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Updated Module::CoreList for the 5.10.1 release
[perl5.git] / Porting / release_managers_guide.pod
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1=head1 NAME
2
3release_managers_guide - Releasing a new version of perl 5.x
4
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5XXX as of Jul 2009, this file is still a work-in-progress. I think it
6contains all the actions needed to build a release, but things may have
7got skipped, and some things could do with polishing. Note that things
8change each release, there may be new things not covered here, or
9tools may need updating. DAPM
f6af4394 10
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11=head1 SYNOPSIS
12
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13This document describes the series of tasks required - some automatic, some
14manual - to produce a perl release of some description, be that a snaphot,
8c35d285 15release candidate, or final, numbered release of maint or blead.
f6af4394 16
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17The release process has traditionally been executed by the current
18pumpking.
7277a900 19
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20This document both helps as a check-list for the release engineer
21and is a base for ideas on how the various tasks could be automated
22or distributed.
7277a900 23
636a1918 24The outline of a typical release cycle is as follows:
f6af4394 25
636a1918 26 (5.10.1 is released, and post-release actions have been done)
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27
28 ...time passes...
29
30 an occasional snapshot is released, that still identifies itself as
31 5.10.1
32
33 ...time passes...
34
35 a few weeks before the release, a number of steps are performed,
36 including bumping the version to 5.10.2
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37
38 ...a few weeks passes...
46743ef7 39
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40 perl-5.10.2-RC1 is released
41
42 perl-5.10.2 is released
43
44 post-release actions are performed, including creating new
45 perl5103delta.pod
46
47 ... the cycle continues ...
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48
49=head1 DETAILS
50
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51Some of the tasks described below apply to all four types of
52release of Perl. (snapshot, RC, final release of maint, final
53release of blead). Some of these tasks apply only to a subset
54of these release types. If a step does not apply to a given
55type of release, you will see a notation to that effect at
56the beginning of the step.
57
58=head2 Release types
59
60=over 4
61
62=item Snapshot
63
64A snapshot is intended to encourage in-depth testing from time-to-time,
65for example after a key point in the stabilisation of a branch. It
66requires fewer steps than a full release, and the version number of perl in
67the tarball will usually be the same as that of the previous release.
68
69=item Release Candidate (RC)
70
71XXX Describe me
72
73=item Stable/Maint release
74
75At this point you should have a working release candidate with few or no
76changes since.
77
78It's essentially the same procedure as for making a release candidate, but
79with a whole bunch of extra post-release steps.
80
81=item Blead release
82
83It's essentially the same procedure as for making a release candidate, but
84with a whole bunch of extra post-release steps.
85
86=back
7277a900 87
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88=head2 Prerequisites
89
90Before you can make an official release of perl, there are a few
91hoops you need to jump through:
92
93=over 4
94
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95=item PAUSE account
96
97I<SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
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98
99Make sure you have a PAUSE account suitable for uploading a perl release.
100If you don't have a PAUSE account, then request one:
101
102 https://pause.perl.org/pause/query?ACTION=request_id
103
104Check that your account is allowed to upload perl distros: goto
105https://pause.perl.org/, login, then select 'upload file to CPAN'; there
106should be a "For pumpkings only: Send a CC" tickbox. If not, ask Andreas
107K├Ânig to add your ID to the list of people allowed to upload something
108called perl. You can find Andreas' email address at:
4d2c8158 109
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110 https://pause.perl.org/pause/query?ACTION=pause_04imprint
111
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112=item CPAN mirror
113
114Some release engineering steps require a full mirror of the CPAN.
115Work to fall back to using a remote mirror via HTTP is incomplete
116but ongoing. (No, a minicpan mirror is not sufficient)
117
118=item git checkout and commit bit
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119
120You will need a working C<git> installation, checkout of the perl
121git repository and perl commit bit. For information about working
122with perl and git, see F<pod/perlrepository.pod>.
123
124If you are not yet a perl committer, you won't be able to make a
125release. Have a chat with whichever evil perl porter tried to talk
126you into the idea in the first place to figure out the best way to
127resolve the issue.
128
f6af4394 129
8c35d285 130=item Quotation for release announcement epigraph
f6af4394 131
8c35d285 132I<SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT and RC>
f6af4394 133
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134For a numbered blead or maint release of perl, you will need a quotation
135to use as an epigraph to your release announcement. (There's no harm
136in having one for a snapshot, but it's not required).
46743ef7 137
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138
139=back
140
f6af4394 141
2e831dfd 142=head2 Building a release - advance actions
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143
144The work of building a release candidate for a numbered release of
145perl generally starts several weeks before the first release candidate.
146Some of these should be done regularly, but all I<must> be done in the
147runup to a release.
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148
149=over 4
150
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151=item *
152
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153I<You MAY SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
154
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155Ensure that dual-life CPAN modules are synchronised with CPAN. Basically,
156run the following:
157
db3f805e 158 $ ./perl -Ilib Porting/core-cpan-diff -a -o /tmp/corediffs
7277a900 159
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160to see any inconsistencies between the core and CPAN versions of distros,
161then fix the core, or cajole CPAN authors as appropriate. See also the
162C<-d> and C<-v> options for more detail. You'll probably want to use the
163C<-c cachedir> option to avoid repeated CPAN downloads.
7277a900 164
f6af4394 165To see which core distro versions differ from the current CPAN versions:
7277a900 166
db3f805e 167 $ ./perl -Ilib Porting/core-cpan-diff -x -a
7277a900 168
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169if you are making a maint release, run C<core-cpan-diff> on both blead and
170maint, then diff the two outputs. Compare this with what you expect, and if
171necessary, fix things up. For example, you might think that both blead
172and maint are synchronised with a particular CPAN module, but one might
173have some extra changes.
174
f6af4394 175=item *
7277a900 176
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177I<You MAY SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
178
f6af4394 179Ensure dual-life CPAN modules are stable, which comes down to:
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180
181 for each module that fails its regression tests on $current
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182 did it fail identically on $previous?
183 if yes, "SEP" (Somebody Else's Problem)
184 else work out why it failed (a bisect is useful for this)
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185
186 attempt to group failure causes
187
188 for each failure cause
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189 is that a regression?
190 if yes, figure out how to fix it
191 (more code? revert the code that broke it)
192 else
193 (presumably) it's relying on something un-or-under-documented
194 should the existing behaviour stay?
195 yes - goto "regression"
196 no - note it in perldelta as a significant bugfix
197 (also, try to inform the module's author)
1aff5354 198
f6af4394 199=item *
7277a900 200
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201I<You MAY SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
202
f6af4394 203Similarly, monitor the smoking of core tests, and try to fix.
7277a900 204
f6af4394 205=item *
7277a900 206
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207I<You MAY SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
208
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209Similarly, monitor the smoking of perl for compiler warnings, and try to
210fix.
211
212=item *
213
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214I<You MAY SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
215
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216Run F<Porting/cmpVERSION.pl> to compare the current source tree with the
217previous version to check for for modules that have identical version
218numbers but different contents, e.g.:
7277a900 219
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220 $ cd ~/some-perl-root
221 $ ./perl -Ilib Porting/cmpVERSION.pl -xd ~/my_perl-tarballs/perl-5.10.0 .
222
223then bump the version numbers of any non-dual-life modules that have
224changed since the previous release, but which still have the old version
225number. If there is more than one maintenance branch (e.g. 5.8.x, 5.10.x),
226then compare against both.
227
228Note that some of the files listed may be generated (e.g. copied from ext/
229to lib/, or a script like lib/lib_pm.PL is run to produce lib/lib.pm);
230make sure you edit the correct file!
231
232Once all version numbers have been bumped, re-run the checks.
233
234Then run again without the -x option, to check that dual-life modules are
235also sensible.
236
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237=item *
238
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239I<You MAY SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
240
f6af4394 241Get perldelta in a mostly finished state.
db3f805e 242
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243Peruse F<Porting/how_to_write_a_perldelta.pod>, and try to make sure that
244every section it lists is, if necessary, populated and complete. Copy
245edit the whole document.
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246
247=item *
248
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249I<You MUST SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
250
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251A week or two before the first release candidate, bump the perl version
252number (e.g. from 5.10.0 to 5.10.1), to allow sufficient time for testing
253and smoking with the target version built into the perl executable. For
254subsequent release candidates and the final release, it it not necessary
255to bump the version further.
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256
257There is a tool to semi-automate this process. It works in two stages.
258First, it generates a list of suggested changes, which you review and
259edit; then you feed this list back and it applies the edits. So, first
260scan the source dir looking for likely candidates:
261
262 $ Porting/bump-perl-version -s 5.10.0 5.10.1 > /tmp/scan
263
264This produces a file containing a list of suggested edits, eg:
265
266 NetWare/Makefile
267
268 89: -MODULE_DESC = "Perl 5.10.0 for NetWare"
269 +MODULE_DESC = "Perl 5.10.1 for NetWare"
270
271i.e. in the file F<NetWare/Makefile>, line 89 would be changed as shown.
272Review the file carefully, and delete any -/+ line pairs that you don't
273want changing. Remember that this tool is largely just grepping for '5.10.0'
274or whatever, so it will generate false positives. Be careful not change
275text like "this was fixed in 5.10.0"! Then run:
276
277 $ Porting/bump-perl-version -u < /tmp/scan
278
279which will update all the files shown; then commit the changes.
280
281Be particularly careful with F<INSTALL>, which contains a mixture of
282C<5.10.0>-type strings, some of which need bumping on every release, and
283some of which need to be left. Also note that this tool currently only
284performs a single change per line, so in particular, this line in
285README.vms needs special handling:
286
287 rename perl-5^.10^.1.dir perl-5_10_1.dir
7277a900 288
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289
290=item *
291
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292I<You MUST SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
293
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294Review and update INSTALL to account for the change in version number;
295in particular, the "Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5" section.
296
f6af4394 297=item *
7277a900 298
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299I<You MUST SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
300
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301Update the F<Changes> file to contain the git log command which would show
302all the changes in this release. You will need assume the existence of a
303not-yet created tag for the forthcoming release; e.g.
7277a900 304
f6af4394 305 git log ... perl-5.10.0..perl5.12.0
7277a900 306
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307Due to warts in the perforce-to-git migration, some branches require extra
308exclusions to avoid other branches being pulled in. Make sure you have the
309correct incantation: replace the not-yet-created tag with C<HEAD> and see
310if git log produces roughly the right number of commits across roughly the
311right time period.
7277a900 312
dc0a62a1 313
f6af4394 314=item *
7277a900 315
f6af4394 316Check some more build configurations, e.g.
7277a900 317
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318 -Duseshrplib -Dd_dosuid
319 make suidperl
7277a900 320
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321Check that setuid installs works (for < 5.11.0 only).
322XXX any other configs?
7277a900 323
7277a900 324
f6af4394 325=item *
7277a900 326
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327I<You MAY SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
328
f6af4394 329Update F<AUTHORS>, using the C<Porting/checkAUTHORS.pl> script, and if
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330necessary, update the script to include new alias mappings for porters
331already in F<AUTHORS>
f6af4394 332
ce80ee91 333 $ git log | perl Porting/checkAUTHORS.pl --acknowledged AUTHORS -
f6af4394 334
8c35d285 335=item *
f6af4394 336
8c35d285 337I<You MAY SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
f6af4394 338
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339As there are no regular smokes [ XXX yet - please fix?] find out about the
340state of the current branch on VMS. If the branch you're releasing on
341is failing tests on VMS, you may not want to do a release.
342
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343=back
344
345=head2 Building a release - on the day
346
347This section describes the actions required to make a release (or snapshot
348etc) that are performed on the actual day.
349
350=over 4
351
352=item *
353
354Review all the items in the previous section,
355L<"Building a release - advance actions"> to ensure they are all done and
356up-to-date.
357
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358=item *
359
360Configure and build perl so that you have a Makefile and porting tools:
361
362 $ ./Configure -Dusedevel -des
363 $ make
364
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365XXX probably want some re-ordering here: we build a perl, and very soon
366afterwards do a distclean
367
368=item *
369
370Check that files managed by F<regen.pl> and friends are up to date. From
371within your working directory:
372
373 $ git status
374 $ make regen
375 $ make regen_perly
376 $ git status
377
378If any of the files managed by regen.pl have changed, then you should commit
379the updated versions:
380
381 $ git commit -m 'Updated files generated by regen tools for perl 5.x.y' <list of files>
382
383
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384=item *
385
386Rebuild META.yml:
387
388 $ rm META.yml
389 $ make META.yml
390
391Commit META.yml if it has changed:
392
393 $ git commit -m 'Updating META.yml in preparation for release of 5.x.y' META.yml
394
395=item *
396
397Check that the manifest is sorted and correct:
398
399 $ make manisort
400 $ make distclean
401 $ perl Porting/manicheck
402
403
404Commit MANIFEST if it has changed:
405
406 $ git commit -m 'Updating MANIFEST in preparation for release of 5.x.y' MANIFEST
407
408
409
410=item *
411
412I<You MUST SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
413
2e831dfd 414Add an entry to F<pod/perlhist.pod> with the current date:
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415
416 5.8.9-RC1 2008-Nov-10
417
418Make sure the correct pumpking is listed, and if this is the first release
419under the stewardship of a new pumpking, make sure that his or her name
420is listed in the section entitled C<THE KEEPERS OF THE PUMPKIN>.
421
422Be sure to commit your changes:
423
d7eb1120 424 $ git commit -m 'Updating perlhist in preparation for release of 5.x.y' pod/perlhist.pod
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425
426
427=item *
428
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429I<You MAY SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
430
431Re-read the perldelta to try to find any embarrassing typos and thinkos;
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432remove any C<TODO> or C<XXX> flags; update the "Known Problems" section
433with any serious issues for which fixes are not going to happen now; and
434run through pod and spell checkers, e.g.
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435
436 podchecker -warnings -warnings pod/perl5101delta.pod
437 spell pod/perl5101delta.pod
438
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439Also, you may want to generate and view an HTML version of it to check
440formatting, e.g.
441
442 perl pod/pod2html pod/perl5101delta.pod > /tmp/perl5101delta.html
443
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444=item *
445
446I<You MUST SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
447
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448Update C<Module::Corelist>.
449
450Note that if this is a maint release, you should run the following actions
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451from the maint directory, but commit the C<Corelist.pm> changes in
452I<blead> and subsequently cherry-pick it.
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453
454corelist.pl uses ftp.funet.fi to verify information about dual-lifed
455modules on CPAN. It can use a full, local CPAN mirror or fall back
456to C<wget> or C<curl> to fetch only package metadata remotely.
457
458(If you'd prefer to have a full CPAN mirror, see
459http://www.cpan.org/misc/cpan-faq.html#How_mirror_CPAN)
460
461
462Then change to your perl checkout.
463
464If you have a local CPAN mirror, run:
465
466 $ make perl
467 $ ./perl -Ilib Porting/corelist.pl ~/my-cpan-mirror
468
469Otherwise, run:
470
471 $ make perl
472 $ ./perl -Ilib Porting/corelist.pl cpan
473
474This will chug for a while. Assuming all goes well, it will
475update lib/Module/CoreList.pm.
476
477Check that file over carefully:
478
479 $ git diff lib/Module/CoreList.pm
480
481
482If necessary, bump C<$VERSION> (there's no need to do this for
483every RC; in RC1, bump the version to a new clean number that will
484appear in the final release, and leave as-is for the later RCs and final).
485
486Edit the version number in the new C<< 'Module::CoreList' => 'X.YZ' >>
487entry, as that is likely to reflect the previous version number.
488
489If this is a final release (rather than a release candidate):
490
491=over 4
492
493=item *
494
495Update this version's entry in the C<%released> hash with today's date.
496
497=item *
498
499Make sure that the script has correctly updated the C<CAVEATS> section
500
501=back
502
503Finally, commit the new version of Module::CoreList:
504
505 $ git commit -m 'Updated Module::CoreList for the 5.x.y release' \
506 lib/Module/Corelist.pm
507
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508=item *
509
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510Build perl, then make sure it passes its own test suite, and installs:
511
512 $ ./Configure -des -Dusedevel -Dprefix=/tmp/perl-5.x.y-pretest
513 $ make test install
514
515=item *
516
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517I<You MUST SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
518
519Update patchlevel.h to add a C<-RC1>-or-whatever string; or, if this is a
520final release, remove it. For example:
521
522 static const char * const local_patches[] = {
523 NULL
524 + ,"RC1"
525 PERL_GIT_UNPUSHED_COMMITS /* do not remove this line */
526
527Be sure to commit your change:
528
529 $ git commit -m 'bump version to RCnnn' patchlevel.h
530
531=item *
532
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533Create a tarball. Use the C<-s> option to specify a suitable suffix for
534the tarball and directory name:
535
536 $ cd root/of/perl/tree
537 $ make distclean
538 $ git clean -xdf # make sure perl and git agree on files
539
540 $ perl Porting/makerel -b -s `git describe` # for a snapshot
541 $ perl Porting/makerel -b -s RC1 # for a release candidate
542 $ perl Porting/makerel -b # for a final release
543
544This creates the directory F<../perl-x.y.z-RC1> or similar, copies all
545the MANIFEST files into it, sets the correct permissions on them,
546adds DOS line endings to some, then tars it up as
547F<../perl-x.y.z-RC1.tar.gz>. With C<-b>, it also creates a C<tar.bz2> file.
548
549XXX if we go for extra tags and branches stuff, then add the extra details
550here
551
552=item *
553
554Copy the tarballs (.gz and possibly .bz2) to a web server somewhere you
555have access to.
556
557=item *
558
559Download the tarball to some other machine. For a release candidate,
560you really want to test your tarball on two or more different platforms
561and architectures. The #p5p IRC channel on irc.perl.org is a good place
562to find willing victims.
563
564=item *
565
566Check that basic configuration and tests work on each test machine:
567
568 $ ./Configure -des && make all test
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569
570=item *
571
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572Check that the test harness and install work on each test machine:
573
574 $ ./Configure -des -Dprefix=/install/path && make all test_harness install
575
576=item *
577
578Check that the output of C<perl -v> and C<perl -V> are as expected,
579especially as regards version numbers, patch and/or RC levels, and @INC
580paths.
581
582Note that the results may be different without a F<.git/> directory,
583which is why you should test from the tarball.
584
585=item *
586
587Bootstrap the CPAN client on the clean install:
588
589 $ ./bin/perl -MCPAN -e'shell'
590
591=item *
592
593Install Inline.pm
594
595 $ ./bin/perl -MCPAN -e'install Inline'
596
597Check that your perl can run this:
598
599 $ ./bin/perl -lwe 'use Inline C => "int answer() { return 42;} "; print answer'
600
601=item *
602
603Bootstrap the CPANPLUS client on the clean install:
604
605 $ ./bin/cpanp
606
607
608=item *
609
610Install an XS module.
611
612=item *
613
614If all is well, announce the snapshot to p5p. (For a release candidate,
615instead follow the further steps described later.)
616
617
618=item *
619
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620I<You MAY SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
621
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622Wait for the smoke tests to catch up with the commit which this release is
623based on (or at least the last commit of any consequence).
7277a900 624
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625Then check that the smoke tests pass (particularly on Win32). If not, go
626back and fix things.
7277a900 627
7277a900 628
f6af4394 629=item *
7277a900 630
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631I<You MUST SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
632
f6af4394 633Once smoking is okay, upload it to PAUSE. This is the point of no return.
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634If anything goes wrong after this point, you will need to re-prepare
635a new release with a new minor version or RC number.
636
addebd58 637You may wish to create a .bz2 version of the tarball and upload that too.
f6af4394 638
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639=item *
640
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641I<You MUST SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
642
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643Create a tag for the exact git revision you built the release from.
644C<commit> below is the commit corresponding to the tarball. It can be
645omitted if there have been no further commits since the tarball was
646created.
210de33e 647
2e831dfd 648 $ git tag perl-5.10.1-RC1 -m'Release Candidate 1 of Perl 5.10.1' <commit>
210de33e 649 $ git push origin tag perl-5.10.1-RC1
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650
651=item *
652
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653I<You MUST SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
654
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655Disarm the patchlevel.h change; for example,
656
657 static const char * const local_patches[] = {
658 NULL
659 - ,"RC1"
660 PERL_GIT_UNPUSHED_COMMITS /* do not remove this line */
661
662Be sure to commit your change:
663
664 $ git commit -m 'disarm RCnnn bump' patchlevel.h
665
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666
667=item *
668
db3f805e 669Mail p5p to announce your new release, with a quote you prepared earlier.
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670
671=item *
672
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673I<You MAY SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
674
f6af4394 675Wait 24 hours or so, then post the announcement to use.perl.org.
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676(if you don't have access rights to post news, ask someone like Rafael to
677do it for you.)
f6af4394 678
f6af4394 679=item *
7277a900 680
8c35d285 681I<You MUST SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT, RC, BLEAD>
7277a900 682
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683Ask Jarkko to update http://www.cpan.org/src/README.html and
684Rafael to update http://dev.perl.org/perl5/
7277a900 685
f6af4394 686=item *
7277a900 687
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688I<You MUST SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT, RC>
689
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690Create a new empty perlNNNdelta.pod file for the current release + 1;
691see F<Porting/how_to_write_a_perldelta.pod>.
692[ XXX Perhaps we should have an empty template file we can copy in. ]
7277a900 693
a2cba4bc 694In addition, edit F<pod.lst>, adding the new entry as 'D', and unmark previous
57433fbf 695entry as 'D',
a2cba4bc 696
57433fbf 697Change perlNNNdelta references to the new version in these files
7277a900 698
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699 INSTALL
700 win32/Makefile.mk
701 win32/Makefile
702 Makefile.SH
703 README
7277a900 704
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705Also, edit the previous delta file to change the C<NAME> from C<perldelta>
706to C<perlNNNdelta>.
7277a900 707
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708These two lists of files probably aren't exhaustive; do a recursive grep
709on the previous filename to look for suitable candidates.
7277a900 710
f6af4394 711(see 16410843ea for an example).
7277a900 712
f6af4394 713=item *
7277a900 714
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715Run C<perl pod/buildtoc --build-all> to update the following files:
716
717 MANIFEST
718 pod/perl.pod
719 win32/pod.mak
720 vms/descrip_mms.template
721
722If you modified perldelta.pod, (F<vms/descrip_mms.template> will
723needs a manual edit to bump the C<perldelta.pod> entry - it would
724be good for someone to figure out the fix.)
725
726=item *
727
8c35d285 728I<You MUST SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT, RC, BLEAD>
dc0a62a1 729
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730If this was a maint release, then edit F<Porting/mergelog> to change
731all the C<d> (deferred) flags to C<.> (needs review).
addebd58 732
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733=item *
734
8c35d285 735I<You MUST SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT, RC, BLEAD>
addebd58 736
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737If this was a major release (5.x.0), then create a new maint branch
738based on the commit tagged as the current release and bump the version
739in the blead branch in git, e.g. 5.12.0 to 5.13.0.
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740
741[ XXX probably lots more stuff to do, including perldelta,
f6af4394 742C<lib/feature.pm> ]
7277a900 743
8c35d285 744XXX need a git recipe
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745
746=item *
747
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748I<You MUST SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT, RC, BLEAD>
749
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750Copy the perlNNNdelta.pod for this release into the other branches, and
751remember to update these files on those branches too:
7277a900 752
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753 MANIFEST
754 pod.lst
755 pod/perl.pod
756 vms/descrip_mms.template
757 win32/pod.mak
7277a900 758
f6af4394 759(see fc5be80860 for an example).
7277a900 760
f6af4394 761=item *
7277a900 762
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763I<You MUST SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT>
764
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765Make sure any recent F<pod/perlhist.pod> entries are copied to
766F<perlhist.pod> on other branches; typically the RC* and final entries,
767e.g.
7277a900 768
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769 5.8.9-RC1 2008-Nov-10
770 5.8.9-RC2 2008-Dec-06
771 5.8.9 2008-Dec-14
7277a900 772
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773=item *
774
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775I<You MUST SKIP this step for SNAPSHOT, RC>
776
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777Remind the current maintainer of C<Module::CoreList> to push a new release
778to CPAN.
779
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780=item *
781
782I<You MUST RETIRE to your preferred PUB, CAFE or SEASIDE VILLA for some much-needed
783rest and relaxation>.
784
785Thanks for releasing perl!
786
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787=back
788
789=head1 SOURCE
790
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791Based on
792http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl5-porters/2009-05/msg00608.html,
793plus a whole bunch of other sources, including private correspondence.
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794
795=cut
796