fc36a67e
PP
1220=item Excessively long <> operator
1221
1222(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1223Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1224filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1225variable and glob that.
1226
f86702cc 1227=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1228
1229(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1230
1231=item Exiting eval via %s
1232
8b1a09fc 1233(W) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1234a goto, or a loop control statement.
1235
0a753a76
PP
1236=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1237
1238(W) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a sort block or
1239subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control
1240statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1241
a0d0e21e
LW
1242=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1243
8b1a09fc 1244(W) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1245a goto, or a loop control statement.
1246
1247=item Exiting substitution via %s
1248
8b1a09fc 1249(W) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1250a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
1251
7b8d334a
GS
1252=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1253
1254(W) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1255the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1256usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target
ae6c4aac 1257package, e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1258
748a9306 1259=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1260
748a9306
LW
1261(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
1262service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
1263filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
1264the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1265
1266=item fcntl is not implemented
1267
1268(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1269PDP-11 or something?
1270
1271=item Filehandle %s never opened
1272
1273(W) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
1274You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
1275the FileHandle package.
1276
af8c498a 1277=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e
LW
1278
1279(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1280intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1281"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1282you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1283L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1284
af8c498a 1285=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1286
af8c498a 1287(W) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing. If you
a0d0e21e 1288intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1289"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
af8c498a 1290you intended only to read from the file, use "E<lt>". See
8b1a09fc 1291L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1292
1293=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1294
1295(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
1296a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1297that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1298the name.
1299
1300=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1301
1302(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
1303a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1304that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1305the name.
1306
1307=item Format %s redefined
1308
1309(W) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
1310
1311 {
0453d815 1312 no warning;
a0d0e21e
LW
1313 eval "format NAME =...";
1314 }
1315
1316=item Format not terminated
1317
1318(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1319to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1320
1321=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1322
1323(W) You said
1324
1325 if ($foo = 123)
1326
1327when you meant
1328
1329 if ($foo == 123)
1330
1331(or something like that).
1332
1333=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1334
1335(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1336
1337=item gethostent not implemented
1338
1339(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1340because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1341on the Internet.
1342
1343=item get{sock,peer}name() on closed fd
1344
1345(W) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
1346Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1347
748a9306
LW
1348=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1349
1350(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1351C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1352
a0d0e21e
LW
1353=item Glob not terminated
1354
1355(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1356a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1357finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1358the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1359
1360=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1361
68dc0745
PP
1362(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1363must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), or explicitly qualified to
a0d0e21e
LW
1364say which package the global variable is in (using "::").
1365
1366=item goto must have label
1367
1368(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1369unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1370
1371=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1372
1373(S) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
1374existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1375an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1376
1377=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1378
1379(D) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
1380is now heavily deprecated.
1381
8903cb82
PP
1382=item Identifier too long
1383
1384(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e
PP
1385about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
1386names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future
1387versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1388
f675dbe5
CB
1389=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
1390
1391(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's internal
1392environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=> delimiter
1393used to spearate keys from values. The element is ignored.
1394
1395=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
a0d0e21e 1396
f675dbe5
CB
1397(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical name
1398or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1399didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the
1400line was ignored.
a0d0e21e 1401
4fdae800
PP
1402=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1403
1404(F) A carriage return character was found in the input. This is an
1405error, and not a warning, because carriage return characters can break
54310121
PP
1406multi-line strings, including here documents (e.g., C<print E<lt>E<lt>EOF;>).
1407
1408Under Unix, this error is usually caused by executing Perl code --
68dc0745 1409either the main program, a module, or an eval'd string -- that was
54310121 1410transferred over a network connection from a non-Unix system without
68dc0745
PP
1411properly converting the text file format.
1412
1413Under systems that use something other than '\n' to delimit lines of
1414text, this error can also be caused by reading Perl code from a file
1415handle that is in binary mode (as set by the C<binmode> operator).
1416
1417In either case, the Perl code in question will probably need to be
1418converted with something like C<s/\x0D\x0A?/\n/g> before it can be
1419executed.
4fdae800 1420
a0d0e21e
LW
1421=item Illegal division by zero
1422
1423(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1424logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1425
1426=item Illegal modulus zero
1427
1428(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1429don't take to this kindly.
1430
399388f4
GS
1431=item Illegal binary digit %s
1432
1433(F) You used a digit other than 0 and 1 in a binary number.
1434
1435=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1436
1437(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1438
399388f4
GS
1439=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
1440
1441(W) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
1442Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the offending digit.
1443
1444=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306
LW
1445
1446(W) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
1447of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1448
651978e7 1449=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
6ff81951
GS
1450
1451(W) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or A - F in a
1452hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal number stopped
1453before the illegal character.
1454
54310121
PP
1455=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
1456
1457(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1458following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
1459
9607fc9c
PP
1460=item In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s
1461
1462(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1463array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was first
1464used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and ambiguous
1465instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by prepending a backslash to
1466indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array within the
1467program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply assume
1468that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1469
a0d0e21e
LW
1470=item Insecure dependency in %s
1471
8b1a09fc 1472(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1473The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1474or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1475labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1476who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1477used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1478for more information.
1479
1480=item Insecure directory in %s
1481
1482(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1483script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1484See L<perlsec>.
1485
62f468fc 1486=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1487
1488(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
G
1489setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1490C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1491potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1492known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1493
a7ae9550
GS
1494=item Integer overflow in %s number
1495
651978e7
JH
1496(S) The literal hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
1497is too big for your architecture. On a 32-bit architecture the largest
a7ae9550
GS
1498literal hex, octal or binary number representable without overflow
1499is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or 0b11111111111111111111111111111111
1500respectively. Note that Perl transparently promotes decimal literals
1501to a floating point representation internally--subject to loss of
1502precision errors in subsequent operations--so this limit usually
1503doesn't apply to decimal literals.
bbce6d69 1504
748a9306
LW
1505=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1506
1507(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1508of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1509whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
b687b08b 1510script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count
748a9306
LW
1511has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1512this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1513and execute the specified command.
1514
a0d0e21e
LW
1515=item internal disaster in regexp
1516
1517(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1518
4eb79ab5
GS
1519=item glob failed (%s)
1520
1521(W) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for C<glob>
1522and C<E<lt>*.cE<gt>>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
1523pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a nonzero
1524status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit resulted in a
1525coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is broken. If so,
1526you should change all of the csh-related variables in config.sh: If you
1527have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it were csh (e.g.
1528C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all empty (except that
1529C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will think csh is missing.
1530In either case, after editing config.sh, run C<./Configure -S> and
1531rebuild Perl.
5cd24f17 1532
a0d0e21e
LW
1533=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1534
1535(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1536
1537=item invalid [] range in regexp
1538
1539(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
1540greater than the maximum character. See L<perlre>.
1541
c635e13b
PP
1542=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1543
878e08df 1544(W) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.
c635e13b
PP
1545See L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
1546
96e4d5b1
PP
1547=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1548
8903cb82 1549(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
fb73857a
PP
1550(W) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be silently
1551ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1552
1553=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1554
8903cb82 1555(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
fb73857a
PP
1556(W) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be silently
1557ignored.
96e4d5b1 1558
a0d0e21e
LW
1559=item ioctl is not implemented
1560
1561(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1562strange for a machine that supports C.
1563
1564=item junk on end of regexp
1565
1566(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1567
1568=item Label not found for "last %s"
1569
1570(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1571loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1572See L<perlfunc/last>.
1573
1574=item Label not found for "next %s"
1575
1576(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1577that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1578L<perlfunc/last>.
1579
1580=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1581
1582(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1583that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1584L<perlfunc/last>.
1585
85ab1d1d 1586=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1587
85ab1d1d 1588(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1589effective uids or gids failed.
1590
a0d0e21e
LW
1591=item listen() on closed fd
1592
1593(W) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1594the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1595
a0d0e21e
LW
1596=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1597
1598(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1599doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1600
1601=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1602
1603(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1604by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1605ended earlier on the current line.
1606
1607=item Misplaced _ in number
1608
1609(W) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
1610
1611=item Missing $ on loop variable
1612
8b1a09fc
PP
1613(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1614mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1615one line to the next.
1616
1617=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1618
1619(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1620"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1621
06eaf0bc
GS
1622=item Missing command in piped open
1623
1624(W) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or C<open(FH, "command |")>
1625construction, but the command was missing or blank.
1626
748a9306
LW
1627=item Missing operator before %s?
1628
1629(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1630found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1631
d98d5fff 1632=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 1633
d98d5fff
GS
1634(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than
1635closing ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place
1636you were last editing.
a0d0e21e 1637
a0d0e21e
LW
1638=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1639
1640(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1641constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1642catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1643
1644 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1645 mod(2);
1646
1647Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1648
4fe4fdb3 1649=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, subscript %d
a0d0e21e
LW
1650
1651(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1652subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1653backwards.
1654
4fe4fdb3 1655=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
a0d0e21e 1656
19a09eb8 1657(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
a0d0e21e
LW
1658be created for some peculiar reason.
1659
1660=item Module name must be constant
1661
1662(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1663
1664=item msg%s not implemented
1665
1666(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1667
1668=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1669
8b1a09fc
PP
1670(W) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
1671like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1672
1673=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1674
68dc0745
PP
1675(W) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
1676If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention
1677it again somehow to suppress the message. The C<use vars> pragma is
1678provided for just this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1679
1680=item Negative length
1681
1682(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1683that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1684
1685=item nested *?+ in regexp
1686
5f05dabc 1687(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1688things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1689
5f05dabc 1690Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1691to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1692
1693=item No #! line
1694
1695(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1696even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1697
1698=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1699
1700(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1701script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1702another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1703See L<perlsec>.
1704
1705=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1706
1707(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1708
1709=item No comma allowed after %s
1710
1711(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1712allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1713Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1714
0a753a76
PP
1715One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
1716constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
1717importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
1718does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
1719explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
1720L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
1721would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
1722remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
1723constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
1724list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
1725this error was triggered?
1726
748a9306
LW
1727=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1728
1729(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
54310121 1730and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you
748a9306
LW
1731want to pipe the output from this command.
1732
a0d0e21e
LW
1733=item No DB::DB routine defined
1734
1735(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1736but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1737didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1738statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1739automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1740right.
1741
1742=item No dbm on this machine
1743
1744(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1745supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1746
1747=item No DBsub routine
1748
1749(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1750but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1751didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1752ordinary subroutine call.
1753
8b1a09fc 1754=item No error file after 2E<gt> or 2E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1755
1756(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1757and found a '2E<gt>' or a '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find
1758the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 1759
8b1a09fc 1760=item No input file after E<lt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1761
1762(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1763and found a 'E<lt>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
1764from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 1765
8b1a09fc 1766=item No output file after E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1767
1768(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc 1769and found a lone 'E<gt>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
54310121 1770where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 1771
8b1a09fc 1772=item No output file after E<gt> or E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1773
1774(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1775and found a 'E<gt>' or a 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find the
1776name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 1777
a0d0e21e
LW
1778=item No Perl script found in input
1779
1780(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
1781with #! and containing the word "perl".
1782
1783=item No setregid available
1784
1785(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
1786your system.
1787
1788=item No setreuid available
1789
1790(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
1791your system.
1792
1793=item No space allowed after B<-I>
1794
1795(F) The argument to B<-I> must follow the B<-I> immediately with no
1796intervening space.
1797
57079c46
GA
1798=item No such array field
1799
1800(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
1801not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
1802array indices for that to work.
1803
f1192cee
GA
1804=item No such field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
1805
1806(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type
1807does not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in
1808the %FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash
1809is usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
1810
748a9306
LW
1811=item No such pipe open
1812
1813(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
1814close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
1815an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
1816
a0d0e21e
LW
1817=item No such signal: SIG%s
1818
1819(W) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
1820Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
1821
bd3fa61c
CB
1822=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
1823
db7c17d7 1824(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
f675dbe5
CB
1825timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
1826to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL>
1827to translate to the number of seconds which need to be added to UTC to
1828get local time.
1829
a0d0e21e
LW
1830=item Not a CODE reference
1831
1832(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1833subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1834use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1835See also L<perlref>.
1836
1837=item Not a format reference
1838
1839(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
1840format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
1841
1842=item Not a GLOB reference
1843
55497cff 1844(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
1845a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
1846something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
1847what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1848
1849=item Not a HASH reference
1850
1851(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
1852found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1853function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1854
1855=item Not a perl script
1856
1857(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1858even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
1859mention perl.
1860
1861=item Not a SCALAR reference
1862
1863(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
1864found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1865function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1866
1867=item Not a subroutine reference
1868
1869(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1870subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1871use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1872See also L<perlref>.
1873
e7ea3e70 1874=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
1875
1876(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 1877doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1878
1879=item Not an ARRAY reference
1880
1881(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
1882found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1883function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1884
1885=item Not enough arguments for %s
1886
1887(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
1888
1889=item Not enough format arguments
1890
1891(W) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
1892See L<perlform>.
1893
1894=item Null filename used
1895
5f05dabc 1896(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
1897that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
1898
55497cff
PP
1899=item Null picture in formline
1900
1901(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
1902specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
1903supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
1904
a0d0e21e
LW
1905=item NULL OP IN RUN
1906
1907(P) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
1908
1909=item Null realloc
1910
1911(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
1912
1913=item NULL regexp argument
1914
5f05dabc 1915(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
1916
1917=item NULL regexp parameter
1918
1919(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
1920
fc36a67e
PP
1921=item Number too long
1922
1923(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to about
1924about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future versions of
1925Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In the meantime,
1926try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of "1_000_000").
1927
1930e939 1928=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 1929
1930e939
TP
1930(S) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash, which
1931is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 1932
bbce6d69
PP
1933=item Offset outside string
1934
1935(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
1936pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
1937The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
1938will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
1939
a0d0e21e
LW
1940=item oops: oopsAV
1941
1942(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1943
1944=item oops: oopsHV
1945
1946(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1947
56f7f34b 1948=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 1949
e7ea3e70
IZ
1950(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which
1951no handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in
1952terms of other handlers, there is no default handler for any
1953operation, unless C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be
1954true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 1955
748a9306
LW
1956=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
1957
1958(S) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
1959expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
1960to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
1961For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
1962if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
1963
a0d0e21e
LW
1964=item Out of memory for yacc stack
1965
1966(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
1967but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
1968
1b979e0a 1969=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 1970
55497cff 1971(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
54310121 1972remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
eff9c6e2
CS
1973
1974The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
1975depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
1976However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
1977an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff
PP
1978error is trappable I<once>.
1979
1b979e0a 1980=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
55497cff
PP
1981
1982(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
1983remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
1984the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
1985a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
1986
1b979e0a
IZ
1987=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
1988
1989(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
1990is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g., C<$arr[time]>
1991instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1992
a0d0e21e
LW
1993=item page overflow
1994
1995(W) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
1996See L<perlform>.
1997
1998=item panic: ck_grep
1999
2000(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
2001
2002=item panic: ck_split
2003
2004(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
2005
2006=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
2007
2008(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
2009are in the savestack.
2010
810b8aa5
GS
2011=item panic: del_backref
2012
2013(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
2014reference.
2015
a0d0e21e
LW
2016=item panic: die %s
2017
2018(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
2019it wasn't an eval context.
2020
2021=item panic: do_match
2022
2023(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2024
2025=item panic: do_split
2026
2027(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
2028
2029=item panic: do_subst
2030
2031(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2032
2033=item panic: do_trans
2034
2035(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2036
c635e13b
PP
2037=item panic: frexp
2038
2039(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2040
a0d0e21e
LW
2041=item panic: goto
2042
2043(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2044and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2045
2046=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2047
2048(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2049
2050=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2051
2052(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2053
e446cec8
IZ
2054=item panic: kid popen errno read
2055
2056(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2057
a0d0e21e
LW
2058=item panic: last
2059
2060(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2061it wasn't a block context.
2062
2063=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2064
5f05dabc 2065(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2066
2067=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2068
2069(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2070invalid enum on the top of it.
2071
2072=item panic: malloc
2073
2074(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2075
810b8aa5
GS
2076=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
2077
2078(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
2079references to an object.
2080
a0d0e21e
LW
2081=item panic: mapstart
2082
2083(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2084
2085=item panic: null array
2086
2087(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2088
2089=item panic: pad_alloc
2090
2091(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2092and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2093
2094=item panic: pad_free curpad
2095
2096(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2097and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2098
2099=item panic: pad_free po
2100
2101(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2102
2103=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2104
2105(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2106and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2107
2108=item panic: pad_sv po
2109
2110(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2111
2112=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2113
2114(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2115and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2116
2117=item panic: pad_swipe po
2118
2119(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2120
2121=item panic: pp_iter
2122
2123(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2124
2125=item panic: realloc
2126
2127(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2128
2129=item panic: restartop
2130
2131(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2132didn't supply the destination.
2133
2134=item panic: return
2135
2136(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2137then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2138
2139=item panic: scan_num
2140
2141(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2142
2143=item panic: sv_insert
2144
2145(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2146was string.
2147
2148=item panic: top_env
2149
6224f72b 2150(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
2151
2152=item panic: yylex
2153
2154(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
2155
7b8d334a 2156=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e
LW
2157
2158(W) You said something like
2159
2160 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2161
2162when you meant
2163
2164 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2165
2166Remember that "my" and "local" bind closer than comma.
2167
2168=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
2169
2170(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
2171than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
2172anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
2173
2174=item Permission denied
2175
2176(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2177
bd3fa61c 2178=item pid %x not a child
748a9306
LW
2179
2180(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
2181isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
2182perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
2183
a0d0e21e
LW
2184=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2185
2186(F) Your C compiler uses POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
2187the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2188
bbce6d69
PP
2189=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2190
774d564b
PP
2191(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
2192strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated
2193as literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
7b8d334a 2194parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2195
774d564b
PP
2196You probably wrote something like this:
2197
54310121 2198 @list = qw(
774d564b 2199 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2200 b # another comment
774d564b 2201 );
bbce6d69
PP
2202
2203when you should have written this:
2204
774d564b 2205 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
2206 a
2207 b
774d564b
PP
2208 );
2209
2210If you really want comments, build your list the
2211old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2212
2213 @list = (
2214 'a', # a comment
2215 'b', # another comment
2216 );
bbce6d69
PP
2217
2218=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2219
774d564b 2220(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore commas
68dc0745 2221aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used different
774d564b
PP
2222delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
2223used.)
bbce6d69 2224
54310121 2225You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2226
774d564b
PP
2227 qw! a, b, c !;
2228
2229which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2230commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2231
774d564b 2232 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2233
a0d0e21e
LW
2234=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2235
2236(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2237Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2238end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2239Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2240
2241=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2242
2243(S) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2244
a0d0e21e
LW
2245 open FOO || die;
2246
2247is now misinterpreted as
2248
2249 open(FOO || die);
2250
68dc0745
PP
2251because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary
2252and list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must
2253put parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator
2254instead of "||".
a0d0e21e
LW
2255
2256=item print on closed filehandle %s
2257
2258(W) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
2259Check your logic flow.
2260
2261=item printf on closed filehandle %s
2262
2263(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2264Check your logic flow.
2265
2266=item Probable precedence problem on %s
2267
54310121 2268(W) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a conditional,
a0d0e21e
LW
2269which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
2270last argument of the previous construct, for example:
2271
2272 open FOO || die;
2273
3fe9a6f1 2274=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2275
3fe9a6f1
PP
2276(S) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been declared
2277or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2278
89ea2908
GA
2279=item Range iterator outside integer range
2280
2281(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2282are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
2283One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string
2284increment by prepending "0" to your numbers.
2285
af8c498a 2286=item Read on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2287
2288(W) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
2289Check your logic flow.
2290
2291=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2292
54310121 2293(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e
LW
2294
2295=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2296
2297(F) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
2298desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
2299which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2300
3e0ccd42 2301=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2302
2303(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2304an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2305
3e0ccd42
JP
2306=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method '%s' in package '%s'
2307
2308(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking a
2309method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2310
1930e939
TP
2311=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2312
2313(W) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list with
2314an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This
2315usually means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant
2316to use parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2317
2318 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2319 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2320 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2321 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2322
810b8aa5
GS
2323=item Reference is already weak
2324
2325(W) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.
2326Doing so has no effect.
2327
a0d0e21e
LW
2328=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2329
2330(W) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
2331reference count of other than 1.
2332
fb73857a
PP
2333=item regexp *+ operand could be empty
2334
2335(F) The part of the regexp subject to either the * or + quantifier
2336could match an empty string.
2337
a0d0e21e
LW
2338=item regexp memory corruption
2339
2340(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2341expression compiler gave it.
2342
2343=item regexp out of space
2344
2345(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
2346
a0d0e21e
LW
2347=item Reversed %s= operator
2348
2349(W) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
2350comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
2351
2352=item Runaway format
2353
2354(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2355produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2356199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2357themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2358shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2359
2360=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2361
a6006777 2362(W) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 2363an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc
PP
2364The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2365assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 2366like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 2367subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2368
748a9306 2369On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2370element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2371Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2372L<perlref>.
2373
a6006777
PP
2374=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2375
2376(W) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
2377a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
2378The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2379assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
2380like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
2381subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
2382
2383On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
2384element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
2385Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2386L<perlref>.
2387
a0d0e21e
LW
2388=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2389
54310121
PP
2390(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2391or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2392
2393=item Search pattern not terminated
2394
2395(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2396construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2397Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2398
96e4d5b1 2399=item %sseek() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2400
96e4d5b1
PP
2401(W) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a filehandle that
2402was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2403
2404=item select not implemented
2405
2406(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2407
2408=item sem%s not implemented
2409
2410(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
2411
2412=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2413
2414(S) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
2415that had previously been marked as free.
2416
2417=item Semicolon seems to be missing
2418
2419(W) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
2420or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
2421
2422=item Send on closed socket
2423
2424(W) The filehandle you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
2425Check your logic flow.
2426
1b1626e4 2427=item Sequence (? incomplete
7b8d334a 2428
1b1626e4
G
2429(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?.
2430See L<perlre>.
2431
a0d0e21e
LW
2432=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
2433
2434(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 2435parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2436
2437=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
2438
2439(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
2440but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
2441
2442=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
2443
2444(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
2445See L<perlre>.
2446
a5f75d66
AD
2447=item Server error
2448
9607fc9c
PP
2449Also known as "500 Server error".
2450
2451B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
2452
2453You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the user
2454CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user account you
2455tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables (like PATH)
2456from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a location where the CGI
2457server can't find it, basically, more or less. Please see the following
2458for more information:
2459
be94a901
GS
2460 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/idiots-guide.html
2461 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/perl-cgi-faq.html
9607fc9c
PP
2462 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
2463 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
2464 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 2465
be94a901
GS
2466You should also look at L<perlfaq9>.
2467
a0d0e21e
LW
2468=item setegid() not implemented
2469
8b1a09fc 2470(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2471the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2472think so.
2473
2474=item seteuid() not implemented
2475
8b1a09fc 2476(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<gt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2477the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2478think so.
2479
2480=item setrgid() not implemented
2481
8b1a09fc 2482(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2483the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2484think so.
2485
2486=item setruid() not implemented
2487
1f8d2005 2488(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<lt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2489the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2490think so.
2491
2492=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
2493
2494(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
2495because the world might have written on it already.
2496
2497=item shm%s not implemented
2498
2499(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
2500
2501=item shutdown() on closed fd
2502
2503(W) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
2504
f86702cc 2505=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e
LW
2506
2507(W) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
2508put it into the wrong package?
2509
2510=item sort is now a reserved word
2511
2512(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
2513But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
2514
2515=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
2516
2517(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
4633a7c4 2518it by not using C<E<lt>=E<gt>> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
2519See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2520
2521=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
2522
2523(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
2524or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2525
2526=item Split loop
2527
2528(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
2529more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
2530See L<perlfunc/split>.
2531
8b1a09fc 2532=item Stat on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2533
2534(W) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
54310121 2535on a filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2536
2537=item Statement unlikely to be reached
2538
2539(W) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
2540This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
2541there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
2542which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
2543by itself.
2544
17feb5d5
DD
2545=item Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression
2546
2547(W) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where it
2548makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion.
2549Try putting the quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example,
2550the way to match "abc" provided that it is followed by three
2551repetitions of "xyz" is C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
2552
e7ea3e70
IZ
2553=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
2554
2555(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation stubs.
2556Stubs should never be implicitely created, but explicit calls to C<can>
2557may break this.
2558
a0d0e21e
LW
2559=item Subroutine %s redefined
2560
2561(W) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
2562
2563 {
0453d815 2564 no warning;
a0d0e21e
LW
2565 eval "sub name { ... }";
2566 }
2567
2568=item Substitution loop
2569
2570(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
2571substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
68dc0745 2572input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2573L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2574
2575=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2576
2577(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2578construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2579Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2580
2581=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2582
2583(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2584construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2585Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2586
2587=item substr outside of string
2588
3e3baf6d
TB
2589(S),(W) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a
2590string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
2591length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is
2592mandatory if substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side
2593of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 2594
f86702cc 2595=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2596
2597(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2598version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2599
85ab1d1d
JH
2600=item switching effective %s is not implemented
2601
2602(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, we cannot switch the
2603real and effective uids or gids.
2604
a0d0e21e
LW
2605=item syntax error
2606
2607(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2608
2609 A keyword is misspelled.
2610 A semicolon is missing.
2611 A comma is missing.
2612 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2613 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2614 A closing quote is missing.
2615
2616Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2617error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2618The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2619it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2620before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2621Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2622the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2623C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2624if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2625
cb1a09d0
AD
2626=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2627
8b1a09fc 2628(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 2629instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2630into Perl yourself.
2631
6087ac44 2632=item System V %s is not implemented on this machine
a0d0e21e 2633
6087ac44
JH
2634(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem",
2635"shm", or "msg" but that System V IPC is not implemented in your
2636machine. In some machines the functionality can exist but be
2637unconfigured. Consult your system support.
a0d0e21e
LW
2638
2639=item Syswrite on closed filehandle
2640
2641(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2642Check your logic flow.
2643
fc36a67e
PP
2644=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
2645
2646(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply
2647nested for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
2648
8903cb82 2649=item tell() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2650
8903cb82
PP
2651(W) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
2652never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 2653
8b1a09fc 2654=item Test on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2655
2656(W) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
2657open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2658
2659=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2660
8b1a09fc 2661(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2662a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2663
2664 $[ = 0;
2665 $[ = 1;
2666 ...
2667 local $[ = 0;
2668 local $[ = 1;
2669 ...
2670
2671This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2672out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2673
2674=item The %s function is unimplemented
2675
2676The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2677to the probings of Configure.
2678
f86702cc 2679=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
2680
2681(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2682probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 2683think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
2684will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
2685will deny it.
2686
2687=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
2688
2689(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
2690if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
2691the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
2692
f675dbe5
CB
2693=item This Perl can't reset CRTL eviron elements (%s)
2694
2695=item This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
2696
2697(W) Warnings peculiar to VMS. You tried to change or delete an element
2698of the CRTL's internal environ array, but your copy of Perl wasn't
2699built with a CRTL that contained the setenv() function. You'll need to
2700rebuild Perl with a CRTL that does, or redefine F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see
2701L<perlvms>) so that the environ array isn't the target of the change to
2702%ENV which produced the warning.
2703
a0d0e21e
LW
2704=item times not implemented
2705
2706(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
2707you're not running on Unix.
2708
2709=item Too few args to syscall
2710
2711(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
2712system call to call, silly dilly.
2713
9607fc9c
PP
2714=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
2715
2716(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb
PP
2717B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
2718This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
2719script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
2720So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 2721
9607fc9c
PP
2722If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
2723mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed
2724by editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's
2725first argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 2726
9607fc9c
PP
2727If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
2728B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 2729
8cc95fdb
PP
2730=item Too late for "-%s" option
2731
2732(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
2733B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options
2734are not intended for use inside scripts. Use the C<use> pragma instead.
2735
cb1a09d0
AD
2736=item Too many ('s
2737
2738=item Too many )'s
2739
2740(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
2741of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
2742Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 2743
a0d0e21e
LW
2744=item Too many args to syscall
2745
5f05dabc 2746(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
2747
2748=item Too many arguments for %s
2749
2750(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
2751
2752=item trailing \ in regexp
2753
2754(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
2755it. See L<perlre>.
2756
2c268ad5 2757=item Transliteration pattern not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2758
2759(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
fb73857a
PP
2760or y/// or y[][] construct. Missing the leading C<$> from variables
2761C<$tr> or C<$y> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2762
2c268ad5 2763=item Transliteration replacement not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2764
2765(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
2766construct.
2767
2768=item truncate not implemented
2769
2770(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
2771Configure knows about.
2772
2773=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
2774
2775(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
2776certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
2777%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
2778{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
2779
2780=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
2781
eec2d3df
GS
2782(W) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal
2783literals always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
2784
2785=item umask not implemented
2786
2787(F) Your machine doesn't implement the umask function and you tried
2788to use it to restrict permissions for yourself (EXPR & 0700).
a0d0e21e 2789
4633a7c4
LW
2790=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
2791
2792(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
2793
a0d0e21e
LW
2794=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
2795
2796(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
2797contexts were entered and left.
2798
2799=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
2800
2801(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
2802values were temporarily localized.
2803
2804=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
2805
2806(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
2807were entered and left.
2808
2809=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
2810
2811(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
2812scalars were allocated and freed.
2813
2814=item Undefined format "%s" called
2815
2816(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2817another package? See L<perlform>.
2818
2819=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
2820
2821(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
2822it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2823
2824=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
2825
2826(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2827has since been undefined.
2828
2829=item Undefined subroutine called
2830
2831(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
2832or if it was, it has since been undefined.
2833
2834=item Undefined subroutine in sort
2835
2836(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
2837have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2838
4633a7c4
LW
2839=item Undefined top format "%s" called
2840
2841(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2842another package? See L<perlform>.
2843
20408e3c
GS
2844=item Undefined value assigned to typeglob
2845
2846(W) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la C<*foo = undef>.
2847This does nothing. It's possible that you really mean C<undef *foo>.
2848
a0d0e21e
LW
2849=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
2850
2851(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
2852representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
2853
2854=item Unknown BYTEORDER
2855
5f05dabc 2856(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e 2857
f675dbe5
CB
2858=item Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s
2859
2860(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl was reading values for %ENV before
2861iterating over it, and someone else stuck a message in the stream of
2862data Perl expected. Someone's very confused, or perhaps trying to
2863subvert Perl's population of %ENV for nefarious purposes.
2864
a0d0e21e
LW
2865=item unmatched () in regexp
2866
2867(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
2868expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 2869the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2870
d98d5fff 2871=item Unmatched right %s bracket
a0d0e21e 2872
d98d5fff
GS
2873(F) The lexer counted more closing curly or square brackets than
2874opening ones, so you're probably missing a matching opening bracket.
2875As a general rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the
2876place you were last editing.
a0d0e21e
LW
2877
2878=item unmatched [] in regexp
2879
2880(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
2881include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
2882See L<perlre>.
2883
2884=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2885
54310121 2886(W) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
a0d0e21e
LW
2887It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
2888an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
2889
54310121 2890=item Unrecognized character %s
a0d0e21e 2891
54310121
PP
2892(F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character
2893in your Perl script (or eval). Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
2894script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.
a0d0e21e 2895
c9f97d15
IZ
2896=item Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
2897
2898(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
2899by Perl.
2900
a0d0e21e
LW
2901=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
2902
2903(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
2904Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
2905
90248788 2906=item Unrecognized switch: -%s (-h will show valid options)
a0d0e21e
LW
2907
2908(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
2909(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
2910supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
2911
2912=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
2913
2914(W) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
2915failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
54310121 2916because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chomp>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2917
2918=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
2919
2920(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
2921
54310121
PP
2922=item Unsupported function fork
2923
2924(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
2925
2926Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
2927Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
2928the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
2929
a0d0e21e
LW
2930=item Unsupported function %s
2931
7b8d334a 2932(F) This machine doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
a0d0e21e
LW
2933At least, Configure doesn't think so.
2934
2935=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
2936
2937(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
2938least that's what Configure thought.
2939
8b1a09fc 2940=item Unterminated E<lt>E<gt> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
2941
2942(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
2943a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
2944finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
2945the line, and you really meant a "less than".
2946
2947=item Use of $# is deprecated
2948
8b1a09fc 2949(D) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
2950Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
2951
2952=item Use of $* is deprecated
2953
4a6725af 2954(D) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
2955you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
2956use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
2957action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
2958
748a9306
LW
2959=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
2960
5f05dabc
PP
2961(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
2962only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 2963
8b1a09fc 2964=item Use of bare E<lt>E<lt> to mean E<lt>E<lt>"" is deprecated
4633a7c4
LW
2965
2966(D) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
3fe9a6f1 2967wish to use an empty line as the terminator of the here-document.
4633a7c4 2968
a0d0e21e
LW
2969=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
2970
2971(D) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
2972subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
2973a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
2974
dc848c6f
PP
2975=item Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
2976
5cd24f17
PP
2977(D) As an (ahem) accidental feature, C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines are looked
2978up as methods (using the C<@ISA> hierarchy) even when the subroutines to
2979be autoloaded were called as plain functions (e.g. C<Foo::bar()>), not
7b8d334a 2980as methods (e.g. C<Foo-E<gt>bar()> or C<$obj-E<gt>bar()>).
dc848c6f
PP
2981
2982This bug will be rectified in Perl 5.005, which will use method lookup
2983only for methods' C<AUTOLOAD>s. However, there is a significant base
2984of existing code that may be using the old behavior. So, as an
2985interim step, Perl 5.004 issues an optional warning when non-methods
2986use inherited C<AUTOLOAD>s.
2987
2988The simple rule is: Inheritance will not work when autoloading
2989non-methods. The simple fix for old code is: In any module that used to
2990depend on inheriting C<AUTOLOAD> for non-methods from a base class named
2991C<BaseClass>, execute C<*AUTOLOAD = \&BaseClass::AUTOLOAD> during startup.
2992
fb73857a
PP
2993In code that currently says C<use AutoLoader; @ISA = qw(AutoLoader);> you
2994should remove AutoLoader from @ISA and change C<use AutoLoader;> to
7b8d334a 2995C<use AutoLoader 'AUTOLOAD';>.
fb73857a 2996
85b81015
LW
2997=item Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated
2998
2999(D) The indicated bareword is a reserved word. Future versions of perl
3000may use it as a keyword, so you're better off either explicitly quoting
3001the word in a manner appropriate for its context of use, or using a
3002different name altogether. The warning can be suppressed for subroutine
3003names by either adding a C<&> prefix, or using a package qualifier,
3004e.g. C<&our()>, or C<Foo::our()>.
3005
dc848c6f
PP
3006=item Use of %s is deprecated
3007
3008(D) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
3009because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
3010bad side effects.
3011
a0d0e21e
LW
3012=item Use of uninitialized value
3013
3014(W) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
3015interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
5311ebfa 3016warning assign a defined value to your variables.
a0d0e21e 3017
8202fd39
G
3018=item Useless use of "re" pragma
3019
3020(W) You did C<use re;> without any arguments. That isn't very useful.
3021
a0d0e21e
LW
3022=item Useless use of %s in void context
3023
3024(W) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
3025with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
3026from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
3027this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
3028your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
3029if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
3030
3031 $one, $two = 1, 2;
3032
3033when you meant to say
3034
3035 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
3036
748a9306
LW
3037Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
3038reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
3039example, if you say
3040
3041 $array = (1,2);
3042
3043when you should have said
3044
3045 $array = [1,2];
3046
3047The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
3048while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
3049a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
3050throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
3051L<perlref> for more on this.
3052
55497cff
PP
3053=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
3054
3055(W) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
3056valid when C<untie> was called.
3057
68dc0745 3058=item Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777 3059
68dc0745
PP
3060(W) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), C<each()>,
3061or C<readdir()> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
3062value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which is
3063probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in conditional
3064expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
a6006777 3065
f675dbe5
CB
3066=item Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long
3067
3068(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the value of an %ENV
3069element from a CLI symbol table, and found a resultant string longer
3070than 1024 characters. The return value has been truncated to 1024
3071characters.
3072
9607fc9c 3073=item Variable "%s" is not imported%s
4633a7c4
LW
3074
3075(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
3076that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
3077something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
3078by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
3079on the front of your variable.
3080
44a8e56a
PP
3081=item Variable "%s" may be unavailable
3082
3083(W) An inner (nested) I<anonymous> subroutine is inside a I<named>
3084subroutine, and outside that is another subroutine; and the anonymous
3085(innermost) subroutine is referencing a lexical variable defined in
3086the outermost subroutine. For example:
3087
3088 sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }
3089
3090If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or
3091indirectly) from the outermost subroutine, it will share the variable
3092as you would expect. But if the anonymous subroutine is called or
3093referenced when the outermost subroutine is not active, it will see
3094the value of the shared variable as it was before and during the
3095*first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is probably not what
3096you want.
3097
3098In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle
3099subroutine anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. Perl has specific
3100support for shared variables in nested anonymous subroutines; a named
3101subroutine in between interferes with this feature.
3102
3103=item Variable "%s" will not stay shared
3104
3105(W) An inner (nested) I<named> subroutine is referencing a lexical
3106variable defined in an outer subroutine.
3107
3108When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value of
3109the outer subroutine's variable as it was before and during the
3110*first* call to the outer subroutine; in this case, after the first
3111call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer
3112subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable. In
3113other words, the variable will no longer be shared.
3114
3115Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a
3116lexical variable outside itself, then the outer and inner subroutines
3117will I<never> share the given variable.
3118
3119This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine
3120anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. When inner anonymous subs that
3121reference variables in outer subroutines are called or referenced,
54310121 3122they are automatically rebound to the current values of such
44a8e56a
PP
3123variables.
3124
f86702cc 3125=item Variable syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
3126
3127(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
3128of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
3129Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 3130
3e6e419a
JH
3131=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3132
3133(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
3134
3135 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3136 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
3137 LC_ALL = "En_US",
3138 LANG = (unset)
3139 are supported and installed on your system.
3140 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
3141
3142Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
3143settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
3144This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your system
3145administrator have set up the so-called variable system but Perl could
3146not use those settings. This was not dead serious, fortunately: there
3147is a "default locale" called "C" that Perl can and will use, the
3148script will be run. Before you really fix the problem, however, you
3149will get the same error message each time you run Perl. How to really
3150fix the problem can be found in L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
3151
7e1af8bc 3152=item Warning: something's wrong
5f05dabc
PP
3153
3154(W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of C<warn "">) or
3155you called it with no args and C<$_> was empty.
3156
f86702cc 3157=item Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly
a0d0e21e 3158
8b1a09fc 3159(S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the
5f05dabc 3160close(). This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.
a0d0e21e 3161
5f05dabc 3162=item Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
a0d0e21e
LW
3163
3164(S) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
3165binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or
3166unary operator. For instance, if you know that the rand function
3167has a default argument of 1.0, and you write
3168
3169 rand + 5;
3170
3171you may THINK you wrote the same thing as
3172
3173 rand() + 5;
3174
3175but in actual fact, you got
3176
3177 rand(+5);
3178
5f05dabc 3179So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.
a0d0e21e 3180
af8c498a 3181=item Write on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
3182
3183(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
3184Check your logic flow.
3185
3186=item X outside of string
3187
3188(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position before
3189the beginning of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3190
3191=item x outside of string
3192
3193(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after
3194the end of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3195
3196=item Xsub "%s" called in sort
3197
3198(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3199
3200=item Xsub called in sort
3201
3202(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3203
3204=item You can't use C<-l> on a filehandle
3205
3206(F) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it
3207already went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.
3208Use a filename instead.
3209
3210=item YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
3211
5f05dabc 3212(F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the
a0d0e21e
LW
3213sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip
3214about what you want. Your best bet is to use the wrapsuid script in
3215the eg directory to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.
3216
3217=item You need to quote "%s"
3218
3219(W) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name. Unfortunately, you
3220already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5
3221will try to call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is
3222probably not what you want. (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)
3223
3224=item [gs]etsockopt() on closed fd
3225
3226(W) You tried to get or set a socket option on a closed socket.
3227Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
3228See L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
3229
3230=item \1 better written as $1
3231
3232(W) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables. The use
5f05dabc 3233of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
a0d0e21e
LW
3234substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
3235because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better
3236if there are more than 9 backreferences.
3237
8b1a09fc 3238=item '|' and 'E<lt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3239
3240(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3241found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using
8b1a09fc 3242'E<lt>'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
748a9306 3243
8b1a09fc 3244=item '|' and 'E<gt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3245
3246(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3247thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another
3248command. You need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you
3249from piping into a program or Perl script which 'splits' output into two
3250streams, such as
3251
3252 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
3253 while (<STDIN>) {
3254 print;
3255 print OUT;
3256 }
3257 close OUT;
3258
774d564b 3259=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
33c8a3fe 3260
774d564b
PP
3261(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
3262version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3263
3264=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
3265
dc848c6f 3266(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
33c8a3fe
IZ
3267
3268 prefix1;prefix2
3269
3270or
3271
3272 prefix1 prefix2
3273
dc848c6f
PP
3274with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix
3275of a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error
3276may appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
3277"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3278
3279=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
3280
54310121 3281(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
dc848c6f 3282C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3283
3284=item Process terminated by SIG%s
3285
3286(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
dc848c6f
PP
3287applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
3288port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
3289L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
3290in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe 3291
a0d0e21e
LW
3292=back
3293